FINITE ELEMENT STATIC, DYNAMIC AND STABILITY ANALYSES OF ARBITRARY STIFFENED PLATES

A thesis submitted to Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur for the award of the degree of

Do˝or of Philosophy
in

Engineering

by

Manoranjan Barik

Department of Ocean Engineering and Naval Architecture Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur - 721 302, India January, 1999

With dedication to My Ailing Mother With love to My wife Trushna And little ones Trushita and Monisha Who endured all the sufferings silently And looked for this day patiently

* INDIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY KHARAGPUR 721302, INDIA DEPARTMENT OF OCEAN ENGINEERING TELEX : AND NAVAL ARCHITECTURE
GRAM : :

06401-201 ITKG IN TECHNOLOGY KHARAGPUR   (91) (03222) 55221-55223 (6 lines)  (91) (03222) 77390-77392 Extn. : Office 4468, Res. 7468 Direct: (91) (03222) 77902 (Res.)

Professor Madhujit Mukhopadhyay

PHONE

B.E., Ph.D., D.Sc.
FAX :

(91) 3222-55303 (91) 3222-55239

E-mail

:

jit@naval.iitkgp.ernet.in

Certificate
This is to certify that the thesis entitled ‘FINITE ELEMENT STATIC, DYNAMIC AND STABILITY ANALYSES OF ARBITRARY STIFFENED PLATES’ being submitted to the Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur by Mr. Manoranjan Barik for the award of the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Engineering is a record of bonafide research work carried out by him under my supervision and guidance, and Mr. Barik fulfills the requirements of the regulations of the degree. The results embodied in this thesis have not been submitted to any other University or Institute for the award of any degree or diploma.

Madhujit Mukhopadhyay

Acknowledgements
I express my sincere gratitude to Professor L. R. Raheja and Professor S. C. Mishra, the Ex-Heads, Department of Ocean Engineering and Naval Architecture, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, who during their headships extended all the computational and other related facilities of the Department to make my progress of work smooth. I owe a lot to Professor S. K. Satsangi, Professor and Head, Department of Ocean Engineering and Naval Architecture, whose out of the way provisions and help made my work to see the end at last, amidst all the obstacles. The authority of Regional Engineering College, Rourkela granted me the study leave and the Ministry of Human Resources and Development, Government of India provided me the Fellowship to carry out the research work. Their provisions are highly acknowledged with thanks. I extend my heartfelt thanks to Dr. O. P. Sha, Assistant Professor, Department of Ocean Engineering and Naval Architecture, who virtually made me the owner of his Personal Computer. Dr. A. H. Sheikh, Assistant Professor of the Department was always eager to extend his analytical ability without any hesitation. My sincere thanks are due to him. With all the humbleness, I gratefully acknowledge the valuable suggestions received on various occasions from Professor S. Majumdar, Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur. Special thanks are due to Mr. Parimol Kumar Roy without whose help the completion of the thesis would have been delayed considerably. v

vi

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

I acknowledge the help received in various forms from all the faculties and staff members of the Department whose excellent cooperation made my stay here a homely, pleasant and enjoyable one. A Krishna and Prusheth, the LTEX lovers did marvelous jobs to hanA dle in my own way, the commas and semicolons of the LTEX. I sincerely acknowledge their invaluable help. The works could not have seen such a happy ending without the loving cooperation of Abhinna, who helped me in taking the final prints. I feel short of words to thank him. I express my sincere thanks to my Church Members at Rourkela and Kharagpur and the IIT Christian Fellowship Members, particularly James and Patrick who held me up through their fervent prayer support throughout my research work. The sweet presence of my co-scholars, Satish, Asokendu, Sushanta, Murthy, Chaitali, Sangita ... made my stay at the Institute a memorable one, for together we suffered the moments of trauma, together we triumphed over the success, together we shared the moments of joy and happiness and the greatest of all was that we understood each other better than any body else. Above all, I express my deep sense of gratitude to my Professor and supervisor Professor Madhujit Mukhopadhyay, Professor, Department of Ocean Engineering and Naval Architecture, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, whose constant encouragement, guidance and the time I spent along with him was invaluable to me. There were moments when he pushed me forward, enough to stumble, so that I may rise up and stand upright on my own on firm ground. And often he dragged me forward just to enable me to reach my goal. I adore him for his many excellent qualities and feel myself blessed to work under him, for working with him was never a burden, rather a pleasure, the moments of which I will be carrying along with me throughout my life’s journey.

Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur

(Manoranjan Barik)

Contents
1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2 The Objective and Scope of Present Investigation . . . . 2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE 2.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2 Review on Bare Plates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2.1 Static Analysis of Bare Plates . . . . . . . 2.2.2 Free Vibration Analysis of Bare Plates . . . 2.2.3 Stability Analysis of Bare Plates . . . . . . 2.3 Various Methods of Analysis of Stiffened Plates . . 2.4 Review on Stiffened Plates . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.4.1 Static Analysis of Stiffened Plates . . . . . 2.4.2 Free Vibration Analysis of Stiffened Plates 2.4.3 Stability Analysis of Stiffened Plates . . . 3 MATHEMATICAL FORMULATION 3.1 The Basic Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2 Proposed Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2.1 The Basic Assumptions . . . . . . . 3.2.2 The Transformation of the Coordinate 3.3 Arbitrary Bare Plate Bending Formulation . . 3.3.1 The Displacement Function . . . . . 3.3.2 Elastic Stiffness Matrix Formulation . 3.3.2.1 Stress-Strain Relationship . vii 1 1 5 9 9 9 10 17 24 30 32 33 36 43 47 47 48 49 49 52 52 53 53

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viii 3.3.2.2 3.3.2.3

CONTENTS Strain-Displacement Relationship . . . Stiffness Matrix of the Bare Plate Bending Element . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3.3 Consistent Mass Matrix of the Bare Plate Element 3.3.4 Geometric Stiffness Matrix of the Bare Plate Element . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3.5 Boundary Conditions for the Bare Plate . . . . . 3.3.6 Stresses at the Nodes of the Bare Plate . . . . . . Arbitrary Stiffened Plate Element Formulation . . . . . . 3.4.1 The Displacement Function . . . . . . . . . . . 3.4.2 The Plate Element Formulation . . . . . . . . . 3.4.2.1 Stress-Strain Relationship . . . . . . . 3.4.2.2 Strain-Displacement Relationship . . . 3.4.2.3 Elastic Stiffness Matrix of the Plate Element of the Stiffened Plate . . . . . . 3.4.2.4 Consistent Mass Matrix of the Plate Element of the Stiffened Plate . . . . . . 3.4.2.5 Geometric Stiffness Matrix of the Plate Element of the Stiffened Plate . . . . . 3.4.3 The Stiffener Element Formulation . . . . . . . 3.4.3.1 Coordinate Transformation for the Stiffener . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.4.3.2 Stress-Strain Relationship . . . . . . . 3.4.3.3 Strain-Displacement Relationship . . . 3.4.3.4 Elastic Stiffness Matrix of the Stiffener Element . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.4.3.5 Consistent Mass Matrix of the Stiffener Element . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.4.3.6 Geometric Stiffness Matrix of the Stiffener Element . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.4.4 Boundary Conditions for the Stiffened Plate . . . 54 57 58 59 61 65 65 66 67 67 69 70 71 73 81 81 82 84 86 87 88 93

3.4

CONTENTS 3.4.5 Stresses in the Stiffener . Consistent Load Vector . . . . . Solution Procedures . . . . . . . 3.6.1 Static Analysis . . . . . 3.6.2 Free Vibration Analysis 3.6.3 Stability Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

ix 96 97 97 97 98 99 101 101 102 104 104 104 107 107 109 109 109 109 110 110 110 111 111 111 113 113 113 113 113 113

3.5 3.6

4 COMPUTER IMPLEMENTATION 4.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2 Application Domain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3 Description of the Programme . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3.1 Preprocessor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3.1.1 function input() . . . . . . . . . 4.3.1.2 function nodgen() . . . . . . . . 4.3.1.3 function stcod() . . . . . . . . . 4.3.1.4 function connect() . . . . . . . . 4.3.1.5 function band() . . . . . . . . . 4.3.1.6 function xycod() . . . . . . . . . 4.3.1.7 function sfr1() . . . . . . . . . . 4.3.1.8 function rgdplt() . . . . . . . . 4.3.1.9 function stifin() . . . . . . . . . 4.3.1.10 function rgdstf() . . . . . . . . . 4.3.2 Processor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3.2.1 function form-stif-mass-geom() 4.3.2.2 function elm-stif-mass-geom() . 4.3.2.3 function elm-stf-mass-geom() . 4.3.2.4 function global-stif-mass-geom() 4.3.2.5 function global-stf-mass-geom() 4.3.2.6 function global() . . . . . . . . . 4.3.2.7 function elm-load() . . . . . . . 4.3.2.8 function gbl-load() . . . . . . .

