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SOSÌOLOCÌ DAN
PSÌKOLOCÌ ÌNDUSTRÌ




ii

Do|tor |s|

Kala ponganlai ....................................................................................................................i
Daflai isi ............................................................................................................................. ii
DLIINISI DAN ILRKLMßANCAN ISIKOLOCI INDUSTRI ....................................... 1
Dofinisi ............................................................................................................................ 1
Iokus Ulana ................................................................................................................... 2
IoinasaIahan Yang Dihadapi ....................................................................................... 2
Iiosodui Dan Toknik ..................................................................................................... 2
Sojaiah IsikoIogi Induslii .............................................................................................. 3
Ioispoklif daIan IInu IsikoIogi ................................................................................... 4
Isikodinanik .............................................................................................................. 4
ßohavioiisno ............................................................................................................... 4
Kognilif/CoslaIl .......................................................................................................... 4
Hunanislik .................................................................................................................. 5
ßio-IsikoIogi ............................................................................................................... 5
SosiaI ßudava .............................................................................................................. 5
IsikoIogi Induslii Dan Oiganisasi Di Indonosia. ......................................................... 5
IsikoIogi Induslii Dan Oiganisasi Solagai IInu...................................................... 6
Wavasan IsikoIogi Induslii Dan Oiganisasi ........................................................... 7
Kailan Dongan IoiiIaku Kooiganisasian (Organiza|icna| 8cnaticr ......................... 9
Kailannva Dongan Managoi Sunloi Dava Manusia ............................................... 9
ILNCLLOLAAN SDM DI DUNIA INDUSTRI ............................................................. 1O
SoIoksi ............................................................................................................................ 1O
Slialogi SoIoksi .......................................................................................................... 12
Oiionlasi IoIalihan ....................................................................................................... 14
Iiinsip-piinsip IonloIajaian .................................................................................. 15
Tooii IonloIajaian ................................................................................................... 16
Konsop Dan Iiinsip IonloIajaian .......................................................................... 17
Ionvusunan Iiogian IoIalihan .............................................................................. 18
ILNILAIAN KINLRIA .................................................................................................... 19
IoniIaian Kinoija ........................................................................................................... 2O
iii

Iiosos Ionvusunan IoniIaian Kinoija ..................................................................... 24
KosaIahan Ioninlangan .............................................................................................. 25
MOTIVASI ........................................................................................................................ 28
Tooii Molivasi ............................................................................................................... 28
Tooii Molivasi Aliahan MasIov (1943-197O ........................................................ 29
Tooii Molivasi Hoizloig (1966 ............................................................................... 3O
Tooii Molivasi DougIas Mcgiogoi ........................................................................... 3O
Tooii Molivasi Vioon (1964 ................................................................................... 31
Achiovononl Thooiv Mc CIoIIand (1961 .............................................................. 31
LRC CIavlon AIdoifoi .............................................................................................. 31
Moningkalkan Molivasi Koija ..................................................................................... 32
KLIUASAN KLRIA ......................................................................................................... 33
STRLS DI TLMIAT KLRIA & MANAILMLN STRLS ................................................... 39
Dofinisi Slioss ................................................................................................................ 39
Roaksi IisioIogis ...................................................................................................... 4O
Slioss di lonpal koija ................................................................................................... 41
Manajonon Slioss ......................................................................................................... 44
Iondokalan individuaI ............................................................................................. 45
Iondokalan oiganisasi .............................................................................................. 46
KLRIASAMA TIM & KLILMIMIINAN ........................................................................ 48
Koijasana Tin .............................................................................................................. 48
Dofinisi Koijasana Tin ............................................................................................ 48
Ioian Toan ................................................................................................................ 48
Koponinpinan ............................................................................................................. 51
Iongoilian Ioninpin .............................................................................................. 52
Tugas Dan Ioian Ioninpin .................................................................................... 52
Iiinsip- Iiinsip Dasai Koponinpinan .................................................................. 54
Rofoionsi ßuku .................................................................................................................. 57



1

1
DEFINI$I DAN FEkKEM8ANGAN F$IKOLOGI
INDb$IkI


De||n|s|
F:ikc|cci Le(c:c| cc(i 2 kcIc F:vcne ccn Lcgc:: c:vcne iIu jiwc ccn
|cgc: Le(c(Ii kcjicn. penceIchucn ccn |cinnyc. cwc|nyc p:ikc|cci
cicefini:ikcn :eLccci i|mu ycnc mempe|cjc(i jiwc. ncmun Le(uLch menjcci
i|mu ycnc mempe|cjc(i Iinckch |cku.
Defini:i IenIcnc Fs|ko|og| Industr| Orgon|sos| cipe(|ukcn unIuk
memLe(ikcn LcIc:cn-LcIc:cn Lcci :ucIu i|mu. :ehinccc kcjicn :eLccci i|mu
menjcci je|c:. SeLccci :ucIu kekhu:u:cn c(ec cc|cm ke(cnckc i|mu p:ikc|cci.
mckc Fs|ko|og| Industr| Orgon|sos| memi|iki cefini:i ycnc Ie(LcIc: IenIcnc
kcjicn i|munyc.
Sc|ch :cIu cefini:i menccIckcn. ¨|ncu:t||c| cnc c|gcn|zct|cn
c:vcnc|cgv |: tne :c|ent|||c :tucv c| tne |e|ct|cn:n|c cetween ncn cnc tne
wc||c ct wc|k. tne :tucv c| cc|u:tnent cecc|e ncke tc tne c|cce: tnev gc.
tne cecc|e tnev neet cnc tne tn|ng: tnev cc |n tne c|cce:: c| nck|ng c
||v|ng {Guicn cikuIip cc|cm Muchin:ky. 1º83)
8|um ccn Ncy|c( {1ºó8) mencefini:ikcn Fs|ko|og| Industr| Orgon|sos|
:eLccci. ¨ :|nc|v tne ccc||cct|cn c| exten:|cn c| c:vcnc|cg|cc| |cct: cnc
c||nc|c|e: tc tne c|cc|en ccnce|n|ng nuncn ce|ng cce|ct|ng w|tn|n tne
ccntext c| cu:|ne:: cnc |ncu:t|v.
Menu(uI SccieIy cf lncu:I(ic| cnc C(ccnizcIicnc| F:ychc|ccy {SlCF.
/F/ Divi:icn 4). :ecc(c :inckcI mencc(Iikcn Fs|ko|og| Industr| Orgon|sos|
:eLccci Le(ikuI: ¨ncu:t||c|/C|gcn|zct|cnc| |/C} c:vcnc|cgv |: cctn tne :tucv
c| cencv|c| |n c|gcn|zct|cnc| cnc wc|k :ett|ng cnc ccc||cct|cn c| tne
netncc:. |cct:. cnc c||nc|c|e cg c:vcnc|cgv tc |nc|v|cuc| cnc g|cuc: |n
c|gcn|zct|cnc| cnc wc|k :ett|ng:.
Fs|ko|og| Industr| Orgon|sos| me(upckcn :ucIu :uLci:p|in cc(i i|mu
p:ikc|cci ycnc mempe|cjc(i pe(i|cku mcnu:ic cc|cm :ucIu kcnIek: c(ccni:c:i.
cpckch c(ccni:c:i incu:I(i cIcukch c(ccni:c:i ni(|cLc. :e(Ic pencc(uh IimLc|
Lc|ik cnIc(c incivicu ccn c(ccni:c:i IempcInyc Le(kc(yc.
2

Dc|cm kenycIccn p(ckIi:. Fs|ko|og| Industr| Orgon|sos| :c|inc Iumpcnc
Iincih cenccn ci:ip|in i|mu |cin. SccieIy cf lncu:I(ic| cnc C(ccnizcIicnc|
F:ychc|ccy {SlCF) memLe(ikcn LeLe(cpc pc(cmeIe( ycnc memLecckcn
F:ikc|cci lncu:I(i C(ccni:c:i cenccn kekhu:u:cn |cin cc|cm ci:ip|in p:ikc|cci.

Fokus btomo
Fcku: uIcmc Fs|ko|og| Industr| Orgon|sos| ccc|ch pe(i|cku mcnu:ic pccc wc|k
:ett|ng {:eIIinc ke(jc). Kc(enc pcpu|c:i Fs|ko|og| Industr| Orgon|sos| Le(ccc
pccc Lu:ine::. incu:I(y. |cLc(. puL|ic {|nc|uc|ng ncn-c|c||t). ccccen|c.
ccnnun|tv. cnc nec|tn c|gcn|zct|cn.

Fermoso|ohon Yong D|hodop|
Fs|ko|og| Industr| Orgon|sos| memi|iki p(cL|em cp|ikcIif ycnc menycnckuI
mc:c|ch-mc:c|ch mcnu:ic cc|cm peke(jccnnyc. ycnc me|ipuIi (ec(uiImenI.
:e|ecIicn. I(cininc. ceve|cpmenI. mcIivcIicn. c(ccnizcIicn ceve|cpmenI.
ccn:ume( Lehcvic(. :I(ucIu(e cf wc(k. humcn fccIc(: ccn |cin-|cin.

Frosedur Don Iekn|k
8e(Lccci mcccm p(c:ecu(. c|cI-c|cI ccn Ieknik-Ieknik Ie|ch
cikemLcnckcn unIuk memLcnIu Fs|ko|og| Industr| Orgon|sos| cc|cm
mencnccni mc:c|ch :ecc(c efekIif. Ie(ccpcI Iicc Luch e|emen penIinc ycnc
ckcn ciuku(. yciIu peke(jc. peke(jccnnyc. ccn kcnIek: peke(jccn.
Dc|cm kciIcnyc cenccn peke(jc mckc cikemLcnckcn Le(Lccci Ie:
unIuk mencuku( pe(Lecccn incivicuc| :epe(Ii Ie: inIe|ecen:i. Ie: kep(iLccicn.
c|cI uku( ni|ci ccn Le(Lccci c|cI uku( |cinnyc. Jikc unIuk mencuku( c:pek
peke(jccnyc menccunckcn p(c:ecu( cnc|i:i: jcLcIcn {|cc cnc|v:|:).
UnIuk mencuku( kcnIek: peke(jccn Ie|ch cikemLcnckcn Le(Lccci
p(c:ecu( ccn c|cI Ie: unIuk mencenc|i Luccyc c(ccni:c:i. ik|im c(ccni:c:i.
ce:icn c(ccni:c:i. :i:Iem imLc|cn cc|cm c(ccni:c:i ccn |cin-|cin.
Iujucn Fs|ko|og| Industr| Orgon|sos| :enci(i. :cmc cenccn ycnc Ie(Ie(c
cc|cm mukccimch kcce eIik p:ikc|cci. yciIu unIuk ke:ejcIe(ccn umcI
mcnu:ic {tne we|| ce|ng c| nuncn ce|ng). Jcci cc|cm kcjicn-kcjicn ccn
(ekcmencc:inyc. F:ikc|cci lncu:I(i C(ccni:c:i hc(u: menempcIkcn hc(kcI
3

kemcnu:iccn :eLccci uku(cn Ie(Iincci. Lukcn ke:ejchIe(cccn incivicu ci
cc|cm c(ccni:c:i cIcu kemcjucn c(cccni:c:i :emcIc-mcIc.

$ejoroh Fs|ko|og| Industr|
Secc(c (e:mi l|mu F:ikc|cci |chi( pccc Ichun 187º. keIikc Wi|he|m
WuncI {1832 - 1º20) memLukc |cLc(cIu(ium pe(Icmc ycnc mempe|cjc(i
Iinckch |cku mcnu:ic ci Leipzic. Je(mcn. Ncmun jcuh :eLe|um iIu. Scc(cIe:
{470 - 3ºº SM) Ie|ch mempe|cjc(i IenIcnc inccIcn. Le|cjc(. pe(:ep:i. Iinckch
|cku cLnc(mc| ccn |cin :eLcccinyc.
Fene(cpcn p:ikc|cci umum ci incu:I(i :ucch mu|ci ci|ihcI pccc
pe(mu|ccn cLcc ke 20 c|eh Wc|Ie( Di|| SccII {1º01) cc|cm pe(ik|cncn. Ichun
1º03. Lukunyc Ihec(y cf /cve(Ii:inc me(upckcn Luku pe(Icmc ycnc
memLchc: p:ikc|cci cc|cm kciIcn cenccn c:pek cunic ke(jc.
Ichun 1º13. Ie(LiI Luku cc(i Hucc Muen:Ie(Le(c. p:ikc|cc Je(mcn
ycnc menccjc( ci unive(:iIc: Hc(vc(c. Ihe F:ychc|ccy cf lncu:I(ic|
Efficiency.
Fe(kemLcnccn ycnc pe:cI cimu|ci cc|cm cekcce 1º20. F(ece(ick
Win:|cw Icy|c(. pe|cpc( ce(ckcn :c|ent|||c ncncgenent mencc(i cc(c ycnc
pc|inc efi:ien unIuk me|ckukcn :ucIu peke(jccn. Hc| ini Le(kemLcnc menjcci
e(ccncmi. ke(ekcyc:ccn unIuk mcnu:ic {nuncn eng|nee||ng) cIcu p:ikc|cci
ke(ekcyc:ccn {eng|nee||ng c:vcnc|cg|).
Fccc Ichun 1º24 cimu|ci pene|iIicn ci HcwIhc(ne. l||inci: ci pcL(ik
We:Ie(n E|ecI(ic IenIcnc ckiLcI-ckiLcI ke(jc fi:ik cc(i |inckunccn ke(jc
Ie(hcccp efi:ien:i ke(jc. DiIemukcn Lchwc kcnci:i p:ikc:c:ic| ciIempcI ke(jc
:ecc(c pcIen:ic| mempunyci c(Ii ycnc |eLih penIinc cc(i kcnci:i ke(jc fi:ik.
8e(cc:c(kcn Iemucn-Iemucn p:ikc|cci ek:pe(imen. Le(kemLcnc pu|c
p:ikc|cci cife(en:ic| cIcu ci:eLuI jucc p:ikc|cci khu:u:. cenccn Ickchnyc
Wi||icm SIe(n. ycnc mene(LiIkcn Lukunyc ¨Die Diffe(enIie||e F:ichc|ccie¨ ycnc
mencu|c: :ecc(c :i:IemcIik Liccnc-Liccnc ccn meIcce cc(i p:ikc|cci khu:u:.
Kemucicn cc(i p:ikc|cci cife(en:ic| ini. Le(kemLcnc|ch p:ychcIechniek ycnc
kemucicn Ie(kenc| cenccn p:ikcmeI(i. ycnc mempe|cjc(i ccn mencuku(
cejc|c-cejc|c p:iki: ycnc khc: cc(i :e:ec(cnc. yciIu keunikcn cIcu pe(Lecccn
cnIc( mcnu:ic. /|cI-c|cI uku( ycnc cicunckcn unIuk kepe(|ucn Ie(:eLuI.
kemucicn cikenc| cenccn Ie: p:ikc|cci. Ie: p:ikc|cci pe(Icmc cikemLcnckcn
ci Fe(cnci: c|eh 8ineI ccn Simcn. Ie: ini kemucicn ci cccpIc:i ccn
4

cikemLcnckcn ci necc(c-necc(c |cin Di /me(ikc Se(ikcI cikenc| :eLccci
Ie(mcn-Me((i|| lnIe||icence Ie:I. Se|cin iIu cikenc| pu|c /(my /|phc Ie: ycnc
cicunckcn khu:u: cc|cm :e|ek:i IenIc(c ccn /(my 8eIc Ie:. khu:u: unIuk
me(ekc ycnc LuIc ck:c(c. Se|cnjuInyc Ie: p:ikc|cci Le(kemLcnc cenccn Ie:-
Ie: inIe|icen:i. Ie: kemcmpucn. Ie: kep(iLccicn ccn mincI ycnc Li:c
cicunckcn cc|cm :e|ek:i. LimLinccn. penyu|uhcn ccn (ehcLi|iIc:i. Se|cin iIu
jucc cicunckcn unIuk kepe(|ucn (cIc:i. pencemLcnccn kc(ie( :e(Ic
meninckcIkcn mcIivc:i ke(jc.
Dc|cm pe(kemLcnccnnyc. ccc ó pe(:pekIif / c|i(cn uIcmc ci cc|cm
l|mu F:ikc|cci yciIu : F:ikccincmik {18ºó). 8ehcvic(i:me {1º13). KccniIif {1º12).
Humcni:Iik {1º50). 8icF:ikc|cci {1880) ccn Sc:ic| 8uccyc {1880). Fe(:pekIif ini
muncu| kc(enc pe(Lecccn :ucuI pcnccnc cc|cm menje|c:kcn :ucIu
pe(mc:c|chcn.
Ferspekt|| do|om I|mu Fs|ko|og|
Fs|kod|nom|k
F:ikccincmik c(Iinyc ccc|ch jiwc ycnc ckIif. FemLchc:cn uIcmc F:ikccincmik
ciIujukcn kepccc c|cm Lcwch :ccc(/keIicck:ccc(cn/unccn:cicu:ne::.
Ickch uIcmc cc(i c|i(cn ini ccc|ch Sicmunc F(euc {185ó - 1º3º. 8eLe(cpc
Iec(i penIinc : cece|g. F:ikc:ek:uc|. LiLicc. lc-Ecc-Supe(ecc ccn Mekcni:me
Fe(Ichcncn Di(i
8ehov|or|sme
IiIik Iekcn c|i(cn ini ccc|ch p(c:e: Le|cjc(. ycnc cicefini:ikcn :eLccci
pe(uLchcn Iinckch |cku ycnc (e|cIif meneIcp. /|i(cn ini :cnccI Le(kemLcnc
ci cunic p:ikc|cci kc(enc |eLih i|mich. Fe(ccLccn lvcn Fcv|cv {184º - 1º3ó)
IenIcnc :Iimu|u: ccn (e:pcn menjcci pcncc:i Lcci pe(:pekIif cencv|c||:ne.
Kogn|t||/Gesto|t
KccniIif Le(c(Ii Le(piki(. hc| ini ccc kciIcnnyc cenccn pe(:ep:i.
pemecchcn mc:c|ch. Lchc:c ccn |cinnyc. /h|i F:ikc|cci KccniIif
Le(penccpcI Lchwc piki(cn iIu ckIif ccn ckcn :encnIic:c mencc(i mcknc.
/kc( Ge:Ic|I Ie(uIcmc penekcncn pccc pe(:ep:i ¨ke:e|u(uhcn. We(Ihemei(
{1880 - 1º43) Le(penccpcI Lchwc keIikc mcnu:ic mempe(:ep:ikcn :ucIu
cLyek mckc kiIc ckcn mencc|cmi pencc(uhnyc :ecc(c ke:e|u(uhcn
5

Humon|st|k
F:ikc|cci Humcni:Iik Le(kemLcnc pccc Ichun 1ºó0-cn ycnc menekcnkcn
kepccc : incivicu. pencc|cmcn ycnc ci:ccc(i ccn :ifcI cc:c( mcnu:ic. /h|i
Humcni:Iik incin menekuni mc:c|ch ke:ehcIcn menIc| cenccn :ecc|c cI(iLuI
pc:iIifnyc : keLchcciccn. ke:encnccn. kecemLi(ccn. keLcikcn. kc:ih :cycnc
ccn |cinnyc. Duc Iec(i ycnc Ie(kenc| cc|cm c|i(cn ini ccc|ch Hie(c(ki
KeLuIuhcn {Mc:|cw) ccn Kcn:ep Di(i {Cc(| Fccce(:).
8|o-Fs|ko|og|
SucIu ccLcnc i|mu F:ikc|cci ycnc mempe|cjc(i Iinckch |cku mcnu:ic
me|c|ui :eLccicn cncccIc IuLuh :epe(Ii :i:Iem :yc(cf ccn :i:Iem
encck(in/ke|enjc(. GeneIikc me(upckcn ccLcnc cc(i Lic-p:ikc|cci ncmun hc|
ini mc:ih menjcci pe(ceLcIcn ci kc|cnccn p:ikc|cc
$os|o| 8udovo
Iinckch |cku cipencc(uhi c|eh |inckunccn :c:ic| ccn Luccyc. 8uccyc
ccpcI cicefini:ikcn :eLccci Lccicn |inckunccn ycnc me(upckcn LucIcn
mcnu:ic. 8uccyc ccpcI ciLcci 2 |cmLcI Le(uLch {kcn:e(vcIif/I(cci:icnc|i:)
ccn cepcI Le(uLch {|iLe(c|/mcce(n). FcncIi:me Ie(hcccp Luccyc Ie(IenIu
ci:eLuI :eLccci etnc:ent||:.
Fs|ko|og| Industr| Don Orgon|sos| D| Indones|o.
F:ikc|cci incu:I(i ccn c(ccni:c:i me(upckcn hc:i| pe(kemLcnccn cc(i
p:ikc|cci umum. p:ikc|cci ek:pe(imen ccn p:ikc|cci khu:u:. Sekc(cnc. pe(i|cku
mcnu:ic cc|cm kciIcn cenccn kecicIcn incu:I(i ccn c(ccni:c:i cipe|cjc(i
unIuk pencemLcnccn Iec(i. cIu(cn ccn p(in:ip p:ikc|cci Lc(u ycnc Le(|cku
umum cc|cm |inckup incu:I(i ccn c(ccni:c:i.
/|cI unIuk mencuku( pe(Lecccn mcnu:ic jucc IeIcp cikemLcnckcn
unIuk meninckcIkcn kece(mcIcn cc|cm me|ck:cnckcn peme(ik:ccn
p:ikc|cci: unIuk Iujucn :e|ek:i. penempcIcn. pencenc|cn ci(i. penyu|uhcn
keju(ucn ccn pencemLcnccn kc(ie(. Seci Ie(cpcn cc(i p:ikc|cci incu:I(i ccn
c(ccni:c:i menimLu|kcn Icf:i(cn Lchwc p:ikc|cci Le(mcnfccI Lcci
mcncjemen. Lcci pimpincn ccn pemi|ik pe(u:chccn ccn me(ucikcn pc(c
Ienccc ke(jc ccn kcn:umen.
F:ikc|cci incu:I(i ccn c(ccni:c:i me(upckcn :ucIu ke:e|u(uhcn
penceIchucn {c cccv c| kncw|ecge) ycnc Le(i:i fckIc. cIu(cn ccn p(in:ip-
p(in:ip IenIcnc pe(i|cku mcnu:ic pccc peke(jccn. FenceIchucn ini ccpcI
6

ci:c|ch cunckcn :ehinccc ccpcI memLchcyckcn ccn me(ucikcn pihck
ycnc Ie(|iLcI. Fenccunccn penceIchucn p:ikc|cci incu:I(i ccn c(ccni:c:i
hc(u: ciIujukcn unIuk kepenIinccn ccn kemcnfccIcn pihck-pihck ycnc
Ie(|iLcI. Lcik pe(u:chccn :eLccci c(ccni:c:i mcupun kc(ycwcnnyc.
F:ikc|cci incu:I(i ccn c(ccni:c:i ccc|ch i|mu ycnc mempe|cjc(i pe(i|cku
mcnu:ic:
- cc|cm pe(cnnyc :eLccci Ienccc ke(jc ccn :eLccci kcn:umen
- Lcik :ecc(c pe(c(cnccn mcupun :ecc(c ke|cmpck. cenccn mck:uc ccc(
Iemucnnyc ccpcI ciIe(cpkcn cc|cm incu:I(i ccn c(ccni:c:i unIuk
kepenIinccn ccn kemcnfccIcn mcnu:icnyc ccn c(ccni:c:inyc.

