CHAPTER-1 1.1 Introduction to Power Line Carrier Communication
Power line carrier communication, also known as PLCC, refers to the concept of transmitting information using the electrical power distribution network as a communication channel. This technology allows a flow of information through the same cabling that supplies electrical power. This novel idea of communication helps in bridging the gap existing between the electrical and communication network. It offers the prospect of being able to construct intelligent buildings, which contains many devices in a Local Area Network. Power line carrier communication uses existing power distribution wires to communicate data. This, however, is not a new idea. In 1838 the first remote electricity supply metering appeared and in 1897 the first patent on power line signalling was issued in the United Kingdom. In the 1920's two patents were issued to the American Telephone and Telegraph Company in the field of "Carrier Transmission over Power Circuits". One would think that the long-ago conceived idea of power line communications would be well developed by now. However, this is not the case because the power line is not well suited for data communication. There are two main applications for power line communication - one for broadband Internet access to the home and the other for home and office networking. This work focuses on using power lines for home and office networking. Power line communication technology has been slow to evolve because the lines were designed solely for the purpose of 50 Hz main power distribution. Unfortunately, power lines are a rather hostile medium for data transmission, it is difficult to communicate data effectively because the medium was not designed for data transmission. Attenuation, variable impedance, and noise are three factors which make this a harsh medium, making it difficult to achieve optimum signal transfer, low distortion, and high signal-tonoise ratios (SNR).


1.2 Objectives of the Project
The project aims towards thoroughly exploring the theoretical and practical aspects of power line carrier communication (PLCC) techniques. To this end a number of specific goals were proposed at the start of the project. 1. To gain a detailed knowledge of the challenges faced by PLCC techniques and to understand why they are not a widespread communication methods. 2. To research and design a working PLCC system, which could be employed to couple speech signals with AC signals to transfer voice from one end of a building to the other end using home line AC wiring.


1.3 Advantages : Motivation for Work
The design of a network should consider several factors, of which the two most important are predicted network traffic and installation cost. The nature of traffic generated by applications such as email, streaming audio or video, file transfer, control systems, application or resource sharing, etc. predicts the type of service needed. The various types of traffic can have different throughput, data integrity, latency, and other requirements. A simple control system network that performs functions such as turning lights on and off, opening and closing the garage door, and controlling the air conditioner does not require high speeds. A high speed network would be much better utilized by a multiple computer network where there is a large amount of file and application sharing or video. The cost factor refers to the installation cost of a network. High speed networks often require more expensive equipment than low speed networks, so for low speed networks it is not economically smart to install high speed equipment. Installation cost is also affected by the actual setup of the network. Wireless equipment is becoming popular because it is simple to set up and provides high speed and high mobility (computers can access the network as long as they are within a certain distance of the access point). However, the wireless equipment may be too costly for low to medium speed applications. Another solution is to use dedicated network cabling but this is also a high cost solution because retrofitting a home with the required cabling becomes a time consuming and expensive job. Also, once network cabling is installed in a home or office, it does not lend itself easily to reconfiguration ± resulting in down time when location of network entities changes. What is missing is a medium speed technology that is low cost and allows for easy and ubiquitous network access. This project addresses a possible solution to the problem of mobility, ease of installation, and cost of networks by using the in-building power distribution system. Current power line communication technology that can support applications such as control of devices, network gaming, low resolution image sequences from cameras, security applications and several other applications.


1.4 Disadvantages : Risk Encountered

It is difficult to communicate data effectively because the medium was not designed for data transmission. Attenuation, variable impedance, and noise are three factors which make this a harsh medium, making it difficult to achieve optimum signal transfer, low distortion, and high signal-to-noise ratios (SNR). The most important technical problem in power line PLC is to device methods and equipment to couple the low frequency and high voltage signal to the high frequency and low voltage signal. Following problems had to be dealt with y y y y Disturbance created in nearby cast receivers. Protection against high voltage. More than one carrier circuit may cause interference. Switching may cause undesirable disturbances.

The modern practices are achieved by connecting a capacitor of proper rating between the carrier terminal and high voltage line



Source and Destination: The source can be any digital source of information. but can also create a loss of source information. destination. The data is unpacked at the destination to either an exact replica of the source information (lossless data compression) or a distorted version (lossy data compression).CHAPTER-2 2. If the source is analog such as speech. Figure 2. which minimizes the number of bits transmitted over the channel. The overall objective of a communications system is to communicate information (the transmission of digital information this thesis considers) from a source to a destination over some channel.1. then an analog to digital converter must precede the transmitter. the methods for transmitting data. the following section provides an overview of a general communications system. 2. This includes a discussion of the elements of a communications system. The source may also compress redundant data. and performance measures.1 Communications System Model Figure 2. the decoded information is delivered to the .1 Communication Background In order to better understand PLC.1 shows a simplified model of a digital communications system. 7 At the receiving end.1 Communication system model.

Channel Encoder and Channel Decoder: Channel coding reduces the bit error probability by adding redundancy (extra check bits) to the bit sequence. if the input signal of the modulator is used to vary the amplitude of the carrier signal. or for this work . For example. the phase. This determines the code rate Rc where Rc = k/n and Rc ” 1. optical fibre. It is used to improve performance over noisy channels Two major classes of codes exist: convolutional codes. the demodulator tries to detect which waveform was transmitted. (such as the power line).the power line. or the frequency of a high-frequency carrier signal. Channel Modulator and Channel Demodulator: The purpose of the modulator is to take the encoded data and produce an analog signal suitable to propagate over the channel. Reed-Solomon (RS) codes are a popular block code. Block codes are implemented by combinational logic circuits. At the receiver. The data is converted from a stream of bits into an analog signal. Convolutional codes (also known as tree codes or trellis codes) are implemented by sequential logic circuits. air. the modulation is called Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK). twisted pair. This is the ratio of the number of actual data bits to the total number of bits transmitted. Channel coding (also known as error control block codes and coding) is a heavily studied area. 8 . There are several other modulation techniques including FSK (Frequency Shift Keying). water. The number of extra bits added depends on how much error detection and correction is needed. The check bits are computed over a k-symbol input sequence to create an n-symbol output code sequence. Channel: The channel can be any physical transmission medium including coaxial cable. and convert the analog information back to the sequence of bits. Modulation is typically performed by varying the amplitude. An M-ary modulator takes a block of Y binary digits from the channel encoder to select and transmit one of M analog waveforms at its disposal where M = 2Y and Y • 1. PSK (Phase Shift Keying) and QAM (Quadrature Amplitude Modulation). The channel decoder uses the extra bits to detect and possibly correct errors which occurred during transmission. It is important to know the characteristics of the channel. such as the attenuation and noise level because these parameters directly affect the performance of the communication system.

computers. the received signal power can become low and might not be detected. Bits per second (bps) ± Also known as bit rate.This is the transmission rate or number of symbols per second from the modulator.6 kbps using a bandwidth of 4 kHz. Bit Error Probability (Pb) ± Pb is the probability that a bit is incorrectly received at the destination. and vacuum cleaners. For a specific communication method. The symbol rate is also known as the baud rate. If each symbol represents Y bits and the symbol rate is 1/T baud. the bandwidth needed is proportional to the symbol rate. Attenuation is shown to be high on a power line. This is an important performance measure for any digital communication system that is affected by noise and the disturbances in the channel. On high quality channels it is easier to send more bits with one symbol. Bandwidth (BW) ± The range of frequencies used by the communication system.2. Bandwidth is a limited resource and is often constrained to a certain small range.1. bits per second is directly related to the symbol rate. resulting in higher bps. Noise ± This is an unwanted signal on the channel that interferes with the desired signal. Attenuation ± When the signal is propagating from the transmitter to the receiver the signal gets attenuated (loses power). The amount of noise can drastically affect the quality of communication. and this puts a restriction on the distance from the transmitter to the receiver. If the attenuation is high. Today a telephone system can achieve a bit rate of 56. If the signal duration is T seconds then the symbol rate is 1/T symbols per second. Bandwidth Efficiency ± This is the ratio between the bit rate and the bandwidth of a communication system (bps/BW).6/4 = 14. Noise on the power line is a sum of many different disturbances originating from devices such as television receivers. so the bandwidth efficiency is 56. 9 .15 bps/Hz. then the bit rate is Y*(1/T) bps.2 Description of Important Performance Parameters Symbol Rate .