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x 4.3.2.9

CONTENTS function bnd-stif() . . . . . . . . . . . 114

4.3.2.10 function sfr2() . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 4.3.2.11 function bmat() . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 4.3.2.12 function dbmat() . . . . . . . . . . . 114 4.3.2.13 function solve() . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 4.3.2.14 function r8usiv() . . . . . . . . . . . 114 4.3.3 Postprocessor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 119

5 NUMERICAL EXAMPLES 5.1 5.2

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 Arbitrary Bare Plates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 5.2.1 Static Analysis of Arbitrary Bare Plates . . . . . 120 5.2.1.1 5.2.1.2 5.2.1.3 5.2.1.4 5.2.1.5 5.2.1.6 5.2.2 Rectangular Plates Under Uniformly Distributed Load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 Rectangular Plates Under Concentrated Load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122 All Edges Clamped Rhombic Plates Under UDL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 All Edges Simply Supported Rhombic Plates Under UDL . . . . . . . . . . . 124 Annular Sector Plate Under Concentrated Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127 Circular Plate Under Different Loadings and Boundary Conditions . . . . 128 Free Vibration of Rectangular and Square Bare Plates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131 Free Vibration of Bare Skew Plates . . 132 Free Vibration of Trapezoidal Bare Plates135 Free Vibration of Triangular Bare Plates 138

Free Vibration Analysis of Arbitrary Bare Plate . 130 5.2.2.1 5.2.2.2 5.2.2.3 5.2.2.4

CONTENTS 5.2.2.5 5.2.2.6 5.2.3

xi Free Vibration of Bare Annular Sector Plates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140 Free Vibration of Bare Elliptical and Circular Plates . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142 Buckling of Uniaxially Compressed Simply Supported bare Rectangular Plates 145 Buckling of Uniaxially Compressed Clamped Bare Rectangular Plates . . . . . . . . 147 Buckling of Biaxially Compressed Clamped Bare Rectangular Plates . . . . . . . . 147 Buckling of Simply Supported Bare Rectangular Plates Uniaxially Compressed by Triangular Load . . . . . . . . . . 148 Buckling of Uniaxially Compressed Bare Skew Plates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148 Buckling of Uniformly Compressed Bare Circular Plates . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151

Stability Analysis of Arbitrary Bare Plates . . . . 145 5.2.3.1 5.2.3.2 5.2.3.3 5.2.3.4

5.2.3.5 5.2.3.6 5.3

Arbitrary Stiffened Plates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151 5.3.1 Static Analysis of Arbitrary Stiffened Plates . . . 151 5.3.1.1 5.3.1.2 5.3.1.3 5.3.1.4 5.3.1.5 5.3.1.6 5.3.1.7 5.3.2 5.3.2.1 Square Plate with a Central Stiffener . 152 Cross Stiffened Rectangular Plate . . . 155 Rectangular Multi-Stiffened Plate . . . 162 Rectangular Slab with Two Edge Beams 165 Stiffened Skew Bridge Deck . . . . . 170 Stiffened Curved Bridge Deck . . . . 173 Circular Plate with a Central Stiffener 178

Free Vibration Analysis of Arbitrary Stiffened Plates180 Free Vibration of Concentrically Stiffened Clamped Square Plate . . . . . . 180

xii 5.3.2.2

CONTENTS Free Vibration of Eccentrically Stiffened Clamped Square Plate . . . . . . 182 5.3.2.3 Free Vibration of Cross Stiffened Square Plate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183 5.3.2.4 Free Vibration of Eccentrically Stiffened Rectangular Plate . . . . . . . . 183 5.3.2.5 Free Vibration of Rectangular Multistiffened Plates . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185 5.3.2.6 Free Vibration of Multi-stiffened Skew Plates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185 5.3.2.7 Free Vibration of Trapezoidal Stiffened Plates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191 5.3.2.8 Free Vibration of Concentrically Stiffened Annular Sector Plates . . . . . . 192 5.3.2.9 Free Vibration of Eccentrically Stiffened Annular Sector Plate . . . . . . . 194 5.3.2.10 Free Vibration of Circular Stiffened Plates197 5.3.2.11 Free Vibration of Elliptical Stiffened Plate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197 Stability Analysis of Arbitrary Stiffened Plates . 201 5.3.3.1 Buckling of Square Stiffened Plates . . 201 5.3.3.2 Buckling of Simply Supported Rectangular Stiffened Plates . . . . . . . . 202 5.3.3.3 Buckling of Rectangular Stiffened Plates with Different Boundary Conditions . 202 5.3.3.4 Buckling of Skew Stiffened Plates with Different Boundary Conditions . . . . 206 5.3.3.5 Buckling of Uniformly Compressed Diametrically Stiffened Circular Plates . 206 209

5.3.3

6 CONCLUSIONS

CONTENTS 6.1 6.2 6.3

xiii

Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209 Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211 Further Scope of Research . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212

Preface Plates are in extensive use as one of the important structural elements
in the modern day structures in civil, marine, aeronautical and mechanical engineering. These plates may assume arbitrary shapes depending on their structural behaviour, the area of application and the type of services they are put to. Though they have wide applications without any rib reinforcement, but various engineering structures demand economy in weight with enhancement of strength through stiffening of the plated structures. When the arbitrarily shaped bare and the stiffened plates are in service, they are subjected to the static lateral load, the dynamic load and the inplane load. To investigate the actual behaviour of the plates under these loads, rigorous analysis is required to assess the strength and stability under various boundary conditions. In the present era of super speed number crunching machines, numerical methods have found their way into the structural analysis because of the non-amenability of analytical solutions for complex structural problems such as arising out of the arbitrary shape of the plates. Among these numerical tools, the finite element method has been proved to be the most versatile and powerful one because of its generality and capability to handle structural and geometrical complexities with ease. Several number of commercial softwares and in-house codes have been developed using the finite element method for carrying out the structural analyses. But most of these packages have inadequate facility for efficient stiffener modelling, improper specification of boundary conditions in case of a curved boundary and loss of generality in the mesh division process because of the stiffener position in the plate. Moreover, these codes are xv

xvi

PREFACE

not susceptible to easy modification in case of need. On the other hand, though there are plenty of elements developed so far in the finite element domain, many have been found to be inadequate and inefficient in some way or other for analyzing plates of arbitrary geometrical configurations. The present investigation is an attempt to accommodate the unstiffened and the stiffened plate problems of arbitrary shapes by developing new efficient elements. A plate bending element has been developed following the philosophy of isoparametric element to enable the analysis of arbitrarily shaped bare plates. The basic element considered for the development of this element is the simplest 12 degrees of freedom rectangular plate bending element popularly known as ACM element. Bare plates of many geometrical configurations have been analyzed for static, dynamic and stability making use of this new element. For analyzing arbitrary stiffened plates, an 8 degrees of freedom rectangular plane stress element has been combined to the basic ACM element. The stiffener modelling has been done considering a curved general element which can be placed anywhere within the plate element which removes the restraint of positioning the stiffeners along the nodal lines. The static, free vibration and buckling analyses have been performed on arbitrary plates with eccentric and concentric stiffeners using this stiffened plate bending element. The thesis has been presented in six chapters. It also includes the bibliography section showing the important references concerned with the present investigation. Chapter 1 includes the general introduction and the scope of present investigation. The review of literature confining to the scope of the study has been presented in the Chapter 2. The general methods of analysis of the stiffened plates have been briefly addressed in this chapter. The Chapter 3 comprises the mathematical formulation of the two elements. The elastic and the geometric stiffness matrices and the mass

PREFACE

xvii

matrix for the plate element and the stiffener element have been formulated separately. The boundary conditions have been implemented by consistently formulating the stiffness matrices of the boundary line and adding them to the global stiffness matrix. The Chapter 4 briefly describes the computer programme implementation of the theoretical formulation presented in Chapter 3. The different functions and the associated variables which have been used in writing the codes in C++ language have been presented in brief. A few numbers of flowchart of the computer codes have been illustrated. Several numerical examples which include the static, the free vibration and the stability analyses of bare and the stiffened plates of various geometries have been presented in the Chapter 5 to validate the formulation of the proposed method. Attempt has been made to include a wide spectrum of problems of diverse geometrical plate shapes. The results have been compared wherever possible and the discrepancies in them have been discussed. The Chapter 6 sums up and concludes the present investigation. An account of possible scope of extension to the present study along with a list of publications has been appended to the concluding remarks. At the end, some important publications and books referred during the present investigation have been listed in the Bibliography section.

List of Symbols
Although all the principal symbols used in this thesis are defined in the text as they occur, a list of them is presented below for easy reference. On some occasions, a single symbol is used for different meanings depending on the context and thus its uniqueness is lost. The contextual explanation of the symbol at its appropriate place of use is hoped to eliminate the confusion. English As [Bp ] [Bs ] [Bu ] dx, dy dv [Du ] [Dp ] [Ds ] E ¨ {f } {FI } {fku } Fx , Fy , Fxy FS G Is cross sectional area of the stiffener strain matrix for plate element of stiffened plate strain matrix for stiffener element of stiffened plate strain matrix for bare plate element element length in x and y-direction volume of the element rigidity matrix of bare plate element rigidity matrix of stiffened plate element rigidity matrix of stiffener element modulus of elasticity acceleration field vector nodal inertia force parameter reaction component per unit length of bare plate inplane forces axial force in the stiffener modulus of rigidity second moment of area of the stiffener xix

xx

LIST OF SYMBOLS

|J| jacobian Js torsional constant of the stiffener |Jst | jacobian of the stiffener [K] global elastic stiffness matrix [KG ] global geometric stiffness matrix [Ku ]e elastic stiffness matrix of the bare plate bending element [KuG ]e geometric stiffness matrix of the bare plate bending element [Ku ] global elastic stiffness matrix of the bare plate [KuG ] global geometric stiffness matrix of the bare plate [Kp ]e elastic stiffness matrix of the stiffened plate element [KpG ]e geometric stiffness matrix of the stiffened plate element [Ks ]e elastic stiffness matrix of the stiffener element [KsG ]e geometric stiffness matrix of the stiffener element [Kp ]b stiffness matrix of the boundary of stiffened plate [Ku ]b stiffness matrix of the boundary line of the bare plate ku , kv , kw translational restraint coefficient kα , kβ rotational restraint coefficient [M ] global consistent mass matrix [Mu ]e consistent mass matrix of the bare plate bending element [Mp ]e consistent mass matrix of the stiffened plate element [Ms ]e consistent mass matrix of the stiffener element Ms bending moment of the stiffener Mx , My , Mxy bending moments of the plate Ni (s, t) cubic serendipity shape functions Nu , Nv , Nw finite element shape functions finite element shape functions Nθξ , Nθη {P } global load vector {P }e element load vector q load intensity s-t axis system of the plate in the mapped domain s1 length along the boundary

xxi Ss t Ts u, v u´, v´, w´ w {w} ¨ xi , y i x, y, z x1 -y1 x´-y´ Greek α β {δ}u {δ}p ¨ {δ}u ξ-η {σ}u {σ}p {σ}s σx , σy , τxy { }u { }uG { }p { }pE { }pG { }s { }sE { }sG angle between the x´ -y´ and x-y axes system angle between the x1 -y1 and x-y axes system nodal displacement vector of bare plate nodal displacement vector of stiffened plate nodal acceleration vector of bare plate axis system of the element in the mapped domain stress resultant vector of bare plate stress resultant vector of stiffened plate stress resultant vector of stiffener stresses at a point generalized strain vector of bare plate geometric strain vector of bare plate strain vector of stiffened plate element elastic plate strain vector geometric plate strain vector strain vector of the stiffener elastic stiffener strain vector geometric stiffener strain vector first moment of area of the stiffener thickness of the plate torsional moment of the stiffener inplane displacements displacements at midplane of the plate out of plane displacement acceleration vector in z-direction Cartesian nodal coordinates global axis system local axes at the point of a curved boundary local axes at any point of a curved stiffener

xxii
x , y , γxy

LIST OF SYMBOLS bending strains Poisson´ s ratio partial derivatives with respect to x and y mass density of the material slopes normal and transverse to the boundary stiffener direction in mapped domain boundary line direction in mapped domain normalized vector frequency of vibration