Fs|ko|og| Industr| Don Orgon|sos| $ebogo| I|mu
SeLccci i|mu p:ikc|cci incu:I(i ccn c(ccni:c:i mc:ih mene(cpkcn
Iemucn-Iemucn cc(i p:ikc|cci pccc umumnyc :e(Ic Iemucn p:ikc|cci cc|cm
incu:I(i pccc khu:u:nyc ke cc|cm incu:I(i ccn c(ccni:c:i. l|mu ini mempe|cjc(i
mencenci pe(i|cku mcnu:ic cc|cm :ecc|c kecicIcn. pe(i|cku mcnu:ic cc|cm
pe(cncnnyc :eLccci peke(jc. ccn pe(i|cku mcnu:ic :eLccci incivicu ccn
:eLccci cncccIc ke|cmpck.
F:ikc|cci incu:I(i ccn c(ccni:c:i mempe|cjc(i pe(i|cku mcnu:ic yciIu
mempe|cjc(i :ecc|c kecicIcn ycnc ci|ckukcn c|eh mcnu:ic. Lcik ycnc :ecc(c
|cnc:unc ccpcI cicmcIi :epe(Ii Le(jc|cn. me|cmpcI. menu|i:. cucuk.
Le(Licc(c ccn :eLcccinyc mcupun ycnc Iicck ccpcI cicmcIi :ecc(c
|cnc:unc :epe(Ii Le(iki(. pe(c:ccn. mcIivc:i ccn :eLcccinyc. l|mu ini hcnyc
mencnccni hinccc menccnc|i:i: fckIc ycnc ccpcI cicmcIi. ycnc ccpcI
ci|ihcI. cicencc(. ci(cLc. ciuku( ccn ci|cpc(kcn. ycnc :emucnyc me(upckcn
pe(i|cku ycnc Ie(Lukc. Fe(i|cku ycncIe(IuIup ci:impu|kcn me|c|ui unckcpcn
ke cc|cm pe(i|cku ycnc Ie(Lukc me|c|ui cL:e(vc:i cc(i pe(i|cku Ie(Lukc kiIc
kiIc mencf:i(kcn IenIcnc pe(i|cku ycnc Ie(IuIup.
Fe(i|cku mcnu:ic cipe|cjc(i cc|cm pe(cnnyc :eLccci Ienccc ke(jc
ccn :eLccci kcn:umen. Mcnu:ic cipe|cjc(i cc|cm inIe(ck:i cenccn
peke(jccnnyc.. cenccn |inckunccn fi:ik ccn |inckunccn p:ikc-:c:ic|nyc ci
peke(jccnnyc. SeLccci Ienccc ke(jc mcnu:ic menjcci cncccIc c(ccni:c:i
incu:I(i ccn :eLccci kcn:umen ic menjcci penccunc cc(i p(ccuk cIcu jc:c
cc(i c(ccni:c:i pe(u:chccn.
7

pe(i|cku mcnu:ic cipe|cjc(i :ecc(c pe(c(cnccn ccn :ecc(c ke|cmpck
cc|cm c(ccni:c:i ccc uniI ke(jc. UniI ke(jc ycnc Le:c( Ie(ci(i cc(i LeLe(cpc
uni ke(jc ycnc |eLih keci| ccn :eIicp uniI Ie(ci(i cc(i uniI ke(jc ycnc |eLih keci|
|cci. Dc|cm huLunccn ini cipe|cjc(i Lcccimcnc ccmpck :cIu ke|cmpck cIcu
uniI ke(jc Ie(hcccp pe(i|cku :ec(cnc Ienccc ke(jc ccn :eLc|iknyc. Jucc
cipe|cjc(i :ejcuh mcnc :I(ukIu(. pc|c ccn jeni: c(ccni:c:i mempencc(uhi
Ienccc ke(jcnyc. Ie(hcccp ke|cmpck Ienccc ke(jc ccn Ie(hcccp :ec(cnc
Ienccc ke(jc.
IenIcnc kcn:umen ccpcI Le(LenIuk. :ejcuh mcnc ccc (eck:i ycnc
:cmc cc(i ke|cmpck kcn:umen cenccn ci(i Ie(IenIu Ie(hcccp ik|cn :ucIu
p(ccuk. 8e(cc:c(kcn Iemucn cikemLcnckcn Iec(i cIu(cn cIcu hukum ccn
p(in:ip-p(in:ip ycnc ccpcI ciIe(cpkcn kemLc|i kecc|cm kecicIcn2 incu:I(i
ccn c(ccni:c:i unIuk kepenIinccn Ienccc ke(jc. kcn:umen ccn c(ccni:c:inyc
ccn unIuk mencuji keIepcIcnnyc. CcnIchnyc ciIemukcn ccIc IenIcnc
pe(Lecccn mcncce( ycnc Le(hc:i| ccn ycnc Iicck.
Wowoson Fs|ko|og| Industr| Don Orgon|sos|
F:ikc|cci incu:I(i ccn c(ccni:c:i Le(huLunccn cenccn incu:I(i ccn
c(ccni:c:i. Semu|c i|mu ini cincmckcn p:ikc|cci incu:I(i ycnc func:i uIcmcnyc
mene(cpkcn i|mu p:ikc|cci ci incu:I(i. Denccn Le(kemLcncnyc p:ikc|cci
incu:I(i menjcci i|mu ycnc mcnci(i mckc ncmcnyc menjcci p:ikc|cci incu:I(i
ccn {p:ikc|cci) c(ccni:c:i. C(ccni:c:i cimck:uckcn ccc|ch c(ccni:c:i fc(mc|
ycnc mencckup c(ccni:c:i ycnc mencc(i keunIunccn. memp(ccuk:i Lc(cnc
cIcu jc:c. ccn c(ccni:c:i ycnc Iujucn uIcmcnyc Lukcn mencc(i keunIunccn.
C(ccni:c:i ccpcI cipcnccnc :eLccc:i :ucIu :i:Iem ycnc Ie(Lukc.
Kc:I ccn Fc:enzweic {1º74) cc|cm Muncncc( {2001) mencc(Iikcn
:i:Iem :eLccci :ucIu ke:cIucn ke:e|u(uhcn ycnc Ie(c(ccni:c:i.ycnc Ie(ci(i cc(i
cuc cIcu |eLih Lccicn. kcmpcnen cIcu :uL:i:Iem. ycnc :c|inc Ie(ccnIunc.
ycnc cipi:chkcn cc(i :up(c:i:Iem :eLccci |inckunccnnyc c|eh LcIc:-LcIc:
ycnc ccpcI ciIemukenc|i.
Si:Iem Le(inIe(ck:i cenccn :i:Iem |cinnyc ccn memLenIuk :ucIu :up(c:i:Iem.
Si:Iem jucc Ie(ci(i cc(i cuc cIcu |eLih :uL:i:Iem ycnc :c|inc Le(inIe(ck:i. ccn
mc:inc-mc:inc :uL:i:Iem Ie(ci(i cc(i :i:Iem ycnc |eLih keci| |cci ycnc :c|inc
Le(inIe(ck:i ccn :eIe(u:nyc. cenccn cemikicn ccpcI ciIemukcn :ucIu IcIc
IinckcI cc(i :i:Iem.
C(ccni:c:i :eLccci :ucIu :i:Iem Ie(ci(i cc(i :uL:i:Iem. yciIu :cIucn
ke(jc ycnc ycnc Le:c( :epe(Ii cevi:i cIcu u(u:cn. ScIucn ke(jc ycnc Le:c( ini
8

Ie(ci(i cc(i :cIucn-:cIucn ke(jc ycnc |eLih keci| {:uL-:uL:i:Iem) :epe(Ii Lccicn.
SeIicp Lccicn Ie(ci(i cc(i :cIucn ke(jc ycnc |eLih keci| |cci. mi:c|nyc :ek:i ccn
:cIucn ke(jc ycnc Ie(keci| ic|ch Ienccc ke(jc. C(ccni:c:i incu:I(i Le(inIe(ck:i
cenccn :i:Iem |cin ccn mc:inc-mc:inc uniI memLe(i ccmpck ycnc Ie(:enci(i
pccc |inckunccnnyc.
Denccn cemikicn :eIicp :i:Iem memLucI c(ccni:c:i incu:I(i :eLccci
:i:Iem Le(ccc cc|cm p(c:e: pe(Iukc(cn ycnc :cmLunc menycmLunc
cenccn |inckunccnnyc. yciIu :i:Iem Ie(Lukc. Si:Iem jucc mempunyci LcIc:
ycnc ccpcI Le(upc fi:ik mcupun ncn-fi:ik. 8cIc: :i:Iem mempunyci func:i
:e|ek:i ccn pencencc|icn Ie(hcccp mcccm ccn Lcnycknyc c(u: cc(i
mc:ukcn ccn ke|uc(cn. CLyek ycnc cipe|cjc(i c|eh p:ikc|cc incu:I(i ccn
c(ccni:c:i ccc|ch pe(i|cku mcnu:ic :eLccci Ienccc ke(jc ccn :eLccci
kcn:umen cc|cm kciIcn:
Dc|cm kciIcn Func:i LcIc: :i:Iem yciIu pe(i|cku :ecc(c pe(c(cnccn cIcu
:ecc(c ke|cmpck cikcji :eLccci:
- pe|cmc(/cc|cn Ienccc ke(jc
- Ienccc ke(jc ycnc Ie(|iLcI cc|cm p(c:e: pencccccn ccn :e|ek:i Ienccc
ke(jc
- Ienccc ke(jc ycnc Ie(|iLcI cc|cm p(c:e: pencencc|icn muIu. pemc:c(cn
ccn penjuc|cn
- kcn:umen. pe(c(cnccn mcupun pe(u:chccn
Dc|cm kciIcnnyc cenccn p(c:e: p(ccuk:i cc|cm :i:Iem. pe(i|cku mcnu:ic
cikcji :eLccci:
- Ienccc ke(jc pe|ck:cnc ycnc cike|c|c
- Ienccc ke(jc pence|c|c {mcncce().
Se|ek:i pe|cIihcn ccn pencemLcnccn :c:c(cnnyc ccc( Ienccc ke(jc
ci:e:ucikcn cenccn IunIuIcn |inckunccn ke(jcnyc. Kcnci:i ke(jc ccn p:ikc|cci
ke(ekcyc:ccn Le(u:chc unIuk menye:ucikcn |inckunccn ke(jc fi:ik. me:in.
pe(c|cIcn ccn |inckunccn ke(jc p:ikc|cci: cenccn keIe(LcIc:cn kemcmpucn
pc(c Ienccc ke(jcnyc. ccc( me(ekc ccpcI Leke(jc effi:ien. HuLunccn cnIc(
Ienccc: ke(jc ccpcI :cjc menimLu|kcn Le(Lccci mc:c|ch ccn kcnf|ik ycnc
meme(|ukcn penye|e:cicn. FencemLcnccn c(ccni:c:i cenccn Le(Lccci jeni:
Ieknik inIe(ven:i ccpcI menccIc:i Le(Lccci mc:c|ch :ehinccc c(ccni:c:i
ccpcI meninckcIkcn efi:ien:i. ccn efekIiviIc:nyc
9


Ko|ton Dengon Fer||oku Keorgon|sos|on (Orgon|zof|ono| 8ehov|or)
F:ikc|cci incu:I(i ccn c(ccni:c:i :cnccI e(cI huLunccnnyc cenccn
pe(i|cku kec(ccni:c:icn. ke:cmccn cc|cm Liccnc kcjicn Ie(|eIck pccc
mempe|cjc(i pe(i|cku mcnu:ic:
/. cc|cm pe(cnnyc :eLccci Ienccc ke(jc ccn :eLccci kcn:umen
8. Lcik :ecc(c pe(c(cnccn mcupun :ecc(c ke|cmpck.
unIuk kepenIinccn ccn kemcnfccIcn mcnu:icnyc ccn c(ccni:c:inyc.
SeLccci Ienccc ke(jc pe(i|cku cipe|cjc(i unIuk menemukenc|i
kep(iLccicn. kecckcpcn. keI(cmpi|cn. :ikcp ccn ci(i-ci(i kep(iLccicn:
1. cenccn Iujucn khu:u: unIuk :e|ek:i ccn penempcIcn. unIuk pe|cIihcn
ccn pencemLcnccn
2. cc|cm inIe(ck:i cenccn |inckunccn fi:iknyc
3. cc|cm inIe(ck:i cenccn |inckunccn :c:ic|nyc.
Dimcnc p:ikc|cci incu:I(i cc|cm kciIcnnyc cenccn pe(i|cku c(ccni:c:i |eLih
Le(fcku: pccc inIe(ck:i cenccn |inckunccn :c:ic|nyc.

Ko|tonnvo Dengon Monoger $umber Dovo Monus|o
Di inccne:ic :eLccicn Le:c( c(cnc mencc|cmi ke:u|iIcn cc|cm
memLecckcn cnIc(c p:ikc|cci incu:I(i ccn c(ccni:c:i ccn mcncjemen
:umLe( ccyc mcnu:ic cikc(enckcn cLyek :Iucinyc :cmc yciIu mcnu:ic
:eLccci Ienccc ke(jc. Fe(Lecccn uIcmc Ie(|eIck pccc kcnci:i cimcnc
mcnu:ic :eLccci Ienccc ke(jc cipe|cjc(i. Fccc mcncjcmen :umLe( ccyc
mcnu:ic. pe(i|cku mcnu:ic cipe|cjc(i cc|cm kciIcnnyc cenccn mcncjemen
ccn Lcccimcnc mcnu:ic :eLccci Ienccc ke(jc ccpcI cike|c|c :ecc(c efekIif
menjcci pckck Lchc:cn. F:ikc|cci lncu:I(i ccn c(ccni:c:i. pe(i|cku Ienccc
ke(jc cipe|cjc(i unIuk ccpcI mencenc|i kep(iLccicn Ienccc ke(jc :ehinccc
ccpcI cicunckcn unIuk p(c:e: :e|ek:i. penempcIcn. p(c:e: pe|cIihcn ccn
pencemLcnccn. Se|cin iIu cipe|cjc(i inIe(ck:i Ienccc ke(jc cenccn
|inckunccn fi:ik ccn :c:ic|.

1O

2
FENGELOLAAN $DM DI DbNIA INDb$IkI

/cc empcI p(in:ip pence|c|ccn SDM cc(i Icy|c(. yciIu
1. l|mich {ccc cc:c( Iec(iIi:)
2. Se|ek:i ccn Fe|cIihcn ycnc Le(Icnccunc jcwcL
3. Ke(jc ke|cmpck cicIc: incivicuc|
4. FemLccicn ccn FenempcIcn ke(jc ycnc IepcI. Lcci Kc(ycwcn ccn
C(ccni:c:i
F(c:e: :e|ek:i cc|cm :ucIu c(ccni:c:i :ecc(c :inckcI ccpcI ciccmLc(kcn
:eLccci Le(ikuI :


GcmLc( 1.l|u:I(c:i p(c:e: :e|ek:i ccn penempcIcn Iencc ke(jc
$e|eks|
C(ccni:c:i incu:I(i :ecc(c Ie(u: mene(u: Le(ccc cc|cm :ucIu p(c:e:
inIe(ck:i. SeLccci :ucIu :i:Iem c(ccni:c:i incu:I(i cipencc(uhi :i:Iem |cin ycnc
ci:c(inc c|eh LcIc: cIcu kcmpcnen (enIcnc LcIc: cc(i :i:Iem. Kcmpcnen
(enIcnc LcIc: ini ccpcI ciIemukcn pccc IinckcI-IinckcI mcncjemen puncck.
mccyc. ccn Lcwch cc|cm huLunccnnyc cenccn |inckunccnnyc cIcu
cenccn :i:Iem |cin. Se|ek:i ccn penempcIcn me(upckcn func:i LcIc: cIcu
11

func:i kcmpcnen (enIcnc LcIc: cc(i :i:Iem. Sc:c(cn :e|ek:i ccc|ch :ucIu
(ekcmencc:i cIcu :ucIu kepuIu:cn mene(imc cIcu menc|ck :ec(cnc cc|cn
Le(cc:c( cucccn IenIcnc kemunckincn-kemunckincn keLe(hc:i|cn cc(i
cc|cn. Sc:c(cn penempcIcn ccc|ch (ekcmencc:i unIuk menci:I(iLu:ikcn
cc|cn pccc peke(jccn ycnc Le(Lecc-Lecc Le(cc:c( cucccn IenIcnc
kemunckincn keLe(hc:i|cn cc(i cc|cn.
Sc:c(cn :e|ek:i me(ekcmencc:ikcn / memuIu:kcn unIuk mene(imc /
menc|ck :ec(cnc cc|cn unIuk peke(jccn Ie(IenIu. Le(cc:c(kcn :ucIu cucccn
IenIcnc kemunckincn kemunckincn 'ce(iIc :uk:e:´ ycnc ccpcI ciLe(ikcn c|eh
cc|cn peke(jc ycnc Le(:cnckuIcn.
Iucc: :e|ek:i meni|ci :eLcnyck munckin cc|cn unIuk memi|ih
:e:ec(cnc/:ejum|ch c(cnc ycnc pc|inc memenuhi pe(:yc(cIcn peke(jccn
ycnc Ie|ch ciIeIcpkcn :emu|c. GcmLc( Le(ikuI mencccmLc(kcn kine(jc
kc(ycwcn ycnc ccpcI cikcIecc(ikcn pccc kc(ycncn cenccn kine(jc (cIc-
(cIc ccn kc(ycwcn cenccn p(e:Ic:i |uc( Lic:c.

|cccctc:| cc|| /uncncc| 200!
GcmLc( 2.l|u:I(c:i Fe(:enIc:e kc(ycwcn Le(cc:c(kcn kine(jcnyc

Dc(i i|u:I(c:i pccc ccmLc( 2. Ie(|ihcI Lchwc ccc pe(Lecccn incivicu
cimcnc :ecc(c umum Le(cc:c(kcn ci:I(iLu:i nc(mc|. 507 cc(i pcpu|c:i
me(upckcn kc(ycwcn cenccn kine(jc (cIc-(cIc. kine(jc me(ekc ycnc
kemucicn cicunckcn :eLccci :Icncc( Lcci ke|cmpcknyc. Dcmpcknyc Lcci
12

ycnc Iincci kine(jcnyc. :Icncc( p(e:Ic:i Ie(|c|u mucch ciccpci. :eLc|iknyc.
Lcci ycnc (encch kine(jcnyc. :Icncc( p(e:Ic:i Ie(|c|u :u|iI ciccpci.
Jikc cIc:cn meni|ci pc(c peke(jcnyc cenccn Lcik. mckc Ienccc
ke(jc cenccn kine(jc Iincci ckcn menccpcI p(cmc:i. Seccnckcn me(ekc
ycnc memi|iki kine(jc (encch. ckcn cimuIc:i ke IempcI ke(jc ycnc |eLih
mucch. ciLe(henIikcn cIcu mencuncu(kcn ci(i.
Fe(mc:c|chcn pe(Lecccn incivicuc| :e(inc cikciIkcn cenccn cence(.
keLuccyccn. pencicikcn. u:ic. Lcnc:c. :uku Lcnc:c. ckcn IeIcpi cc|cm
:e|ek:i Iicck|ch penIinc ccn (e|evcn unIuk menceIchui ccc Iiccknyc
pe(Lecccn cnIc(c ke|cmpck-ke|cmpck Ie(:eLuI. kc(enc ycnc ciIe|iIi ccc|ch
:ejcuh mcnc incivicu/:e:ec(cnc memi|iki ci(i-ci(i p(iLcci ycnc me(upckcn
pe(:yc(cIcn ycnc hc(u: cipenuhi c|eh :ucIu peke(jccn.
Fe(|u cipe(hcIikcn. jikc :ucIu Ie:I :ecc(c :i:IemcIi: ccn Ie(u: mene(u:
memLe(ikcn keunIunccn / ke(ucicn kepccc :cIu ke|cmpck :cjc. mckc Ie:I /
c|cI uku( Ie(:eLuI Iicck ccpcI cicncccp cL:ch cIcu vc|ic ccn Iicck Lc|eh
cicunckcn |cci.
$troteg| $e|eks|
MeIcce ycnc cicunckcn cc|cm :e|ek:i ccn peni|cicn :ecc(c cc(i:
Le:c(nyc ccc 2 mcccm. yciIu:
1. MeIcce mekcnikc|:
2. MeIcce k|inikc|.