binary 1 is represented by a short pulse of light and binary 0 by the absence of light. We can think of a carrier signal as an ON or OFF switch. The 10 . Frequency-shift keying (FSK) is a frequency modulation scheme in which digital information is transmitted through discrete frequency changes of a carrier wave. A higher SNR makes for easier communication because noise has a smaller effect on the signal. Both ASK modulation and demodulation processes are relatively inexpensive. although not exactly as described above. This low level represents binary 0. Laser transmitters normally have a fixed "bias" current that causes the device to emit a low light level. propagation conditions on different routes in PSTN. logic 0 is represented by the absence of a carrier. In the modulated signal. while a higher-amplitude light wave represents binary 1. This thesis explores a form of time diversity. SNR can be increased by using filters to reduce noise outside of the bandwidth occupied by the signal. For LED transmitters. Examples of diversity are time diversity and frequency diversity. In time diversity the same information is transmitted at different time instants with the idea that if the channel is bad at some time instance it might not be at another. Several variations of time and frequency diversity exist. SNR is also affected by attenuation. which reduces signal power and thus SNR. Diversity ± Used to reduce the error probability of harsh channels.The amplitude of an analog carrier signal varies in accordance with the bit stream (modulating signal).3 Modulation Amplitude-shift keying (ASK) is a form of modulation that represents digital data as variations in the amplitude of a carrier wave. The level of amplitude can be used to represent binary logic 0s and 1s. Like AM. if one of them fails the other might work. ASK is also linear and sensitive to atmospheric noise. etc. It can be compared to having two antennas transmitting at different frequencies. distortions. keeping frequency and phase constant.1. The ASK technique is also commonly used to transmit digital data over optical fiber.Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) ± This is the ratio of received power to noise power. Frequency diversity transmits the same information in different frequency bands. 2. thus giving OFF/ON keying operation and hence the name given.

yielding an encoded signal suitable for transmission via radio or telephone. the "space". which is designed specifically for the symbol-set used by the modulator. In radio applications. QPSK uses four points on the constellation diagram.simplest FSK is binary FSK(BFSK). Audio FSK :Audio frequency-shift keying (AFSK) is a modulation technique by which digital data is represented by changes in the frequency (pitch) of an audio tone. it can instead be used to change it by a specified amount. it is termed Differential phase-shift keying (DPSK). the "mark". equi-spaced around a circle. Normally. The exact requirements of the particular scenario under consideration determine which scheme is used. The demodulator. The demodulator then determines the changes in the phase of the received signal rather than the phase itself. QPSK can encode two bits per symbol with gray coding to minimize the bit error rate (BER) ² sometimes misperceived as twice the BER of BPSK. each phase encodes an equal number of bits. With this scheme. instead of using the bit patterns to set the phase of the wave. DPSK can be significantly simpler to implement than ordinary PSK since there is no need for the demodulator to have a copy of the reference signal to determine the exact phase of the received signal (it is a non-coherent scheme). Each pattern of bits forms the symbol that is represented by the particular phase. In exchange. PSK uses a finite number of phases. Usually. Alternatively. Quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK) :Sometimes this is known as quaternary PSK or 4-PSK. the other. Phase-shift keying (PSK) is a digital modulation scheme that conveys data by changing. represents a binary zero. This requires the receiver to be able to compare the phase of the received signal to a reference signal ² such a system is termed coherent (and referred to as CPSK). each assigned a unique pattern of binary digits. thus recovering the original data. Since this scheme depends on the difference between successive phases. Any digital modulation scheme uses a finite number of distinct signals to represent digital data. or modulating. the AFSK-modulated signal normally is being used to modulate an RF carrier for transmission. 11 . AFSK differs from regular frequency-shift keying in performing the modulation at baseband frequencies. BFSK uses a pair of discrete frequencies to transmit binary (0s and 1s) information. represents a binary one. With four phases. the "1" is called the mark frequency and the "0" is called the space frequency. it produces more erroneous demodulations. the transmitted audio alternates between two tones: one. the phase of a reference signal (the carrier wave). determines the phase of the received signal and maps it back to the symbol it represents.

Bandwidth speeds of 6 bytes/hz can be achieved with QAM. 2.4 Error control methods Error control methods for a communication system can be divided into two categories: y y Error detection Error correction Error detection: Error detection is the process of monitoring received data and determining when a transmission error has occurred. or the carrier wave. The modulated waves are summed. The most common error detection techniques are: Redundancy : Redundancy involves transmitting each character multiple times. It conveys two analog message signals. usually sinusoids. or two digital bit streams.and deciding differently is a common confusion when considering or describing QPSK. a transmission error is deduced.1.The mathematical analysis shows that QPSK can be used either to double the data rate compared with a BPSK system while maintaining the same bandwidth of the signal. (usually a sinusoid) in response to a data signal. are out of phase with each other by 90° and are thus called quadrature carriers or quadrature components ² hence the name of the scheme. In the case of QAM. 90 degrees out-of-phase with each other (in quadrature) are changed (modulated or keyed) to represent the data signal. In this latter case. These two waves. PSK modulators are often designed using the QAM principle. and at least two amplitudes are used. the BER of QPSK is exactly the same as the BER of BPSK . If the same character is not received a fixed number of times in succession. using the amplitude-shift keying(ASK) in digital modulation scheme or amplitude modulation (AM) in analog modulation scheme. QAM is used extensively as a modulation scheme for digital telecommunication systems. or to maintain the data-rate of BPSK but halving the bandwidth needed. Amplitude modulating two carriers in quadrature can be equivalently viewed as both amplitude modulating and phase modulating a single carrier. by modulating the amplitudes of two carrier waves. Digital QAM : Like all modulation schemes. a finite number of at least two phases. the amplitude of two waves. In the digital QAM case. and the resulting waveform is a combination of both phase-shift keying (PSK) and amplitude-shift keying(ASK).. Quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) is both an analog and a digital modulation scheme. y 12 . but are not considered as QAM since the amplitude of the modulated carrier signal is constant. QAM conveys data by changing some aspect of a carrier signal.

y Parity checks: In parity checking. an error has occurred. Transmitter and receiver both perform summing operation on the data transmitted. If the receiver checksum does not equal to the transmitter checksum. a single bit(the bit parity) is added to each data unit to force the octal number of binary µ1¶s in a data unit to be either odd(odd parity) or even (even parity). Parity techniques fail when an even number of bits are in error. At the receiver. Checksum techniques detect 95% of errors. appending the remainder of the division operation to the message transmitted. and modifying the input data set so that the error ceases to exist. with the checksum appended to the end of a data message at transmission. and if this total does not equal the present value. Each character received at the receiver is resent to the transmitter for the operator to confirm that character was actually transmitted.95% of errors. This method is often referred to as ARQ or automatic request for 13 . making it possible to miss a large number of errors. but are very computationintensive. However parity methods are simple and easy to implement. The most common methods of error correction are: y Retransmission: Here. this same division process is non-zero. an error detected and the receiver automatically requests for the message to be retransmitted.y Echoplex : Echoplex is used in data communication systems where human operators enter data manually from the keyboard. y Cyclic redundancy checks: Cyclic redundancy checking uses a division operation on the transmitted sequence. CRC error checking methods detect approximately 99. Error correction methods: Error correction is the process of deducing the correct data that is supposed to be received. y Exact count encoding: With exact count encoding. y Checksum: Checksum is defined as the least significant byte of the arithmetic sum of the data set transmitted. an error has occurred. then an error has occurred. the number of ones in each character is the same. but are more computation intensive than parity methods. The number of ones in a character.