ν ∂ ∂ , ∂x ∂y ρ θn , θt λ λ1 {ψ} ω Subscripts u G b p s Operators () ˙ ¨) ( [ ]−1 [ ]−T

for bare plate for geometric stiffness matrix for boundary for the plate element of the stiffened plate for the stiffener element of the stiffened plate

first derivative with respect to time second derivative with respect to time inverse of the matrix transpose of the matrix

List of Tables
3.1 5.1 Cubic Serendipity Shape Function . . . . . . . . . . . 50

Numerical factors α, β and β1 for uniformly loaded simply supported rectangular plates . . . . . . . . . . 5.2 Numerical factors α for simply supported rectangular plates with central concentrated load . . . . . . . . . 5.3 Deflection and moments at the centre of the all edges clamped skew rhombic plates under UDL . . . . . . . 5.4 Deflection and moments at the centre of the all edges simply supported skew rhombic plates under UDL . . 5.5 Deflection and moments along the mid-span radial line (x-axis) of the annular sector plate . . . . . . . . . . . 5.6 Deflection and moments at the centre of the circular plate under different loading and boundary conditions 5.7 Frequency parameters λ = ωa2 (ρ/D)1/2 for rectangular plate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.8 Convergence of frequency parameters λ = ωa2 (ρ/D)1/2 for all edges simply supported square plate . . . . . . 5.9 Frequency parameters λ = ωa2 (ρt/D)1/2 of skew plates for different skew angles (φ) and for a/b = 1.0, ν = 0.3 5.10 Frequency parameters λ = ωa2 (ρ t/D)1/2 of skew plates for different skew angles (φ) and for a/b = 2.0, ν = 0.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.11 Frequency parameters λ = ωa2 (ρ/D)1/2 for all edges simply supported trapezoidal plate . . . . . . . . . . . xxiii

122 122 123 126 128 129 131 132 133

134 136

xxiv

LIST OF TABLES

ωa2 ρ 5.12 Frequency parameters λ = for all edges clamped 2π D trapezoidal plate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137 ρ 5.13 Frequency parameters λ = ωa2 for triangular D plates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139 5.14 Values of ω for annular sector plates . . . . . . . . . . 141 5.15 Frequency parameters λ = ωa2 (ρh/D)1/2 for elliptical and circular plates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143 5.16 Buckling parameter k = λb2 /π 2 D for uniformly compressed all edges simply supported rectangular plates 145 5.17 Buckling parameter k = λb2 /π 2 D for uniformly compressed all edges clamped rectangular plates . . . . . 146 5.18 Buckling parameter k = λb2 /π 2 D for all edges clamped rectangular plates with biaxial uniform compression . 147 5.19 Buckling parameter k = λb2 /π 2 D for uniaxially compressed all edges simply supported rectangular plates with triangular load i.e; α = 1 in the expression Nx = y N0 (1 − α ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148 b 5.20 Buckling parameter k = λb2 /π 2 D for uniaxially compressed all edges simply supported and clamped skew plates (Aspect ratio = 1.0, ν = 0.3) . . . . . . . . . . . 149 5.21 Buckling parameter k = (Nr )cr a2 /D for uniformly compressed simply supported and clamped circular plates (ν = 0.3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150 5.22 Deflection at the centre of simply supported square stiffened plate (×104 mm.) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154 5.23 Convergence of deflection (w), plate moment (My ) and plate stress (σx ) of the eccentrically stiffened square plate at its centre with different mesh divisions. . . . . 154 5.24 Central deflection of rectangular cross-stiffened plate (×103 mm.) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155

LIST OF TABLES

xxv

5.25 Geometrical and material properties of the specimens of the rectangular slab with edge beams . . . . . . . . 166 5.26 Deflection and stress at the beam soffit of the rectangular slab with edge beams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169 5.27 Convergence of deflection at outer girder and outer edge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175 5.28 Convergence of moments at the centre . . . . . . . . . 175 5.29 Deflection (mm.) at inner edge and inner girder . . . 176 5.30 Deflection (mm.) at outer girder and outer edge . . . 177 5.31 Frequency in Hz of a clamped square plate with a central concentric stiffener . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181 5.32 Frequency in Hz of a clamped square plate with a central eccentric stiffener . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183 5.33 Frequency parameter [ω(a/π)2 ρt/D] of square crossstiffened plate with concentric stiffeners having all edges clamped . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184 5.34 Frequency in Hz of a simply supported rectangular plate with a central L-shaped eccentric stiffener in the shorter span direction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184 5.35 Frequency parameter [ω(a/R)2 ρt/D] of simply supported multi-stiffened rectangular plate with concentric stiffeners in one direction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186 5.36 Frequency parameter [ω(a/R)2 ρh/D] of a simply supported multi-stiffened skew plate having concentric stiffeners in one direction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189 5.37 Frequency in Hz of all edges clamped trapezoidal plate with a central concentric stiffener . . . . . . . . . . . 192 5.38 Frequency parameter [ωa2 ρt/D] of annular sector plate with concentrically placed circumferential edge stiffeners . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193

xxvi

LIST OF TABLES

5.39 Frequency parameter [ωa2 ρt/D] of annular sector plate with eccentrically placed circumferential edge stiffeners . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.40 Frequency (Hz/Parameter) of all edges clamped circular stiffened plates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.41 Frequency in Hz of a simply supported elliptical plate with a central eccentric stiffener in the shorter span direction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.42 Buckling parameter k = λb2 /π 2 D for square plate with a central concentric stiffener subjected to uniaxial and uniform compression in the stiffener direction 5.43 Buckling parameter k = λb2 /π 2 D for uniformly compressed all edges simply supported rectangular stiffened plates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.44 Buckling parameter k = λb2 /π 2 D for rectangular plate with a central concentric stiffener subjected to uniaxial and uniform compression in the stiffener direction 5.45 Buckling parameter k = λb2 /π 2 D for skew stiffened plate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.46 Buckling parameter k = (Nr )cr a2 /D for uniformly compressed circular plates with concentric stiffeners along the diameter with varying flexural and torsional stiffness parameters of the stiffener . . . . . . . . . .

196 198

201

203

204

205 206

207

List of Figures
3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 5.1 Mapping of the arbitrarily shaped plate . . . . . . . . Mapping of the element . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Coordinate axes at a typical point of a curved boundary Stretching of an element . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Coordinate axes at any point of a curved stiffener . . Sectional view of a typical stiffener . . . . . . . . . . . Stiffener orientation in the mapped domain . . . . . . Basic Elements of the Computer Programmes . . Preprocessor unit of the computer codes . . . . . . Processor unit of the computer codes . . . . . . . Flowchart for free vibration and buckling analysis . . . . . . . . 50 51 62 73 81 83 86 105 108 112 117

Location of the boundary nodal points of a rectangular plate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 5.2 Location of the boundary nodal points of a skew plate 125 5.3 Annular sector plate showing boundary nodal points . 127 5.4 Circular plate with boundary nodal points . . . . . . 130 5.5 A typical skew plate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134 5.6 Trapezoidal plate for simple supports showing the boundary nodal points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135 5.7 Trapezoidal plate for clamped supports . . . . . . . . 136 5.8 Right triangular plate with boundary nodal points . . 138 5.9 Annular sector plate of sector angle 90◦ . . . . . . . . 140 5.10 Simply supported square plate with a central stiffener 152 xxvii

xxviii

LIST OF FIGURES

5.11 Variation of deflection along centrelines of simply supported square plate with a central stiffener . . . . . . 153 5.12 Simply supported rectangular plate with a central stiffener in each direction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156 5.13 Deflection at x = 190.5 mm. and x = 381.0 mm. for plate with two concentric stiffeners, under distributed load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157 5.14 Deflection at x = 190.5 mm. and x = 381.0 mm. for plate with two eccentric stiffeners, under distributed load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157 5.15 Moment Mxx at y = 381.0 mm. and y = 762.0 mm. for plate with two concentric stiffeners, under distributed load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158 5.16 Moment Mxx at y = 381.0 mm. and y = 762.0 mm. for plate with two eccentric stiffeners, under distributed load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158 5.17 Moment M yy at x = 190.5 mm. and x = 381.0 mm. for plate with two concentric stiffeners, under distributed load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159 5.18 Moment Myy at x = 190.5 mm. and x = 381.0 mm. for plate with two eccentric stiffeners, under distributed load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159 5.19 Deflections at x = 190.5 mm. and x = 381.0 mm. for plate with two stiffeners under concentrated load . . . 160 5.20 Moment Mxx at y = 381.0 mm. and y = 762.0 mm. for plate with two concentric stiffeners under concentrated load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160 5.21 Moment Mxx at y = 381.0 mm. and y = 762.0 mm. for plate with two eccentric stiffeners under concentrated load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161

LIST OF FIGURES 5.22 Moment Myy at x = 190.5 mm. and x = 381.0 mm. for plate with two concentric stiffeners under concentrated load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.23 Moment Myy at x = 190.5 mm. and x = 381.0 mm. for plate with two eccentric stiffeners under concentrated load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.24 Rectangular multi-stiffened plate . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.25 Variation of deflection along the centre line of the rectangular multi-stiffened plate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.26 Variation of plate moment Mx along the centre line of the rectangular multi-stiffened plate . . . . . . . . . . 5.27 Rectangular slab with two edge beams . . . . . . . . . 5.28 Deflection along A-A of the slab with edge beams . . . 5.29 Deflection along B-B of the slab with edge beams . . . 5.30 Deflection along C-C of the slab with edge beams . . . 5.31 Stress at the beam soffit of the slab with edge beams . 5.32 Skew bridge deck with beams in both directions . . . 5.33 Deflection along A-A of the stiffened skew bridge deck 5.34 Deflection along B-B of the stiffened skew bridge deck 5.35 Curved bridge deck with two circumferential girders 5.36 Simply supported circular plate with a stiffener along the diameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.37 Deflection along diameters of a simply supported circular plate under distributed load . . . . . . . . . . . 5.38 Clamped square plate with a central eccentric stiffener 5.39 Simply supported rectangular plate with a central eccentric stiffener . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.40 Simply supported rectangular plate with concentric stiffeners in one direction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.41 Simply supported skew plate with concentric stiffeners in one direction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

xxix

161

162 163 164 164 167 167 168 168 169 171 172 172 174 178 179 182 187 188 190

xxx

LIST OF FIGURES

5.42 All edges clamped trapezoidal plate with a concentric stiffener in one direction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.43 Annular sector plate with concentrically placed circumferential stiffeners . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.44 Annular sector plate with eccentrically placed circumferential stiffeners . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.45 Circular plate with a central stiffener . . . . . . . . . 5.46 Elliptical plate with a central stiffener . . . . . . . . .