Metode Mekon|ko|
Me(upckcn meIccc pencumpu|cn ccIc Le(cc:c(kcn peccmcn-
peccmcn. pe(cIu(cn-pe(cIu(cn ccn p(c:ecu( ycnc Ie|ch ciIeIcpkcn :emu|c.
Fencc|chcn ccIc ci|ck:cnckcn Le(cc:c(kcn pe(cIu(cn cIcu pencc|chcn
ccIc ccpcI ci|ckukcn c|eh Sc(jcnc ncnp:ikc|cci.
Metode K||n|ko|
Me(upckcn meIccc pencumpu|cn ccIc cenccn cc(c ycnc |enIu(
{f|ek:iLe|). yciIu mcccm ccIc ycnc cikumpu|kcn cc(i :e:ec(cnc Le(Lecc
cenccn ccIc ycnc cikumpu|kcn c|eh c(cnc |cin {Ie(ccnIunc p:ikc|cc) ycnc
mencumpu|kcn ccIc Ie(:eLuI. Fencc|chcn ccIc ci|ck:cnckcn c|eh :ec(cnc
ch|i {Sc(jcnc p:ikc|cci) mencinccI cipe(|ukcn kcmpeIen:i unIuk ccpcI
mempe(hcIikcn pc|c pe(i|cku cc|cn ci:e:ucikcn cenccn IunIuIcn peke(jccn.
13

8e(cc:c( cuc mcccm meIcce :e|ek:i ccn pe(cmc|cn Ie(:eLuI. CcmpLe||.
DunneIIe. Lcw|e(. Weich {1º70) memLchc: encm mcccm :I(cIeci :e|ek:i
cIcu :I(cIeci pe(cmc|cn. yciIu:
1. lnIe(p(eIc:i p(cfi|.
2. SI(cIeci mu(ni.
3. K|inikc| mu(ni.
4. Fenchc(kcIcn pe(i|cku {cencv|c| |ct|ng).
5. GcLunccn k|inikc|.
ó. GcLunccn mekcnikc|.
Kemucicn keencm :I(cIeci Ie(:eLuI c|eh Scwye( ciIe|iIi ccn Le(cc:c( hc:i|
pene|iIicnnyc c|eh CcmpLe|| ccn kcwcn-kcwcn {1º70). ci:u:un peninckcIcn
{|cngk|ng). Ke:impu|cnnyc ccc|ch Lchwc cc(c pencc|chcn ccIc :ecc(c
mekcnikc| |eLih Lcik cc(ipccc cc(c pencc|chcn ccIc :ecc(c k|inikc| Icnpc
mempe(hcIikcn cc(c ycnc cicunckcn cc|cm pencumpu|cn ccIcnyc.
KeunIunccn meIcce :IcIi:Iikc| ccc|ch cc|cm hc| kece(mcIcnnyc me(cmc|
ccn pc(c pe(cmc| ccpcI Le|cjc( me|c|ui pencc|cmcn :eccnc keunIunccn
meIcce k|inikc| ccc|ch Lchwc :eIicp c(cnc ccpcI ciIcnccni :ecc(c |eLih
:e:uci :e(Ic ccpcI cipe(hcIikcn kcnci:i-kcnci:inyc ycnc unik ccn khu:u:.
Ke|emchcnnyc ccc|ch pccc vc|iciIc: hc:i| cc(i meIcce :IcIi:Iik ycnc
menccLcikcn pe(uLchcn cincmi: peke(jccn ccn kcnci:i c(ccni:c:i :e(Ic
cc|cm pe(cmc|cn :ecc(c incivicuc|. Fccc meIcce k|inik. keIicckIepcIcn
pe(cmc|cn. cipencc(uhi c|eh :uLjekIiviIc: cc(i ch|i {p:ikc|cc) ycnc
me|ckukcn pe(cmc|cn.
Sc|ch :cIu cc(c cIcu upcyc ccc( peme(ik:ccn p:ikc|cci: cc|cm kecicIcn
:e|ek:i ccpcI cicncc|kcn ke:chihcn pe(cmc|cnnyc. ccc|ch cenccn mcce|
{pene|iIicn) :e|ek:i I(cci:icnc|. Mcce| :e|ek:i I(cci:icnc| ini :ecc(c cc(i: Le:c(
me|ipuIi |cnckch-|cnckch:
1. /nc|i:i: peke(jccn.
2. FenenIucn pe(cmc|-pe(cmc| ccn c|cI uku(nyc.
3. FenenIucn k(iIe(ic keLe(hc:i|cn ccn c|cI-c|cI uku(nyc.
4. Ke:chihcn pe(cmc|cn {F|ec|ct|ve Vc||c|tv).
5. Ke:chihcn :i|cnc {|c:: Vc||c|tv).
ó. Fekcmencc:i unIuk :e|ek:i.

14


Fenccunccn mcce| ini Ie(nycIc :u|iI cicunckcn. mencinccI Lchwc:
1. SeLccci :i:Iem Ie(Lukc c(ccni:c:i incu:I(i :e|c|u cipencc(uhi c|eh
pe(uLchcn ci :ekiIc(nyc. :ehinccc peke(jccn mencc|cmi pe(uLchcn
pu|c. /kiLcInyc Ie(jcci pe(uLchcn pu|c pccc pemeccnc peke(jccn.
SehuLunccn cenccn iIu pe(:yc(cIcn cIcu ci(i-ci(i ycnc cipe(|ukcn Lcci
cc|cn Ienccc ke(jc jucc Le(uLch.
2. 8e(huLunccn cenccn pcpu|c:i pe|cmc( ycnc :e|c|u Le(uLch mencikuIi
pe(uLchcn mc:yc(ckcI. mckc unIuk peke(jccn ycnc :cmc. cc|cn Ienccc
ke(jcnyc ckcn Le(Lecc cenccn mc:c :eLe|umnyc.
3. /|cI uku( ycnc cic:um:ikcn ccpcI ciIe(cpkcn pccc :emuc c(cnc ycnc
me|cmc( peke(jccn ycnc :cmc. Iicck|ch Lenc(. Dc|cm p(c:e: :e|ek:i.
cnIc(c Ie: pe(cmc|cn ccn Ie: k(iIe(ic kc(e|c:inyc Iicck ckcn pe(nch
:cmc: c(Iinyc cnIc(c kecuc Ie: Ie(:eLuI mempunyci kemunckincn
keIepcIcn pc:iIif ccn neccIif cIcu keIicckIepcIcn pc:iIif ccn neccIif.
SehuLunccn cenccn ke:u|iIcn menccunckcn mcce| :e|ek:i I(cci:icnc| mckc
cicunckcn mcce| |cin Ie(mc:uk ci lnccne:ic. Le(ikuI ini:
c. Me|ckukcn cnc|i:i: peke(jccn unIuk menenIukcn ci(i-ci(i p(iLcci cIcu
k(iIe(ic ycnc ciLuIuhkcn cc(i pc(c cc|cn Ienccc ke(jc.
L. Kemucicn ciIeIcpkcn c|cI uku(/Ie: p:ikc|cci: ycnc ckcn cicunckcn
unIuk kepe(|ucn :e|ek:i.
c. Feme(ik:ccn p:ikc|cci: ci|ckukcn cc|cm 3 Ichcp. yciIu :ecc(c k|c:ikc|.
:ecc(c pe(c(cnccn cIcu wcwcncc(c. ckhi(nyc ciLucI |cpc(cn hc:i|
peme(ik:ccn ycnc Le(LenIuk u(cicn {ccmLc(cn) IenIcnc kep(iLccicn
cc|cn :e(Ic :c(cn-:c(cn ccpcI ciIe(imc cIcu Iiccknyc cc|cn.

Or|entos| Fe|ot|hon
Fe|cIihcn ccc|ch p(c:e: pencicikcn jcnckc pencek ycnc menccunckcn
p(c:ecu( :i:IemcIi: ccn Ie(c(ccni:c:i. :eccnckcn pencemLcnccn ccc|ch
p(c:e: pencicikcn jcnckc pcnjcnc ycnc menccunckcn p(c:ecu( :i:IemcIi:
ccn Ie(c(ccni:c:i. Fe|cIihcn cipe(unIukkcn Ienccc ncnmcncje(ic|. ccn
pencemLcnccn unIuk Ienccc mcncje(ic|. Iujucn pe|cIihcn ccn
pencemLcnccn yciIu:
15

c. meninckcIkcn p(ccukIiviIc:.
L. meninckcIkcn muIu.
c. meninckcIkcn keIeIcpcn cc|cm pe(enccnccn :umLe( ccyc
mcnu:ic.
c. meninckcIkcn :emcnccI ke(jc.
e. menc(ik ccn menchcn Ienccc ke(jc ycnc Lcik.
f. menjccc ke:ehcIcn ccn ke:e|cmcIcn ke(jc.
c. menchincc(i keu:cnccn.
h. menunjcnc pe(IumLuhcn p(iLcci.

Fr|ns|p-pr|ns|p Fembe|ojoron
Dc|cm p(cc(cm pe|cIihcn ccn pencemLcnccn Ie(jcci p(c:e:
pemLe|cjc(cn. Fccc p(cc(cm pe|cIihcn keIe(cmpi|cn Ieknik. pe|cIihcn
penye|e:cicn. ccn pencemLcnccn ek:ekuIif Ie(jcci p(c:e: pemLe|cjc(cn
c:c:icIif. :e|ekIif. pemLecccn pencince(ccn. peme(c|ehcn keIe(cmpi|cn.
pemchcmcn ccn in:ichI. :e(Ic pe(uLchcn :ikcp unIuk me|cncc(kcn p(c:e:
Le|cjc( ccc LeLe(cpc cIu(cn mcin ycnc menycnckuI:
c. cIu(cn-cIu(cn pemLenIukcn c:c:ic:i: hc|-hc| ycnc memLenIuk
pemLe|cjc(cn :e|ekIif:
L. penceIchucn pemLecccn pencince(ccn:
c. hc|-hc| ycnc memLcnIu cipe(c|ehnyc keIe(cmpi|cn:
c. pe(cnc:cnccn pemchcmcn.
e. pencuLchcn :ikcp
Fenyu:uncn p(cc(cm pe|cIihcn ccn pencemLcnccn Ie(ci(i cc(i
LeLe(cpc Ichcp yciIu:
c. lcenIifikc:i keLuIuhcn pe|cIihcn cIcu :Iuci peke(jccn me|c|ui
icenIifikc:i ini ckcn cipe(c|eh ccIc IenIcnc penceIchucn
keIe(cmpi|cn. ccn :ikcp ycnc pe(|u cicjc(kcn.
L. FeneIcpcn :c:c(cn-:c:c(cn pe|cIihcn cIcu pencemLcnccn ycnc
ciLecckcn cIc: :c:c(cn umum ccn :c:c(cn khu:u:. Sc:c(cn
khu:u: ciLecckcn cIc: :c:c(cn ke:e|u(uhcn pe|cIihcn ccn :c:c(cn
:uLjek pemLchc:cn cIcu pe|cIihcn.
c. FeneIcpcn k(iIe(ic keLe(hc:i|cn cenccn c|cI-c|cI uku(nyc.
16

FeneIcpcn meIcce-meIcce pe|cIihcn cIcu pencemLcnccn. 8cnyck
cicunckcn meIcce pe|cIihcn ci ke|c: ycnc Ie(ci(i cc(i:
c. Ku|ich
L. Kcnfe(en:i cIcu ci:ku:i ke|cmpck
c. SIuci kc:u:
c. Le(mcin pe(cn {|c|e c|cv|ng)
e. F|cg|cnnec |n:t|uct|cn:
f. Simu|c:i.
c. Fe(ccLccn ccn (evi:i. cenccn Iujucn unIuk mencicenIifikc:i
ke|emchcn-ke|emchcn ycnc mc:ih ccc. Fe(Lcikcn-pe(Lcikcn
ci|ckukcn pccc hc|-hc| ycnc pe(|u. unIuk mencccckcn efekIiviIc:
pe|cIihcn ccn menekcn Licyc :ecpIimc| munckin.
h. lmp|emenIc:i ccn Evc|uc:i. Ichcp ini me(upckcn Ichcp pe|ck:cnccn
pckeI pe|cIihcn ycnc cikehenccki
Ieor| Fembe|ojoron
/cc cuc Iec(i pemLe|cjc(cn yciIu Iec(i kcnekIiviIc: ccn Iec(i kccniIif.
Iec(i kcnekIiviIc: cicc:c(kcn pccc c:c:ic:i cnIc(c (cnc:cnc & jcwcLcn
{:t|nu|u:-|e:ccn:e:). Seccnckcn Iec(i kccniIif mencckup p(c:e: penyccc(cn
pemchcmcn {|n:|gnt) ccn kccniIif {pencenc|cn). ccn menccncccp Lchwc
pe(i|cku mcnu:ic Iicck Li:c hcnyc cicc:c(kcn pccc (cnc:cnc-jcwcL
{:Iimu|u:-(e:pcn:e:).
Iec(i kcnekIiviIc: mencccmLc(kcn Lchwc pccc p(c:e:
pemLe|cjc(cn. pe(i|cku-pe(i|cku Ie(IenIu ycnc mu|c-mu|c cihc:i|kcn :ecc(c
ccck cipe(kucI me|c|ui LeLe(cpc kc|i pencukuhcn kemLc|i :ehinccc :e(inc
Ie(jcci. /cc 4 mcccm pencukuhcn kemLc|i {|e|n|c|cenent) ycnc ci:eLuI
ccnt|ngenc|e: c| |e|n|c|cenent ycnc cicunckcn unIuk mempe(kucI pe(i|cku
Ie(IenIu ccn mempe(|emch pe(i|cku |cin {Mi||e( cc|cm Muncncc(. 2001) :
c. Fc:|t|ve Fe|n|c|cenent. memLe(ikcn hccich Ie(IenIu :e:uci cenccn
Lcccimcnc :e:ec(cnc menunjukkcn pe(i|cku ycnc ciincinkcn.
L. vc|ccnce Lec|n|ng. Fenc(ikcn ci(i/menchincc(i :cIu kcnci:i ycnc
Iicck menyencnckcn pccc :ccI pe(i|cku ciIcmpi|kcn {ccnIch :
kc(ycwcn menchincc(i ci(i unIu me|ck:cnckcn Iucc: :e:uci cenccn
ycnc cicncccpnyc Lenc(. kc(enc :eLe|umnyc :e|c|u menccpcI
cme|cn cc(i cIc:cnnyc.
17

c. xt|nct|cn. |e|n|c|cenent ycnc pc:iIif Ie(hcccp pe(i|cku ycnc Iicck
ciincinkcn. :ehinccc mckin me|emch ccn menchi|cnc.
c. Fun|:nnent. yciIu |e|n|c|cenent ycnc neccIif Ie(hcccp pe(i|cku ycnc
Iicck ciincinkcn. unIuk menu(unkcn f(ekuen:i muncu|nyc pe(i|cku
Ie(:eLuI ccn ckhi(nyc hi|cnc. Fun|:nnent ku(cnc efekIif :eLccci
|e|n|c|cenent kc(enc Hcnyc menekcn pe(i|cku :emenIc(c. Lukcn
mencuLchnyc :ecc(c IeIcp. menimLu|kcn pe(i|cku emc:icnc| ycnc
:e(inckc|i cic(chkcn ke c(cnc ycnc memLe(ikcn hukumcn. ccpcI
menjcci :ikcp umum Ie(hcccp :iIuc:i :e(upc. :e(Ic memLucI c(cnc
ycnc memLe(ikcn cun|:nnent menjcci Ie(Lic:c. :ehinccc Iicck
ccpcI menccmLi| Iincckcn cpcpun ycnc LenIuknyc pc:iIif
Iec(i kccniIif menycIckcn Lchwc pemLe|cjc(cn me(upckcn FFCSES
FESIFUKIUFlS/Sl penceIchucn ycnc Ie|ch ccc pccc :e:ec(cnc cc|cm
kciIcnnyc cenccn mc:c|ch khu:u: {Chi:nc||. 1ºº5).
Konsep Don Fr|ns|p Fembe|ojoron
Menu(uI Mi||e( 5 kcn:ep pemLe|cjc(cn ccc( p(c:e: pemLe|cjc(cnnyc
efekIif. yciIu :
1. McIivc:i
2. Fencukuhcn kemLc|i {|e|n|c|cenent}
3. FenceIchucn IenIcnc hc:i|
4. F(ckIek ckIif
. í|cn:|e| c| t|c|n|ng

MOIIVA$I, cIcu cc(cnccn unIuk me|ckukcn :e:ucIu. FemLe|cjc(cn
pccc umumnyc Ie(jcci jikc :e:ec(cnc memi|iki mcIivc:i unIuk Le|cjc(. McIivc:i
ini cicc(cnc c|eh mcIif ycnc Le(Lecc cnIc(c :cIu incivicu cenccn incivicu
|cin.
Fengukuhon kembo|| (re|nforcemenf). Dc|cm pe|cIihcn. :ec(cnc
I(cinee mcmpu memecchkcn mc:c|ch mcncje(ic| cenccn menccunckcn
Ieknik pemecchcn mc:c|ch Ie(IenIu cenccn hc:i| Lcik: mckc: pe(i|ckunyc
pe(|u cikukuhkcn kemLc|i :ecc(c pc:iIif: memLe(i pujicn & ke:empcIcn
kemLc|i unIuk memecchkcn mc:c|ch ycnc |cin.
18

Fengetohuon tentong hos||. memLe(ikcn feecLcck kepccc I(cinee.
:ehinccc ccpcI menceIchui mcnc ycnc Ie|ch me(ekc kuc:ci. ccpcI
ci|ckukcn cenccn Lcik. ccn mcnc ycnc Le|um.
Froktek okt||. yciIu ccc pencu|cnccn Ie(hcccp cpc ycnc Ie|ch
cipe|cjc(i.
%ronsfer of fro|n|ng, cpc ycnc Ie|ch cipe|cjc(i ccpcI ci pckci cc|cm
kehicupcn nycIc.

