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Structure of ethanol molecule. All bonds are single bonds Glucose (a simple sugar) is created in the plant by photosynthesis. 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + light C6H12O6 + 6 O2
During ethanol fermentation, glucose is decomposed into ethanol and carbon dioxide. C6H12O6 2 C2H5OH+ 2 CO2 + heat
During combustion ethanol reacts with oxygen to produce carbon dioxide, water, and heat: C2H5OH + 3 O2 2 CO2 + 3 H2O + heat
After doubling the combustion reaction because two molecules of ethanol are produced for each glucose molecule, and adding all three reactions together, there are equal numbers of each type of molecule on each side of the equation, and the net reaction for the overall production and consumption of ethanol is just: light heat
The heat of the combustion of ethanol is used to drive the piston in the engine by expanding heated gases. It can be said that sunlight is used to run the engine. Glucose itself is not the only substance in the plant that is fermented. The simple sugar fructose also undergoes fermentation. Three other compounds in the plant can be fermented after breaking them up by hydrolysis into the glucose or fructose molecules that compose them. Starch and cellulose are molecules that are strings of glucose molecules, and sucrose (ordinary table sugar) is a molecule of glucose bonded to a molecule of fructose. The energy to create fructose in the plant ultimately comes from the metabolism of glucose created by photosynthesis, and so sunlight also provides the energy generated by the fermentation of these other molecules. Ethanol may also be produced industrially from ethene (ethylene). Addition of water to the double bond converts ethene to ethanol:
a major air pollutant. other chemical reactions occur with different components of the atmosphere such as N2. When ethanol is burned in the atmosphere rather than in pure oxygen. but is not consumed.  Sources Main article: Energy crop Sugar cane harvest Cornfield in South Africa Switchgrass . The ethene is produced from petroleum by steam cracking. This leads to the production of nitrous oxides NOx .C2H4 + H2O CH3CH2OH This is done in the presence of an acid which catalyzes the reaction.
potatoes. sunlight. distillation. which represents about 50% of the dry kernel mass. These feedstocks are processed into ethanol. It can also be obtained via ethylene or acetylene. and other sources. the first generation processes for the production of ethanol from corn use only a small part of the corn plant: the corn kernels are taken from the corn plant and only the starch. stover. to grow. coal. fruit. bagasse. is transformed into ethanol. switchgrass. molasses. below). Two million tons of petroleum-derived ethanol are produced annually. grain sorghum. Prior to fermentation. It is made by the catalytic hydration of ethylene with sulfuric acid as the catalyst. Currently.  Fermentation . straw. other biomass. Rather than grow din mor algae and then harvest and ferment it the algae grow in sunlight and produce ethanol directly which is removed without killing the algae. The first type uses enzymes and yeast to convert the plant cellulose into ethanol while the second type uses pyrolysis to convert the whole plant to either a liquid bio-oil or a syngas. from calcium carbide. provided that all minerals required for growth (such as nitrogen and phosphorus) are returned to the land. wood or agricultural waste material such as straw. Second generation processes can also be used with plants such as grasses. wheat. sorghum. cotton. Bio-ethanol is usually obtained from the conversion of carbon based feedstock. some crops require saccharification or hydrolysis of carbohydrates such as cellulose and starch into sugars. It is claimed the process can produce 6000 gallons per acre per year compared with 400 gallons for corn production.  Production process See also: problems associated with corn-derived ethanol The basic steps for large scale production of ethanol are: microbial (yeast) fermentation of sugars. barley. About 5% of the ethanol produced in the world in 2003 was actually a petroleum product. Enzymes are used to convert starch into sugar. sugar beet. and denaturing (optional). such as sugar cane or corn. Saccharification of cellulose is called cellulolysis (see cellulosic ethanol). grain. An alternative process to produce bio-ethanol from algae is being developed by the company Algenol. dehydration (requirements vary. sweet potatoes. Agricultural feedstocks are considered renewable because they get energy from the sun using photosynthesis. Petroleum derived ethanol (synthetic ethanol) is chemically identical to bio-ethanol and can be differentiated only by radiocarbon dating. oil gas. miscanthus. sunflower.Ethanol is a renewable energy source because the energy is generated by using a resource. Creation of ethanol starts with photosynthesis causing a feedstock. hemp. Two types of second generation processes are under development. Ethanol can be produced from a variety of feedstocks such as sugar cane. whichever has the best well-to-wheel assessment. and South Africa. The principal suppliers are plants in the United States. cassava. Europe. corn. see Ethanol fuel mixtures. as well as many types of cellulose waste and harvestings. which is naturally replenished. kenaf.