191 194 195 199 200

Chapter -

1

INTRODUCTION
1.1 Introduction

Plates used as structural elements take different shapes due to their
functional or structural requirements as well as from the aesthetic consideration. These arbitrarily shaped, elastic thin plates are widely used in civil, marine, aeronautical and mechanical engineering applications. Various engineering structures consisting of these thin plates of different shapes are often stiffened with stiffening ribs for achieving greater strength with relatively less material and thus making the structure cost effective. While the stiffening elements add negligible weight to the overall structure, their influence on strength and stability is enormous. In this process the strength/weight ratio is improved dramatically which is vital in some specific structures like ship, aircrafts and similar other types. These plates of arbitrary geometries are subjected to the static lateral load, the dynamic load and the inplane load for which three types of analysis such as static, free vibration and stability are to be carried out. In these analyses, the geometry of the plate as well as its boundary conditions play a major role in the choice of the methods of the solution. Exact solutions for plates are available only for certain shapes, boundaries and loading conditions. An attempt to have an analytical solution 1

2

INTRODUCTION

of the arbitrarily shaped plates with complex boundary conditions may lead to an extremely tedious though not impossible task because of the complex nature of the problem arising out of a curved boundary. As a result, various methods such as Rayleigh-Ritz method, Galerkin method and the likes have been used by several investigators depending on the suitability of the problem. Some investigators [83] have attempted the conformal mapping [166] for solving plates of regular polygonal shape whereas some have used the finite strip method [34] and the spline finite strip method [37] for solving problems relating to plates of arbitrary geometry apart from the popular finite element method. Investigators from various fields have contributed to the study of bare plates and stiffened plates making the library of literature rich in the area of static, dynamic and stability analyses of these plates. The stiffened plates consist of a skin and a varying number of ribs. The skin is termed as plate throughout this thesis and the terms such as rib, stiffener, girder, beam and stringer are used interchangeably to indicate the ribs. When the rib centroid is coincident with the plate middle surface, no inplane stresses are developed due to the bending of the stiffener and this class of stiffened plates is identified as concentrically stiffened plates. In the other case, when the rib centroid and the plate middle surface are eccentric, the inplane stresses developed in the plate due to the stiffener bending have to be considered and this class of stiffened plates is designated as eccentrically stiffened plates. The optimum design of stiffened plate structures demands an effective analytical procedure. But the stiffening arrangements pose another difficulty in addition to the inherent problem due to the diverse geometrical configurations, loading and boundary conditions encountered in case of bare plates for obtaining a suitable theoretical solution. Hence, the earlier investigators modelled the stiffened plated system into a simpler

1.1 Introduction

3

structural form such as an orthotropic plate or a grid system which were amenable to the solution procedure developed at that time. As the orthotropic plate model is applicable to closely equispaced stiffeners of equal size only and the grid model can perform well only in case of orthogonal stiffeners, the applicability of the models to a generalized problem is severely restricted because of the simplicity inherent in the approximations. The emergence of the digital computers with their enormous computing speed and core memory capacity has changed the outlook of the structural analysts and caused the evolution of various numerical methods such as the finite element, the finite difference, the finite strip and the boundary element method. These numerical tools allow the researchers to model the structure in a more realistic manner with simpler mathematical forms. In view of the availability of the computational facility, the orthotropic and the grillage models can be replaced by the plate beam idealization where the plate and the stiffeners can be modelled separately maintaining the monolithic connection between the two and then one of the numerical methods may be applied for their analysis. Among all the numerical methods, the finite element method has been found to be a powerful, versatile and accurate one in the analysis of complex structures. But, in the finite element analysis of plates with arbitrary configurations, the main problem arises in the choice of a suitable element, as many of the present elements are unable to cater to the arbitrary plate geometry. In the past the most common approach to the finite element analysis of arbitrarily shaped plates has been to approximate the curved boundaries with a large number of straight-edged triangular elements [7] [9] [63] [108] or developing special purpose elements permitting the exact representation of curved boundaries [141] or using a triangular element

4

INTRODUCTION

with one of the sides being modified to include a curved edge [35]. But these elements being developed to accommodate a particular plate geometry, none of them can be generalized to represent an arbitrary edge such as straight, skew or curved. Another successful approach in this pursuit is the application of the isoparametric element because of its generality to model a curved boundary successfully. Unfortunately, this element which is having the shear strain term based on the Mindlin’s theory becomes very stiff when used to model thin structures, resulting inexact solutions. This effect is termed as shear-locking which makes this otherwise successful element unsuitable. Much effort has been put to identify and eliminate the source of this shear-locking effect. The most successful technique for alleviating the problem associated with this shear-locking is through evaluating certain transverse shear coefficients of the element stiffness matrix using a lower order numerical integration rule than that which is required to evaluate the coefficients exactly as discussed by Zienkiewicz and Taylor [199]. This technique which is known as reduced or selective integration has been used on elements which shear-lock when exact integration is performed. However, an inexact integration scheme results in a rank deficient element stiffness matrix, which in turn, generates additional zero strain deformation modes in a solution known as zero-energy modes, other than the rigid body movements and which must be suppressed through stabilization techniques. It has been found that all the displacement-based shear deformable plate elements of this kind fail on many occasions either by shear-locking or singular behaviour. Thus it is felt that in spite of vast number of elements present in the literature [67] since the inception of the finite element method in the early 1960s, still there is a need of development of suitable elements which can model the thin plates of arbitrary geometry successfully.

1.2 The Objective and Scope of Present Investigation

5

1.2 The Objective and Scope of Present Investigation
The objective of the present investigation is to formulate simple and efficient finite elements for static, free vibration and buckling analyses of the bare and stiffened plates of arbitrary geometrical shapes under diverse loading and boundary conditions and demonstrate the performance of the proposed elements through the numerical examples in the related fields. In this thesis, a new four-noded plate bending element is proposed for the analysis of the bare plates, which is derived, though from the simplest rectangular basic plate bending element having 12 degrees of freedom largely known as ACM Element [1], but it has all the advantages of the isoparametric element to model an arbitrary plate shape and without the disadvantage of the shear locking problem. Further, for the analysis of the stiffened plates, a stiffened plate bending element is formulated by combining the four-noded rectangular plane stress element having 8 degrees of freedom with the 12 degrees of freedom ACM Plate Bending Element. The incorporation of boundary conditions is made in the most general manner to cater to the need of the curved boundary as well as to the more practical mixed boundary conditions. As the element developed for the bare plate analysis is capable of modelling an arbitrary plate geometry, a large number of static, dynamic and stability problems in the bare plate domain of square, rectangular, skew, trapezoidal, triangular, circular, elliptical, annular sector geometries are considered and the results are presented showing the elegance and efficiency of the proposed element. The element developed for the analysis of the stiffened plates has the same feature of accommodating the arbitrary shape of the plate geometries and the stiffener modelling is done for a general one. The stiffener

6

INTRODUCTION

is modelled in such a way as to lie anywhere within the plate element and need not follow the nodal lines. Further, in the formulation, their orientation is kept arbitrary which makes the analysis more flexible and the mesh division independent of their location and orientation. The same displacement interpolation functions as used for the plate elements are adopted in the formulation of the stiffener element. This facilitates to express the stiffness and the mass matrices of the stiffener in terms of the nodal parameters of the plate element thus ensuring the compatibility of the stiffener with the plate. Similar to the bare plate; static, dynamic and stability analyses of various stiffened plate configurations such as square, rectangular, skew, trapezoidal, triangular, circular, elliptical, annular sector etc. with various stiffener positions have been carried out. The implementation of the methodology to different types of analysis described in the investigation is made through the development of computer programmes in C++. To make the analysis more cost effective, the global elastic stiffness, mass and geometric stiffness matrices are stored using the skyline storage technique. No standard or general software package is used for these analyses and as such the computer programmes developed here are general and complete in themselves. The computer programmes have been run in the HP - UX 9000/819 work station available at the Computer Centre of the Institute and the ORIGIN 200 of the Departmental Computer Laboratory. The present investigation comprises the following topics: 1. Analysis of Arbitrary Bare Plates (a) Static Analysis of Arbitrary Bare Plates : The static analysis is carried out for different geometrical plate shapes such as square, rectangular, skew, annular sector and circular one

1.2 The Objective and Scope of Present Investigation

7

for various boundary and loading conditions and the results are compared with the published ones. (b) Free Vibration Analysis of Arbitrary Bare Plates : The proposed element is tested by considering the free flexural vibration analysis of bare plates of various shapes having various boundary conditions and the first few natural frequencies are compared with those from open literature. (c) Stability Analysis of Arbitrary Bare Plates : In the stability analysis, bare plates of rectangular, skew and circular configurations with different boundary and inplane loading conditions are considered and the results are validated by comparing the buckling parameters obtained with those available ones. 2. Analysis of Arbitrary Stiffened Plates (a) Static Analysis of Arbitrary Stiffened Plates : A large number of stiffened plates of straight and curved edges with concentric as well as eccentric stiffeners are studied. The results are presented in terms of stresses/stress resultants. Some new results are also presented. (b) Free Vibration Analysis of Arbitrary Stiffened Plates : The first few natural frequencies of a large number of stiffened plates having various planforms are presented. In the analysis, eccentric as well as concentric stiffeners are considered and various boundary conditions are implemented. Some new examples are also attempted. (c) Stability Analysis of Arbitrary Stiffened Plates : Stability analysis is carried out for rectangular, skew and circular stiff-

8

INTRODUCTION ened plates with various boundary conditions and buckling parameters are presented for various flexural and torsional stiffness of the stiffeners. Few new results have been presented for this category of analysis.