Fenvusunon Frogrom Fe|ot|hon
Fenyu:uncn p(cc(cm pe|cIihcn cIcu pencemLcnccn ccpcI ci|ihcI
pccc ccmLc( Le(ikuI :


|cccctc:| cc|| /uncncc| 200!
GcmLc( 3.Ichcpcn cc|cm penyu:uncn p(cc(cm pe|cIihcn


19

3
FENILAIAN KINEkJA

Feni|cicn Kine(jc me(upckcn p(c:e: peni|cicn cc(i ci(i-ci(i kep(iLccicn.
pe(i|cku ke(jc. ccn hc:i| ke(jc :cm. ycnc cicncccp menunjcnc unjuk ke(jc-
nyc. ycnc cicunckcn :eLccci Lchcn pe(IimLcnccn unIuk penccmLi|cn
kepuIu:cn IenIcnc Iincckcn-Iincckcn Ie(hcccp ycnc Le(:cnckuIcn ci
Liccnc keIencccke(jccn.
MANFAAI cc(i peni|cicn ke(jc ccc|ch :
c. memLcnIu c(ccni:c:i unIuk memLucI kepuIu:cn p(cmc:i / pemeccIcn.
L. memLe(ikcn mc:ukcn {feecLcck:) kepccc kc(ycwcn: ke|eLihcn &
ke|emchcn ycnc Le(:cnckuIcn cc|cm me|ck:cnckcn peke(jccnnyc.
c. MeninckcIkcn kcmiImen ccn kepuc:cn ke(jc
c. Func:i ccmini:I(cIif: :eLccci cckumenIc:i. :ecnccinyc kc(ycwcn Iicck
puc: cenccn peni|ciccin ycnc ci|ckukcn. ccn incin me|ckukcn p ( c : e :
h u k u m

GcmLc( Le(ikuI menjcLc(kcn huLunccn cnIc(c hc:i| peke(jccn cenccn
|inckunccn fi:ik ccn :c:ic| :e(Ic |inckunccn fi:ik ccn :c:ic| Le(kciIcn cenccn
kep(iLccicn ccn kep(iLccicn peke(jccn
ciccpIc:i cc(i Muncncc( {2001)
GcmLc( 4. Mcce| inIe(ck:i Ienccc ke(jc cenccn |inckunccn ke(jc fi:ik ccn
:c:ic|
2O

Fen||o|on K|nerjo
UnIuk mencuku( kine(jc SDM cicunckcn 3 mcccm uku(cn. yciIu :
c. hc:i| / p(ccuk ke(jc
L. pe(i|cku peke(jccn
c. ci(i-ci(i kep(iLccicn
c. ccLunccn cc(i keIicc kcIecc(i

Hos|| / produk kerjo. cicncccp me(upckcn uku(cn ycnc pc|inc cLyekIif.
kc(enc ccpcI ciuku( :ecc(c KU/NIlI/Il F. mi:c|nyc Jum|ch LcIcnc (ckckycnc
ccpcI ci|inIinc. cIcu Le(cpc ki|c ccun Ihe ycnc ccpcI cipeIik.
8c(cmcn ccn me|nick {1ºº0) mencu:u|kcn :cIu (umu:cn IenIcnc
p(ccukIiviIc::
F(i = ILi x ci
F(i = p(ccucIiviIy (cIinc incex {p(i).
ILi = Iime Lc:ec incex
ci = cuc|iIy incex
ILi = eI:cI
ILi = me(upckcn uku(cn unIuk kucnIiIc:
eI = wckIu ycnc cipe(ki(ckcn unIuk penye|e:cicn Iucc:
cI = wckIu ckIuc| unIuk menye|e:cikcn Iucc:

UnIuk kuc|iIc: cIcu muIu incikcIc(nyc me(upckcn :c:c(cn cc(i kecncc|cn.
Licyc pe( Iucc:. e|ccuence {mckin :ecikiI un:u( ycnc cicunckcn cc|cm
penye|e:cicn mckin Lcik). :c|n-c||: ccn pe(Lcncinccn cnIc(c Licyc ccn
kemc:|chcIcn {cc:t/cene||t |ct|c).
Ni|ci ycnc ciLe(ikcn unIuk muIu hcnyc 3 yciIu ni|ci 0 ciLeikcn jikc :c:c(cn
kuc|iIc: Iicck Ie(ccpci. 1 jikc :c:c(cn kuc|iIc: ciccpci ccn 2 jikc :c:c(cn
kuc|iIc: ci|cmpcui.

Fer||oku Fekerjoon, yciIu pe(i|cku peke(jccn ycnc efekIif ycnc mencc(ch ke
Ie(ccpcicn hc:i| ycnc cihc(cpkcn. cnIc(c |cin Iecm wc(k. Ic|e(cn:i. :c|inc
memchcmi. Iencccnc (c:c.
21

C|r|-c|r| kepr|bod|on. yciIu ci(i-ci(i kep(iLccicn ycnc cimi|iki c|eh SDM ycnc
menunjcnc kine(jc-nyc. ccnIchnyc : Ci(i kepemimpincn. Kece(mcIcn.
ke:IcLi|cn emc:icnc|. inIe|icen:i.
8e(ikuI ccc|ch ccnIch incikcIc( cc|cm pencuku(cn kine(jc :

GcmLc( 5.CcnIch incikcIc( pencuku(cn kine(jc

Feni|cicn Kine(jc :ehc(u:nyc ci|ckukcn cenccn mempe(hcIikcn :
1. Fe|evcn cenccn peke(jccn
2. Mencuku( pe(|i|cku ycnc ccpcI cicmcIi
3. Je|c:
4. Memi|iki kcn:I(uk vc|iciIc:
5. Iicck kcnI(ccikIif
ó. Me(upckcn penjcLc(cn cc(i jcL ce:c(ipIicn
7. Iicck ci:c|chcunckcn
8. MemLe(ikcn ke:empcIcn kepccc kc(ycwcn unIuk meni|ci ci(inyc
:enci(i ccn mempe(Lciki ci(i :eLe|um cikenckcn c|Ie(ncIif Ie(ckhi(:
pemeccIcn

/ccpun ccIc ycnc cipe(|ukcn unIuk Feni|cicn Kine(jc. ccc|ch :
1. CLyekIif ccIc
2. Fe(:cnne| ccIc
3. K(iIe(ic kcn:epIuc|
4. JuccmenIc| ccIc

22

MeIccc peni|cicn kine(jc ccpcI cicc|cnckcn pccc Ieknik (e|cIif. Ieknik
cL:c|uIe. ccn Ieknik Le(ic(ienIc:i pccc ke|uc(cn. Ieknik (e|cIif Ie(ci(i cc(i
peme(inckcIcn u(uIcn ke|cmpck {g|cuc c|ce| |cnk|ng). peme(inckcIcn
pe(c(cnccn {|nc|v|cuc| |cngk|nc). ccn pemLcncinccn Le(pc:cnccn {cc||ec
ccncc||:cn).
Ieknik cL:c|uI Ie(ci(i cc(i penimLcnccn kc(cnccn {::cv ccc|c|:c|).
penimLcnccn pe(i:Iiwc cenIinc {c||t|cc| |nc|cent ccc|c|:c|). ccn :kc|c
penchc(kcIcn c(cfi: {g|ccn|c |ct|ng :cc|e:). ccn :kc|c penchc(kcIcn pe(i|cku
ycnc cijcnckc(kcn {cencv|cu|c||v cncnc|ec |ct|ng :cc|e).
8cnyck meIcce cc|cm peni|cicn kine(jc ycnc Li:c cipe(cunckcn. ncmun
:ecc(c cc(i: Le:c( ciLcci menjcci cuc jeni:. yciIu cc:t c||entec ccc|c|:c|
netncc: {peni|cicn kine(jc ycnc Le(c(ienIc:i pccc mc:c |c|u) ccn |utu|e
c||entec ccc|c|:c| netncc: {peni|cicn kine(jc ycnc Le(c(ienIc:i ke mc:c
cepcn). {We(Ihe( ccn Dcvi:. 1ººó:350).
!osf bosed mefhods ccc|ch peni|cicn kine(jc cIc: kine(jc :e:ec(cnc cc(i
peke(jccn ycnc te|cn ci|ckukcnnyc. Ke|eLihcnnyc ccc|ch je|c: ccn mucch
ciuku(. Ie(uIcmc :ecc(c kucnIiIcIif. Keku(cnccnnyc ccc|ch kine(jc ycnc
ciuku( Iicck ccpcI ciuLch :ehinccc kcccnc-kcccnc ju:I(u :c|ch
menunjukkcn :eLe(cpc Le:c( pcIen:i ycnc cimi|iki c|eh :e:ec(cnc. Se|cin iIu.
meIcce ini kcccnc-kcccnc :cnccI :uLyekIif ccn Lcnyck Lic:nyc.
:f:re bosed mefhods ccc|ch peni|cicn kine(jc cenccn meni|ci :eLe(cpc
Le:c( pcIen:i peccwci ccn mcmpu unIuk meneIcpkcn kine(jc ycnc
cihc(cpkcn pccc mc:c ccIcnc. MeIcce ini jucc kcccnc-kcccnc mc:ih
menccunckcn cc:t netncc. CcIcIcn kine(jc jucc mc:ih cicunckcn :eLccci
ccucn unIuk meneIcpkcn kine(jc ycnc cihc(cpkcn. Keku(cnccn cc(i meIcce
ini ccc|ch kecku(cIcnnyc. kc(enc Iicck ccc ycnc Li:c memc:Iikcn 1007
Lcccimcnc kine(jc :e:ec(cnc pccc mc:c ccIcnc.
Fenckc:ifikc:icn pencekcIcn peni|cicn kine(jc c|eh Whe(Ihe( ci cIc:
Le(Lecc cenccn k|c:ifikc:i ycnc ci|ckukcn c|eh K(eiIne( ccn Kinicki {2003).
8e(cc:c(kcn c:pek ycnc ciuku(. K(eiIne( ccn Kinicki menck|c:ifikc:ikcn
peni|cicn kine(jc menjcci Iicc. yciIu: pencekcIcn t|c|t. pencekcIcn pe(i|cku
ccn pencekcIcn hc:i|. FencekcIcn t|c|t ccc|ch pencekcIcn peni|cicn kine(jc
ycnc |eLih fcku: pccc c(cnc. FencekcIcn ini me|ckukcn pe(cnkinccn
Ie(hcccp t|c|t cIcu kc(ckIe(i:Iik incivicu :epe(Ii ini:icIif. |cyc|iIc: ccn
kemcmpucn penccmLi|cn kepuIu:cn. FencekcIcn t|c|t memi|iki ke|emchcn
kc(enc keIicckje|c:cn kine(jc :ecc(c nycIc. FencekcIcn pe(i|cku.
23

pencekcIcn ini |eLih fcku: pccc p(c:e: cenccn me|ckukcn peni|cicn kine(jc
Le(cc:c(kcn pe(i|cku ycnc Icmpck ccn mencukunc kine(jc :e:ec(cnc.
Seccnckcn pencekcIcn hc:i| ccc|ch pencekcIcn ycnc |eLih fcku: pccc
ccpcicn cIcu p(ccuk. MeIcce peni|cicn kine(jc ycnc menccunckcn
pencekcIcn hc:i| :epe(Ii meIcce ncncgenent cv cc|ect|ve {M8C). {K(eiIne(
ccn Kinicki. 2000).
MeIcce-meIcce peni|cicn kine(jc ycnc :e:uci cenccn
penckcIecc(icn cuc Ickch ci cIc: ycnc pc|inc Lcnyck cicunckcn menu(uI
Mcncy ccn Nce {1ºº3:402-414) ccc|ch:
r|ffen Fssoys. me(upckcn Ieknik peni|cicn kine(jc yciIu evc|ucIc( menu|i:
ce:k(ip:i mencenci kekucIcn peke(jc. ke|emchcnnyc. kine(jcnyc pccc mc:c
|c|u. pcIen:inyc ccn memLe(ikcn :c(cn-:c(cn unIuk pencemLcnccn peke(jc
Ie(:eLuI.
Cr|f|co| lnc|denfs, me(upckcn Ieknik peni|cicn kine(jc yciIu evc|ucIc(
menccIcI mencenci cpc :cjc pe(i|cku/penccpcicn Ie(Lcik ccn Ie(Lu(uk
{ext|ene|v gccc c| ccc cencv|cu|) peccwci.
roph|c kof|ng 5co|es. me(upckcn Ieknik peni|cicn kine(jc yciIu evc|ucIc(
meni|ci kine(jc peccwci cenccn menccunckcn :kc|c cc|cm mencuku(
fckIc(-fckIc( kine(jc {ce||c|ncnce |cctc| ). Mi:c|nyc ccc|ch cc|cm mencuku(
IinckcI ini:icIif ccn Icnccunc jcwcL peccwci. Skc|c ycnc cicunckcn ccc|ch
1 :cmpci 5. yciIu 1 ccc|ch ycnc Ie(Lu(uk ccn 5 ccc|ch ycnc Ie(Lcik. Jikc
IinckcI ini:icIif ccn Icnccunc jcwcL peccwci Ie(:eLuI Lic:c :cjc. mi:c|nyc.
mckc ic ciLe(i ni|ci 3 cIcu 4 ccn LeciIu :eIe(u:nyc unIuk meni|ci fckIc(-fckIc(
kine(jc |cinnyc. MeIcce ini me(upckcn meIcce umum ycnc pc|inc Lcnyck
cicunckcn c|eh c(ccni:c:i.
8ehov|o:ro||y Anchored kof|ng 5co|es (8Ak5), me(upckcn Ieknik peni|cicn
kine(jc yciIu evc|ucIc( meni|ci peccwci Le(cc:c(kcn LeLe(cpc jeni: pe(i|cku
ke(jc ycnc mence(minkcn cimen:i kine(jc ccn memLucI :kc|cnyc. Mi:c|nyc
ccc|ch peni|cicn pe|cycncn pe|cncccn. 8i|c peccwci Lccicn pe|cycncn
pe|cncccn Iicck mene(imc :ucp cc(i pe|cncccn. ic ciLe(i :kc|c 4 ycnc
Le(c(Ii kine(jc |umcycn. 8i|c peccwci iIu memLcnIu pe|cncccn ycnc
ke:u|iIcn cIcu keLincunccn. ic ciLe(i :kc|c 7 ycnc Le(c(Ii kine(jcnyc
memuc:kcn. ccn :eIe(u:nyc. MeIcce ini mence:k(ip:ikcn pe(i|cku ycnc
cihc(cpkcn :e:uci cenccn IinckcI kine(jc ycnc cihc(cpkcn. Fccc ccnIch ci
cIc:. ni|ci 4 cice:k(ip:ikcn cenccn Iicck mene(imc :ucp cc(i pe|cncccn. Ni|ci
7 cice:k(ip:ikcn cenccn menc|cnc pe|cncccn ycnc memLuIuhkcn LcnIucn.
24

Denccn mence:k(ip:ikcnnyc. meIcce ini mencu(cnci Lic: ycnc Ie(jcci cc|cm
peni|cicn.
:|f|person Compor|son, me(upckcn Ieknik peni|cicn kine(jc yciIu :ec(cnc
peccwci ciLcncinckcn cenccn (ekcn ke(jcnyc. 8ic:cnyc ci|ckukcn c|eh
:upe(vi:c(. lni :cnccI Le(cunc unIuk menenIukcn kencikcn ccji {ne||t :v:ten).
p(cmc:i. ccn penchc(cccn pe(u:chccn.
onogemenf 8y Objecf|ves. MeIcce ini jucc me(upckcn peni|cicn kine(jc.
yciIu peccwci cini|ci Le(cc:c(kcn penccpcicnnyc cIc: Iujucn-Iujucn :pe:ifik
ycnc Ie|ch ciIenIukcn :eLe|umnyc. Iujucn-Iujucn ini Iicck ciIenIukcn c|eh
mcncje( :cjc. me|cinkcn ciIenIukcn ccn ci:epckcIi Le(:cmc c|eh pc(c
peccwci ccn mcncje(.
SeIicp meIcce ci cIc: memi|iki ke|emchcn ccn ke|eLihcnnyc mc:inc-
mc:inc. :ehinccc Iicck Lcik Lcci c(ccni:c:i unIuk mencccnIunckcn
peni|cicn kine(jcnyc hcnyc pccc :cIu jeni: meIcce :cjc. SeLciknyc.
c(ccni:c:i mencccLunckcn LeLe(cpc meIcce ycnc :e:uci cenccn |inckup
c(ccni:c:inyc. Mcncy ccn Nce {1ºº3).

Froses Fenvusunon Fen||o|on K|nerjo
F(c:e: penyu:uncn peni|cicn kine(jc menu(uI Mcncy ccn Nce
{1ºº3:3º8) Ie(Lcci cc|cm LeLe(cpc Ichcpcn kecicIcn ycnc ciIunjukkcn
cc|cm ccmLc( ci Lcwch ini:
- lcenIifikc:i Iujucn
- MeneIcpkcn :Icncc( Ie(hcccp :ucIu jcLcIcn
- Menyu:un :i:Iem peni|cicn kine(jc
- Meni|ci kine(jc peccwci
- Menci:ku:ikcn hc:i| peni|cicn cenccn peccwci

Lcnckch pe(Icmc ycnc hc(u: ci|ckukcn cc|cm menyu:un :i:Iem
peni|cicn kine(jc yciIu hc(u: cicc|i Ie(|eLih cchu|u Iujucn ycnc incin ciccpci
c|eh c(ccni:c:i cenccn cccnyc :i:Iem peni|cicn kine(jc ycnc ckcn ci:u:un.
Hc| ini menjcci penIinc kc(enc cenccn menceIchui Iujucn ycnc incin
ciccpci ckcn |eLih memucchkcn cc|cm menenIukcn ce:cin peni|cicn
kine(jc.
25

Lcnckch ycnc kecuc. meneIcpkcn :Icncc( ycnc cihc(cpkcn cc(i :ucIu
jcLcIcn. :ehinccc ckcn cikeIchui cimen:i-cimen:i cpc :cjc ycnc ckcn ciuku(
cc|cm peni|cicn kine(jc. Dimen:i-cimen:i Ie(:eLuI IenIunyc hc(u: :cnccI
Ie(kciI cenccn pe|ck:cnccn Iucc: pccc jcLcIcn iIu. Ichcp ini Lic:cnyc
ccpcI ci|ckukcn cenccn menccnc|i:c jcLcIcn ||cc cnc|v:|:} cIcu
menccnc|i:c u(cicn Iucc: mc:inc-mc:inc jcLcIcn.
SeIe|ch Iujucn ccn cimen:i ycnc ckcn ciuku( cc|cm peni|cicn kine(jc
cikeIchui. mckc |cnckch :e|cnjuInyc yciIu menenIukcn ce:cin ycnc :e:uci
unIuk menccpci Iujucn ycnc cihc(cpkcn. FenenIucn ce:cin peni|cicn kine(jc
ini hc(u: :e|c|u cikciIkcn cenccn Iujucn peni|cicn. Hc| ini kc(enc Iicp-Iicp
ce:cin peni|cicn kine(jc memi|iki ke|emchcn ccn ke|eLihcnnyc mc:inc-
mc:inc. SeLccci ccnIch. peni|cicn kine(jc ycnc ci|ckukcn unIuk menenIukcn
Le:c(cn ccji peccwci cenccn peni|cicn kine(jc ycnc Le(Iujucn hcnyc unIuk
menceIchui keLuIuhcn pencemLcnccn IenIunyc memi|iki ce:cin ycnc
Le(Lecc.
Lcnckch Le(ikuInyc ccc|ch me|ckukcn peni|cicn kine(jc Ie(hcccp
peccwci ycnc mencucuki :ucIu jcLcIcn. Feni|cicn kine(jc ini ccpcI
ci|ckukcn c|eh cIc:cn :cjc. cIcu cenccn :i:Iem 3ó0
c
. Feni|cicn cenccn :i:Iem
3ó0c mck:ucnyc ccc|ch peni|cicn :cIu peccwci ci|ckukcn c|eh cIc:cn.
(ekcn ke(jc ycnc :ejcjc(/:eIinckcI. ccn Lcwchcnnyc.
Hc:i| cc(i peni|cicn kine(jc. :e|cnjuInyc cicnc|i:c ccn cikcmunikc:ikcn
kemLc|i kepccc peccwci ycnc cini|ci ccc( me(ekc menceIchui kine(jcnyc
:e|cmc ini :e(Ic menceIchui kine(jc ycnc cihc(cpkcn c|eh c(ccni:c:i. Evc|uc:i
Ie(hcccp :i:Iem peni|cicn kine(jc ycnc Ie|ch ci|ckukcn jucc ci|ck:cnckcn
pccc Ichcp ini. /pckch peni|cicn kine(jc Ie(:eLuI :ucch ccpcI menccpci
Iujucn cc(i ciccckcnnyc peni|cicn kine(jc cIcu Le|um. /pcLi|c Ie(nycIc
Le|um. mckc hc(u: ci|ckukcn (evi:i cIcu mence:cin u|cnc :i:Iem peni|cicn
kine(jc.

Keso|ohon Fen|mbongon
Fccc :ccI p(c:e: peni|cicn kine(jc. Iicck :e|c|u p(c:e:nyc Le(jc|cn
cenccn cLjekIif. Li:c jcci IimLu| Ke:c|chcn-Ke:c|chcn ycnc Le(c:c| cc(i
c(cnc ycnc me|ckukcn peni|cicn. Ke:c|chcn-ke:c|chcn cc(i FenimLcnc
ccpcI cikcIecc(ikcn menjcci :
1. Ke:c|chcn kcn:Icn / penci:I(iLu:icn
26

c. Ie(|c|u LemLuI {|eniency e((c() ic|ch peni|ci cence(unc
Le(cncccpcn Lchwc me(ekc hc(u: Le(|cku Lcik Ie(hcccp
peccwci. :ehinccc me(ekc cence(unc memLe(i ni|ci ycnc Lcik
Ie(hcccp :emuc c:pek peni|cicn.
L. Ie(|c|u Ke(c: {:eve(iIy e((c(). :eLc|iknyc cc(i ke:c|chcn |eniency
e((c(. YciIu peni|ci cence(unc mempunyci fc|:cfch ccn
pcnccnccn ycnc :eLc|iknyc Ie(hcccp peccwci :ehinccc
cence(unc ckcn memLe(ikcn ni|ci ycnc Lu(uk
c. Kecence(unccn Le(pu:cI {cenI(c| Iencency) yciIu peni|ci Iicck
incin meni|ci Ie(|c|u Iincci ccn jucc Iicck Ie(|c|u (encch kepccc
Lcwchcnnyc {:e|c|u Le(ccc ci Iencch-Iencch). Ic|e(cn:i peni|ci
ycnc Ie(|c|u Le(|eLihcn Ie(:eLuI menjccikcn peni|ci cence(unc
memLe(ikcn peni|cicn cenccn ni|ci ycnc (cIc-(cIc.