The 95. this becomes . and a vapor mixture of water and cyclohexane/benzene. there is much activity in the area of cellulosic ethanol. only the sugar (e. which when distilled produces anhydrous ethanol in the column bottom. sugar cane) and starch (e. where the cellulose part of a plant is broken down to sugars and subsequently converted to ethanol.g. is immiscible in gasoline. However. used in many early fuel ethanol plants. but unlike anhydrous ethanol. Two major components of plants. starch and cellulose. Brazil. water must be removed.  Distillation Ethanol plant in West Burlington.Main article: Ethanol fermentation Ethanol is produced by microbial fermentation of the sugar. The first process.5% v/v) water mixture may be used as a fuel alone. is called azeotropic distillation and consists of adding benzene or cyclohexane to the mixture. corn) portions can be economically converted. For the ethanol to be usable as a fuel.  Dehydration There are basically five dehydration processes to remove the water from an azeotropic ethanol/water mixture. 4.6% m/m (96. When condensed. but the purity is limited to 95-96% due to the formation of a low-boiling waterethanol azeotrope. Iowa Ethanol plant in Sertãozinho.5% v/v) ethanol.g. When these components are added to the mixture. Microbial fermentation will currently only work directly with sugars. Most of the water is removed by distillation. Currently. so the water fraction is typically removed in further treatment in order to burn in combination with gasoline in gasoline engines.4% m/m (3. and can in principle be converted to sugars for fermentation. are both made up of sugars. it forms a heterogeneous azeotropic mixture in vaporliquid-liquid equilibrium.
boats and airplanes. ethanol-only engines are tuned to give slightly better power and torque output than gasoline-powered engines. After a period of time. Each fuel is carried separately. Alcohol is directly injected into the cylinders (and the gasoline injection simultaneously reduced) only when necessary to suppress µknock¶ such as when significantly accelerating. A 2004 MIT study and an earlier paper published by the Society of Automotive Engineers identify a method to exploit the characteristics of fuel ethanol substantially better than mixing it with gasoline. Two beds are used so that one is available to absorb water while the other is being regenerated. The high-compression (which increases efficiency) engine will run on ordinary gasoline under low-power cruise conditions. N2)to remove the absorbed water. The consumer cost payback time shows a 4:1 improvement over turbo-diesel and a 5:1 improvement over hybrid. in any ratio up to 100% of either. though it may be used to power other vehicles. consists of adding a ternary component which will increase ethanol's relative volatility. the problems . In flexible fuel vehicles. in a turbocharged. Of these methods.000 btus/gallon (840 kJ/l) compared to earlier azeotropic distillation. The improvement consists of using dual-fuel direct-injection of pure alcohol (or the azeotrope or E85) and gasoline. such as farm tractors.a two-phase liquid mixture. a much higher compression ratio should be used. The calculated over-all reduction of gasoline use and CO2 emission is 30%. small-displacement engine having performance similar to an engine having twice the displacement. For maximum use of ethanol's benefits. ethanol vapor under pressure passes through a bed of molecular sieve beads. the lower compression ratio requires tunings that give the same output when using either gasoline or hydrated ethanol. This dehydration technology can account for energy saving of 3. many methods have been proposed that avoid distillation all together for dehydration.g. The method presents the possibility of leveraging the use of alcohol to achieve definite improvement over the cost-effectiveness of hybrid electric. This new process uses molecular sieves to remove water from fuel ethanol. the higher compression ratios in an ethanol-only engine allow for increased power output and better fuel economy than could be obtained with lower compression ratios. called extractive distillation. it will produce anhydrous ethanol on the top stream of the column. In addition. However. The bead's pores are sized to allow absorption of water while excluding ethanol.  