Hence, in summary, a large number of numerical examples have been considered in this investigation for static, dynamic and stability analyses of bare plates and stiffened plates of various geometrical configurations. Various loading and boundary conditions as well as concentric and eccentric stiffeners are considered in the analysis. In addition to the examples presented for the validation of the proposed method some new results are also put forward.

Chapter -

2

REVIEW OF LITERATURE
2.1 Introduction

Many exact solutions for thin elastic bare plates for bending and buckling along with a few stiffened plate buckling analysis are well documented in Timoshenko’s monographs [184] and [185]. Leissa [86] has presented free vibration analytical results for a number of cases of bare plates. In the stiffened plate domain the analytical solutions have been presented by Troitsky [186] for static, dynamic and stability analysis. However, the analytic solutions in the open literature are incomplete because they become extremely tedious for complex problem definitions. The advent of digital computer along with its capability of exponentially increasing computing speed has made the analytically difficult problems amenable through the various numerical methods and thus making the literature rich in this area.

2.2 Review on Bare Plates
In the context of the present investigations, the following areas of analysis pertaining to the bare plates are covered in the review of literature: 9

10 1. Static Analysis of Bare Plates

REVIEW OF LITERATURE

2. Free Vibration Analysis of Bare Plates 3. Stability Analysis of Bare Plates

2.2.1 Static Analysis of Bare Plates
The static analysis of bare plates using the finite element method is well documented by Zienkiewicz and Taylor in their two volume of books [198] and [199]. In this review, an attempt has been made to include the more recent publications. Sawko and Merriman [165] have proposed a curved element for the analysis of plates with curved boundaries. They have represented the lateral deflection over the element in terms of polar coordinates and have considered four degrees of freedom at each node of the element. They have presented results for circular plates having various boundary conditions under uniform and concentrated loads. They have also analyzed the simply supported curved bridge deck of Coull and Das [41] and Cheung et al. [36] and results have been compared. Chernuka et al. [35] have developed a triangular element in which one of the edges is modified to a curved one in an effort to minimize the error inherent in representing the shape of a curved boundary by a series of straight segments. They have presented two different versions of the element; one incorporating a quadratic curved edge and the other a quartic one. They have analyzed circular and elliptical plates under different loading and boundary conditions. Mukhopadhyay [124] has studied the bending of skew plates for different skew angles by using semianalytic finite difference method following the philosophy of Kantorovich and the finite strip method. In this

2.2 Review on Bare Plates

11

method, a displacement function satisfying boundary conditions along two opposite edges of the plate is assumed. The displacement function is then substituted in the differential equation of the plate, which in turn is reduced to an ordinary differential equation by some transformation method. This resulting equation is then solved by the finite difference method. Isotropic rhombic plates for various skew angles for all edges simply supported case have been analyzed using this method. Results have not agreed well for greater skew angles. Bapu Rao et al. [14] have developed an annular and annular sector elements associated with six and twenty degrees of freedom respectively based on Reissener’s thick plate theory which includes the shear deformation. The displacement field, which has been represented by the lateral deflection and shear rotations, has been expressed in terms of interpolation polynomial functions of the radial and angular coordinates. In this proposed method, the sector element can produce satisfactory results only when the element size is small in the angular direction. Here, the shear coefficient has been expressed as a free constant. They have also presented the free vibration results for annular and sector plates. Mukhopadhyay [126] has extended the semianalytical method for analyzing bending of radially supported curved plates under different boundary and loading conditions. He has presented extensive results for annular sector plates subjected to concentrated and uniformly distributed load. Barve and Dey [17] have proposed a method incorporating the concept of isoparametry in finite difference energy method by defining the plate geometries and the displacement functions in curvilinear coordinate system. They have presented the results for the plates of square, circular, skew geometries along with the perspex model curved bridge deck of Coull and Das [41]. Their method can accommodate plates of

12

REVIEW OF LITERATURE

various geometrical configurations where somewhat rectangular type of discretization is possible, it is felt that it will be difficult to model some of the plate geometries like triangular ones where the triangular shaped discretization is inevitable. Yang and Chong [192] have presented an alternative method of finite strip by replacing the cubic X-spline functions in place of usual trigonometric series in the y-direction. Using this method they have analyzed square plates having simply supported and fixed boundary conditions subjected to uniformly distributed and concentrated load. They have also analyzed a trapezoidal plate with simply supported edges under uniformly distributed load. Bhat [24] has determined the plate deflections under static loading by generating an orthogonal set of beam characteristic polynomials using the Gram-Schmidt process and applying the Rayleigh-Ritz method. Results are presented for rectangular plates with all edges clamped and those with three edges clamped and one edge free. Tham et al. [181] have used the spline-finite-strip method to analyze skew plates with different loading and support conditions. They have mapped the original parallelogram plate in Cartesian coordinates to a unit square plate in natural coordinates by a simple transformation relationship and discretized the mapped square plate into strip elements. The interpolation function for the out of plane displacement in the square region is expressed as a product of B-3 splines in the strip directions and the conventional Hermite cubic polynomial is considered in the other direction. They have presented results for skew plates for various skew angles under different boundary and loading conditions. They have also analyzed stepped and continuous plates using this method. They have further extended this work to include the bending of arbitrarily shaped general plates [96]. They have analyzed the circular, elliptical, fan-shaped and

2.2 Review on Bare Plates circular sector plate along with the parallelogram plate.

13

Dey and Malhotra [45] have analyzed orthotropic curved bridge decks using a higher order finite strip method. They have employed a quintic polynomial in the radial direction along with a basic function series in the angular direction satisfying the boundary conditions along the radial edges a priori. Thus, a two dimensional plate bending problem has been reduced to a one-dimensional one resulting great reduction in size and bandwidth of the global stiffness matrix. They have presented results for curve-edged plates using the first five harmonic components and compared them with the available ones. GangaRao and Chaudhary [53] have developed converging series solutions for rectangular, skew and triangular plate configurations under different boundary and loading conditions. For the rectangular and the skew plates they have represented the deformed shape of the structure by a combination of trigonometric and polynomial functions, the coefficients of which are determined by using Galerkin technique. For the triangular plate problems they have selected suitable shape functions for the deformed shape representation. This method is applied to the straightedged plate configurations. Butalia et al. [29] have presented a critical analysis of parallelogramshaped plates under bending using Mindlin nine-node Heterosis element. To make ease of the specification of the boundary conditions, they have transformed the element matrix corresponding to global axes to the local ones. They have presented results for rhombic skew plates for different skew angles and various boundary conditions and have compared the results with a large number of published ones. Peng-Cheng and Hong-Bo [146] have proposed a multivariable spline element analysis for plate bending problems. They have used bicubic B-spline functions to construct the bending moments and transverse dis-

14

REVIEW OF LITERATURE

placement fields. The spline element equations with multiple variables have been derived based on Hellinger-Reissner principle. They have presented square plate results with simply supported and clamped edge conditions subjected to uniformly distributed and concentrated loads. Liew [97] has presented pb-2 Ritz function to study the static analysis of arbitrarily shaped plates using the principle of minimum potential energy. The pb-2 Ritz function consists of the product of a two-dimensional polynomial function and a basic function. The basic function is again a product of the specified boundary equations. He has presented the deflections and moments of trapezoidal, skew and elliptical plates. Though the computational effort is less in this method, the process of choosing an appropriate basic function that changes with the configuration of the plates as well as the boundary conditions of the edges complicates the method. The complication is further added as the support conditions are to be satisfied a priori in the basic function itself. Au and Cheung [10] have developed isoparametric spline finite strip method for the analysis of plane structures. They have used cubic Bspline curves in the modelling of the geometry and the representation of the displacement field as well. In this method, the plate is first discretized into strips bounded by spline curves and then Mindlin plate formulation is used to solve it. The investigators have used this method for bending, plane stress and plane strain analyses. They have presented results for a curved bridge model under its dead load, an S-shaped slab bridge under uniformly distributed load and concentrated load, and a thick hollow cylinder under internal pressure. This method yields a relatively narrow band matrix and requires less computational effort. Liu and Lin [102] have proposed a four-noded sixteen degrees of freedom conforming quadrilateral plate bending element in which the element geometry is in bilinear polynomials representation, while the dis-

2.2 Review on Bare Plates

15

placement functions are in terms of modified bicubic polynomials satisfying energy orthogonality. In this formulation, the usual approach of expressing transverse displacements and rotations by separate expansions is not allowed. They have presented results for square, rhombic and circular plates. It is reported that though they have obtained improved results for the deflections and moments at the mid point of the square plates, but the clamped-edge moments are worse. Spline element method to analyze the bending of skew plates with arbitrary boundary conditions has been presented by Mizusawa [113]. In this method the displacement functions have been expressed in terms of the two-way B-spline functions. He has used a non-dimensional skew coordinate system for the analysis. Deflections and bending moments of rectangular plates and skew plates having various skew angles with arbitrary boundary conditions have been presented and compared with the published results. Ng and Chen [139] have analyzed fan-shaped bridge decks by using the spline finite strip method and the Mindlin plate theory. They have used the reduced integration technique to eliminate the shear locking and utilized the penalty function method to impose boundary condition at the end of strips and intermediate supports. Sengupta [169] has developed a three-noded element to study the bending behaviour of skew rhombic plates of various boundary conditions subjected to uniformly distributed as well as concentrated loads. The study is limited to the skew plate configuration. Hamouche et al. [58] have used a spectral solution methodology to solve the biharmonic equation for analyzing the bending of thin plates of arbitrary geometric shapes. They have investigated the use of Fourier and Chebyshev expansions of the dependent variables to eliminate the mathematical difficulties which arise in the fulfillment of the boundary

16

REVIEW OF LITERATURE

conditions. Based on these expansions and the Fast Fourier Transform, a numerical methodology has been developed to solve plate bending problems. They have presented solutions for problems of triangular, circular, annular and truncated circular sector plate configurations having various boundary conditions. Ayad et al. [11] have developed two hybrid-mixed finite elements, MiSP3 (3-node triangular element) and MiSP4 (4-node quadrilateral element), which require C◦ continuity for kinematic variables and C−1 or L2 continuity for bending moments and Shear forces following Mixed Shear Projected (MiSP) approach based on the Hellinger-Reissner variational principle. In order to control the shear locking they have chosen an independent shear strain approximation and edge projection for strain-displacement relations. The approximations of the shear forces have been derived from those of the bending moments using the corresponding equilibrium relations. They have derived the modified MiSP models (MMiSP) by defining the shear strains as projected shear strains in place of defining it from a linear approximation of the nodal degrees of freedom. They have analyzed skew and circular plates in addition to the rectangular plates. Saadatpour and Azhari [159] have presented a theoretical formulation for the static analysis of simply supported plates of general shape. The procedure is based on the Galerkin method and it uses the natural coordinates to express the plate geometry. They have expressed the differential equation of moment function in terms of distributed load and that of out-of-plane deflection in terms of moment. For the above formed two equations, they have assumed expanded form of solution in terms of two types of basic functions (one trigonometric and the other polynomial) and unknown generalized coordinates satisfying the simply supported straight geometric boundary conditions. The unknown general-

2.2 Review on Bare Plates

17

ized coordinates have been determined by the Galerkin method using the basic functions as the weight functions. They have presented the deflection and the bending moment results of trapezoidal, parallelogram and sector plates. Though it has been claimed, the triangular plate results are not present in the paper. This method is suitable for straight-edged plates of simply supported boundary conditions. This method requires more analytical and computational effort for the plates of curved geometry.