2. Ke:c|chcn fckIc( ccmincn
c. Dompok Ho|o Ie(jcci kc(enc peni|ci menyukci cIcu Iicck menyukci
:ifcI peccwci ycnc cini|cinyc. C|eh kc(enc iIu. peccwci ycnc
ci:ukci c|eh peni|ci cence(unc ckcn mempe(c|eh ni|ci pc:iIif pccc
:emuc c:pek peni|cicn. ccn LeciIu pu|c :eLc|iknyc. :ec(cnc
peccwci ycnc Iicck ci:ukci ckcn menccpcIkcn ni|ci neccIif pccc
:emuc c:pek peni|cicn
L. Dompok Keson Fertomo yciIu peni|ci ycnc menccmLi| ke:impu|cn
IenIcnc peccwci Le(cc:c(kcn kcnIck pe(Icmc me(ekc ccn
cence(unc ckcn memLcwc ke:cn-ke:cn ini cc|cm peni|cicnnyc
hinccc jcnckc wckIu ycnc |cmc
c. Dompok Fer||oku Ierokh|r . peni|ci cence(unc memLe(ikcn ni|ci
cIc: cc:c( pe(i|cku ycnc Lc(u :cjc me(ekc :ck:ikcn. ccn
me|upckcn pe(i|cku ycnc |c|u :e|cmc :ucIu jcnckc wckIu Ie(IenIu.
c. Dompok Hos|| Fen|mbongon Lompou. peni|ci cence(unc
memLe(ikcn ni|ci cIc: cc:c( pe(i|cku pe(i|cku ycnc |c|u :e|cmc
:ucIu jcnckc wckIu Ie(IenIu.

3. Ke:c|chcn ecc:enI(ik
c. Keso|ohon kontros. Fe(:ep:i IenIcnc c:pek ycnc cimi|ikinyc
me(upckcn cc:c( unIuk menchc(kcI c(cnc |cin pccc c:pek
Ie(:eLuI
L. Keso|ohon kesomoon. yciIu peni|ci cence(unc menyukci
peccwci ycnc mempunyci ci(i-ci(i cIcu :ifcI :epe(Ii me(ekc.
27

:ehinccc ckcn memLe(ikcn ni|ci ycnc |eLih Lcik ciLcncinckcn
cenccn peccwci ycnc Iicck memi|iki ke:cmccn :ifcI ccn ci(i-
ci(i cenccnnyc. Seccnckcn c|||e|ent|c| e||ect. yciIu peni|ci
cence(unc menyukci peccwci ycnc memi|iki :ifcI-:ifcI cIcu
ci(i-ci(i ycnc Iicck ccc pccc ci(inyc. Icpi :ifcI-:ifcI iIu|ch ycnc
me(ekc incinkcn. :ehinccc peni|ci ckcn memLe(inyc ni|ci
ycnc |eLih Lcik ciLcncinc ycnc |cinnyc
c. Keso|ohon uruton. SDM ciLcncinckcn :cIu :cmc |cin ccn
Lukcn Le(cc:c(kcn :Icncc( ycnc cLyekIif.
UnIuk meninckcIcn efekIiviIc: penimLcnc |c:c|c. !º8º} mckc ccpcI
ci|ckukcn cenccn cc(c :
c. Se(inc Le(kcmunikc:i cenccn Lcwchcn IenIcnc unjuk-ke(jc me(ekc
L. FenimLcnc mempe(c|eh pe|cIihcn {t|c|ne|)
- Lcccimcnc Le(eck:i Ie(hcccp :I(e::
- mencencc|ikcn wcwcncc(c
- mempe(c|eh infc(mc:i
- memcIivc:i Lcwchcn
c. F(cL|em :c|v|ng |ccu:. cIc:cn mempe(|ihcIkcn ccn menje|c:kcn hc:i|
penimLcnccn kepccc Lcwchcn. ccn menccIckcn cpc ycnc hc(u:
ci|ckukcn unIuk meninckcIkcn kine(jc: :e(Ic mencnyckcn (eck:i
Lcwchcn.
c. Mencc(cnc ccn menunjcnc Lcwchcn cc|cm mempe(:icpkcn ci(i unIuk
wcwcncc(c penimLcnccn. Lic:cnyc me(ekc ckcn |eLih Ie(mcIivc:i unIuk
meninckcIkcn kine(jc ccn menjcci |eLih Lcik.

28


4
MOIIVA$I
Ieor| Mot|vos|
McIivc:i ccc|ch :e:ucIu / kekucIcn ycnc mencc(cnc incivicu unIuk
me|ckukcn :e:ucIu. mcIivc:i ccc ycnc Li:c Le(:ifcI inI(in:ik ccn ccc jucc
ycnc ek:I(in:ik. Ycnc cimck:uc cenccn inI(in:ik yciIu mcIivc:i ycnc Le(c:c|
cc(i cc|cm ci(i incivicu ycnc Li:c cipencc(uhi pemiki(cn mc:c cepcn cIcu
keincincn me|ckukcn ycnc Ie(Lcik.
Seccnckcn ek:inI(ik ccc|ch mcIivc:i ycnc Le(c:c| cc(i |uc( ci(i incivicu
mi:c|nyc kc(enc cc(cnccn Iemcn. cIc:cn. cc:en. c(cncIuc :eLccci ficu(e.
fckIc( ccji ccn |cin :eLcccinyc.
8e:c(nyc mcIivc:i ciccmLc(kcn c|eh p(c:e: ccn Le:c(nyc upcyc
incivicu unIuk menccIc:i (inIcnccn ccc( ccpcI menccpci Iujucn.
Seccnckcn p(c:e: mcIivc:i ccpcI ciccmLc(kcn :eLccci Le(ikuI :


GcmLc( ó.F(c:e: mcIivc:i
Dc|cm penccpcicn Iujucn. :e(inckc|i Ie(jcci kcnf|ik cc|cm ci(i incivicu yciIu
kcnci:i cimcnc incivicu mencc|cmi ke:u|iIcn cc|cm memi|ih c|Ie(ncIif :c|u:i
ycnc hc:i|nyc menccncunc c:pek-c:pek pc:iIif ycnc :cmc ni|cinyc.
8cnyck Iec(i mcIivc:i ycnc cikemukckcn c|eh pc(c ch|i ycnc
cimck:uckcn unIuk memLe(ikcn u(cicn ycnc menuju pccc cpc :eLenc(nyc
mcnu:ic ccn mcnu:ic ckcn ccpcI menjcci :epe(Ii cpc. 8e(ikuI ccc|ch 5
29

Iec(i mcIivc:i yciIu Iec(i keLuIuhcn. Iec(i pencucIcn.Iec(i kecci|cn.Iec(i
hc(cpcn.Iec(i peneIcpcn :c:c(cn.
Ieor| Mot|vos| Abrohom Mos|ow (1º43-1º70)
/L(chcm Mc:|cw {1º43:1º70) mencemukckcn Lchwc pccc cc:c(nyc
:emuc mcnu:ic memi|iki keLuIuhcn pckck. lc menunjukkcnnyc cc|cm 5
IinckcIcn ycnc Le(LenIuk pi(cmic. c(cnc memu|ci cc(cnccn cc(i IinckcIcn
Ie(Lcwch. Limc IinckcI keLuIuhcn iIu cikenc| cenccn :eLuIcn Hi(c(ki
KeLuIuhcn Mc:|cw. cimu|ci cc(i keLuIuhcn Lic|cci: cc:c( :cmpci mcIif
p:ikc|cci: ycnc |eLih kcmp|ek:: ycnc hcnyc ckcn penIinc :eIe|ch keLuIuhcn
cc:c( Ie(penuhi. KeLuIuhcn pccc :ucIu pe(inckcI pc|inc Iicck hc(u:
Ie(penuhi :eLccicn :eLe|um keLuIuhcn pccc pe(inckcI Le(ikuInyc menjcci
penenIu Iincckcn ycnc penIinc.






GcmLc( 7. Hi(c(ki KeLuIuhcn Mc:|cw
Limc keLuIuhcn Mc:|cw ccpcI cije|c:kcn :eLccci Le(ikuI :
O KeLuIuhcn fi:ic|cci: {(c:c |cpc(. (c:c hcu:. ccn :eLcccinyc)
O KeLuIuhcn (c:c cmcn {me(c:c cmcn ccn Ie(|incunc. jcuh cc(i
Lchcyc)
O KeLuIuhcn ckcn (c:c cinIc ccn (c:c memi|iki {Le(cfi|ic:i cenccn
c(cnc |cin. ciIe(imc. memi|iki)
O KeLuIuhcn ckcn penchc(cccn {Le(p(e:Ic:i. Le(kcmpeIen:i. ccn
menccpcIkcn cukunccn :e(Ic pencckucn)
O KeLuIuhcn ckIuc|i:c:i ci(i {keLuIuhcn kccniIif: menceIchui.
memchcmi. ccn menje|cjchi: keLuIuhcn e:IeIik: ke:e(c:icn.
keIe(cIu(cn. ccn keincchcn: keLuIuhcn ckIuc|i:c:i ci(i: menccpcIkcn
kepuc:cn ci(i ccn menyccc(i pcIen:inyc)
8i|c mckcncn ccn (c:c cmcn :u|iI cipe(c|eh. pemenuhcn keLuIuhcn
Ie(:eLuI ckcn menccminc:i Iincckcn :e:ec(cnc ccn mcIif-mcIif ycnc |eLih
Iincci ckcn menjcci ku(cnc :icnifikcn. C(cnc hcnyc ckcn mempunyci wckIu
AkluaIisasi
diii
Koluluhan ponghaigaan
Koluluhan afiIiasi
Koluluhan iasa anan
Koluluhan IisioIogis
3O

ccn ene(ci unIuk menekuni mincI e:IeIikc ccn inIe|ekIuc|. jikc keLuIuhcn
cc:c(nyc :ucch ccpcI cipenuhi cenccn mucch. Kc(yc :eni ccn kc(yc i|mich
Iicck ckcn IumLuh :uLu( cc|cm mc:yc(ckcI ycnc cncccIcnyc mc:ih hc(u:
Le(:u:ch pcych mencc(i mckcn. pe(|incunccn. ccn (c:c cmcn.

Ieor| Mot|vos| Herzberg (1ºóó)
Menu(uI He(zLe(c {1ºóó). ccc cuc jeni: fckIc( ycnc mencc(cnc
:e:ec(cnc unIuk Le(u:chc menccpci kepuc:cn ccn menjcuhkcn ci(i cc(i
keIicckpuc:cn. Duc fckIc( iIu ci:eLuInyc fckIc( hiciene {fckIc( ek:I(in:ik) ccn
fckIc( mcIivcIc( {fckIc( inI(in:ik). FckIc( hiciene memcIivc:i :e:ec(cnc unIuk
ke|uc( cc(i keIicckpuc:cn. Ie(mc:uk cicc|cmnyc ccc|ch huLunccn cnIc(
mcnu:ic. imLc|cn. kcnci:i |inckunccn. ccn :eLcccinyc {fckIc( ek:I(in:ik).
:eccnckcn fckIc( mcIivcIc( memcIivc:i :e:ec(cnc unIuk Le(u:chc menccpci
kepuc:cn. ycnc Ie(mc:uk cicc|cmnyc ccc|ch ccn|evenent. pencckucn.
kemcjucn IinckcI kehicupcn. ccn :eLcccinyc {fckIc( inI(in:ik).

Ieor| Mot|vos| Doug|os Mcgregor
Mencemukckcn cuc pcnccnccn mcnu:ic yciIu Iec(i X {negct|ve) ccn
Iec(i y {pc:iIif). Menu(uI Iec(i x . ccc empcI penccnccicn ycc cipeccnc
mcncje(. yciIu :
c. kc(ycwcn :ecc(c inhe(en Ie(Icncm cc|cm ci(inyc Iicck menyukci ke(jc
L. kc(ycwcn Iicck menyukci ke(jc me(ekc hc(u: cicwc:i cIcu cicnccm
cenccn hukumcn unIuk menccpci Iujucn.
c. Kc(ycwcn ckcn menchincc(i Icnccunc jcwcL.
c. KeLcnyckcn kc(ycwcn menc(uh kecmcncn cicIc: :emuc fccIc( ycnc
cikciIkcn cenccn ke(jc.
KcnI(c: cenccn pcnccnccn neccIif ini mencenci kcc(cI mcnu:ic ccc
empcI Iec(i Y . yciIu :
c. kc(ycwcn ccpcI memcnccnc ke(jc:cmc cenccn :ewcjc(nyc :epe(Ii
i:Ii(chcI ccn Le(mcin.
L. C(cnc ckcn menjc|cnkcn pencc(chcn ci(i ccn penccwc:cn ci(i jikc
me(ekc kcmiI pccc :c:c(cn.
c. FcIc (cIc c(cnc ckcn mene(imc Icnccunc jcwcL.
31

c. Kemcmpucn unIuk menccmLi| kepuIu:cn incvcIif.

Ieor| Mot|vos| Vroom (1ºó4)
Iec(i cc(i V(ccm {1ºó4) IenIcnc ccgn|t|ve tnec|v c| nct|vct|cn
menje|c:kcn menccpc :e:ec(cnc Iicck ckcn me|ckukcn :e:ucIu ycnc ic
yckini ic Iicck ccpcI me|ckukcnnyc. :ekc|ipun hc:i| cc(i peke(jccn iIu :cnccI
ccpcI ic incinkcn. Menu(uI V(ccm. Iincci (encchnyc mcIivc:i :e:ec(cnc
ciIenIukcn c|eh Iicc kcmpcnen. yciIu:
c. Ek:pekIc:i {hc(cpcn) keLe(hc:i|cn pccc :ucIu Iucc:
L. ln:I(umenIc|i:. yciIu peni|cicn IenIcnc cpc ycnc ckcn Ie(jcci jikc Le(hc:i|
cc|cm me|ckukcn :ucIu Iucc: {keLe(hc:i|cn Iucc: unIuk menccpcIkcn
cutccne Ie(IenIu).
c. Vc|en:i. yciIu (e:pcn Ie(hcccp cuIccme :epe(Ii pe(c:ccn pc:i:Iif. neI(c|.
cIcu neccIif.McIivc:i Iincci jikc u:chc menchc:i|kcn :e:ucIu ycnc
me|eLihi hc(cpcn. McIivc:i (encch jikc u:chcnyc menchc:i|kcn ku(cnc
cc(i ycnc cihc(cpkcn
Ach|evement Iheorv Mc C|e||ond (1ºó1)
Iec(i cchievemenI ycnc cikemukckcn c|eh Mc C|e||cnc {1ºó1). menycIckcn
Lchwc ccc Iicc hc| penIinc ycnc menjcci keLuIuhcn mcnu:ic. yciIu:
- Neec fc( cchievemenI {keLuIuhcn ckcn p(e:Ic:i)
- Neec fc( cfi|icIicn {keLuIuhcn ckcn huLunccn :c:ic|/hcmpi( :cmc
cenccn :c:cic|neec-nyc Mc:|cw)
- Neec fc( Fcwe( {cc(cnccn unIuk menccIu()
EkG C|ovton A|der|er
C|cyIcn /|ce(fe( menceIencchkcn Iec(i mcIivc:i EFG ycnc
cicc:c(kcn pccc keLuIuhcn mcnu:ic ckcn keLe(ccccn {ex:|:tence).
huLunccn {(e|ctecne::). ccn pe(IumLuhcn {g|cwtn). Iec(i ini :ecikiI Le(Lecc
cenccn Iec(i Mc:|cw. Di:ini /|fece( mncemukckcn Lchwc jikc keLuIuhcn
ycnc |eLih Iincci Iicck cIcu Le|um ccpcI cipenuhi mckc mcnu:ic ckcn
kemLc|i pccc ce(ck ycnc f|ek:iLe| cc(i pemenuhcn keLuIuhcn cc(i wckIu
kewckIu ccn cc(i :iIuc:i ke :iIuc:i.
32


Men|ngkotkon Mot|vos| Kerjo
FeninckcIcn mcIivc:i ke(jc Li:c ci|ckukcn me|cui pe(cn pemimpin
cIcu cIc:cn . me|c|u pe(cn ci(i :enci(i. pe(cn c(ccni:c:i. Me|c|ui pe(cn
pemimpin {cIc:cn) ci|ckukcn cenccn Le(:ikcp ke(c: cIcu memLe(i Iujucn
Le(mcknc. 8e(:ikcp ke(c: ci|ckukcn cenccn memck:ckcn Ienccc ke(jc unIuk
Leke(jc ccn memLe(ikcn cnccmcn. Seccnckcn cenccn memLe(ikcn Iujucn
ycnc Le(mcknc ccc|ch Le(:cmc-:cmc cenccn Ienccc ke(jc ycnc
Le(:cnckuIcn menemukcn Iujucn-Iujucn Le(mcknc ccn :e:uci
kemcmpucnnyc ccn ccpcI ciccpci me|c|u p(e:Ic:i ke(jc ycnc Iincci.
Fccc c(cnc cenccn Iipe X. Le(cc:c(kcn Iec(i McG(ecc(. unIuk ccpcI
Leke(jc meme(|ukcn cc(cnccn c(cnc |cin. :eLc|iknyc pccc Iipe Y Iicck.
Fe(cn ci(i :enci(i cc|cm meninckcIkcn mcIivc:i ke(jc meme(|ukcn pe(uLchcn
Lcci Ienccc ke(jc ycnc Le(Iipe X ccc( menjcci Ienccc ke(jc ycnc Le(Iipe Y.
Kepemimpincn I(cn:fc(mc:icnc| ccn I(cn:ck:icnc| ccpcI memLcnIu Ienccc
ke(jc memi|iki mcIivc:i ke(jc ycnc p(cckIif :epe(Ii Ienccc ke(jc Le(Iipe Y.
Fe(u:chccn cIcu c(ccni:c:i jucc Le(pe(cn cc|cm peninckcIcn
mcIivc:i. Fe(cn ini ccpcI menc(ik cIcu pun mencc(cnc mcIivc:i :ec(cnc
Ienccc ke(jc. UnIuk iIu pe(u:chccn cIcu c(ccni:c:i pe(|u me(umu:kcn
keLijckcn ycnc ccpcI mencc(cnc mcviIc:i :ec(cnc Ienccc ke(jc.
33


KEFbA$AN KEkJA

Kepuc:cn ke(jc me(upckcn ce(cjcI (c:c :ukc / Iicck :ukc kc(ycwcn
Ie(hcccp Le(Lccci c:pek cc(i peke(jccnnyc {Hcwe|| & DipLcye. 1º8ó).
Kepuc:cn ke(jc ccc|ch LenIuk pe(c:ccn ccn ek:p(e:i :e:ec(cnc keIikc cic
mcmpu/Iicck mcmpu memenuhi hc(cpcn cc(i p(c:e: ke(jc ccn kine(jcnyc.
IimLu| cc(i p(c:e: I(cn:fc(mc:i emc:i ccn piki(cn ci(inyc ycnc me|chi(kcn
:ikcp cIcu ni|ci Ie(hcccp :e:ucIu ycnc cike(jckcn ccn cipe(c|ehnyc. /kcn
IeIcpi kepuc:cn ke(jc ni|cinyc Le(vc(ic:i ccn :e(inckc|i Le(uLch :ei(inc
cenccn pe(uLchcn fckIc( ycnc mempencc(uhinyc. :ehinccc pe(|u ciuku(
cc(i wckIu ke wckIu.
Mcce| Kc(ckIe(i:Iik Feke(jccn cc(i McIivc:i Ke(jc: C|chcm {1º7ó)
ciccmLc(kcn :eLccci Le(ikuI :