ARQ techniques are simple. each one millisecond long. but can be hindered by the overhead involved with acknowledgement and repeat requests.2. while a binary 0 is a no-burst followed by a burst. These signal bursts are synchronized to the zero crossings (both positive and negative) of the ac power line signal. FEC techniques increases message overhead by the addition of these bits. Also. and are relatively computation intensive. y Forward error correction(FEC): FEC techniques detect and correct errors at the receiving end without calling for retransmission.retransmission. With FEC. channel access mechanisms and the frequency bands they use. a number of bits are added to the message. It transmits over the electrical wiring using on off keying (OOK). Each bit transmitted occupies two zero crossings.1 X10 The X10 specification was designed for low-bandwidth signalling over power lines within the home.Pico Electronics -with the first shipped product to market in 1978. X10 applications include controlling lights and thermostats as well as devices like the stereo amplifier.2 shows the timing relationship of these bursts relative to the zero crossing. 2. They differ in their modulation Techniques. 14 . garage door opener.2 Existing PLCC Standards Various protocols have been developed for the purpose of carrier communication over power-line. The product was developed by a company in Scotland . 2. A brief overview of most popular protocols is presented here. The X10 system is simple and easy to use. More precisely. a binary 1 is represented by a burst followed by a no-burst. Figure 2. each one millisecond burst is equally transmitted 3 times to coincide with the zero crossing point of all three phases in a three phase distribution system. The specification allows for a signal burst to be within a maximum of 200 s of the zero crossing point. These extra bits are coded in a way that allows for a certain number of errors per message to be detected and corrected. The patent on the standard has since expired and prices have fallen sharply. television receiver and more. it uses 120 kHz signal bursts.

2. The resulting bit rate is then 60*(11/25) = 26. The next four cycles represent the House Code.performs a simple task.) This complete block is always transmitted twice. Hence the total number of power line cycles required to complete a transmission is 2*11 + 3 = 25 power line cycles. Spread spectrum communication techniques can be used to improve performance in the presence of tonal 15 . hence it is a popular choice for basic home automation. Each node in the network ± a switch. sensor. This bit rate is only useful for trivial applications. etc. motor. video. encompasses eleven cycles of the power line.3.4 bits/second. . motion detector.which consists of 11 bits. It begins with a start of packet identifier consisting of the sequence 'burst. 25 power line cycles are required to transmit a frame . With this simplicity also comes a low bit rate. with 3 power line cycles between each group of 2 codes. noburst'. 2.3 X10 packet format. Early standards for the Lonworks protocol used spread spectrum modulation. shown in Figure 2.2 X10 timing on 60 Hz waveform An X10 packet. and other higher bandwidth network traffic. and is much too slow for transmission of audio. etc. Figure 2. and the last five cycles represent a number code (1 through 16) or a Function Code (On. However. network gaming traffic. burst. which occupies the first two cycles (four zero crossings). X10 is inexpensive and easy to use.Figure 2. burst. Off. The overall network performs a complex control application such as automating a building.2 LON works Lon works is a network protocol created by Echelon Corporation and is intended to support communication between control devices or nodes.

The suite of specifications was labelled EIA-600. The PLT-22 communicates at a raw bit rate of 5 kbps. The amount of improvement depends on the available bandwidth.noise (noise that is present at specific frequencies only). pulse width encoding.140 kHz (primary) and 110 kHz .2. Also.125 kHz (secondary). This is much faster than X10. In addition. the average symbol time is then 150 µ s. A unit symbol time is shown in 2. the carrier signal frequency is swept over a range of frequencies. These symbols are encoded using chirp spread spectrum in the bandwidth 100 kHz to 400 kHz. European regulations prohibit power line signalling above 150 kHz due to potential interference with low frequency licensed radio services. This symbol interval is the shortest symbol time ³1´. The PLT-22 communicates using BPSK with frequency ranges 125 kHz . EOF. impulse noise cancellation. CEBus employs a sequence of up and down frequency sweeps of the carrier that in total for one symbol occupies a period of 100 µ s. The suite of specifications includes communication on many different types of medium including power line. the PLT-22 transceiver. or unit symbol time. This work is concerned with the physical layer coding employed by CEBus.3 CEBus In 1984. In spread spectrum. and hence more useful for more complex control of electrical devices.4. For random binary data. and fibre optic. A 0. When this occurs. The purpose of the DSP is to provide adaptive carrier and data correlation. Echelon's latest product. the time to transmit binary ³1´ is a unit symbol time (100 µ s). infrared. The primary frequency range is used unless impairments prevent successful communication in this range. twisted pair cable. The full specification was released in 1992. 2. CEBus uses non return to zero (NRZ). the Electronic Industries Alliance (EIA) Consumer Electronics Group began an effort whose goal was the formulation of a standard for a communication network for consumer products in the home.5 kbps. or in other words. There are four symbols: µ1¶.1 % margin of error is also defined (100 ns for 100 µ s). radio frequency. and low overhead error correction. the PLT-22 automatically switches to the secondary frequency range. EOP. for a bit rate of 7. The standard came to be called the Consumer Electronic Bus (CEBus).400 kHz. the degree of spreading. coaxial cable. while to transmit a binary 0. Spread spectrum improves performance by using a wider bandwidth for communication than what is required. 16 . Instead. tone rejection. operates using a novel Dual Carrier Frequency mode along with Digital Signal Processing (DSP). two unit symbol times are used (200 µ s). It was first used with a bandwidth of 100 kHz . but this band was found to be too narrow to provide acceptable performance given the type of noise present on the power line. µ0¶.

These sub-bands are mathematically orthogonal. Only 240V devices that connect to L1 and L2 simultaneously provide a signal path between these two branches other than the minimal coupling provided by the distribution transformer. etc.7 MHz frequency band. from the band 4. and service. There are two 60 Hz phases. meaning that for the specific symbol rate they are placed at specific intervals in the frequency domain that minimizes interference between them. To achieve higher bit rates. The goal of the consortium is to create an open specification for high speed power line networking technology and to promote new products to accelerate its adoption. L1 and L2. 2. the CEBus standard says that a signal coupler should be placed between L1 and L2 when needed to improve signal propagation within the power line network. there are 128 evenly spaced sub-carriers of which HomePlug uses 84. higher frequencies and bandwidth must be used than that for X10.49 to 20. 17 . Lonworks and CEBus as discussed above (whose frequencies are less than 500 kHz).appliances. .0 specifications were published.7 MHz (carriers 23-106 inclusive). a CEBus 120V device on L1 may not communicate with a CEBus 120V device on L2 due to inadequate signal coupling between L1 and L2. The HomePlug specification is the most complex of all power line technologies. In June 2001.4 CEBus spread spectrum chirp One other interesting note in the CEBus standard is coupling between power phases within the home. lights. In the bandwidth 0 25 MHz. hardware/software supply. motors.normally connect to either L1 or L2. HomePlug communicates using Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) in the 4. Therefore.2.4 HomePlug HomePlug is a non-profit consortium founded in March 2000 by thirteen leading IT companies who have a mutual interest in high-speed networking technologies over power lines. in a home that are 180 degrees apart in phase. Its membership of now more than 80 companies includes companies specializing in semi-conductor manufacturing. To help solve this problem. This method of multiplexing divides up the available bandwidth into sub-bands.Figure 2.49 to 20. the HomePlug v1. Home 120V electrical devices .