Technology  Ethanol-based engines Ethanol is most commonly used to power automobiles. Another early method. With increasing attention being paid to saving energy. Current high compression neat ethanol engine designs are approximately 2030% less fuel efficient than their gasoline-only counterparts. the bed is regenerated under vacuum or in the flow of inert atmosphere (e. When the ternary mixture is distilled. with a much smaller tank for alcohol. Ethanol (E100) consumption in an engine is approximately 51% higher than for gasoline since the energy per unit volume of ethanol is 34% lower than for gasoline. high compression-ratio. Direct cylinder injection raises the already high octane rating of ethanol up to an effective 130. In this process. In general. a third method has emerged and has been adopted by the majority of modern ethanol plants.
 Engine cold start during the winter The Brazilian 2008 Honda Civic flex-fuel has outside direct access to the secondary reservoir gasoline tank in the front right side. and the fuel (known as ED95) used is a mix of 93. It is then also possible to use the energy efficiency of the diesel principle with ethanol. the ethanol blend in the US has a seasonal reduction to E70 for these very cold regions. supply issues of multiple mix ratios and cold-weather starting are avoided. High ethanol blends present a problem to achieve enough vapor pressure for the fuel to evaporate and spark the ignition during cold weather (since ethanol tends to increase fuel enthalpy of vaporization). though it is still sold as E85. These engines have been used in the United Kingdom by Reading Transport but the use of bioethanol fuel is now being phased out.8% denaturants. Thermal efficiency up to approximately that for a diesel was achieved. At places with harsh cold weather. and to reduce ethanol higher emissions during cold weather. The engines. When vapor pressure is below 45 kPa starting a cold engine becomes difficult. Ethanol's higher octane rating allows an increase of an engine's compression ratio for increased thermal efficiency. both for gasoline and E85 vehicles. both the US and the European markets adopted E85 as the maximum blend to be used in their flexible fuel vehicles. complex engine controls and increased exhaust gas recirculation allowed a compression ratio of 19. At places where temperatures fall below -12 °C (10 °F) during the winter. have a modified compression ratio. but also in distribution trucks and waste collectors. The ignition improver makes it possible for the fuel to ignite in the diesel combustion cycle. and they are optimized to run at such a blend. but the ethanol content in the blend is reduced to E75 during the winter months. In order to avoid this problem at temperatures below 11 ° Celsius (59 °F). the corresponding fuel filler door is shown by the arrow. which is hydrous ethanol (with up to 4% water).5 with fuels ranging from neat ethanol to E50.of water absorption into pre-mixed gasoline (causing phase separation). made by Scania. Sweden has a similar seasonal reduction. and 2. They are used primarily in city buses. Since 1989 there have also been ethanol engines based on the diesel principle operating in Sweden. This would result in the fuel economy of a neat ethanol vehicle to be about the same as one burning gasoline. In one study. it is recommended to install an engine heater system.6 % ignition improver.6 % ethanol and 3. Brazilian flex fuel vehicles can operate with ethanol mixtures up to E100. which causes vapor pressure to drop faster as compared to E85 .