2.2.2 Free Vibration Analysis of Bare Plates
The literature in free vibrations of bare plates is vast which is discussed in a series of excellent review articles by Leissa [86], [88], [89], [90], [91], [92], [93] and by Yamada and Irie [191]. Extensive free vibration study of rectangular plates has also been carried out by Gorman [56]. Hence the review here is limited to those more recent ones and relevant to the present investigation. Orris and Petyt [142] have used two conforming plate bending elements, one a quadrilateral and the other a triangular, and investigated the free vibration characteristics of triangular and trapezoidal plates. They have obtained the quadrilateral element by combination of the cubic deflection fields in each of the four triangular regions defined by the edges of the quadrilateral and its diagonal. The deflection fields have been expressed in terms of the area coordinates of the triangular regions. They have presented free vibration results of rectangular, triangular and trapezoidal plates by varying the ratio of top to bottom parallel chords of the trapezoidal plate. The mode shapes and natural frequencies for trapezoidal plates with height to base ratios of 6:1 typifying the dimensions of control surface ribs have also been presented. However, the elements are not designed to accommodate the plates with curved boundaries.

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Mizusawa et al. [116] have dealt with the free vibration of skew plates for various boundary conditions using the Rayleigh-Ritz method with B-spline functions as its coordinate functions. They have applied the method of artificial springs to deal with the arbitrary boundary conditions of the plates corresponding to deflection and the two slopes at each of the edges. By assigning zero or infinite values to these spring constants they have obtained free or fixed boundary conditions for the corresponding restraint. They have also studied the convergence of the results with respect to changes in the degree of the B-spline functions and in the number of knots, for different skew angles. They have obtained the total potential energy by adding the energy due to the springs corresponding to boundary conditions, to that of the skew plate. Leissa and Narita [94] have presented the free vibration natural frequencies of simply supported circular plates for different values of Poisson’s ratio and number of internal nodal circles using the ordinary and modified Bessel functions. They have considered the deflected shape of the vibrating plate in polar coordinates and have derived the relationship to obtain additional values of frequency parameters for large number of internal nodal circles. Maruyama and Ichinomiya [105] have described an experimental study of the low frequency transverse vibration modes of wedge-shaped and ring-shaped sector plates with all edges clamped which are carried out by using the real time method of holographic interferometry. They have studied the effects of the sector angle and the radii ratio on the natural frequencies and the corresponding mode shapes of the sector plates with all edges clamped and have compared their experimental results with those of analytically obtained ones by the other investigators. Bhat [23] has investigated the vibration problem of rectangular plates by using a set of characteristic orthogonal polynomials in the Rayleigh-

2.2 Review on Bare Plates

19

Ritz method. The orthogonal polynomials have been generated by using Gram-Schmidt process so as to satisfy the geometric boundary conditions of the accompanying beam problems. He has presented vibration results for rectangular plates of different boundary conditions. Laura et al. [84] have analyzed transverse vibrations of a trapezoidal cantilever plate of variable thickness using energy techniques. They have described the structural deflections by characteristics orthogonal polynomials in two variables and have applied the Rayleigh-Ritz method to obtain the natural frequencies. They have presented the frequency parameters for cantilever trapezoidal plates for different aspect ratios and have compared them with the results obtained by using the Rayleigh method with an optimized exponent in the deflection expression. Kim and Dickinson [78] have determined the free flexural vibrations of a large number of right triangular plates for various combination of free, simply supported or clamped boundary conditions by carrying out the Rayleigh-Ritz analysis. They have used simple polynomials as the admissible functions, which, through the use of a recurrence relationship for the evaluation of the necessary integrals, lead to a simpler analysis. Though the analysis presented is for specifically orthotropic plates, but the majority of the numerical examples presented are for the isotropic case of the right triangular plates. Liew et al. [100] have extended the Gram-Schmidt procedure of Bhat [23] and have studied the plate vibration by Rayleigh-Ritz method. Their selection of the starting function in the set of orthogonal plate functions is same as that of Bhat, but the higher terms are generated using a procedure leading to faster convergence. They have presented frequency parameter results for different boundary conditions of the rectangular plates. Lam et al. [82] have proposed an approximate method based on the Rayleigh-Ritz principle for vibration analysis of circular and elliptical

20

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plates. A set of new starting functions has been proposed which satisfies the geometrical boundary conditions of circular and elliptical plates with clamped, simply supported or free circumferential peripheries. Further, the Gram-Schmidt process has been used to generate the higher terms in the set of plate functions. The use of these functions for the determination of natural frequencies and mode shapes has been presented. They have analyzed circular and elliptical plates for free, simply supported or fully clamped boundary conditions. Prasad et al. [149] have presented approximate formulae for the free vibration of simply supported and clamped elliptical plates. They have used the Rayleigh-Ritz method with a three-term deflection function. In this method a deflection has to be chosen satisfying each boundary condition which makes the analysis difficult. Young and Dickinson [194] have used the Rayleigh-Ritz method for the free vibrations study of the plates having one or more edges defined by general polynomials, the admissible functions employed being products of simple polynomials. They have presented the free vibration results for the isotropic as well as rectangularly orthotropic plates and considered various plate geometries such as circular, elliptical, annular and hypocycloidal. However, the incorporation of the boundary conditions is somewhat complex and imposes the restrictions on the choice of deflection function. Ding [46] has proposed the use of a fast converging series consisting of static beam functions under point load as admissible functions in the Rayleigh-Ritz method to study the problem of the flexural vibration of rectangular plates. The admissible sets of displacement functions have been obtained by varying the location of the point load applied to the beam. Numerical examples of rectangular plates with various aspect ratios and boundary conditions have been presented. In this method, the

2.2 Review on Bare Plates

21

boundary conditions of the plate dictate the type of admissible function to be selected. Mirza and Alizadeh [111] have idealized a cracked plate as a partially supported one with varying support length and analyzed the triangular plates for free vibration using eight-noded isoparametric quadrilateral element based on Mindlin plate theory. They have studied the effects of the detached base length on vibration of these types of structures. They have attempted to eliminate the transverse shear effects in thin plates by employing a reduced Gaussian integration. However, it is well known that these types of integration schemes lead to numerical complexities and spurious mechanisms. Though the isoparametric element is capable of addressing some non-conventional plate geometries, the authors have presented only the triangular plate results. Singh and Chakraverty [177] have analyzed rectangular and skew plates for free vibration under different boundary conditions by using boundary characteristic orthogonal polynomials in two variables. They have first mapped the given plate into a square plate over which a set of orthogonal polynomials satisfying the essential boundary conditions is generated by using the Gram-Schmidt process. The Rayleigh-Ritz method is then used to determine the frequencies for all possible combinations of the boundary conditions and with different skew angles. This is the extension of their previous work [176] where they have applied the same method for studying the free vibration of annular circular and elliptic plates. In another publication [175] they have presented results for vibration of simply supported elliptical and circular plates using the same method. Though the method in all the works is same but they differ considerably when the orthogonal polynomials are generated for different plate shapes. Hence it needs the reformulation of the problem for each category of plates thereby lacking in its generality.

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Geannakakes [54] has presented a theoretical formulation for the free vibration analysis of bare plates of various shapes using natural coordinate regions for defining the plate geometry in conjunction with normalized characteristic orthogonal polynomials for defining the deflection function and the Rayleigh-Ritz method to set up the eigenproblem. However, he used five different kinds of shape functions for the definition of the plate geometry for five different regions; namely, the linear region, the cubic region, the incomplete and complete quartic regions and the quartic-linear region depending on the complexity of the plate boundary definition. Thus the method adopts different definitions for different plate geometries and thereby incurs loss in generality. Moreover, the numerical results obtained by this method depends on the number of integration points and normalized characteristic orthogonal polynomials in each direction. In the analysis the accuracy of the results was improved when the number of integration points was increased. However, too many integration points (11 number of points in his analysis) tend to degrade the accuracy of the computed integral results. Saliba [161] has proposed a superposition technique for the solution of free vibration problems of right triangular thin plates. He has modified the six building block arrangement introduced by Gorman [57]. In his modified version Saliba has used only two building blocks instead of six. He has obtained the superposition of these blocks by first determining the contributions of each individual building block to the relevant boundary conditions and, second, due to the linear nature of the individual building block problems, their total contribution to a given boundary condition has been found by adding together their individual contributions. The Levytype solutions have been proposed where the support conditions can be forced by adjusting the Fourier coefficients. Numerical results and mode shapes for right-angled triangular plates with all possible combinations

2.2 Review on Bare Plates

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of simple and clamped boundary conditions have been presented. Great precaution is to be exercised while applying the method even for other general straight boundary problems like general triangles, trapezoidal and parallelogram plates. Ghazi et al. [55] have used the Lagrange’s equations of motion coupled with the finite element technique and analyzed the free vibration of plates of pentagonal and heptagonal shapes. First, they have proposed an 18 degrees of freedom triangular plate bending element without considering the transverse shear effect and have presented results for isotropic as well as orthotropic plates for various edge conditions. In the second part, considering the transverse shear effect, they have formulated a higher order 36 degrees of freedom finite element and results for some complex combinations of rigidly clamped, simply supported and free edge conditions for isotropic, orthotropic and laminated plates have been presented. Houmat [65] has presented a method known as trigonometric hierarchical finite element method after Bardell [16] for the free flexural vibration analysis of bare plates which is formulated in terms of a fixed number of quintic polynomial shape functions plus a variable number of trigonometric hierarchical shape functions. In this method a structure is modelled as just one finite element and the number of hierarchical terms is varied to obtain the results to a desired degree of accuracy. Here the satisfaction of internal C ◦ and/or C1 continuity along element interfaces is avoided and the problems of stress singularities are overcome. Results are presented for the square and rectangular plates with different boundary conditions. This method because of its simplicity can only be applied to simple and uniform structures. Radhakrishnan et al. [151] have developed an approximate method to estimate the fundamental frequency of a plate through the finite element solution of its static deflections under a uniformly distributed load using

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a frequency-static deflection relation without the associated eigenvalue problem. Since a four-noded quadrilateral isoparametric plate element has been chosen for the static deflection of the plate, they have been able to present results for rectangular and circular plates having holes at the centre. This method is useful to assess the approximate natural frequencies of plates of arbitrary shape. However, the obvious problem of shear locking associated with the isoparametric elements used for the static analysis of thin plates in this method has not been discussed.