data rates will be slow.) is achievable with low bit rates (< 5 kbps). but its complexity and cost is more than necessary. Simple control of devices (turning lights on and off. The Inverse Fast Fourier Transform (IFFT) is used at the transmitter to create individual channel waveforms. but are computationally demanding. ventilation. but reliability will be maintained. power consuming and expensive. or differential binary phase shift keying (DBPSK). Note that HomePlug employs a method of frequency diversity. High quality video and highspeed computer networking is at the opposite end of the spectrum requiring speeds up to 100 Mbps. Several manufacturers have demonstrated HomePlug technology and it looks promising.1 Mbps . Altogether. 2. Also. and air conditioning (HVAC). and the error-control coding can be modified. Different devices and applications will have different throughput requirements ranging from 10 bps to 100 Mbps or more.Before forming a symbol to be transmitted. people are likely to use PLC to network anything that is electrically powered such as heating. From the different technologies given above one can see that there exists low cost. Only good sub-carriers are used for communication. Tone Maps (TM) are then created and used by sender-receiver pairs to adapt to varying channel conditions. Data bits are modulated onto the sub-carriers using differential quadrature phase shift keying (DQPSK). the modulation scheme can be changed (DBPSK or DQPSK). It also uses complex error control coding and modulation techniques that are good for reliability.2. The HomePlug alliance has announced plans for the development of next generation specifications.0 devices in 500 homes show that 80% of outlet pairs were able to communicate with each other at about 5 Mbps or higher. HomePlug adapts to channel conditions. Named HomePlug AV. Lonworks. Field tests with HomePlug V1. data bits are processed using several error control coding schemes. HomePlug provides high enough data rates for medium speed. the new specification will be designed to support distribution of data and multimediastreaming entertainment including High Definition television (HDTV) and data rates of 100 Mbps throughout the home. The whole process is reversed at the receiver . etc. The ability to adapt is the real strength of HomePlug. reliable systems (X-10.5 The Need for a Medium Speed Technology In the coming years. Obviously if the power line channel becomes harsh for communication. and 98% could support data rates greater than 1 Mbps [13]. 139 distinct physical data rates are available from 1Mbps to 14. In addition to this. Special frames are sent and analyzed by receivers to determine which of the 84 sub-carriers are available for communication. and CEBus) and that high speed systems exist using 18 . controlling thermostat.

19 . but have several drawbacks.the HomePlug protocol. There really isn¶t a device designed for ³medium speed´ (100 kbps to 1 Mbps). These systems work well for what they were designed. Therefore this project focuses on a low complexity. low cost medium speed technology for power line communication.

Power line networks are usually made of a variety of conductor types and cross sections joined almost at random. this approximates to . since the power line has a number of load (appliances) of differing impedances connected to it for variable amounts of time. A standard distributed parameter model can be obtain the characteristics impedances of an unloaded power cable. The overall impedances of the low 20 . considerable noise. Maximum signal power line will be received when the impedances of the transmitter. The characteristics impedances of a transmission line (Z) is the impedances measured at the input of this line when its length is infinite. the channel can be described as random time varying with a frequency-dependent signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) over the communication bandwidth. Its length and the termination at the far end. Channel characteristics depend on the location of the transmitter and receiver in the specific power line infrastructure and are both time and frequency dependent. Therefore a wide variety of characteristics impedances are encountered in the networks. power line and the receiver are matched.1 Attenuation Attenuation is the loss of signals strength as the signal travels over distances for a transmission line the input impedance depends on the type of line. Varying impedance.2. Hence. Unfortunately. Channel impedance is a strongly fluctuating variable that is difficult to predict. a uniform distributed line is not a suitable model for PLC communications. 2. High frequency signals can be injected on the power line by using an approximately designed high pass filter. where L and C are the line impedance and capacitance per length.3.3 PLCC Implementation Challenges The Channel The characteristics of the channel must first be explored in order to design a timed transmission protocol. and it is given by the equations that follows At the frequencies of interest for PLC communication (the high frequency range). Under these conditions the type of termination at the far end has no effect. and high attenuation are the main issues.

Maximum power transfer theory states that the transmitter and channel impedances must be matched for maximum power transfer. The sources of this noise tend to be silicon-controlled rectifiers (SCRs) that switch when the power crosses a certain value . We need to design the transmitter and receiver with sufficiently low output/input impedance respectively to approximately match channel impedances in the majority of expected situation. Overall network impedances are not easy to predict either.voltage network¶s loads. so the small impedances will play a dominant role in determining overall impedances.3. this is tough. This noise can be classified as: 50 Hz periodic noise Noise synchronous to the sinusoidal power line carrier can be found on the line. Clearly. 2. which utilizes the 50Hz electric supplies and generate noise component. The most typical coaxial cable impedances used are 50 and75 ohm coaxial cables. channel impedances are low. This presents significant challenges when designing a coupling network for PLC communications. commercial . This category of niose has line spectra at multiples of 50Hz. Nicholson and Malack explained that any variation from site to site was attributed to variations in load connected to the line. They found that the characteristic impedance increased with frequency.3 Noise The major sources of noise on power line are from electrical appliances. was approximately 1 Ÿ at 20 kHz increasing to 100 Ÿ at 30 MHz.2 Impedance Power line impedance is important because a transmitter must match this impedance over the desired frequency range to avoid frequency dependent distortion of a broadband signal. A twisted pair of guage-22wire with reasonable insulation on the wires measures at about 120ohms. averaged over all sites. Figure 2.3. The impedance. 2. which extend well into the high frequency spectrum. Nicholson and Malack measured line impedance in the frequency range 20 kHz to 30 MHz at 36 different commercial locations in the United States. Similar results were obtained in European countries and in Japan. placing a voltage spike on the line. The primary sources of noise in residential environments are universal motors. With strongly varying channel impedance. light dimmers and televisions. Apart from these induced radio frequency signals from broadcast. military. 21 . citizen band and amateur stations severly impair certain frequency bands on power line.6 is extracted from their work to show the frequency range 50 to 500 kHz.

electric shavers and many common kitchen appliances. Typically. Noise levels tend to decreases in power level as the frequency increases in other words. Background noise This is what every subscriber sees as already present on the line. It was found that noise levels in a closed residential environment fluctuate greatly as measured from different locations in the building.Single-event impulse noise This category includes spike placed on the line by single events. Capacitor banks switched in and out create impulse noise. such as a lighting strike or a light switch turn on or off. Periodic impulsive noise The most common impulse noise sources are triac controlled light dimmers. Multiples of this frequency must be avoided when designing a communications transceiver. Television sets generates noise synchronous to their 15734 Hz horizontal scanning frequency. drillers. This type of motor is found in devices such as found in vacuum cleaner. This implies that a communication carrier frequency would compete with less noise if its frequency were higher. Continuous impulsive noise This kind of noise is produced by a variety of series wound Ac motors. 22 . and not caused by subscriber appliances. public lighting systems etc. spectrum density of power line noise tends to concentrate at lower frequencies. Continuous impulsive noise is the most severe of all the noise sources. Non-synchronous periodic noise This type of noise has line spectra uncorrelated with 650Hz sinusoidal carriers. this originates from the distribution transformer. These impulse occur at twice the AC line frequency as this process is repeated every ½ AC cycle. These devices introduce noise a they connect the lamp to the AC line part way through each AC cycle. Commutator arcing from these motors produces impulses at repetition rates in the several kilohertz range.


Therefore. which are filtered out only with difficulty. there are several sources of noise and interference. In fact. The benefit here is noise immunity.1 Design issues For the design of any communication system. the carrier will load the receiver at all times providing greatly increased noise immunity. FSK systems can achieve significantly higher data rates than the ASK counterparts. Modulation technique and transmission methods need to be selected to give suitable performance in the communication environment of choice. Such signals when amplified by nonlinear amplifiers generate spurious out-of-band spectral components. Unlike ASK. careful consideration must be given to the selection of an appropriate modulation-demodulation scheme. albeit at the sacrifice of cost and power consumption. and not amplitude change. The efficiency of the modulation/demodulation process determines the accuracy of the data coming from the receiver. because of its relatively poor noise performance. 24 . the power line network possesses some unique design issues of its own. each with its own individual characteristics. The modulation band selected for power line communications must meet the required data rate while maximizing resistance to noise and interference with the signal because in any power line. to indicate data states. Our communication environment. the carrier should never be at the centre frequency when modulation is present. The amplitude variations in an ASK signal becomes a source of difficulty. a carrier is always present with FSK modulation. ASK is the simplest scheme but is very rarely used. to make sure that the data coming from the receiver is the same as the data being presented to the transmitter. i. we have to address a number of important design issues. First. FSK is a µnon-return to zero¶ modulation method.1Choice of the modulation methods Transmission of data across a noisy communication channel requires some manner of separating the valid data from the background noise.e.3. This means that the non-modulated condition is between the ³off´ and ³on ´ condition. In other words. Since FSK relies on frequency change. The most common way to accomplish this is to modulate the data at the data at the transmission end and to demodulate the data on the reception endpoint. the strength (or amplitude) of the carrier can be used to determine the quality of the incoming signal. 3. This increased noise immunity suggests a potential for higher data rates. Secondly..1. an FSK receiver is inherently immune to amplitude noise. This affords the designer several benefits.