Brazilian flex vehicles are built with a small secondary gasoline reservoir located near the engine. Other countries have adopted their own requirements. Hydrated ethanol × gasoline type C price table for use in Brazil To avoid engine stall due to "slugs" of water in the fuel lines interrupting fuel flow. During a cold start pure gasoline is injected to avoid starting problems at low temperatures. the fuel mileage declines with increased water content. This shows. Brazil requires cars be suitable for a 25% ethanol blend. their engine systems contained alcohol sensors in the fuel and/or . the first Brazilian flex fuel model without an auxiliary tank for cold start. an increasing number of vehicles in the world are manufactured with engines which can run on any fuel from 0% ethanol up to 100% ethanol without modification. for example.vehicles. For E10 it is about 0. Many cars and light trucks (a class containing minivans. The fraction of water that an ethanol-gasoline fuel can contain without phase separation increases with the percentage of ethanol. This provision is particularly necessary for users of Brazil's southern and central regions. see Common ethanol fuel mixtures. since of July 2007 25% is required. the fuel must exist as a single phase. If there is more than about 71% ethanol. In March 2009 Volkswagen do Brasil launched the Polo EFlex. and some states require this (or a smaller amount) in all gasoline sold. However. The increased solubility of water with higher ethanol content permits E30 and hydrated ethanol to be put in the same tank since any combination of them always results in a single phase. In many countries cars are mandated to run on mixtures of ethanol. that E30 can have up to about 2% water.23% v/v at -30 F. As a result. Somewhat less water is tolerated at lower temperatures. Beginning with the model year 1999. The United States allows up to 10% blends. and has required various mixtures between 22% and 25% ethanol.5% v/v at 70 F and decreases to about 0. An improved flex engine generation was launched in 2009 that eliminates the need for the secondary gas storage tank. SUVs and pickup trucks) are designed to be flexible-fuel vehicles (also called dual-fuel vehicles). where temperatures normally drop below 15 ° Celsius (59 °F) during the winter. In older model years. the remainder can be any proportion of water or gasoline and phase separation will not occur.  Ethanol fuel mixtures For more details on this topic.
with an octane rating of about 104. burning pure ethanol in a vehicle will result in a 34% reduction in miles per US gallon .oxygen sensors in the exhaust that provide input to the engine control computer to adjust the fuel injection to achieve stochiometric (no residual fuel or free oxygen in the exhaust) air-to-fuel ratio for any fuel mix.  Experience by country .  Consumer production systems While biodiesel production systems have been marketed to home and business users for many years. and should be compared to premium. Ethanol contains approx. with the computer using only oxygen and airflow sensor feedback to estimate alcohol content. Based on EPA tests for all 2006 E85 models. making fuel economy almost constant for any blend.used in most high performance gasoline engines regardless of whether they're designed to use ethanol or not . The AFS125 Advanced Fuel System from Allard Research and Development is capable of producing both ethanol and biodiesel in one machine.88 dollar against 4. For E10 (10% ethanol and 90% gasoline). given the same fuel economy. the alcohol sensors have been removed. The engine control computer can also adjust (advance) the ignition timing to achieve a higher output without preignition when it predicts that higher alcohol percentages are present in the fuel being burned. the compression ratio can be optimized for the fuel being used. Since ethanol has a higher octane rating. compared to burning pure gasoline. or liters per 100 km) that is directly proportional to the fuel's energy content. E85 will produce lower mileage than gasoline. In one estimate the US retail price for E85 ethanol is 2. but it must be noted that E85 is a high performance fuel.03 dollar. the average fuel economy for E85 vehicles resulted 25. In fact using a variable turbocharger. commercialized ethanol production systems designed for end-consumer use have lagged in the marketplace. 34% less energy per unit volume than gasoline. Brazilian cane ethanol (100%) is priced at 3.that detect pre-ignition and detonation. while the E-100 MicroFueler from E-Fuel Corporation is dedicated to ethanol only. and even smaller (1-2%) when compared to oxygenated and reformulated blends.56% lower than unleaded gasoline. the engine can be made more efficient by raising its compression ratio. two different companies announced home-scale ethanol production systems.71 dollar corrected for energy equivalency compared to a gallon of gasoline priced at 3. for E85 (85% ethanol). there are many other variables that come in to play that affect the performance of a particular fuel in a particular engine.  Fuel economy In theory. and therefore in theory. The EPA-rated mileage of current USA flex-fuel vehicles should be considered when making price comparisons.62 US dollar per gallon or 3. all fuel-driven vehicles have a fuel economy (measured as miles per US gallon. .91 dollar for E25 (as July 2007). This method is backed up by advanced knock sensors . the effect becomes significant. In 2008. In newer models. However. the effect is small (~3%) when compared to conventional gasoline. and will require more frequent refueling. In reality. Actual performance may vary depending on the vehicle.