GcmLc( 8. Mcce| Kc(ckIe(i:Iik Feke(jccn

Menu(uI 8c(cn & 8y(ne {1ºº4) ccc cuc ke|cmpck fckIc( ycnc
mempencc(uhi kepuc:cn ke(jc. FckIc( pe(Icmc yciIu fckIc( c(ccni:c:i ycnc
Le(i:i keLijck:cnccn pe(u:chccn ccn ik|im ke(jc. FckIc( kecuc yciIu fckIc(
incivicuc| cIcu kc(ckIe(i:Iik kc(ycwcn. Fccc fckIc( incivicuc| ccc cuc
34

p(ecicIc( penIinc Ie(hcccp kepuc:cn ke(jc yciIu :IcIu: ccn :enic(iIc:. SIcIu:
ke(jc ycnc (encch ccn peke(jccn ycnc (uIin ckcn Lcnyck kemunckincn
mencc(cnc kc(ycwcn unIuk mencc(i peke(jccn |cin. Kc(ycwcn ycnc memi|iki
keIe(Ic(ikcn ccn IcnIcnccn ke(jc ckcn |eLih me(c:c puc: cenccn hc:i|
ke(jcnyc cpcLi|c me(ekc ccpcI menye|e:cikcn cenccn mck:imc|.
FencekcIcn Wex|ey ccn Yuk| {1º77) Le(penccpcI Lchwc peke(jccn
ycnc Ie(Lcik Lcci pene|iIicn-pene|iIicn IenIcnc kepuc:cn ke(jc ccc|ch
cenccn mempe(hcIikcn Lcik |oktor pekerjoon moupun |oktor |nd|v|dunvo.
/ccpun fckIc( peke(jccn ycnc mempencc(uhi kepuc:cn ke(jc cnIc(c |cin
ccji. kcnci:i ke(jc. muIu penccwc:cn. Iemcn :eke(jc. jeni: peke(jccn.
kecmcncn ke(jc ccn ke:empcIcn unIuk mcju :e(Ic fckIc( incivicu ycnc
Le(pencc(uh ccc|ch keLuIuhcn-keLuIuhcn ycnc cimi|ikinyc. Seccnckcn
fckIc( incivicu Le(kciIcn cenccn ni|ci-ni|ci ycnc cicnuI ccn :ifcI-:ifcI
kep(iLccicn.
FenccpcI ycnc |cin cikemukcn c|eh Ghi:e||i ccn 8(cwn.
mencemukckcn cccnyc |imc fckIc( ycnc menimLu|kcn kepuc:cn ke(jc.
yciIu:
c. Kecucukcn {pc:i:i)
Umumnyc mcnu:ic Le(cncccpcn Lchwc :e:ec(cnc ycnc Leke(jc pccc
peke(jccn ycnc |eLih Iincci ckcn me(c:c |eLih puc: cc(ipccc kc(ycwcn
ycnc Leke(jc pccc peke(jccn ycnc |eLih (encch. Fccc LeLe(cpc
pene|iIicn menunjukkcn Lchwc hc| Ie(:eLuI Iicck :e|c|u Lenc(. IeIcpi ju:I(u
pe(uLchcn cc|cm IinckcI peke(jccn|ch ycnc mempencc(uhi kepuc:cn
ke(jc.
L. FcnckcI {cc|cnccn)
Fccc peke(jccn ycnc mencc:c(kcn pe(Lecccn IinckcI {cc|cnccn).
:ehinccc peke(jccn Ie(:eLuI memLe(ikcn kecucukcn Ie(IenIu pccc c(cnc
ycnc me|ckukcnnyc. /pcLi|c ccc kencikcn upch. mckc :ecikiI
Lcnycknyc ckcn cicncccp :eLccci kencikcn pcnckcI. ccn keLcnccccn
Ie(hcccp kecucukcn ycnc Lc(u iIu ckcn me(uLch pe(i|cku ccn
pe(c:ccnnyc.
c. Umu(
DinycIckcn Lchwc ccc huLunccn cnIc(c kepuc:cn ke(jc cenccn umu(
kc(ycwcn. Umu( ci cnIc(c 25 Ichun :cmpci 34 Ichun ccn umu( 40 :cmpci
35

45 Ichun ccc|ch me(upckcn umu(-umu( ycnc Li:c menimLu|kcn pe(c:ccn
ku(cnc puc: Ie(hcccp peke(jccn.
c. Jcmincn fincn:ic| ccn jcmincn :c:ic|. Mc:c|ch fincn:ic| ccn jcmincn :c:ic|
:e(inckc|i Le(pencc(uh Ie(hcccp kepuc:cn ke(jc.
e. MuIu penccwc:cn
HuLunccn cnIc(c kc(ycwcn cenccn pihck pimpincn :cnccI penIinc
c(Iinyc cc|cm mencikkcn p(ccukIifiIc: ke(jc. Kepuc:cn kc(ycwcn ccpcI
ciIinckcIkcn me|c|ui pe(hcIicn ccn huLunccn ycnc Lcik cc(i pimpincn
kepccc Lcwchcn. :ehinccc kc(ycwcn ckcn me(c:c Lchwc ci(inyc
me(upckcn Lccicn ycnc penIinc cc(i c(ccni:c:i ke(jc {:en:e c|
ce|cng|ng) /:´cc {2004).
Seccnckcn fckIc(-fckIc( ycnc memLe(ikcn kepuc:cn ke(jc menu(uI 8|um
{1º5ó) :eLccci Le(ikuI :
c. FckIc( incivicuc|. me|ipuIi umu(. ke:ehcIcn. wcIck ccn hc(cpcn.
L. FckIc( :c:ic|. me|ipuIi huLunccn keke|uc(cccn. pcnccnccn
mc:yc(ckcI. ke:empcIcn Le(k(ec:i. kecicIcn pe(:e(ikcIcn peke(jc.
keLeLc:cn Le(pc|iIik. ccn huLunccn kemc:yc(ckcIcn.
c. FckIc( uIcmc cc|cm peke(jccn. me|ipuIi upch. penccwc:cn.
keIenI(cmcn ke(jc. kcnci:i ke(jc. ccn ke:empcIcn unIuk mcju. Se|cin
iIu jucc penchc(cccn Ie(hcccp kecckcpcn. huLunccn :c:ic| ci
cc|cm peke(jccn. keIepcIcn cc|cm menye|e:cikcn kcnf|ik cnIc(
mcnu:ic. pe(c:ccn cipe(|ckukcn cci| Lcik ycnc menycnckuI p(iLcci
mcupun Iucc: {/:´cc. 2004).
8e(Lecc cenccn penccpcI 8|um ccc penccpcI |cin cc(i Gi|me(
{1ºóó) IenIcnc fckIc(-fckIc( ycnc mempencc(uhi kepuc:cn ke(jc :eLccci
Le(ikuI:
c. Ke:empcIcn unIuk mcju
Dc|cm hc| ini ccc Iiccknyc ke:empcIcn unIuk mempe(c|eh pencc|cmcn
ccn peninckcIcn kemcmpucn :e|cmc ke(jc.
L. Kecmcncn ke(jc
FckIc( ini :e(inc ci:eLuI :eLccci penunjcnc kepuc:cn ke(jc. Lcik Lcci
kc(ycwcn p(ic mcupun wcniIc. Keccccn ycnc cmcn :cnccI
mempencc(uhi pe(c:ccn kc(ycwcn :e|cmc ke(jc.
36

c. Gcji
Gcji |eLih Lcnyck menyeLcLkcn keIicckpuc:cn. ccn jc(cnc c(cnc
mencek:p(e:ikcn kepuc:cn ke(jcnyc cenccn :ejum|ch ucnc ycnc
cipe(c|ehnyc.
c. Fe(u:chccn ccn mcncjemen
Fe(u:chccn ccn mcncjemen ycnc Lcik ccc|ch ycnc mcmpu
memLe(ikcn :iIuc:i ccn kcnci:i ke(jc ycnc :IcLi|. FckIc( ini ycnc
menenIukcn kepuc:cn ke(jc kc(ycwcn.
e. Fenccwc:cn {Supe(vi:e)
8cci kc(ycwcn. :upe(vi:c( cicncccp :eLccci ficu( cych ccn :ekc|icu:
cIc:cnnyc. Supe(vi:i ycnc Lu(uk ccpcI Le(ckiLcI cL:en:i ccn Iu(n cve(.
f. FckIc( inI(in:ik cc(i peke(jccn
/I(iLuI ycnc ccc pccc peke(jccn men:yc(cIkcn keI(cmpi|cn Ie(IenIu.
Sukc( ccn mucchnyc :e(Ic keLcnccccn ckcn Iucc: ckcn meninckcIkcn
cIcu mencu(cnci kepuc:cn.
c. Kcnci:i ke(jc
Ie(mc:uk ci :ini ccc|ch kcnci:i IempcI. venIi|c:i. penyinc(cn. kcnIin ccn
IempcI pc(ki(.
h. /:pek :c:ic| cc|cm peke(jccn
Me(upckcn :c|ch :cIu :ikcp ycnc :u|iI ciccmLc(kcn IeIcpi cipcnccnc
:eLccci fckIc( ycnc menunjcnc puc: cIcu Iicck puc: cc|cm ke(jc.
i. Kcmunikc:i
Kcmunikc:i ycnc |cncc( cnIc( kc(ycwcn cenccn pihck mcncjemen
Lcnyck cipckci c|c:cn unIuk menyukci jcLcIcnnyc. Dc|cm hc| ini cccnyc
ke:eciccn pihck cIc:cn unIuk mcu mencencc(. memchcmi ccn
mencckui penccpcI cIcupun p(e:Ic:i kc(ycwcnnyc :cnccI Le(pe(cn
cc|cm menimLu|kcn (c:c puc: Ie(hcccp ke(jc.
j. Fc:i|iIc:
Fc:i|iIc: (umch :ckiI. cuIi. ccnc pen:iun. cIcu pe(umchcn me(upckcn
:Icncc( :ucIu jcLcIcn ccn cpcLi|c ccpcI cipenuhi ckcn menimLu|kcn
(c:c puc:.
Fene|iIicn ycnc ci|ckukcn c|eh Ccucemi ccn C|cypcc| {1º78)
menemukcn Lchwc hc|-hc| ycnc menyeLcLkcn (c:c puc: ccc|ch:
O F(e:Ic:i
O Fenchc(cccn
O Kencikcn jcLcIcn
O Fujicn.
37

Seccnckcn fckIc(-fckIc( ycnc menyeLcLkcn keIicckpuc:cn ccc|ch:
O KeLijck:cnccn pe(u:chccn
O Supe(vi:c(
O Kcnci:i ke(jc
O Gcji
8e(cc:c(kcn incikcIc( ycnc menimLu|kcn kepuc:cn ke(jc Ie(:eLuI ci
cIc: ckcn ccpcI cipchcmi :ikcp incivicu Ie(hcccp peke(jccn ycnc
ci|ckukcn. Kc(enc :eIicp incivicu ckcn memi|iki IinckcI kepuc:cn ycnc
Le(Lecc-Lecc :e:uci cenccn :i:Iem ni|ci ycnc Le(|cku pccc ci(inyc. lni
ci:eLcLkcn cccnyc pe(Lecccn pe(:ep:i pccc mc:inc-mc:inc incivicu.
Semckin Lcnyck c:pek cc|cm peke(jccn ycnc :e:uci cenccn keincincn
incivicu Ie(:eLuI mckc :emckin Iincci IinckcI kepuc:cn ycnc ci(c:ckcnnyc.
C|eh kc(encnyc :umLe( kepuc:cn :ec(cnc kc(ycwcn :ecc(c :uLyekIif
menenIukcn Lcccimcnc peke(jccn ycnc ci|ckukcn memuc:kcn. Me:kipun
unIuk LcIc:cn kepuc:cn ke(jc ini Le|um ccc ke:e(cccmcn IeIcpi ycnc je|c:
ccpcI cikcIckcn Lchwc Iicck ccc p(in:ip-p(in:ip keIeIcpcn kepuc:cn ke(jc
ycnc mencikcI cc(i pcccnyc.
Secc(c umum fckIc( ycnc mempencc(uhi kepuc:cn ke(jc Li:c
ci:impu|kcn Ie(ci(i cc(i cnIc(c |cin :
- Ke(cccmcn peke(jccn
- Ke:u|iIcn peke(jccn
- Jum|ch Feke(jccn
- Icnccunc JcwcL
- CIcncmi
- Kencc|i Ie(hcccp meIcce ke(jc
- Kemcjemukcn
- K(ecIiviIc:
- Kcnci:i Ke(jc Ycnc Menunjcnc :epe(Ii Fene(cnccn. Suhu. Mejc / Ku(:i cIcu
c|cI ke(jc ycnc e(ccncmi:
- Lecce(:hip
- Ccn:ice(cIicn {penencccnccn (c:c)
- Gcji/lmLc|cn ycnc cipe(c|eh
Kepuc:cn / keIicck puc:cn ke(jc ckcn Le(ccmpck pccc p(ccukIiviIc:
ke(jc. Iu(ncve(. ke:ehcIcn Ienccc ke(jc. ccn cL:en:i. /cc EmpcI Cc(c
Mencunckcpkcn KeIicckpuc:cn Kc(ycwcn {FcLin:. 1ºº8) ycnc ciccmLc(kcn
:eLccci Le(ikuI :
38



DicccpIc:i cc(i FcLLin:. 1ºº8 cc|cm Muncncc( 2001
GcmLc( º.Fe:pcn Kc(ycwcn Ie(hcccp KeIicckpuc:cn ycnc ci(c:ckcn

/cc empcI kemunckincn pe(i|cku kc(ycwcn ycnc mencc|cmi
keIicckpuc:cn ke(jc. YciIu {1) ke|uor (ex|t) yciIu keIicckpuc:cn ci:cmpcikcn
cenccn meninccc|kcn peke(jccn Ie(mc:uk mencc(i peke(jccn |cin. {2)
menvuorokon ket|dokpuoson cenccn u:chc ckIifc ccn kcn:I(ukIif cc|cm
mempe(Lciki kcnci:i Ie(mc:uk memLe(ikcn :c(cn pe(Lcikcn pccc cIc:cn. {3)
mengobo|kon (Neg|ect). yciIu keIicckpuc:cn ke(jc ycnc ciunckcpckn me|c|u
:ikcp memLic(kcn keccccn |eLih Lu(uk Ie(mc:uk mi:c|nyc :e(inc cL:en.
ccIcnc Ie(|cmLcI. :e(inc me|ckukcn ke:c|chcn {4) Keset|oon (|ovo|tv), yciIu
keIicckpuc:cn ke(jc ycnc ciunckcpkcn cenccn menunccu :ecc(c pc:if
:cmpci kcnci:i menjcci |eLih Lcik. Ie(mc:uk memLe|c pe(u:chccn Ie(hcccp
k(iIik cc(i |uc(.



39

ó
$IkE$ DI IEMFAI KEkJA & MANAJEMEN
$IkE$


De||n|s| $tress
SI(e:: ccc|ch pencc|cmcn ycnc Le(:ifcI inIe(nc| ycnc mencipIckcn
cccnyc keIicck:eimLcnccn fi:ik ccn p:iki: cc|cm ci(i :e:ec(cnc ckiLcI cc(i
fckIc( |inckunccn ek:Ie(nc|. c(ccni:c:i cIcu c(cnc |cin {Szi|ccyi. 2000). SI(e::
Lic:cnyc cicncccp :eLccci :e:ucIu ycnc neccIif. Se(inc ciki(c ci:eLcLkcn
c|eh :e:ucIu ycnc Lu(uk. ccn ci:eLuI :eLccci ci:I(e::. IeIcpi ccc jucc :I(e::
ycnc pc:iIif. ycnc ci:eLcLkcn c|eh :e:ucIu ycnc Lcik. mi:c| cip(cmc:ikcn
unIuk kencikcn pcnckcI cenccn ciLe(ikcn peke(jccn ci IempcI |cin.
GiL:cn. lvcncevich ccn Dcnne|y {1ººó) mencefini:ikcn :I(e:: :eLccci
:ucIu Icncccpcn penye:ucicn. cipe(cnIc(ci c|eh pe(Lecccn- pe(Lecccn
incivicu ccn cIcu p(c:e: p:ikc|cci:. ckiLcI cc(i :eIicp Iincckcn |inckunccn.
:iIuc:i. cIcu pe(i:Iiwc ycnc meneIcpkcn pe(minIccn p:ikc|cci: ccn cIcu fi:ik
Le(|eLihcn kepccc :e:ec(cnc. Defini:i Ie(:eLuI mencccmLc(kcn :I(e:: :ecikiI
|eLih neccIif. :eccnckcn menu(uI pckc( :I(e::. D(. Hcn: Se|ye.
mempe(kenc|kcn :I(e:: :eLccci :ucIu (cnc:cnccn cc|cm pence(Iicn pc:i:if.
ci:eLuI :eLccci EuI(e::. Eu:I(e:: memLucI incivicu mcmpu Le(cccpIc:i
Ie(hcccp |inckunccn ccn menyeLcLkcn Ie(jccinyc pe(kemLcnccn ke c(ch
ycnc |eLih Lcik. EuI(e:: cipe(|ukcn cc|cm hicup.
l:Ii|ch :I(e: cipe(kenc|kcn pe(Icmc kc|i c|eh Se|ye pccc Ichun 1º30 cc|cm
cunic l|mu F:ikc|cci ccn KecckIe(cn. Se|ye mencefini:ikcn SIFES :eLccci:
(eck:i c(ccni:me IuLuh Ie(hcccp cnccmcn cIcu :iIuc:i ycnc menekcn. Se|ye
memLecckcn SIFES {(eck:i c(ccni:me IuLuh) cc(i SIFESSCF {penyeLcL
exIe(nc|). HcLfc|| {1º8º). menccLc mene(cnckcn SIFESme|c|ui FESCUFCES
{:e:ucIu ycnc Le(cunc ccn cicc(i c|eh incivicu).
lncivicu ckcn mencc|cmi :I(e: jikc me(c:c |e:cu|ce:-nyc Ie(cnccm. hi|cnc.
cIcu u:chc ycnc Ie|ch ci|ckukcnnyc unIuk menccpcIkcn (e:cu(ce: t|dok
menghos||kon reso:rces.

4O

keoks| F|s|o|og|s
Fccc Ichun 1º78. Se|ye menemukcn. Lchwc pccc inIinyc. :I(e:: cihc:i|kcn
c|eh (cnIci (eck:i cc(i mechcni:me neu(cenccc(ine
xc|tct|cn pccc LcIcnc cIck memicu ke|enjc( cc(enc| {Ie(|eIck IepcI ci
cIc: cinjc| ki(i ccn kcncn) unIuk memp(ccuk:i hc(mcn {cc|enc||n &
nc|cc|enc||n) ycnc cikenc| :eLccci 'pe(fc(mcnce hc(mcne´{kc(enc
hc(mcn-hc(mcn Ie(:eLuI memLucI c(ccni:me IuLuh cc|cm kcnci:i
wc:pccc {c|e(I).
Hc(mcn-hc(mcn Ie(:eLuI jucc cikenc| cenccn ncmc: ctecnc|cn|ne:. ccn
ccpcI ciIemukcn pccc u(ine {:eLccci :c|ch :cIu cc(c unIuk meneIcpkcn
:I(e:).
Hc(mcn-hc(mcn Ie(:eLuI Le(pe(cn cc|cm mencckIifkcn :i:Iem ycnc ccc ci
cc|cm 'FeIicu|c( fc(mcIicn´
FeninckcIcn :Iimu|c:i cc|cm 'Fet|cu|c| |c|nct|cn´ ccpcI meninckcIkcn:
ceIck jcnIunc ccn Iekcncn cc(ch ccn kccc( cu|c :e(Ic meIcLc|i:me. Feck:i
ini cikenc| cenccn ncmc '|gct|cc|c :ett|ng' ccn pccc inIinyc icenIik
cenccn cc:c( mekcni:me cc(i (eck:i :I(e::.

Mekcni:me (eck:i :I(e: mence(minkcn: 1) ke:icpcn ycnc inIen:if unIuk
mempe(Ichcnkcn hicup Ie(mc:uk Le(ke|chi. me|c(ikcn ci(i. cIcu kine(jc fi:ik
|cinnyc.
Kcnci:i emc:icnc| ycnc cicc:c(i c|eh pe(c:ccn Ie(cnccm. menu(uI Se|ye
{1º78). jucc ccpcI memLe(ikcn hc:i| ycnc neccIive. SI(e: cc|cm jcnckc
wckIu ycnc |cmc ccn Ie(jcci Le(u|cnc kc|i. ccpcI me(ucikcn ke:ehcIcn.
Ie(uIcmc ycnc Le(huLunccn cenccn :i:Iem pence(nccn ccn :i:Iem
cc|c|cvc:cu|c|. Dcmpck-ccmpck Ie(:eLuI me(upckcn ccnccucn
p:ikc:cmcIi:. ycnc ccpcI Le(uLch menjcci penyckiI ycnc :e:unccuhnyc
{c|gcn|c |||ne::e:).
/kcn IeIcpi :I(e: ciLuIuhkcn cc|cm kehicupcn :ehc(i-hc(i. :e|cmc ccpcI
cijccc :ehinccc Iicck menjcci ci:I(e:: {pe(c:ccn Ie(LeLcni :ecc(c
Le(|eLihcn. Hicup Icnpc :I(e:: memLc:cnkcn ccn Iicck c|cmi.
SI(e: ke(jc ccpcI cikcn:epIuc|i:c:i cc(i LeLe(cpc IiIik pcnccnc. yciIu :I(e:
:eLccci :Iimu|u: cIcu :I(e:: :eLccci (e:pcn ccn :I(e: :eLccci :Iimu|u:-(e:pcn.
41