000Hz. which are further sources of difficulty. For this reason frequency between 50 to 500 KHz is chosen to be used as carrier frequency over the power lines. Again. frequency modulation is the feasible solution. Phase delay in the PLC channel is expected and is also unpredictable.2Choice of carrier frequency Generally.Considering now the PSK techniques. Hence if we use low carrier frequency over power frequency then it would be very difficult to separate out the carrier signal from the power signal. 25 . These generally lie between 100 to 50. if the carrier frequency is chosen as high as 500 KHz then the open long line behaves as Arial and radiates out such high frequency signal. The FSK waveform has constant amplitude and no matter how discontinuities the modulating waveform maybe. When it is necessary to avoid such amplitude and phase discontinuities.1 has typical values for FSK transmitters to transmitters (uni-directional) and transmitters to receivers (bi-directional). Table 3. the power currents have higher harmonics and due to surge currents and corona effects higher frequency currents are generated. The type of channel equipment and bandwidth being used will dictate the minimum frequency separation requirements. the power frequencies are very low such as 50 or 60Hz. These tables reflect the minimum requirements. 3. its phase is continuous. The reliable performance of FSK with any reasonable amount of phase delay makes it the modulation scheme of choice for PLCC techniques. However.1. assuming a 15 dB isolation is provided with an external device between the equipment. BPSK and QPSK generate discontinuities in the carrier phase. So if carrier frequency is chosen within this range then noise introduced in this path will be large and signal to noise ratio would become too low.

Application requirements ‡ What are the bandwidth/frequency spacing requirements? ‡ Is there interference from other sources? 2. The optimal solution is to use FEC error detection and correction methods to cope with the majority of errors.1. the complexity of the PLCC system influences the selection of the error control method.Table 3. Coupling Method 5. and then CRC and ARQ detection and correction methods to cope with errors missed by FEC.3 Selection for error control method in the PLCC environment In general. Frequency Planning 4. several things must first be considered. Line configuration for noise and attenuation considerations 6. However. In considering which frequency to use for the specific application. Surrounding frequencies in use 3. 1.1 ± Frequency Spacing Requirements in kHz for FSK Equipment The typical frequencies used in Power Line Carrier range from 30 to 500 kHz. such a system would 26 . Overhead and/or power cable 3.

A less complex system with moderate performance would be straight ARQ complex to implement. with cyclic redundancy checking to detect errors or for simpler system. Accordingly. Straight parity checking and ARQ. 27 . we implement parity checking and ARQ.

50Hz power waveform. Neutral to line Neutral to ground Differential mode coupling is a scheme where the live wire is used as one terminal and the neutral as the other. making it safer to install. and extract it afterwards at the receiving end. For safety reasons we have decided upon using an inductive coupling method. the best performance may be expensive to justify for the line being protected so the next best one may be the preference. As stated before. In case where a neutral line is not present the ground line acts as the second terminal. y y y Live to ground. The basic component used for the coupling may be capacitive or inductive. The coupler should also be impedance matched to the power line for maximum power line for maximum power transfer. For our coupler implementation we use differential mode coupling. in on the center phase) ‡ Center phase to outer phase (push-pull) 28 . it needs to be placed on the power line by some kind of coupling network. there is more than one way to couple the carrier to the power line. but requires multi-sets of coupling equipment.2. That is. requiring only one set of coupling equipment (line tuner. At the receiver side the coupling device should posses a band pass characteristics. performance or a compromise of the two. 3. Such a kind of coupling is not potentially safe and hence is not used. Inductive coupling provides a physical separation between the power network and communication network. Common mode coupling involves the live and neutral being treated as one of terminal and the ground as the other.1 Modes of coupling to power line As with most systems. the coupling schemes with least losses (ranked in order of least losses) are shown below: ‡ Mode 1 Coupling (Out on two outer phases. There are three possible combinations of lines on which to couple a signal. The deciding factor may be economic.3. At transmitter side. Multi-phase coupling may be used to improve dependability. coupling capacitor and line trap). the coupler should posses high pass properties. blocking the 50Hz mains voltage and passing signal at the carrier frequency . The idea is to superimpose the data signal onto the 240V. passing the communication signal un-attenuated.2 Coupling Strategy Once the data signal has been generated. Most protective relay channels use single-phase-toground coupling.

Single Phase-to-Ground (Center Phase) Coupling Phase To Phase Coupling Some applications will require more dependability. When the protected line is of significant importance and the type of protection requires receipt of the signal during an internal fault. The wave trap prevents the carrier currents from flowing to the power station side. The centre phase provides the most mode 1 coupling. The ground is used as the return path. Here the carrier terminals are connected between one phase conductor and the ground.‡ Center phase to ground ‡ Outer phase to outer phase with ground return (push-push) ‡ Outer phase to ground (only on short lines) The major methods of coupling are discussed as below : Ground to phase coupling The best single-phase-to-ground scheme uses the centre phase for coupling. Advantage of using this method is that only half of the coupling devices are required and the cost is lowered. Using one of the outside phases will introduce more mode 2 and mode 3 coupling than desired.1. Figure 3. Figure 3. Since the most frequent type of power system fault is a phase to 29 .1 shows an example of phaseto-ground coupling. multiphase coupling improves ependability of the signal being transmitted through the fault.

2. Phase-to-Phase Coupling 3. Depending on line voltage and capacitor type.05 microfarads. radiation loss is smaller & signal/noise ratio is high. Since it is desirable to connect the line tuner output to this low voltage point a device must be used to provide a high impedance path to ground for the carrier signal and a low impedance path for the power frequency current. It can only perform its function of dropping line voltage across its capacitance if the low voltage end is at ground potential. pull type coupling It provides metallic go and run paths to the carrier currents. The coupling capacitor is the device which provides a low impedance path for the carrier energy to the high voltage line. you can improve your chances of receiving the signal through the fault if more that one phase is used. It has such some advantage as It has less attenuation & transmission characteristics are very constant.2 shows how to couple using the push. In this case the uncoupled conductor does not have any appreciable influence on the transmission.2. Hence it is used although costlier.ground. Hence. Figure 3. and at the same time blocks the power frequency current by being a high impedance path at those frequencies. Figure 3. the capacitance values in use range from 0.2 Coupling Equipment: Coupling Capacitors: The coupling capacitor is used as part of the tuning circuit. 30 .001 to .

Another important function of the line trap is to isolate the carrier signal from changes in the bus impedance. depending on the application. then the carrier signal would propagate toward the remote terminal. resonant and broad-band. Line Traps To block the energy from going back into the bus and direct it toward the remote line terminal. to isolate carrier equipment from each other. the line tuner provides a low loss path to the power line for the carrier signal. High/low-pass and band-pass networks may also be used. The type used depends on the transmission line and the number of carrier channels to be placed on the line. 31 . between the bus and the coupling capacitor.Line Tuners In conjunction with the coupling capacitor. This type of a circuit presents high impedance to the carrier signal at its resonant frequency. and it is designed to carry the large currents required. This device is called a line trap. Thus if the parallel LC circuit were placed in series with the transmission line. Hybrids may also be required between transmitters and receivers. The inductor in the trap provides this path. The line trap must be capable of providing a very low impedance path to the power frequency current. thus making the carrier circuit more independent of switching conditions. in some applications. Hybrids & Filters The purpose of the hybrid circuits is to enable the connection of two or more transmitters together on one coaxial cable without causing inter modulation distortion due to the signal from one transmitter affecting the output stages of the other transmitter. There are two basic types of line tuners. The general design of a line trap is that of a parallel LC circuit.