40 570.30 52.53 billion US gallons (73.20 733.40 European Union 1. are giving rise to fledgling ethanol industries in countries such as Germany.750.67 83.60 501. liquid gallons (bg) and Brazil (6.472. Strong incentives.75 billion U.019.21 56.039.The world's top ethanol fuel producers in 2009 were the United States with 10.59 91.90 89. Thailand.S. Annual Fuel Ethanol Production by Country (2007±2009) Top 10 countries/regional blocks (Millions of U.20 211.00 9. France.60 6.55 435. Australia.00 79.3 million metric tonnes). coupled with other industry development initiatives. accounting for 89% of world production of 19. Canada.80 247.27 .S.58 bg). Sweden. Spain.577.80 74.30 26.52 China Thailand Canada India Colombia Australia Other 541.9 billion liters or 58.70 66.00 6.90 26.30 486.89 6.80 237. liquid gallons per year) World rank 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Country/Region 2009 2008 2007 United States Brazil 10.00 79.498. and some Central American countries.20 5. India.000. China. Colombia.20 290.
marked A for alcohol (ethanol) and G for gasoline.335. and it is considered to have the world's first sustainable biofuels economy. The Honda CG 150 Titan Mix was launched in the Brazilian market in 2009 and became the first flex-fuel motorcycle sold in the world.70  Brazil Main articles: Ethanol fuel in Brazil and History of ethanol fuel in Brazil See also: Flexible-fuel vehicles in Brazil Brazil has ethanol fuel available throughout the country.29 13.534. together with the . A typical Petrobras filling station at São Paulo with dual fuel service. that run on any blend of ethanol and gasoline.101. In 2006 Brazilian ethanol provided 18% of the country's road transport sector fuel consumption needs. from E20-E25 gasohol to E100 ethanol fuel.99 17. As a result of the increasing use of ethanol. Typical Brazilian "flex" models from several carmakers.World Total 19. and by April 2008. involving production of ethanol fuel from sugarcane. more than 50% of fuel consumption for the gasoline market. Brazil has the largest and most successful bio-fuel programs in the world.
000 liters per hectare.exploitation of domestic deep water oil sources. as compared with the U. Guaranteed purchase and price regulation were ended some years ago. are manufactured to tolerate hydrated ethanol (E100). In addition to these other policies. Brazil and the United States lead the industrial world in global ethanol fuel production.700. Sugar cane plantations cover 3. .7% of the world's total ethanol used as fuel. with a productivity of 7. with relatively positive results. production and use of ethanol was stimulated through: y y y y Low-interest loans for the construction of ethanol distilleries Guaranteed purchase of ethanol by the state-owned oil company at a reasonable price Retail pricing of neat ethanol so it is competitive if not slightly favorable to the gasoline-ethanol blend Tax incentives provided during the 1980s to stimulate the purchase of neat ethanol vehicles. The Brazilian car manufacturing industry developed flexible-fuel vehicles that can run on any proportion of gasoline and ethanol. and ranking second in sales of new motorcycles in the Brazilian market by October 2009. maize ethanol productivity of 3.57 billion U.6% market share.4% water. The first flex motorcycle was launched to the market by Honda in March 2009. Produced by its