$tres sebogo| st|mu|us me(upckcn pencekcIcn ycnc meniIikLe(cIkcn pccc
|inckunccn. Defini:i :Iimu|u: memcnccnc :I(e: :eLccci :ucIu kekucIcn ycnc
menekcn incivicu unIuk memLe(ikcn Icncccpcn Ie(hcccp :I(e:c(.
FencekcIcn ini memcnccnc :I(e: :eLccci kcn:ekuen:i cc(i inIe(ck:i cnIc(c
:Iimu|u: |inckunccn cenccn (e:pcn incivicu.
FencekcIcn st|mu|us-respon mencefini:ikcn :I(e: :eLccci kcn:ekuen:i cc(i
inIe(ck:i cnIc(c :Iimu|u: |inckunccn cenccn (e:pcn incivicu. SI(e: cipcnccnc
Iicck :ekecc( :eLuch :Iimu|u: cIcu (e:pcn. me|cinkcn :I(e: me(upckcn hc:i|
inIe(ck:i unik cnIc(c kcnci:i :Iimu|u: |inckunccn ccn kecence(unccn incivicu
unIuk memLe(ikcn Icncccpcn.
$tress d| tempot kerjo
SI(e:: ci IempcI ke(jc. ccpcI cicefini:ikcn :eLccci kcnci:i emc:icnc|
incivicu ycnc ci:eLcLkcn kc(enc cccnyc pe(Lecccn cnIc(c kcpc:iIc: ci(i
incivicu cenccn IunIuIcn ke(jcnyc. SiIuc:i ycnc menekcn ccpcI menjcci
pencc|cmcn emc:icnc| ycnc neccIif. ycnc Li:c jcci Le(huLunccn cenccn
keIiccknycmcncn yciIu Le(upc :
Ŵ Kecemc:cn
Ŵ Fe(c:ccn Ieccnc
Ŵ Mc(ch
Ŵ Le|ch/FcIicue
Ŵ Ku(cnc Le(:emcnccI
Ŵ 8incunc/Ccnfu:icn
I|ngkot stress kerjo dopot d|pengoruh| o|eh :
Ŵ !erson-Fnv|ronmenf |f (F-E F|t), yciIu IinckcI kecccckcn cnIc(c
kc(ckIe(i:Iik incivicu cenccn |inckunccn ke(jcnyc ycnc ccpcI
menenIukcn we||-ce|ng ccn kine(jc incivicu.
Ŵ ob Confro| / A:fonomy / Otonom|. yciIu keLeLc:cn incivicu cc|cm
meneIcpkcn (uIiniIc: ke(jcnyc :ehc(i-hc(i.
Ŵ 5:porf 5os|o| yciIu cukunccn ycnc cimi|iki incivicu cc(i |inckunccn
ke(jcnyc.
Ŵ Iekonon Kerjo yciIu hc|-hc| ycnc Le(huLunccn cenccn IunIuIcn ccn
LeLcn ke(jc: Iekcncn ycnc Le(|eLihcn cc|cm peke(jccn ccn kc(i(
cence(unc ccpcI menimLu|kcn keIicckpuc:cn ci IempcI ke(jc.
Ŵ ob 5ec:r|fy yciIu : IinckcI ke|cnccenccn incivicu unIuk IeIcp memi|iki
peke(jccnnyc
42

Ŵ Ionggung Jowob yciIu Icnccunc jcwcL ycnc cimi|iki incivicu cc|cm
hicupnyc. Ie(hcccp ci(inyc ccn we||-ce|ng c(cnc |cin. ccpcI
menimLu|kcn LeLcn menIc|
Ŵ Moso|oh L|ngkungon F|s|k. yciIu keLi:inccn. pencchcyccn ycnc
Lu(uk. :uhu ci cc|cm ccn ci |uc( kcnIc( ycnc ku(cnc menyencnckcn.
kcnIc( ycnc keci| cIcu :e:ck / penuh
Ŵ Komp|eks|tos. yciIu jum|ch IunIuIcn ke(jc ycnc Le(mcccm-mcccm:
ke(jc ycnc (epeIiIif ccn mcncIcn Lic:cnyc me(upckcn ke(jc ycnc
Iicck kcmp|ek:. IeIcpi ccpcI menimLu|kcn keIicckpuc:cn ke(jc: /kcn
IeIcpi ke(jc ycnc Ie(c|u kcmp|ek: jucc ccpcI menimLu|kcn pe(c:ccn
'|nccncetence´ ccn memicu emcIicnc| :I(e::.
Ŵ I|pe kepr|bod|on. Se:ec(cnc cenccn kcp(iLccicn Iipe / cence(unc
mencc|cmi :I(e: ciLcncinc kep(iLccicn Iipe N/ 8cLc(cpc ci(i
kep(iLccicn Iipe / ini ccc|ch :e(inc me(c:c ciLu(u-Lu(u cc|cm
menjc|cnkcn peke(jccnnyc. Iicck :cLc(cn. kcn:enI(c:i pccc |eLih
ccn :cIu peke(jccn pccc wckIu ycnc :cmc. cence(unc Iicck puc:
Ie(hcccp hicup {cpc ycnc ci(cihnyc). cence(unc Le(kcmpeIi:i
cenccn c(cnc |cin me:kipun cc|cm :iIuc:i cIcu pe(i:Iiwc ycnc ncn
kcmpeIiIif. Denccn LeciIu. Lcci pihck pe(u:chccn ckcn :e|c|u
mencc|cmi ci|emc kcIikc menccmLi| peccwci cenccn kep(iLccicn
Iipe /. SeLcL. ci :cIu :i:i ckcn mempe(c|eh hc:i| ycnc Lccu: ccn
peke(jccn me(ekc. ncmun ci :i:i |cin pe(u:chccn ckcn menccpcIkcn
peccwci ycnc menccpcI (e:ikc :e(cnccn/:ckiI jcnIunc.
Ŵ Fer|st|wo/pengo|omon pr|bod|. SI(e: ke(jc :e(inc ci:eLcLkcn
pencc|cmcn p(iLcci ycnc menyckiIkcn. kemcIicn pc:cnccn.
pe(ce(cicn. :ekc|ch. cnck :ckiI cIcu cccc| :ekc|ch. kehcmi|cn Iicck
ciincinkcn. pe(i:Iiwc I(cumcIi: cIcu menchcccpi mc:c|ch
{pe|cnccc(cn) hukum. 8cnyck kc:u: menunjukkcn Lchwc IinckcI
:I(e:: pc|inc Iincci Ie(jcci pccc :e:ec(cnc ycnc mencc|cmi
pc:cnccnnyc meninccc|. :emenIc(c ycnc pc|inc (encch ci:eLcLkcn
c|eh pe(pincchcn IempcI Iinccc|. Di:cmpinc iIu. keIicckmcmpucn
memenuhi keLuIuhcn :ehc(i-hc(i. ke:epicn. pe(c:ccn Iicck cmcn.
jucc Ie(mc:uk kcIecc(i ini


43

Kc:u: :I(e: peke(jccn ccn menyimpu|kcn Iicc cejc|c cc(i :I(e: pccc incivicu.
yciIu:
1. Gejo|o ps|ko|og|s
8e(ikuI ini ccc|ch cejc|c-cejc|c p:ikc|cci: ycnc :e(inc ciIemui pccc hc:i|
pene|iIicn mencenci :I(e: peke(jccn :
O Kecemc:cn. keIeccnccn. keLincunccn ccn mucch Ie(:inccunc
O Fe(c:ccn f(u:I(c:i. (c:c mc(ch. ccn cenccm {keLencicn)
O Sen:iIif ccn nvce||ecct|v|tv
O Memenccm pe(c:ccn. penc(ikcn ci(i. ccn cep(e:i
O Kcmunikc:i ycnc Iicck efekIif
O Fe(c:ccn Ie(kuci| ccn Ie(c:inc
O KeLc:cncn ccn keIicckpuc:cn ke(jc
O Ke|e|chcn menIc|. penu(uncn func:i inIe|ekIuc|. ccn kehi|cnccn
kcn:enI(c:i
O Kehi|cnccn :pcnIcniIc: ccn k(ecIiviIc:
O Menu(unnyc (c:c pe(ccyc ci(i
2. Gejo|o ||s|o|og|s
Gejc|c-cejc|c fi:ic|cci: ycnc uIcmc cc(i :I(e: ke(jc ccc|ch:
O MeninckcInyc cenyuI jcnIunc. Iekcncn cc(ch. ccn kecence(unccn
mencc|cmi penyckiI kc(cicvc:ku|c(
O MeninckcInyc :ek(e:i cc(i hc(mcn :I(e: {ccnIch: cc(enc|in ccn
nc(cc(enc|in)
O Gcnccucn cc:I(cinIe:Iinc| {mi:c|nyc ccnccucn |cmLunc)
O MeninckcInyc f(ekuen:i cc(i |ukc fi:ik ccn kece|ckccn
O Ke|e|chcn :ecc(c fi:ik ccn kemunckincn mencc|cmi :inc(cm
ke|e|chcn ycnc k(cni: {cn|cn|c |ct|gue :vnc|cne)
O Gcnccucn pe(ncpc:cn. Ie(mc:uk ccnccucn cc(i kcnci:i ycnc ccc
O Gcnccucn pccc ku|iI
O SckiI kepc|c. :ckiI pccc punccunc Lccicn Lcwch. keIeccnccn cIcI
O Gcnccucn Iicu(
44

O Fu:cknyc func:i imun IuLuh. Ie(mc:uk (i:ikc Iincci kemunckincn
Ie(kenc kcnke(
3. Gejo|o per||oku
Gejc|c-cejc|c pe(i|cku ycnc uIcmc cc(i :I(e: ke(jc ccc|ch:
O Menuncc. menchincc(i peke(jccn. ccn cL:en cc(i peke(jccn
O Menu(unnyc p(e:Ic:i {ce||c|ncnce) ccn p(ccukIiviIc:
O MeninckcInyc penccunccn minumcn ke(c: ccn cLcI-cLcIcn
O Fe(i|cku :cLcIc:e cc|cm peke(jccn
O Fe(i|cku mckcn ycnc Iicck nc(mc| {keLcnyckcn) :eLccci
pe|cmpic:cn. mencc(ch ke cLe:iIc:
O Fe(i|cku mckcn ycnc Iicck nc(mc| {keku(cnccn) :eLccci LenIuk
penc(ikcn ci(i ccn kehi|cnccn Le(cI Lcccn :ecc(c IiLc-IiLc.
kemunckincn Le(kcmLinc:i cenccn Icncc-Icncc cep(e:i
O MeninckcInyc kecence(unccn Le(pe(i|cku Le(e:ikc Iincci. :epe(Ii
menyeIi( cenccn Iicck hcIi-hcIi ccn Le(juci
O MeninckcInyc cc(e:iviIc:. vcncc|i:me. ccn k(iminc|iIc:
O Menu(unnyc kuc|iIc: huLunccn inIe(pe(:cnc| cenccn ke|uc(cc ccn
Iemcn
O Kecence(unccn unIuk me|ckukcn Lunuh ci(i

Monojemen $tress
Dc(i :ucuI pcnccnc c(ccni:c:i. mcncjemen Iicck LeciIu mempe(hcIikcn
IinckcI
:I(e:: cc(i (encch :cmpci :eccnc. kc(enc ccpcI Le(ckiLcI func:icnc|. IeIcpi
:I(e:: ycnc Le(cI cIcu IinckcI :I(e:: (encch - :eccnc ycnc Le(|cnc:unc |cmc
ccpcI menuju penu(uncn ke(jc. :ehinccc memLuIuhkcn Iincckcn cIcu
inIe(ven:i cc(i mcncjemen. FencekcIcn ycnc ccpcI ci|ckukcn unIuk
menu(unkcn IinckcI :I(e:: ciLcci menjcci 2 {cuc) yciIu FencekcIcn lncivicu
ccn FencekcIcn C(ccni:c:i.
45



Fendekoton |nd|v|duo|
c. Mcncjemen wckIu
F(in:ip-p(in:ip ycnc cicncccp Ie(kenc| cc|cm mcncjemen wckIu
ccc|ch
:eLccci Le(ikuI : 1) memLucI ccfIc( hc(icn IenIcnc kecicIcn-kecicIcn ycnc
hc(u: ci:e|e:cikcn. 2) memp(ic(iIc:kcn kecicIcn-kecicIcn cIc: cc:c(
kepenIinccn ccn u(cen:inyc. 3) memLucI jccwc| kecicIcn Le(cc:c(kcn
p(ic(iIc: ycnc Ie|ch ciIeIcpkcn. 4) menceIchui :ik|u: Lic(iImik ci(i :enci(i
ccn mence(jckcn Iucc: ycnc menunIuI Ienccc ccn piki(cn pccc :ccI
Lic(iImik :eccnc Iincci.

L. LcIihcn fi:ik
LcIihcn fi:ik ycnc ncn-kcmpeIiIiIf :epe(Ii ce(cLik. Le(encnc.
Le(:epecc.
jcccinc Ie|ch |cmc ci(ekcmencc:ikcn c|eh pc(c cckIe( :eLccci cc(c unIuk
menccIc:i Le(Lccci IinckcIcn :I(e:: ycnc ek:e:if.
c. LcIihcn (e|ck:c:i
Limc Le|c: meniI cIcu cuc pu|uh meniI :ehc(i me|ckukcn (e|ck:c:i
ycnc
cc|cm ccpcI me|epc:kcn keIeccnccn ccn memLe(ikcn pe(c:ccn penuh
keccmcicn ycnc incch. LeLih penIinc |cci. cccnyc pe(uLchcn ycnc
:icnifikcn cc|cm cenyuI jcnIunc. Iekcncn cc(ch. ccn fckIc(-fckIc( fi:ik
|cinnyc me(upckcn hc:i| uIcmc cc(i ceep (e|cxcIicn Ie(:eLuI.
c. Dukunccn :c:ic|
Memi|iki Lcnyck kcwcn. ke|uc(cc cIcu Iemcn :eke(jc unIuk Iemcn
Le(Licc(c ccpcI memLe(ikcn jc|cn ke|uc( keIikc IinckcI :I(e:: menjcci ek:e:if.
Dukunccn :c:ic| ccpcI memcce(cIkcn ckiLcI cc(i huLunccn :I(e::-ke(jc.
:ehinccc :I(e:: ci IempcI ke(jc ycnc Le(cI pun Iicck ccpcI me(unIuhkcn
:e:ec(cnc.
e. Kcn:e|inc kc(ycwcn
Kcn:e|inc ccc|ch ci:ku:i :eLuch p(cL|em ycnc Lic:cnyc memi|iki
un:u(
46

emc:icnc| cenccn :ec(cnc kc(ycwcn :upcyc ccpcI memLcnIu menccIc:i
emc:inyc cenccn |eLih Lcik {Cci(c. 1º83). Kcn:e|inc ccpcI ci|ckukcn Lcik
c|eh pc(c p(cfe:icnc| mcupun ncn-p(cfe:icnc|. Kcn:e|inc ini Lic:cnyc
Le(:ifcI (chc:ic. Fc(c kc(ycwcn ccpcI me(c:c LeLc: unIuk Le(Licc(c
Ie(Lukc
IenIcnc p(cL|em ycnc cihcccpi.
Fendekoton orgon|sos|
c. Se|ek:i ccn penempcIcn
Ie(ccpcI LeLe(cpc peke(jccn ycnc |eLih menimLu|kcn :I(e:: cc(ipccc
peke(jccn |cinnyc (e:pcn c(cnc Ie(hcccp :I(e:: pun Le(Lecc cnIc(c :cIu
c(cnc
cenccn c(cnc |cinnyc. Sehinccc mcncjemen Iicck Lc|eh memLcIc:i :cIu
peke(jccn hcnyc c|eh c(cnc ycnc Le(pencc|cmcn :cjc. IeIcpi jucc memi|iki
kcnI(c| p(iLcci ycnc Le(:ifcI inIe(nc| kc(enc c(cnc-c(cnc ycnc :epe(Ii ini
ccpcI menccccpIc:i peke(jccn cenccn IinckcI :I(e:: ycnc (e|cIif Iincci ccn
menunjukkcn kine(jc ycnc efekIif unIuk peke(jccn Ie(:eLuI.
L. FeneIcpcn Iujucn
Mcnu:ic Le(p(e:Ic:i |eLih Lcik keIikc memi|iki Iujucn khu:u: ccn
mencnIcnc :e(Ic mene(imc umpcn Lc|ik IenIcnc :eLe(cpc jcuh kemcjucn
ycnc Ie|ch ciLucInyc menuju Ie(ccpcinyc Iujucn-Iujucn Ie(:eLuI.
c. Fence:cincn kemLc|i peke(jccn
Ieknik ini ccpcI memLe(ikcn pc(c kc(ycwcn Icnccuncc jcwcL ycnc
|eLih
Iincci. ke(jc ycnc |eLih Le(c(Ii. cIcncmi ycnc |eLih Lcnyck ccn peninckcIcn
umpcn Lc|ik. Hc| ini ccpcI mencu(cnci :I(e:: kc(enc fckIc(-fckIc( ini
memLe(ikcn kc(ycwcn kcnI(c| ycnc |eLih Le:c( IenIcnc ckIiviIc:
peke(jccnnyc ccn mempe(keci| keIe(ccnIunccn pccc c(cnc |cin.
c. FenccmLi|cn kepuIu:cn :ecc(c pc(Ii:ipcIif
Me|iLcIkcn kc(ycwcn cc|cm penccmLi|cn kepuIu:cn :ecc(c |cnc:unc
ccpcI mempencc(uhi kine(jc kc(ycwcn. Mcncjemen ccpcI meninckcIkcn
kcnI(c| ccn mencu(cnci :I(e:: kc(enc pe(cn me(ekc.
e. Kcmunikc:i c(ccni:c:i
MeninckcIkcn kcmunikc:i fc(mc| cenccn pc(c kc(ycwcn ccpcI
mencu(cnci keIicckpc:Iicn cenccn cc(c mempe(keci| ke(ccu-(ccucn. kcnf|ik
47

ccn pe(cn. Mcncjemen jucc ccpcI menccunckcn kcmunikc:i efekIif
:eLccci cc(c unIuk mempe(Lciki pe(:ep:i kc(ycwcn.
f. F(cc(cm-p(cc(cm keLucc(cn
Fe(|u ciLucI p(cc(cm-p(cc(cm keLucc(cn unIuk pc(c kc(ycwcn ycnc
ciIcwc(kcn c|eh c(ccni:c:i cIcu pe(u:chccn. F(cc(cm ini cifcku:kcn pccc
ke:ehcIcn fi:ik ccn menIc| :ecc(c IcIc| {Wc|fe eI c|. 1º87). Mi:c|nyc
mcncjemen mencccckcn wc(k:hcp unIuk memLcnIu kc(ycwcnnyc Le(henIi
me(ckck. menccnI(c| penccunccn c|kchc|. menu(unkcn Le(cI Lcccn ccn
p(cc(cm cieI mckcn. Ie(nycIc jikc ciLcncinckcn Licyc ycnc cike|uc(kcn
unIuk p(cc(cm ini cenccn keunIunccn ycnc cipe(c|eh kc(enc Le(ku(cncnyc
cL:en ke(jc ccn mc|c: Leke(jc. p(cc(cm ini mc:ih jcuh |eLih Lcik unIuk
c(ccni:c:i cIcu pe(u:chccn.

48

ó
KEkJA$AMA IIM & KEFEMIMFINAN

Kerjosomo I|m
De||n|s| Kerjosomo I|m
SeLe|um menje|c:kcn cefini:i cc(i ke(jcIim cIcu Iecmwc(k. pe(|u
cipe(hcIikcn un:u(-un:u( ycnc ccc cc|cm :eLuch Iecm. SeLuch Iecm.
umumnyc memi|iki LeLe(cpc un:u(. yciIu
1. Seke|cmpck c(cnc
2. Memi|iki Iujucn ycnc :cmc
3. /cc ke(jc:cmc

8e(cc:c(kcn un:u(-un:u( cicIc:. mckc Iecm ccc|ch ¨ :eke|cmpck
c(cnc ycnc ene(jik ccn memi|iki kcmiImen unIuk menccpci Iujucn umum
cenccn memLcncun ccn memLenIuk ke(jc:cmc cunc mempe(c|eh hc:i|
cenccn kuc|iIc: Ie(Iincci¨ cIcu cenccn pence(Iicn |cin. Iecm ccc|ch
¨kumpu|cn c(cnc-c(cnc ycnc hc(u: mencccc|kcn ke(jc:cmc c(up jikc
mc:inc-mc:inc cncccIcnyc incin mencc|cmi keLe(hc:i|cn ccn penccpcicn
Iujucn ycnc cpIimum.¨
Iecm Le(cncccIckcn c(cnc-c(cnc ycnc cikcc(cinc:ikcn unIuk Leke(jc:cmc.
ycnc cnIc(c |cin memi|iki Iujucn ccn penccpcicn Ic(ceI ycnc :cmc.
Feron Ieom
Kepuc:cn ycnc ciccpci me|c|ui :eLuch Iecm cihc:i|kcn cc(i
mencucInyc :i:Iem ni|ci :e:ec(cnc :eIe|ch cccnyc :hc(inc ni|ci. Se|cin iIu
incivicu jucc menccpcIkcn kekucIcn p:ikc|cci: kc(enc cccnyc
keLe(:cmccn.
Iujucn ciLenIuknyc Iecm ccc|ch unIuk mencumpu|kcn :umLe( ccyc
kc|ekIif cunc menccpci kepuIu:cn ycnc |eLih Lcik. cenccn c:um:i Lchwc
kemcmpucn ccn pencc|cmcn cncccIc ccpcI cimcnfccIkcn :ecc(c
cpIimc|.

49

KcmLinc:i cnIc(c :ki|| ckcn mempe(mucch p(c:e: ke(jc ccn jucc
ckcn |eLih mcmpu mencipIckcn :e(Ic mencemLcnckcn cccc:cn cc(ipccc
peke(jccn iIu cike(jckcn :enci(i.
UnIuk menccpci kehc(mcni:cn ccn penycIucn ycnc :c|ic. :eIicp
incivicu hc(u: memi|iki keIe(cmpi|cn cc:c( ycnc cipe(|ukcn unIuk Leke(jc
:ecc(c Iim. Secc(c cc(i: Le:c(. ccc cuc keIe(cmpi|cn uIcmc ycnc muI|ck
hc(u: cimi|iki cncccIc Iim. yciIu:
- Kemomp:on enge|o|o (onoger|o| 5k|||s)
Kemcmpucn menccIu( ccn mence|c|c pcIen:i ci(i :enci(i. :e(Ic
kemcmpucn unIuk me|ckukcn kcc(cinc:i cenccn :e:cmc cncccIc Iim.
Ie(mc:uk ci cc|cmnyc kemcmpucn cc|cm memLucI (enccnc ke(jc.
memcniIc( pe(kemLcnccn ccn memc:Iikcn peke(jccn Ie|ch ci|ckukcn
:ecc(c Lenc(. c||.