This high capacitance produces a lower impedance to ground than might be expected. then the impedance presented to the carrier channel is the opposite value of the terminating transformer impedance. then the impedance at the tap point will be low and the tap will have a significant effect on the carrier channel.3 Power Line Characteristics at RF Carrier frequencies exceed power frequencies by a factor of 500 or more. Generally power transformers are accepted as being a high shunt impedance at the carrier frequencies. The ( C) frequency to wavelength ( ) relationship is approximated by: Remember that c= 3 x108 meters/seconds (speed of light) or 186. On the other hand. all power lines are electrically short in terms of wavelength. if the transformer impedance is low. It is also commonly accepted that a power transformer connecting two transmission lines of different voltages constitutes a broad band high-frequency blocking device. the high terminating 32 . Thus when a power transformer is at the terminal location of a carrier channel it will probably appear to the carrier signal as a trap. however. This means that a 100 Kilometer (62 mile) line will be 85 wavelengths long. At 60 Hz.000 miles/second. At carrier frequencies. 3.02 of a wavelength long. That is. their effect may or may not affect carrier channel performance.73 miles). At the power frequency.1 Transformer Characteristics at RF There is no up-to-date reference available on the impedances of power transformers at the carrier frequencies. From this relationship it is clear that a 250 kHz signal will have a wavelength of 1. As a result. and it must be remembered that the results may be entirely different. then the impedance at the tap point will be high and the tap will have little effect. what effect does it have on the carrier signal? That depends largely on the effective RF impedance to ground of the transformer and how far the transformer is from the tap point.176 meters (0. if the transformer impedance is high. If the transformer is terminating a load tap. As discussed in the previous section. Testing has shown that delta connected windings are more capacitive than wye-connected. if the tap is an odd quarter wavelength long. a transmission line¶s response to carrier frequencies will be different from its response to power frequencies. preventing carrier on one line from reaching the other.3. The discussion below is a general discussion based on past experience. most lines are many wavelengths long because of the much shorter wavelength.3. In the case of taps at even quarter wavelengths. Depending on their location in the carrier channel. this line will be only 0.

In practice.3 Characteristic Impedance The characteristic impedance of a transmission line is defined as the ratio of the voltage to the current of a traveling wave on a line of infinite length. Z0. This loss can be calculated by the following equation: where ML is mismatch loss. there will be some reflection of the signal. this equation can be expressed in terms of the distance between conductors and the radius of the conductor as follows: 33 . 3.3. An example of this is when an overhead line is combined with a power cable circuit.impedance will be reflected as a high impedance with little effect on the channel and the low terminating impedance is reflected as a low impedance with a large effect. 3. This reflection is caused by the mismatching of the impedances. This ratio of voltage to its corresponding current at any point the line is a constant impedance.2 Effects of Mismatches Any time there is a change of impedance along the carrier signal path.3. This reflection results in a loss of the carrier signal in the transmitted direction. Carrier terminals and line coupling equipment must match the characteristic impedance for best power transfer. the j C and j L are so large in relationship to R and G. this equation can be reduced to : By applying appropriate formulas for L and C.


‡ The type of line tuner applied. however the calling end is referred to as Transmitter while the called end is sighted as the Receiver. The factors affecting reliability are: ‡ The amount of power out of the transmitter. ‡ The size of the coupling capacitor in terms of capacitance. If both of these requirements are met then the PLC channel will be reliable.1 PLC System Overview Our device consists of two parts TRANSMITTER and RECEIVER.2 Design Cosideration Many factors will affect the reliability of a power line carrier (PLC) channel. so that the receiver can make a correct decision based on the information transmitted.1. and with a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) well above the minimum. The goal is to get a signal level to the remote terminal that is above the sensitivity of the receiver. and the reply must also be obtained to the calling end. 35 . ‡ The type and number of hybrids required to parallel transmitters and receivers.1 The PLC System Block Diagram 4. Here both ends are Transceiver modules. Each room may have the equipment connected to each other through power line.4. Figure 4. We have demonstrated the working by only two transceiver modules. Transmitted signals shall reach the intended receivers.

but these are the major factors involved in the success or failure of a PLC channel.2. and the type of demodulation circuits in the receiver. ‡ The decoupling equipment at the receiving terminal (usually the same as the transmitting end).‡ The type and size. ‡ The type of modulation used to transmit the information. Basic Power Line Carrier Terminal 36 . Figure 4. ‡ The phase(s) to which the PLC signal is coupled. The paper will deal with each one of the above items in detail. in terms of inductance. of the line trap used. The above list may not be all inclusive. ‡ The power line voltage and the physical configuration of the power line. and then use this information to design a reliable power-line carrier channel using an example. ‡ The length of the circuit and transpositions in the circuit. ‡ The received signal-to-noise ratio (SNR).

Since it is desirable to connect the line tuner output to this low voltage point a device must be used to provide a high impedance path to ground for the carrier signal and a low impedance path for the power frequency current. Technology has enabled suppliers to continually increase the capacitance of the coupling capacitor for the same price thus improving performance. However. and at the same time blocks the power frequency current by being a high impedance path at those frequencies. It can only perform its function of dropping line voltage across its capacitance if the low voltage end is at ground potential.3. In fact the coupling capacitor is used as part of the tuning circuit. The coupling capacitor is the device which provides a low impedance path for the carrier energy to the high voltage line. 37 . due to the high voltage that must be handled and financial budget limitations.3 Coupling Capacitor & Drain Coil Combination It is desirable to have the coupling capacitor value as large as possible in order to lower the loss of carrier energy and keep the bandwidth of the coupling system as wide as possible. This device is an inductor and is called a drain coil. Figure 4.001 to . The coupling capacitor and drain coil circuit are shown in Figure 4.4.2 Power Coupling Components and Circuits 4. the coupling capacitor values are not as high as one might desire.05 microfarads.2. Depending on line voltage and capacitor type. the capacitance values in use range from 0.1 Coupling Capacitors The coupling capacitors will be discussed before the line tuners since they play a large part in the response of the line tuner.

thus the name single frequency tuner. The inductor is arranged so that it and the coupling capacitor form a series resonant circuit. the point of connection between it and the line tuner is generally a high impedance point. Any capacitance to ground in the connecting cable will cause losses and change the tuning circuit characteristics. This tuner will tune at one frequency. Resonant-Single Frequency The single-frequency tuner. or on the structure that supports the coupling capacitor. coaxial cable should not be used for this connection. The grounding switch is for personnel protection during maintenance. if space is available. the line tuner provides a low loss path to the power line for the carrier signal.4. This drain coil should not be considered as the primary drainage path. resonant and broad-band. The gap is present to protect the tuner from failure during large transients on the power line. This protector unit must consist of a grounding switch and a protective gap. The matching transformer provides the impedance match between the 50 or 75 ohm coaxial cable and the characteristic impedance of the power line (150 to 500 ohms). There are two basic types of line tuners. The type used depends on the transmission line and the number of carrier channels to be placed on the line.2. These transients have large amounts of high frequency energy which is passed by the coupling capacitor and are present at the tuner because the drain coil is high impedance to these frequencies. shown in Figure 4. When this circuit is tuned to the carrier frequency it will provide a low impedance path for the carrier signal to the power line. The line tuner should be mounted either in the base of the coupling capacitor. The reason is that the lead between the coupling capacitor and tuner should be as short as possible. has a single inductor and a matching transformer.2 Line Tuners In conjunction with the coupling capacitor. This cable is typically a single conductor that is insulated for high voltage and has a very low shunt capacitance to ground.4. Since the coupling capacitor is part of the filter circuit. All line tuners will have a protector unit which is connected from the output lead to ground. Sometimes the line tuners are supplied with a drain coil in addition to the one supplied in the coupling capacitor. 38 . As mentioned before. The coupling capacitor must always have a drain coil and it is considered the primary drainage path for power frequency currents.