Brazilian subsidiary Moto Honda da Amazônia. representing 33. Introduced in the market in 2003. as they are popularly known. the CG 150 Titan Mix is sold for around US$2. The ethanolpowered "flex" vehicles. capturing a 10. liquid gallons).500 liters of ethanol per hectare. accounting together for 89% of worldwide production.6 million hectares of land for ethanol production. requiring just a minor adjustment on regular gasoline motors.6% ethanol and 4.S.S. There are no longer light vehicles in Brazil running on pure gasoline.9 billion liters (6. but is not effectively self-sufficient. Together. since most of its locally extracted oil is heavy. The latest innovation within the Brazilian flexible-fuel technology is the development of flexfuel motorcycles. Today the mandatory blend is allowed to vary nationwide between 20% to 25% ethanol (E25) and it is used by all regular gasoline vehicles and flexiblefuel vehicles. By December 2009 the fleet of "flex" cars and light commercial vehicles had reached 9. an azeotrope composed of 95. The cumulative production of flex-fuel cars and light commercial vehicles since 2003 reached the milestone of 10 million units produced in March 2010. representing just 1% of Brazil's arable land.35 million vehicles. During the first eight months after its market launch the CG 150 Titan Mix has sold 139. The ethanol industry in Brazil is more than 30 year-old and even though it is no longer subsidized. In 2009 Brazil produced 24. ethanol producers in the state of São Paulo established a research and technology transfer center that has been effective in improving sugar cane and ethanol yields.059 motorcycles.3 thousand flex-fuel motorcycles. Brazil reached in 2006 a volumetric selfsufficiency in oil supply. and 183. Since 1977 the government made mandatory to blend 20% of ethanol (E20) with gasoline (gasohol). these vehicles became a commercial success.
In 2007 Portland.637 2009 10.855 653 5. the "Quadricycle" to run on pure ethanol.S. United States fuel ethanol production and imports (2001±2009) (Millions of U. Many cities also require ethanol blends due to non-attainment of federal air quality goals.600 190 10.500 450 6.904 135 4.800 61 2.049 2006 4. Ford continued to advocate for ethanol as fuel even during Prohibition. can run on blends of up to 10% ethanol. who in 1896 designed his first car. Then in 1908. became the first city in the United States to require all gasoline sold within city limits to contain at least 10% ethanol. Minnesota. three states ² Missouri.940 Note: Demand figures includes stocks change and small exports in 2005 The United States produces and consumes more ethanol fuel than any other country in the world. and motor vehicle manufacturers already produce vehicles designed to run on much higher ethanol blends.S. and Hawaii ² require ethanol to be blended with gasoline motor fuel. As of January 2008. United States Main article: Ethanol fuel in the United States See also: Corn ethanol and Cellulosic ethanol See also: Flexible-fuel vehicles in the U.S. ethanol or a combination of both.377 2007 6.085 2003 2.900 2004 3. Oregon.000 556 9. Most cars on the road today in the U. he produced the famous Ford Model T capable of running on gasoline.847 2008 9.400 161 3.130 46 2. .770 n/a n/a 2002 2. Ethanol use as fuel dates back to Henry Ford.530 2005 3. liquid gallons) Year Production Imports Demand 2001 1.