2.2.3 Stability Analysis of Bare Plates
Kapur and Hartz [76] have derived the stability coefficient matrices for plates under different loading conditions for use with the stiffness matrix following Bolotin [26]. These stability coefficient matrices allow the modification of the conventional plate stiffness matrices to include the effect of the in-plane stresses. They have applied this method for rectangular plates under different in-plane loadings. Durvasula [48] has used the Rayleigh-Ritz method with deflection expressed in double Fourier sine series in oblique coordinates to study the stability of the simply supported skew plates under uniform system of inplane stresses which have been represented in terms of orthogonal components. Buckling coefficients for simply supported skew plates of various aspect ratios having varying skew angles have been presented. This method limits its application to the rectangular and the skew plate geometries. Fried and Schmitt [52] have applied the gradient iterative techniques to refine the finite element mesh at the obtuse corner of the skew plate where stress singularity occurs, thus regaining the full rate of convergence of the finite element vibration and stability results of skew plate

2.2 Review on Bare Plates

25

configurations. They have considered a general skew element having four nodal points, each associated with four degrees of freedom and have considered pure boundary conditions such as free on all sides. Free vibration results for equilateral plates having various skew angles and buckling results for plates of different aspect ratios along with various skew angles under compression and shear have been presented. Prabhu and Durvasula [148] have considered the buckling problems of clamped skew plates using oblique components of stress for oblique geometry of the plate. They have expressed the deflection as a double series of beam characteristic functions of a clamped-clamped beam and have used energy method to obtain the critical buckling coefficients. They have also made the convergence study under both direct and shear loadings and have found that at least 18-term solution for the skew angle up to 30◦ and 32-term solution for the skew angle up to 60◦ are required for the fairly converged estimates of the buckling coefficients. They have presented buckling coefficients for plates subject to inplane direct and shear loadings for several combination of side ratios and skew angles. Reddy and Tsay [155] have formulated a mixed rectangular element having three degrees of freedom per node: the transverse deflection, and the two normal moments for analyzing bare plates. They have presented free vibration and stability results of square and rectangular plates. They have also analyzed plates with uniform uniaxial compression for free vibration. An attempt to derive non-rectangular elements to accommodate the plates of general shape in this method is mathematically more involved and hence it is confined to the square and rectangular plate configurations. Rubin [158] has presented an analytical method to obtain critical loads and buckling mode shapes for polar-orthotropic sector plate with radial edges simply supported and having arbitrary boundary conditions

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along the circular edges. He has expressed the differential equations of the plates in terms of polar coordinates. The method can be applied to the buckling analysis of plates of pie-shaped and ring-shaped sectors of orthotropic as well as isotropic ones. Mukhopadhyay [128] has extended the static [127] and vibration [125] analysis of plates to analyze the stability of ship plating and allied plated structures using the semi-analytical method. He has presented results for various edge conditions of the rectangular plates and different inplane loading combinations. Mizusawa et al. [117] have presented the bending, vibration and buckling analyses of skew plates by using the modified Rayleigh-Ritz method using B-spline functions with Lagrange multipliers to deal with both geometric and natural boundary conditions. They have presented bending, vibration and buckling results for various skew angles and boundary conditions of the skew plates. Mizusawa and Kajita [114] have dealt with vibration and buckling analyses of skew plates with edges elastically restrained against rotation. They have used the spline strip method where the skew plate has been idealized by discrete strip elements. In this method, the displacement function is expressed by the product of basic function series in the longitudinal direction satisfying the boundary conditions at the ends and the B-spline functions known as piecewise polynomials whose higher derivatives are continuous in the discretized subregions. They have studied the effect of rotational stiffnesses, skew angles and aspect ratios on the vibration and buckling of skew plates and have presented characteristic charts for them. Liu and Chen [103] have extended the work of Harik [59] on stability of annular plates by incorporating the elastically restrained boundary conditions and by considering both radial and tangential in-plane stresses

2.2 Review on Bare Plates

27

using the semianalytic technique. In this method, the governing differential equation for the deflection is expressed in polar coordinates and its solution is assumed as the product of a radial function and a beam function corresponding to identical elastically restrained boundary conditions at the ends. Mukhopadhyay [130] has presented a numerical method in which two characteristic functions satisfying the boundary conditions along the opposite edges are assumed and then the displacement function is substituted into the differential equation of the plate for free vibration and buckling which in turn is converted into an eigenvalue problem through some transformations. Rectangular uniform isotropic plates of various aspect ratios having varying degrees of rotational restraints along the edges have been analyzed using various number of total harmonic terms in each direction. Frequency and buckling parameters have been presented for various boundary conditions which include the classical as well as the elastically restrained in rotation and have been compared with the results obtained by the semi-analytic finite difference method. Mermertas and Belek [109] have developed a sector finite element model with the wave propagation technique of cyclic symmetry to study the static and dynamic stability of annular plates of variable thickness. They have used the Mindlin plate finite element in conjunction with Bolotin’s approach, with an isoparametric sector element. The effects of thickness, various boundary conditions and loading have been investigated. Tham and Szeto [182] have applied the spline finite strip method to the buckling analysis of arbitrarily shaped plates by the subparametric transformation of the plates into the natural coordinate plane and expressing the displacements of the strip in terms of natural coordinate variables. The displacements of each strip are described by interpolation functions

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which are the products of piecewise polynomials and B-3 spline functions. The formulated eigenvalue matrix equation for the buckling analysis has been solved following the procedure of standard finite element method. They have presented the first and second buckling load factors for the rectangular, parallelogrammic, triangular, circular and elliptical plate configurations. Singh and Venkateswara Rao [178] have presented design formulae for the fundamental frequencies and critical buckling loads estimation of elliptical plates for simply supported and clamped edges. Cortinez and Laura [40] have proposed simple approximate formulae for a quick and sufficiently accurate estimate of the fundamental frequencies and critical loads of clamped plates by simplifying the conformal mapping method. They have determined the fundamental frequencies and critical buckling loads of regular polygonal plates, circular plate with two flat sides and a square plate having rounded corners. This method can be applied to the plate having clamped edges only. Wang et al. [188] have used the pb-2 Rayleigh-Ritz method proposed by Liew and Lam [98] and have analyzed the buckling of skew plates. In this method, the Ritz functions consist of the product of a basic function and orthogonal polynomials, the degree of which may be increased until the desired accuracy is reached. The basic function is formed by taking the product of the equations expressing the boundary shape, with each equation having the power of either 0, 1, or 2 corresponding to free, simply supported, or clamped supporting edges respectively. As such, the kinematic boundary conditions are automatically satisfied at the outset without using Lagrangian multipliers. This form of Ritz function has an advantage over the trigonometric series, as the analyst need not search for the appropriate trigonometric series because the boundary expressions are already given. Using this method they have presented buckling results

2.2 Review on Bare Plates for skew plates of various boundary conditions.

29

Jønsson et al. [72] have derived a hybrid displacement four-noded rectangular plate element where the potential energy is modified by adding Lagrange multiplier terms and thereby introducing independent field parameters. The boundary displacements and internal displacements have been interpolated by the nodal parameters, while the curvatures and moments by locally condensed internal parameters. They have presented results for bending and stability of rectangular plates with various boundary and loading conditions. Zhang and Kr¨tzig [196] have presented a four-noded rectangular a element of the Mindlin displacement model for thin plate bending and buckling analysis. The element properties have been derived using discrete Kirchhoff constraint according to an eight-node interpolatory pattern specified to consist of bilinear Lagrangian and Serendipity bubble functions. To satisfy the real Kirchhoff conditions in the thin plate limit, a different discrete Kirchhoff constraint has been proposed. The element’s bending behaviour has been shown only by a single element test. Buckling analysis of square and rectangular plates have been presented. Zhou et al. [197] have presented a semianalytical-seminumerical method of solution for the buckling problem of simply supported annular sector plates subjected to inplane pressure along the straight-edges. They have first generated the analytical solution for the pre-buckling inplane stresses of the plates based on the elastic theory of the plane-stress problem and then used a seminumerical technique to obtain the critical buckling load. The basic functions in the angular direction are chosen as the eigenfunctions for the simply supported beam and the resulting ordinary differential equation is solved by a one-dimensional finite difference technique. Wanji and Cheung [189] have proposed a refined triangular discrete Kirchhoff thin plate bending element by improving the original DKT el-

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ement. They have imposed a relaxed continuity condition of

∂θy ∂θx = ∂y ∂x in the element, but satisfying in the strict sense the C1 continuity requirement on the element boundary. They have proposed formulation of the mass matrix and the geometric stiffness matrix by linear combination of the interpolations of the element displacement functions. They have presented a clamped circular plate example for the bending analysis and simply supported as well as clamped square plates for vibration and buckling analyses.

Yuan and Jin [195] have employed the multi-term trial functions in place of earlier used single-term trial function to the extended Kantorovich method for the eigenvalue solution of elastic stability of rectangular thin plates subjected to different inplane forces and boundary conditions. They have derived the ordinary differential equations and the boundary conditions through the associated variational principle reducing the problem to a linear eigenvalue problem in ordinary differential equations in each iteration step, which in turn has been solved using general-purpose ordinary differential equation solvers. They have presented a number of numerical examples of rectangular plates.