Figure 4.5.5 there are two paths. the minimum frequency separation is generally 25 per cent of the lower frequency or 25 kHz. has two sets of resonant circuits so it may be tuned to pass two frequencies to the power line. The two-frequency tuner shown in Figure 4. Double Frequency Line Tuner 39 . whichever is smaller. on the other hand. each with its own matching transformer and series inductor. but it also isolates the two sets of carrier equipment from each other. but each path also has a parallel LC circuit used for blocking the carrier signal from the other path. As seen in Figure 4. For the two-frequency tuners.5 not only provides a low loss path for two frequencies.4. Figure 4. and the parallel LC circuits are tuned to resonate at the frequency passed by the other path. Each path is tuned to series resonance with the coupling capacitor at its given frequency. Single Frequency Line Tuner Resonant-Double Frequency The double-frequency tuner.

There are two forms of broad-band coupling used: highpass and band-pass tuners. Therefore. The low-frequency cutoff of the circuit is determined by the size of the coupling capacitor and the terminating impedance of the power line. all of the carrier sets must be paralleled using the principles described in the section on ³Paralleling Transmitters & Receivers. Another advantage of the high-pass tuner is that the high impedance lead to the coupling capacitor is very short and not exposed to the elements.´ Figure 4.6. The high-pass tuner has one coaxial cable input.7. Note that the coupling capacitor is used as one of the series branches of the high-pass circuit. High Pass Tuner 40 . The high-pass tuner is shown in Figure 4. It is usually small enough to fit in the base of the coupling capacitor and as a result does not need an extra outdoor cabinet. The equivalent circuit for the high-pass tuner is shown in Figure 4. One should not apply any carrier frequencies close to the cutoff frequency of the circuit since it does not have a stable characteristic impedance in that area.Broad Band Tuners If it is desired to place more than two narrow band frequency groups on the line then one must use broad-band coupling. High-pass The high-pass tuner is the simpler of the two and in most cases is the preferred type.6.

and the square of the geometric mean frequency (GMF) to which the filter is tuned.2. Also some of this energy would propagate out on other lines thus transmitting the signal to a large portion of the system. Band-pass Tuner 4. The band-band tuner is as shown in Figure.7.8. the terminating impedance. Equivalent Circuit of High Pass Tuner Band-pass Tuner This tuner provides a large bandwidth with a constant coupling impedance over a band of carrier frequencies. ner Figure 4.3 Line Traps When the carrier signal is coupled to the power line it can propagate in two directions. a device is needed to block the energy from going back into the bus and direct it toward the remote line 41 . If the signal goes into the station bus much of its energy will be shunted to ground by the bus capacitance. One should be careful in applying frequencies too close to the band edges of a band-pass tuner since this area can change with varying temperature and changes in standing waves which may be produced on the power line due to changes in line termination. The bandwidth of the band-pass tuner depends on coupling capacitance.Figure 4. Because of these problems. either to the remote line terminal or into the station bus and onto other lines. This is undesirable since the same frequency may be used on another line.

Figure 4. Characteristic of Single Frequency Trap Figure 4. the wide-band trap will block a large 42 .000 ohm blocking impedance at one given frequency. then the carrier signal would propagate toward the remote terminal.9. The line trap must be capable of providing a very low impedance path to the power frequency current.terminal.10.000 to 10. The general design of a line trap is that of a parallel LC circuit. as shown in following figures. The inductor in the trap provides this path. This type of a circuit presents high impedance to the carrier signal at its resonant frequency. thus making the carrier circuit more independent of switching conditions.and double-frequency traps have a rather sharp resonance peak which provides a 7. between the bus and the coupling capacitor. Thus if the parallel LC circuit were placed in series with the transmission line. Another important function of the line trap is to isolate the carrier signal from changes in the bus impedance. Characteristic of Double Frequency Trap Note that both the single. On the other hand. and it is designed to carry the large currents required. This device is called a line trap.

11. the resonant traps will have less losses than the wide-band type. on the order of 500 ohms. Figure 4.10 shows double-frequency traps. This setting can thus be used to couple two or more very close frequencies to the line. The trap can have both a low-Q and a high-Q setting. Usually the trap used is the same type as the line tuner. The question of economics and blocking impedance will dictate the type of trap to be applied.9 shows the typical characteristic for the single-frequency trap and Figure 4. it is not absolutely necessary that the line trap be of the same type as the tuner. The bus is capacitive at carrier frequencies and it can form a series resonant circuit with the inductance of the trap. Power transformers on the line behind the trap have been known to affect the 43 . if the tuner is a single-frequency type.bandwidth of frequencies but its blocking impedance is low. However. that is. Single Frequency and Double Frequency Figure 4. the trap will also be a singlefrequency type. and this then can create a low impedance path to ground. but it has a very narrow bandwidth which may be very susceptible to variations in the bus impedance. As an example wide-band traps could be used at all times. The high-Q setting of the trap provides the normal high blocking impedance. and these types are singlefrequency. but has a wider bandwidth. Characteristics of a Band-pass Trap Line traps come in several versions just as the tuners do. The low-Q setting of the trap provides a lower blocking impedance. and band-pass. Therefore. double-frequency.

The first level is measured with the disconnect switch between the trap and the bus open. If the signal level changes by a large amount between these two conditions and you are certain the trap is tuned properly. and you should check with the manufacturer of the trap. cause large losses in the carrier path and must be used appropriately. then the lowQ setting should be selected since the station impedance will have less effect on the trap tuning. Note. such as resistive hybrids. 44 . to isolate carrier equipment from each other. The channel losses will be a little higher. reactance hybrids. but the channel will be less affected by switching conditions. The blocking impedance and bandwidth are directly related to the required inductance which is a large part of the cost. Also it is suggested that frequencies not be used that are near the band edge of the trap because the tuning in that area may change with system conditions. in some applications. The second level is with the line normal (disconnect closed). 4. depending on the application. two things must be decided. There are many forms of hybrids. and skewed hybrids to name the most popular types. of course. Figure 16 shows the typical characteristic for the wide band trap.trap and change the tuning characteristic.4 Hybrids The purpose of the hybrid circuits is to enable the connection of two or more transmitters together on one coaxial cable without causing inter modulation distortion due to the signal from one transmitter affecting the output stages of the other transmitter. Hybrids may also be required between transmitters and receivers. Wide-band When applying a wide band trap.2. The complete bridge is made up of components internal to the hybrid and the external circuits connected to the hybrid. that is. bandwidth requirements and how much blocking impedance is needed. Both these factors will greatly affect the cost of the trap. These types of effects can be detected by comparing the received signal at the other end for two conditions. The hybrid circuits can. High/low-pass and band-pass networks may also be used. that not all traps have the low-Q option. Simply stated a hybrid is a bridge network.

in this case. The voltage V will divide equally between the 25 ohm resistor and the 25 ohm reflected load into the top half of the primary. The impedance will be transferred as the square of the turns ratio which in this case is 2 to 1. for every ¥ ¥2 turns on the secondary. (a) to (ct). The reciprocal of this impedance ratio is call the reflection coefficient. Since the center tapped primary of the transformer will act as an autotransformer. The mathematical expressions are: where RT is its terminating resistance and R is the designed impedance.12. The voltage appearing across input port #2 due to the voltage V at input port #1 is the sum of the voltages around the loop from (g) to (y). This isolation expressed in decibels is called trans-hybrid loss and is the same as return loss.Operation of Resistive Hybrid Figure 4. and in the direction as shown. In terms of impedance this would be the ratio of sum of the impedances to the difference of the impedance. this resultant voltage is 0 volts. The transformer turns ratio is ¥2/1 with the ¥2 turns on the center tapped primary. is made of a resistor of 25 ohms. and a transformer with a center tap on the primary. The 50 ohm load will be reflected in the primary of the transformer as a 25 ohm quantity from point (a) to the center tap (ct). This is because there is 1 turn on the primary. a voltage V/2 will also appear on the other half of the primary between point (ct) and (b).12.12. Let¶s assume the secondary of the transformer is terminated with a 50 ohm resistor and a voltage (V) is applied to input port #1. and the hybrid isolates the voltage at one input port from the other input port. Resistive Hybrid Refer to Figure 4. As shown in Figure 4. The hybrid. 45 . Return loss is the ratio in decibels of the power into a discontinuity to the power reflected from the discontinuity. Thus each voltage has a value of V/2.