not only because the ethanol fueling infrastructures is limited. One of the debated methods for distribution in the US is using existing oil pipelines.900 stations distributing ethanol.700-mile pipeline to carry ethanol from the Midwest through Central Pennsylvania to New York. in an attempt to boost corn prices.S. By December 2009 it was estimated there were 8. Shown a fuel pump in Maryland selling mandatory E10. a major interstate highway in the central United States. this corridor consisting of more than 200 individual fueling stations makes it possible to drive a flex- . and GM.4 million E85-compatible vehicles on U. although most stations are in the corn belt area. Florida. Most of the ethanol consumed in the US is in the form of low blends with gasoline up to 10%. Ethanol production from corn is highly dependent upon subsidies and it consumes a food crop to produce fuel. A theoretically much more efficient way of ethanol production has been suggested to use sugar beets which make about the same amount of ethanol as corn without using the corn food crop especially since sugar beets can grow in less tropical conditions than sugar cane. though actual used of E85 fuel is limited. Several motor vehicle manufacturers. On October 2008 the first "biofuels corridor" was officially opened along I-65. Stretching from northern Indiana to southern Alabama. Production of ethanol from corn is 5 to 6 times less efficient than producing it from sugarcane. including Ford.E85 FlexFuel Chevrolet Impala LT 2009. In the USA there are currently about 1. Recent developments with cellulosic ethanol production and commercialization may allay some of these concerns. This is at odds with the subsidies actually paid directly to farmers that are designed to take corn land out of production and pay farmers to plant grass and idle the land. The production of fuel ethanol from corn in the United States is controversial for a few reasons. often in conjunction with soil conservation programs. and in farmers planting more corn and the conversion of considerable land to corn (maize) production which generally consumes more fertilizers and pesticides than many other land uses. roads. but also because many owners are not aware their vehicle is flex-fuel capable. The subsidies paid to fuel blenders and ethanol refineries have often been cited as the reason for driving up the price of corn. which raises concerns over corrosion. some companies proposed building a 1. Miami. In any case. sell flexible-fuel vehicles that can use gasoline and ethanol blends ranging from pure gasoline all the way up to 85% ethanol (E85). Chrysler.
38 2 Spain 1.796 2 1. On the same day. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published on May 5. and also criticized the inclusion of indirect effects of land-use changes as an unfair penalty to domestically produced corn ethanol because deforestation in the developing world is being tied to US ethanol production. among other criticisms. EPA's proposed regulations also included the carbon footprint from indirect land-use changes.fueled vehicle from Lake Michigan to the Gulf of Mexico without being further than a quarter tank worth of fuel from an E85 pump. The Directive established a Biofuels Interagency Working Group comprising of three agencies. the California Air Resources Board approved the specific rules and carbon intensity reference values for the California Low-Carbon Fuel Standard (LCFS) that will go into effect in January 1. After the CARB's ruling. Also they will coordinate infrastructure policies impacting the supply.000 per year (in 2010 constant dollars). secure transport. each costing the taxpayers $446. 2011. On April 23. its notice of proposed rulemaking for the new Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS). an industry lobbist group claims that increasing the percentage of ethanol in gasoline would create 136. In 2010. The initial reference value set for 2011 for LCFS means that Mid-west corn ethanol will not meet the California standard unless current carbon intensity is reduced. and the Department of Energy. representatives of the US ethanol industry complained that this standard overstates the environmental effects of corn ethanol.55 1 Germany 978 4 2. This group will develop a plan to increase flexible fuel vehicle use and assist in retail marketing efforts.  Europe Production of Bioethanol in the European Union (GWh) No Country 2005 2006 2. The draft of the regulations was released for public comment during a 60-day period. and for reducing the environmental footprint of growing biofuels crops. The group will also come up with policy ideas for increasing investment in next-generation fuels. 2009. the Environmental Protection Agency.48 3 France 853 2 4 Sweden 907 830 . such as cellulosic ethanol. During the consultation process there was controversy regarding the inclusion and modeling of indirect land use change effects.000 might be created. the Department of Agriculture. and distribution of biofuels. 2009. The Environmental Working Group says that 27. President Barack Obama signed a Presidential Directive with the aim to advance biofuels research and improve their commercialization.S. A similar controversy arose after the U. particularly corn-based ethanol.000 jobs.