- Keferomp||on lnferpersono| (lnferpersono| 5k|||s)
Me(upckcn keIe(cmpi|cn me|ckukcn kcnIck :c:ic| cenccn :e|u(uh
incivicu ci cc|cm ke|cmpck. Ie(mc:uk kemcmpucn unIuk Le(kcmunikc:i.
:c|inc menchc(cci penccpcI c(cnc |cin ccn kemcmpucn menjccc
kekcmpckcn cenccn cncccIc Iim.
Ke(jc:cmc Iim ctcu íecnwc|k me(upckcn :c(cnc ycnc :cnccI
Lcik cc|cm mencccLunckcn Le(Lccci Ic|enIc ccn ccpcI memLe(ikcn
:c|u:i incvcIif :ucIu pencekcIcn ycnc mcpcn. :e|cin iIu keI(cmpi|cn ccn
penceIchucn ycnc Le(cnekc(cccm ycnc cimi|iki c|eh cncccIc ke|cmpck
jucc me(upckcn ni|ci IcmLch ycnc memLucI tecnwc|k |eLih
mencunIunckcn jikc ciLcncinckcn :ec(cnc incivicu ycnc L(i|icn :ekc|ipun
{Fccu. 2008}
SeLuch Iim ccpcI ci|ihcI :eLccci :ucIu uniI ycnc menccIu( ci(inyc
:enci(i. FenIcnccn keI(cmpi|cn ccn penceIchucn ycnc cimi|iki cncccIc
ccn :e|| ncn|tc||ng¨ ycnc ciIunjukkcn c|eh mc:inc-mc:inc Iecm
memunckinkcnnyc unIuk ciLe(ikcn :ucIu Iucc: ccn IcnccuncjcwcL.
8chkcn keIikc :ucIu mc:c|ch Ie(:eLuI ccpcI cipuIu:kcn c|eh :cIu c(cnc
:cjc. me|iLcIkcn Iecmwc(k ckcn memLe(ikcn LeLe(cpc keunIunccn.
KeunIunccn Ie(:eLuI ccc|ch: ce|tcnc kepuIu:cn ycnc ciLucI :ecc(c
Le(:cmc-:cmc ckcn meninckcIkcn mcIivc:i Iim cc|cm pe|ck:cnccnyc.
Kecuc. kepuIu:cn Le(:cmc ckcn |eLih mucch cipchcmi c|eh Iim
ciLcncinckcn jikc hcnyc menccncc|kcn kepuIu:cn cc(i :cIu c(cnc :cjc.
5O

8i|c ci|ihcI cc(i pe(:pekIif incivicu. cenccn mc:uknyc ic kecc|cm
:ucIu ke|cmpck {Iecm) mckc hc| Ie(:eLuI ckcn mencmLch :emcnccI
jucnc/mcIivc:i unIuk menccpci :ucIu p(e:Ic:i ycnc munckin Iicck ckcn
pe(nch ccpcI ciccpci :ec(cnc ci(i c|eh incivicu Ie(:eLuI. Hc| ini ccpcI
Ie(jcci kc(enc Iecm mencc(cnc :eIicp cncccIcnyc unIuk memi|iki
wewencnc ccn IcnccuncjcwcL :ehinccc meninckcIkcn hc(cc ci(i :eIicp
c(cnc.

%|go hombofon :fomo yong :m:m d|fem:| do|om bekerjo somo, yokn|:
1. Kef|dokfoh:on
Se|cin memchcmi ce:k(ip:i peke(jccn. kiIc pun pe(|u menceIchui
:ejum|ch hc| |cin. Mi:c|nyc :cjc cIu(cn Ie(Iu|i: ccn Iicck Ie(Iu|i:
cc|cm Iim. kc(ckIe( Iicp cncccIc ccn |cin :eLcccinyc. 8i|c kiIc
Iicck Ichu. mckc kiIc ckcn Leke(jc Le(cc:c(kcn keyckincn ycnc
Le|um IenIu Lenc(.
2. A||ons|
8i|c kiIc mc:uk kecc|cm Iim ycnc :ucch :c|ic cIcu :eLe|umnyc
:ucch :c|inc mencenc|. wcjc( Li|c ci cnIc(c me(ekc :ucch
Ie(LenIuk :emcccm c|icn:i. KiIc ckcn me(c:c Ie(:i:ih Lic|c mc:uk
ke cc|cm |inckunccn me(ekc. /kcn IeIcpi kc(enc hc(u: Leke(jc
:cmc. mckc cncc hc(u: ccpcI mene(imc c|icn:i Ie(:eLuI.
Cc(cnyc ccc|ch cenccn mencikuIi c(u: ccn Le(Lcu( Icnpc
kehi|cnccn p(in:ip-p(in:ip cc:c(. Kc|cupun Iicck Li:c cekcI :epe(Ii
:chcLcI. minimc| ccpcIkcn kcnci:i ycnc nycmcn unIuk Leke(jc
:cmc.
3. !rosongko 8:r:k
Wc|cupun kiIc cicipIckcn :cmc. kiIc Iicck :e|c|u cipe(|ckukcn
:ejcjc(. 8i|c kiIc Le(p(c:cnckc Lu(uk. muncu| penchc|cnc
p:ikc|cci: ycnc memLucI ke(jc :cmc Iicck efekIif. Mckc. jccc
p(c:cnckc Lcik Ie(hcccp c(cnc |cin kecuc|i Ie(LukIi :eLc|iknyc.

8e(cc:c(kcn p(c:e: ke(jc ycnc ci|ckukcn c|eh :eLuch Iecm cc|cm
mence|c|c kecicIcn. mckc un:u(-un:u( mcncjemen ycnc :eLciknyc cijccikcn
cc:c( ccc|ch F|cn. c. neck. ct|cn cIcu ycnc |eLih cikenc| cenccn i:Ii|ch
FDC/.
51

F|on, me(upckcn p(c:e: cwc| ycnc cipe(|ukcn unIuk memc:Iikcn
Lchwc :umLe( ccyc ycnc cipe(|ukcn cukup memccci Lcik :eci kuc|iIc:
mcupun kucnIiIc:nyc :e(Ic menenIukcn :ecc(c je|c: c(ch/ :c:c(cn kecicIcn.

Fe(enccnccn ycnc Lcik mempe(IimLcnckcn LeLe(cpc fckIc(. cnIc(c |cin:
1. SumLe( ccyc mcnu:ic
2. Lchcn Lcku. mcIe(ic|. pe(c|cIcn. ccn cpc :cjc ycnc cicunckcn cc|cm
p(c:e: kecicIcn
3. meIcce cIcu cc(c ke(jc
4. fckIc( |inckunccn ycnc ccpcI mempencc(uhi p(c:e: ke(jcnyc

Seccnckcn cc|cm fc(mcI (enccnc pe|ck:cnccnnyc :eLciknyc mcmpu
menjcwcL LeLe(cpc hc| ciLcwch ini:
1. /pc ycnc ckcn cike(jckcn/ cike|c|c
2. Menccpc hc(u: cike(jckcn cIcu cpc ckiLcInyc Li|c Iicck cike(jckcn
3. 8cccimcnc cc(c mence(jckcn
4. Kcpcn ccn cimcnc IempcInyc
5. Sicpc pe|ck:cncnyc
ó. 8e(cpc Licycnyc

Kepem|mp|non
Menu(uI :ejc(ch. mc:c ¨kepemimpincn muncu| pccc cLcc 18. /cc
LeLe(cpc pence(Iicn kepemimpincn. cnIc(c |cin:
1. Kepem|mp|non ccc|ch pencc(uh cnIc( p(iLcci. cc|cm :iIuc:i Ie(IenIu
ccn |cnc:unc me|c|ui p(c:e: kcmunikc:i unIuk menccpci :cIu cIcu
LeLe(cpc Iujucn Ie(IenIu {IcnneLcum. We:ch|e( cnc Nc::c(ik. 1ºó1.
24).
2. Kepem|mp|non ccc|ch :ikcp p(iLcci. ycnc memimpin pe|ck:cnccn
ckIiviIc: unIuk menccpci Iujucn ycnc ciincinkcn. {Shc(ec Gcc|.
Hemhie| & Cccn:. 1º57. 7).
52

3. Kepem|mp|non ccc|ch :ucIu p(c:e: ycnc mempencc(uhi ckIifiIc:
ke|cmpck ycnc cicIu( unIuk menccpci Iujucn Le(:cmc {Fcuch &
8eh|inc. 1º84. 4ó).
4. Kepem|mp|non ccc|ch kemcmpucn :eni cIcu Iehnik unIuk memLucI
:eLuch ke|cmpck cIcu c(cnc mencikuIi ccn menccIi :ecc|c
keincincnnyc.
5. Kepem|mp|non ccc|ch :ucIu p(c:e: ycnc memLe(i c(Ii {penuh c(Ii
kepemimpincn) pccc ke(jc:cmc ccn cihc:i|kcn cenccn kemcucn
unIuk memimpin cc|cm menccpci Iujucn {JcccL: & Jcccue:. 1ºº0.
281).
8cnyck cefini:i kepemimpincn ycnc mencccmLc(kcn c:um:i Lchwc
kepemimpincn cihuLunckcn cenccn p(c:e: mempencc(uhi c(cnc Lcik
incivicu mcupun mc:yc(ckcI. Dc|cm kc:u: ini. cenccn :enccjc
mempencc(uhi cc(i c(cnc ke c(cnc |cin cc|cm :u:uncn ckIiviIc:nyc ccn
huLunccn cc|cm ke|cmpck cIcu c(ccni:c:i. Jchn C. Mcxwe|| menccIckcn
Lchwc inIi kepemimpincn ccc|ch mempencc(uhi cIcu menccpcIkcn
pencikuI.

Fengert|on Fem|mp|n
Femimpin ccc|ch inIi cc(i mcncjemen. lni Le(c(Ii Lchwc mcncjemen
ckcn Ie(ccpci Iujucnnyc jikc ccc pemimpin. Kepemimpincn hcnyc ccpcI
ci|ck:cnckcn c|eh :ec(cnc pemimpin. Sec(cnc pemimpin ccc|ch :e:ec(cnc
ycnc mempunyci kech|icn memimpin. mempunyci kemcmpucn
mempencc(uhi penci(icn/penccpcI c(cnc cIcu :eke|cmpck c(cnc Icnpc
mencnyckcn c|c:cn-c|c:cnnyc. $eorong pem|mp|n ccc|ch :e:ec(cnc ycnc
ckIif memLucI (enccnc-(enccnc. menckcc(cinc:i. me|ckukcn pe(ccLccn
ccn memimpin peke(jccn unIuk menccpci Iujucn Le(:cmc-:cmc.
Iugos Don Feron Fem|mp|n
Menu(uI Jcme: /.F SIcne(. Iucc: uIcmc :ec(cnc pemimpin ccc|ch:
!em|mp|n bekerjo dengon orong |o|n
Sec(cnc pemimpin Le(Icnccunc jcwcL unIuk Leke(jc cenccn c(cnc
|cin. :c|ch :cIu cenccn cIc:cnnyc. :Icf. Iemcn :eke(jc cIcu cIc:cn
|cin cc|cm c(ccni:c:i :eLcik c(cnc ci|uc( c(ccni:c:i.
53

!em|mp|n odo|oh fongg:ng jowob don memperfongg:ngjowobkon
(okonfob|||fos).
Sec(cnc pemimpin Le(IcnccuncjcwcL unIuk menyu:un Iucc:
menjc|cnkcn Iucc:. mencccckcn evc|uc:i. unIuk menccpci cuIccme
ycnc Ie(Lcik. Femimpin Le(Icnccunc jcwcL unIuk ke:uk:e:cn :Icfnyc
Icnpc kecccc|cn.
!em|mp|n menye|mbongkon pencopo|on f:j:on don pr|or|fos
F(c:e: kepemimpincn ciLcIc:i :umLe(. jcci pemimpin hc(u: ccpcI
menyu:un Iucc: cenccn mencchu|ukcn p(ic(iIc:. Dc|cm upcyc
penccpcicn Iujucn pemimpin hc(u: ccpcI mence|ecc:ikcn Iucc:-
Iucc:nyc kepccc :Icf. Kemucicn pemimpin hc(u: ccpcI menccIu(
wckIu :ecc(c efekIif.ccn menye|e:cikcn mc:c|ch :ecc(c efekIif.
!em|mp|n hor:s berp|k|r secoro ono||f|s don konsepf:o|
Sec(cnc pemimpin hc(u: menjcci :ec(cnc pemiki( ycnc cnc|iIi: ccn
kcn:epIuc|. Se|cnjuInyc ccpcI mencicenIifikc:i mc:c|ch cenccn
cku(cI. Femimpin hc(u: ccpcI mencu(cikcn :e|u(uh peke(jccn
menjcci |eLih je|c: ccn kciIcnnyc cenccn peke(jccn |cin.
onojer odo|oh seorong med|ofor
Kcnf|ik :e|c|u Ie(jcci pccc :eIicp Iim ccn c(ccni:c:i. C|eh kc(enc iIu.
pemimpin hc(u: ccpcI menjcci :ec(cnc mecicIc( {penencch).
!em|mp|n odo|oh po||f|s| don d|p|omof
Sec(cnc pemimpin hc(u: mcmpu menccjck ccn me|ckukcn
kcmp(cmi. SeLccci :ec(cnc cip|cmcI. :ec(cnc pemimpin hc(u: ccpcI
mewcki|i Iim cIcu c(ccni:c:inyc.
!em|mp|n memb:of kep:f:son yong s:||f
Sec(cnc pemimpin hc(u: ccpcI memecchkcn mc:c|ch.

Menu(uI Hen(y MinIzLe(c. Fe(cn Femimpin ccc|ch :
1. !eron h:b:ngon onfor perorongon. cc|cm kc:u: ini func:inyc :eLccci
pemimpin ycnc ciccnIch. pemLcncun Iim. pe|cIih. ci(ekIu(. menIc(
kcn:u|Ic:i.
2. :ngs| !eron |nformo| :eLccci mcniIc(. penyeLc( infc(mc:i ccn ju(u
Licc(c.
54

3. !eron !emb:of kep:f:son. Le(func:i :eLccci pencu:chc.
pencnccncn ccnccucn. :umLe( c|ckc:i. ccn necc:icIc(

Fr|ns|p- Fr|ns|p Dosor Kepem|mp|non
F(in:ip. :eLccci pc(ccicmc Ie(ci(i cc(i LeLe(cpc ice uIcmc
Le(cc:c(kcn mcIivc:i p(iLcci ccn :ikcp :e(Ic mempunyci pencc(uh ycnc
kucI unIuk memLcncun ci(inyc cIcu c(ccni:c:i. Menu(uI $tecnen F. cvev
{!ºº2}. p(in:ip ccc|ch Lccicn cc(i :ucIu kcnci:i. (ec|i:c:i ccn kcn:ekuen:i.
Munckin p(in:ip mencipIckcn kepe(ccyccn ccn Le(jc|cn :eLccci :eLuch
kcmpc:/peIunjuk ycnc Iicck ccpcI ci(uLch. F(in:ip me(upckcn :ucIu pu:cI
cIcu :umLe( uIcmc :i:Iem pencukunc kehicupcn ycnc ciIcmpi|kcn cenccn
4 cimen:i :epe(Ii: ke:e|cmcIcn. LimLinccn. :ikcp ycnc Lijck:cnc. ccn
kekucIcn. Korokfer|sf|k seorong pem|mp|n cicc:c(kcn kepccc p(in:ip-p(in:ip
:eLccci Le(ikuI:
1. 5eorong yong be|ojor se:m:r h|d:p
Iicck hcnyc me|c|ui pencicikcn fc(mc|. IeIcpi jucc ci|uc( :ekc|ch.
CcnIchnyc. Le|cjc( me|c|ui memLccc. menu|i:. cL:e(vc:i. ccn
mencencc(. Mempunyci pencc|cmcn ycnc Lcik mcupun ycnc Lu(uk
:eLccci :umLe( Le|cjc(.
2. 8eror|enfos| podo pe|oyonon
Sec(cnc pemimpin Iicck ci|cycni IeIcpi me|cycni. :eLcL p(in:ip
pemimpin cenccn p(in:ip me|cycni Le(cc:c(kcn kc(i( :eLccci Iujucn
uIcmc. Dc|cm memLe(i pe|cycncn. pemimpin :ehc(u:nyc |eLih
Le(p(in:ip pccc pe|cycncn ycnc Lcik.
3. embowo energ| yong pos|f|f
SeIicp c(cnc mempunyci ene(ci ccn :emcnccI. Menccunckcn ene(ci
ycnc pc:iIif cicc:c(kcn pccc keikh|c:cn ccn keincincn mencukunc
ke:uk:e:cn c(cnc |cin. UnIuk iIu ciLuIuhkcn ene(ci pc:iIif unIuk
memLcncun huLunccn Lcik. Sec(cnc pemimpin hc(u: ccpcI ccn
mcu Leke(jc unIuk jcnckc wckIu ycnc |cmc ccn kcnci:i Iicck
ciIenIukcn. C|eh kc(enc iIu. :ec(cnc pemimpin hc(u: ccpcI
menunjukkcn ene(ci ycnc pc:iIif. :epe(Ii :
c. Fe(ccyc pccc c(cnc |cin
55

Sec(cnc pemimpin mempe(ccyci c(cnc |cin Ie(mc:uk :Icf
Lcwchcnnyc. :ehinccc me(ekc mempunyci mcIivc:i ccn
mempe(Ichcnkcn peke(jccn ycnc Lcik. C|eh kc(enc iIu.
kepe(ccyccn hc(u: ciikuIi cenccn kepecu|icn.
L. Ke:eimLcnccn cc|cm kehicupcn
Sec(cnc pemimpin hc(u: ccpcI menyeimLcnckcn Iucc:nyc.
8e(c(ienIc:i kepccc p(in:ip kemcnu:iccn ccn ke:eimLcnccn
ci(i cnIc(c ke(jc ccn c|ch (ccc. i:Ii(chcI ccn (ek(ec:i.
Ke:eimLcnccn jucc Le(c(Ii :eimLcnc cnIc(c kehicupcn cunic
ccn ckhe(cI.
c. Me|ihcI kehicupcn :eLccci IcnIcnccn
KcIc 'tontongon' :e(inc ci inIe(p(eIc:ikcn neccIif. Dc|cm hc| ini
IcnIcnccn Le(c(Ii kemcmpucn unIuk menikmcIi hicup ccn
:ecc|c kcn:ekuen:inyc. SeLcL kehicupcn ccc|ch :ucIu
IcnIcnccn ycnc ciLuIuhkcn. mempunyci (c:c cmcn ycnc
ccIcnc cc(i cc|cm ci(i :enci(i. Fc:c cmcn Ie(ccnIunc pccc
ini:icIif. keI(cmpi|cn. k(ecIifiIc:. kemcucn. keLe(cnicn.
cincmi:c:i ccn keLeLc:cn.
c. Sine(ci
C(cnc ycnc Le(p(in:ip :encnIic:c hicup cc|cm :ine(ci ccn :cIu
kcIc|i: pe(uLchcn. Me(ekc :e|c|u menccIc:i ke|emchcnnyc
:enci(i ccn |cinnyc. Sine(ci ccc|ch ke(jc ke|cmpck ccn
memLe(i keunIunccn kecuc Le|ch pihck. Menu(uI íne New
8|c||e| Wec:te| nte|nct|cnc| |ct|cnc|v. Sine(ci ccc|ch :cIu
ke(jc ke|cmpck. ycnc mcnc memLe(i hc:i| |eLih efekIif cc(i
pccc Leke(jc :ecc(c pe(c(cnccn. Sec(cnc pemimpin hc(u:
ccpcI Le(:ine(ci: cenccn :eIicp c(cnc cIc:cn. :Icf. Iemcn
:eke(jc.
e. LcIihcn mencemLcnckcn ci(i :enci(i
Sec(cnc pemimpin hc(u: ccpcI mempe(Lchc(ui ci(i :enci(i
unIuk menccpci keLe(hc:i|cn ycnc Iincci. Jcci cic Iicck
hcnyc Le(c(ienIc:i pccc p(c:e:. F(c:e: ccc|cm
mencemLcnckcn ci(i Ie(ci(i cc(i LeLe(cpc kcmpcnen ycnc
Le(huLunccn cenccn: {1) pemchcmcn mcIe(i: {2)
mempe(|uc: mcIe(i me|c|ui Le|cjc( ccn pencc|cmcn: {3)
56

menccjc( mcIe(i kepccc c(cnc |cin: {4) menccp|ikc:ikcn
p(in:ip-p(in:ip: {5) memcniIc(inc hc:i|: {ó) me(ef|ek:ikcn kepccc
hc:i|: {7) mencmLchkcn penceIchucn Lc(u ycnc cipe(|ukcn
mcIe(i: {8) pemchcmcn Lc(u: ccn {º) kemLc|i menjcci ci(i
:enci(i |cci.
Menccpci kepemimpincn ycnc Le(p(in:ip Iicck|ch mucch. kc(enc
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