Note that the transformer 46 . and that is attenuation of the carrier signal from either input port to the output port. This type of hybrid is called a reactance hybrid and is shown in Figure 4. In cases where there is a termination of 45 ohms. the voltage will not divide equally between (a) to (ct) and (ct) to (g) and a resultant voltage will appear across input port #2. Reactance Hybrid Figure 4. Reactance Hybrid When a hybrid is connected to the power line through a line tuner and coupling capacitor the termination impedance may not always be a 50 Ÿ resistive. The difference in decibels between the input power to a device and the output power of the device is the insertion loss. in this case. the hybrid which is connected to the tuner should be an adjustable type and should be designed to handle non-resistive terminations in order to obtain the best performance. Therefore. the transformer will have some losses and the loss from input to output will be on the order of 3. That is.5 dB for most hybrids of the type shown in Figure 4. Thus the hybrid can only provide the best isolation when it is properly terminated. However.A price must be paid for this isolation. This can be expressed as follows: If we analysis of the hybrid shown in Figure 2 using a termination of 45 ohms. This loss is the ratio of the input voltage V and the output voltage V/¥2. the trans-hybrid loss (return loss) will be: Adequate return loss is 30 dB or greater.13. the results would be different than discussed above. with a 50 ohm resistor. expressed in dB. The result of this calculation will be 3 dB. It is then appropriate to only apply a non-adjustable hybrid in an area of known termination.13.12.

This rule is based on receivers with a high input impedance. The skewed hybrid may be designed with different magnitudes of unbalance. Another type of hybrid can be used in an application of this type. that is. The skewed hybrid then allows the transmitter to be isolated from the receiver with only a 0. but there may be other factors to consider on long lines where losses may be high. Its name comes from the fact that the losses from input port #1 to the output are not the same as the losses from port #2 to the output. The balance network is no longer a simple resistor. Balanced hybrids have equal losses from each input port to the output port. A summary of some of the more important application rules are given below: ‡ All hybrids in a chain should be resistive type hybrids except the last hybrid. The skewed hybrid will generally have an impedance matching network with a fixed balance network and would be considered a resistive type hybrid. Thus twice as much transmitter power (3 dB) is applied to the line. 47 . inductor. but a resistor. The high losses in the receive path do not affect the SNR since the noise is attenuated by the same amount as the signal. That is.5 dB loss instead of the 3. and the SNR will be improved by 3 dB. and capacitor. This is to enable the hybrid to adjust to non-resistive loads.5 dB loss of the balanced hybrid.has impedance matching taps to adjust to different magnitudes of termination. as in the resistance hybrid.5 dB and the loss from output port to the input port #2 (receive port) is 12 dB. The reactance hybrid will also use an impedance matching transformer similar to the one used by resistive hybrids.If this rule is not followed then the hybrid cannot be adjusted to provide the best possible isolation between all transmitters. all the transmitter frequencies must meet the frequency spacing rule above. It is called a skewed hybrid. When using a skewed hybrid.5/12 dB. the loss from input port #1 (transmit port) and the output is 0. ‡ The last hybrid in the chain should be a reactance type hybrid or a skewed type hybrid. ‡ When applying transmitters to reactance type hybrids the frequency spacing between the widest spaced transmitters is about 4% for frequencies below 50 kHz and 6% for frequencies above 50 kHz. but the most common is 0. The success of a PLC channel will depend on the received SNR. however. and this can be obtained by maximizing the amount of transmitter signal that is coupled to the phase wire. the one connected to the line tuner. the receiver port must be terminated in 50 ohms. Unbalanced (Skewed) It is desirable to use balanced hybrids in most applications. ‡ When applying transmitters and receivers to a reactance type hybrid the frequency spacing between the transmitter group and receiver group is of no concern.

5 Filters L/C Filters: While not providing the isolation of a hybrid. The insertion loss of the L/C filter is typically around 2 dB. The bandwidth response of the series resonant L/C filter is a function of the L:C ratio and the frequency to which it is tuned.14 Hybrid Connections ± Dual Bi-Directional Channel Figure 4.2. These would typically be used where hybrids could not be applied. L/C filters may be used to combine two or more transmitters. However. depending on application. 48 . one should calculate the isolation resulting from use of a resistive hybrid as compared to the LC unit. Figure 4. A miss termination of a resistive hybrid of anywhere from 25 to 100 ohms will produce a 10 dB or greater return loss. Hybrid Connections ± Four Transmitters (Unequal Losses) 4. Minimum frequency separation of the transmitters should be 25 kHz or 10% of the highest frequency. Another disadvantage of the L/C filter is the tuning required during installation dictates accurate tuning to maintain the needed isolation. while the return loss is only around 10 to 15 dB.15.‡ When the last hybrid is a skewed type then the receiver port should be terminated with a 50 ohm resistor to obtain proper isolation. The advantage here would not have to tune a LC unit.

Mode Distribution for a Three-Phase Line Each mode has it own characteristics. reflection-free three-phase line. One set of mode components can not be resolved into other mode components. The phase-conductor currents or voltages can be resolved into three sets of naturalmode components at any point on a lossy. Mode 3 is the highest 49 . There is no inter-mode coupling on a uniform line since the modes are independent. 2. Figure 4. wave length and velocity. is constant on each phase conductor. Mode 2 is propagated on one outside phase and returns on the other outside phase. Each mode propagates with a specific attenuation. It is more frequency dependent and has more attenuation than mode 1. which is the ratio of mode voltage to mode current. At any point on a line. 5. the mode components will add to the actual phase quantities.16. There are five characteristics of natural modes: 1.4. Like symmetrical components. The mode characteristic impedance.3 Study of Carrier Performance on Power line: Modal Analysis Prediction of carrier performance can be accomplished through the use of Modal Analysis. The energy is propagated on the two outer phases and returns on the centre phase. Mode 1 is the least attenuated and least frequency dependent of the three and makes carrier channels possible on long EHV lines. Modal Analysis is a mathematical tool similar to symmetrical components used for analyzing unbalanced faults on three phase power systems. 3. modal analysis is a practical means whose modes can be electrically generated and measured separately. 4. What follows is a simplified explanation of Modal Analysis. as well the total power derived be equal to the sum of the mode powers. Modal theory is based on the premise that there are as many independent modes of propagation on a multiconductor line as there are conductors involved in the propagation of energy.

The static wires do not generate any transmission modes if grounded at each tower. Figure 4. single-circuit threephase EHV line with two overhead static wires.attenuated mode and is propagated on all three phases and returns via the ground.17. Mode Components for Various Types of Coupling 50 . Figure 4. The attenuation is so high that beyond 10 miles.16 shows the mode propagation characteristics. grounded at each tower. mode 3 is negligible. This explanation of Modal Analysis applies to a horizontally spaced.

51 . ‡ Instantaneous currents (phase or modal) will be either in phase or 180 out of phase. Assume the following: ‡ All phases and modes have the same surge impedances. ‡ Frequency will not be considered.18.Figure 4. Simplified Presentation of Basic Modes Calculations from modal analysis can become very complex but for explanation purposes a few assumptions can be made to simplify the process.


The sheet is kept for 10-15 minutes and proper shaking is done all the above processes.1. After that it is dipped into AgI solution.1: Dielectric specification 53 .4 Table 5.CHAPTER-5 5. and its print is taken on AgBr sheet. (b) Transparent sheet should be cut in proper dimension.1 Design of PCB for PLC System Implementation 5. then along with AgBr sheet. 5. And its dimension should approximate with the dimension of the design on software.6 mm 4.2 DIELECTRIC SPECIFICATION:- DIELECTRIC THICKNESS DIELECTRIC CONSTANT VALUE 1. Then sheet is dipped into the fresh water. they kept in a negative making unit in which X-rays is passed. (c) Then AgBr sheet is dipped into a mixture of NaOH and .1 Negative Making Steps (a) The printout of the design made on IE3D software is taken on a transparent sheet. Thus the negative has been developed.

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