a.544 3. Sweden.27 5.314 1.174 3 Sweden 1. 27 EU 6.113 4 Spain 1.138 13.681 1.5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 27 Italy 47 Poland 379 Hungary 207 Lithuania 47 Netherlands 47 Czech Republic 0 Latvia 71 Finland 77 Total 759 711 201 107 89 89 71 0 9.894 2.563 The consumption of bioethanol is largest in Europe in Germany.310 5 Poland 329 611 991 6 United Kingdom 502 563 907 7 Bulgaria 0 769 8 Austria 0 0 254 9 Slovakia 0 4 154 10 Lithuania 10 64 135 11 Hungary 28 136 107 12 Netherlands 0 179 101 13 42 70 Denmark 14 Ireland 0 13 54 15 Latvia 5 12 20 16 Luxembourg 0 0 10 17 Slovenia 0 2 9 18 Czech Republic 0 13 2 19 Italy 59 0 0 20 Finland 0 10 n.408 2 France 871 1. France and Spain.481 10.719 3.411 4 n. Germany produced ca 70% of its .332 1. Europe produces equivalent to 90% of its consumption (2006).a.682 3. = not available Consumption of Bioethanol in the European Union (GWh) No Country 2005 2006 2007 1 Germany 1.
The vehicles¶ diesel engines will use ethanol. All Swedish gas stations are required by an act of parliament to offer at least one alternative fuel.  Sweden Main article: Ethanol fuel in Sweden Sweden is the leading country in Europe regarding the use of ethanol as fuel. as a pilot to see how ethanol fueled cars work in Iceland. which is an 85% ethanol. These buses will use ethanol-powered internal-combustion engines and electric motors. . September 17. Iceland.200 stations and a fleet of 116 thousand flexi-fuel vehicles as of July 2008. and every fifth car in Stockholm now drives at least partially on alternative fuels. though it has to import most of the ethanol. Directly neighbouring country Germany is reported to have a much better biofuel infrastructure and offers both E85 and E50.75% of the total fuel consumption volume in 2010. This is a Scania OmniCity which has been touring the United Kingdom. a Volvo dealer. Stockholm will introduce a fleet of Swedish-made electric hybrid buses in its public transport system on a trial basis in 2008. The number of bioethanol stations in Europe is highest in Sweden. On Monday. mostly ethanol. (2007) There are only a few gas stations where E85 is sold. which does not use the fuel widely. since EUlegislation has been passed that requires the fraction of nonmineral origin to become minimum 5. A larger fleet of similar buses will enter service in Stockholm in 2008. with 1.consumption. 2007 the first ethanol fuel pump was opened in Reykjavik. Spain 60% and Sweden 50% (2006). (Authorities are aware of high taxation on fuels and cross-border fuel refilling is a well-known practice.) An example of an ethanol powered bus. or fuel sold in the form of pure biofuel. This can be realised by substitutions in diesel or in petrol of any biological source. The fuel is imported by Brimborg. Biofuel is taxed equally as regular fuel. This pump is the only one of its kind in Iceland. However. 15% petrol mix. In Sweden there are 792 E85 filling stations and in France 131 E85 service stations with 550 more under construction. fuel tanked abroad cannot be taxed and a recent payment receipt will in most cases suffice to prevent fines if customs check tank contents. In the Netherlands regular petrol with no bio-additives is slowly being outphased.
In order to achieve a broader use of biofuels several government incentives were implemented. other demand side incentives for flexifuel vehicle owners include a USD 1.27  Germany 193 2. as the other biofuels.800 bonus to buyers of FFVs. resulting in a 30% price reduction at the pump of E85 fuel over gasoline. fire and ambulance vehicles) must be alternative fuel vehicles. Bioethanol stations European Union No/106 Country Stations persons  Sweden 1. up to 20% discount on auto insurance. exemption from the Stockholm congestion tax. the Swedish Government ruled that 25% of their vehicle purchases (excluding police.27 Switzerland Ireland 29 6.26  France 211 3.. Ethanol. free parking spaces in most of the largest cities.200 131. a part of the program. the CO2 and energy taxes until 2009. By the first months of 2008.36 . lower annual registration taxes. Furthermore. and a 20% tax reduction for flexifuel company cars. this package of incentives resulted in sales of flexible-fuel cars representing 25% of new car sales.35  40 5. Also.84 United Kingdom 22 0. were exempted of both.
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