2.3 Various Methods of Analysis of Stiffened Plates
For many years the research on stiffened plated structures has been a subject of interest. Extensive efforts by many researchers have been put into the investigation of the response of the stiffened plates under various loading conditions. Due to its complexity and the number of parameters involved being many, a complete understanding of all aspects of its behaviour is yet to be fully realized. In order to facilitate a solution to the

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31

problem the researchers have made several assumptions leading to the various methods of analysis. A simplified approach for the analysis of stiffened plates has been proposed by Huber [68] which is known as orthotropic plate theory. The philosophy of the method is to convert the stiffened plate into an equivalent plate with constant thickness by smearing out the stiffeners. If the stiffeners are closely spaced then only this model is justified. When the stiffeners are not identical in both directions or not equally spaced the resulting thickness becomes non-uniform and the analysis becomes complex. Another model known as grillage model has been proposed by some investigators. In this model the stiffened plate is considered as a plane structure containing intersecting beams and carrying a lateral load through the action of beam bending. The centroidal planes of the beams in the two orthogonal directions are assumed to be same which affects the accuracy in the stress computation. The beam properties are determined considering the effective width of the plate, calculation of which is mathematically involved. It is not popular because of the drawbacks inherent in the methodology. The advent of the digital computer along with its exponentially increasing computational speed as well as core memory capacity has given the investigators a new direction to the analysis of the complicated structures thereby evolving simpler and more efficient methodologies. Among these, the various numerical methods are: • Finite difference method • Dynamic relaxation method • Finite element method

32 • Finite strip method • Boundary element method

REVIEW OF LITERATURE

Among all the existing numerical methods, the finite element method is undoubtedly the most versatile and accurate one specially for structures having irregular geometry, material anisotropy, nonhomogeniety and any type of loading and boundary conditions.

2.4 Review on Stiffened Plates
The vast amount of literature available in the area of stiffened plates is rich in contributions by the researchers and scientists from diverse fields. Many investigators have studied the static, dynamic and stability behaviour of the stiffened plates and the developments of them up to mideighties are well documented in [186],[132],[162], [164],[121],[122],[172] and [134]. Troitsky [186] has extensively reviewed the literature pertaining to rectangular stiffened plates for static, dynamic and stability analyses which are based on orthotropic plate idealization. Different methods of analysis and idealization techniques employed in the static analysis of stiffened plates have been reviewed by Satsangi [162] and Satsangi and Mukhopadhyay [164]. An extensive review on static, dynamic and stability analyses of bare and stiffened plates has been presented by Mukhopadhyay [132]. The dynamic behaviour of stiffened plates comprising free, transient and random vibration analyses has been reviewed by Mukherjee [121] and Mukherjee and Mukhopadhyay [122]. Mukhopadhyay and Mukherjee [134] have further extended their earlier review to include the later developments on dynamic characteristics of the stiffened plates. In the present investigation an attempt has been made

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to supplement the earlier reviews on stiffened plates and in the context of the present work they are limited to the following areas of analysis: 1. Static Analysis of Stiffened Plates 2. Free Vibration Analysis of Stiffened Plates 3. Stability Analysis of Stiffened Plates

2.4.1 Static Analysis of Stiffened Plates
Mukhopadhyay and Satsangi [136] have formulated an isoparametric stiffened plate bending element following an approach where the stiffener can be placed anywhere inside the element. This has added a distinct improvement over the earlier lumped stiffener and orthotropic plate models for the stiffened plate analysis. Though this model is capable of accommodating various plate geometries, they have analyzed only rectangular plates with various stiffener shape and position along both the directions. They have also presented a scheme for obtaining stiffener stresses for the lumped model. O’Leary and Harari [140] have proposed a finite element method in which the constraint between stiffener and the member is imposed by means of Lagrange multipliers. This imposition has been performed at the functional level, forming augmented variational principles. In order to simplify the initial development and implementation of the proposed method, two-dimensional stiffened beam finite elements are developed. They have conducted numerical tests on several such elements and obtained monotonic convergence. In the development of stiffened plate finite elements, they have treated the bending and membrane behaviours separately. The stiffness matrix of a standard plate element has been

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modified to account for an added beam element and additional terms imposing the constant between the two. They have presented results for the deflection of the centre of the stiffened plate and have compared with the series solution of Timoshenko and Krieger [185]. Al-Shawi and Mardirosian [4] have proposed an improved dynamic relaxation method for the analysis of cantilever plates stiffened with edge beams. The plate skin is modelled using an improved rectangular plate bending element and the edge stiffener is modelled using the grillage beam element. Different weighting parameters are multiplied with the mass and damping factor of the structure, the optimum values of which are obtained for different cantilever plates with edge stiffeners of different sizes. The method is applicable to the rectangular plates only and the stiffeners should lie on the nodal lines. The inplane displacements due to the eccentricity of the stiffeners are not considered in the analysis. Harik and Haddad [61] and Harik and Salamoun [62] have applied the analytical strip method to the analysis of stiffened plates having annular sector and rectangular planforms respectively, modelling the plate and the stiffener separately. The bending, torsional and warping rigidities of the stiffener have been considered in the formulation, but the inplane displacements produced by the eccentricity of the stiffeners have not been considered. The behaviour of the system is derived by imposing the edge and continuity conditions on the closed form solutions of the individual plate strips and beam elements. In this approach the stiffener and the line loads along the strip must follow the nodal lines which imposes restrictions on the mesh division. Petrolito and Golley [147] have proposed a variable degree of freedom macro plate bending element where the displacement function within an element satisfies the governing thin plate equations, substantially reducing the number of equations to be solved. In this method, large ele-

2.4 Review on Stiffened Plates

35

ments corresponding to structural units bounded by beams may be used resulting in a minimum of data preparation. Additionally, a modified version of the ACM element with conforming displacements is shown to be a sub-element of the proposed element. Though the number of total equations generated in this method is small, it cannot be generalized for plates other than the rectangular ones and it demands the placement of the stiffeners to lie along the nodal lines. Bhimaraddi et al. [25] have presented the finite element static and free vibration analysis of an orthogonally stiffened annular sector plate by combining annular sector plate and curved beam elements. They have incorporated the shear deformation and the rotary inertia in both of the elements. Additionally, both the elements are based on higher order theories to include the analysis of arbitrarily laminated structures. However, the formulation imposes restrictions when applied to the arbitrarily shaped structures since it is based on the polar coordinate system. Chong [38] has used the principle of minimum potential energy for the analysis of stiffened plates with arbitrarily oblique and equally spaced eccentric stiffeners which are smeared over the entire plate. The equivalent rigidities for orthogonally and symmetrically oblique stiffened plates, which are used in the Huber-type equilibrium equations are determined by assuming that the gradients of the inplane stress resultants are zero. The placement of the stiffeners along any arbitrarily oblique direction is the major improvement in this technique. The other limitations of the orthotropic plate idealization such as the stiffeners should be light, identical and closely spaced are still present in the formulation. Basak [18] has presented an analytical method for the static and dynamic analyses of rectangular orthotropic plate with irregularly spaced stiffened ribs, simply supported at its four edges and subjected to distributed lateral load having triangular load variation. The integral ac-

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tion of the plate and the stiffeners is included in the modified differential equation through Dirac delta function and the Heaviside lambda function. Being an analytical method, the computational involvement is less. Chan et al. [31] have proposed an exact solution procedure using the U-transformation method for the static analysis of stiffened plates. In this approach, only the rectangular plates with stiffeners concentrically and periodically placed can be analyzed. Based on the energy principle, Kukreti and Cheraghi [81] have proposed a method for the analysis of a stiffened plate system consisting of a plate supported on a network of steel girders. The deflection function is considered as a product of a polynomial and a trigonometric series. The method is applied to stiffened plates of rectangular configurations for various loading conditions and results are compared with those obtained by the finite element method. A semianalytical method has been proposed by Mukhopadhyay [133] for bending analysis of stiffened plates. In this method a displacement function satisfying the boundary conditions along two opposite edges is assumed. This displacement function is then substituted in the differential equation of the plate which in turn is reduced to an ordinary differential equation having constant coefficients by some transformations. He has presented results for rectangular stiffened plates having a varying number of location of stiffeners and possessing different boundary conditions and loadings.

2.4.2 Free Vibration Analysis of Stiffened Plates
Aksu [2] has used variational principle in conjunction with the finite difference method for the analysis of free vibration of stiffened plates where the strain energy expressions for the plate and the stiffeners have been developed which is reduced to an eigenvalue problem through the use of

2.4 Review on Stiffened Plates

37

energy principles. He has analyzed the cross-stiffened plates neglecting the inplane inertia and inplane displacement. He has further extended his work [3] considering the inplane inertia and inplane displacement in both directions and has studied the effects of these inclusion for unidirectionally and cross-stiffened plates. Ramakrishnan and Kunukkasseril [152] have presented an analytical method in which the deck is considered as a combination of annular sector plates and circular ring segments. They have formulated the frequency equations by matching the continuity condition at the junction of the plate and the ring segments after obtaining the close-form solution for both of them and have compared the results with the experimental ones. Shastry and Venkateswara Rao [170] have studied the free vibration of plates with arbitrarily oriented stiffeners using the triangular plate bending element of Cowper et al. [42] in conjunction with a stiffener element developed by Shastry et al. [171]. The formulation incorporates the arbitrary orientation of the stiffeners. They have presented results for rectangular stiffened plates. Bapu Rao et al. [15] have reported their work on experimentally determined frequencies with real-time holographic interferometric techniques for skew stiffened cantilever plates. These experimental results have been verified by the analytical results obtained using three-noded plate element with three-degrees of freedom per node along with the compatible beam element. They have neglected the inplane displacements and inertia in their theoretical formulation. Bhandari et al. [21] have computed the natural frequencies of rectangular and skew stiffened plates using the energy method and Lagrange’s equation. The effect of torsion of the stiffener has been ignored in the analysis. As they have used an oblique coordinate system, the application is limited to the skew plates.

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Mizusawa et al. [115] have studied the effect of the arrangement of stiffening beams, skew angles and stiffness parameters on the vibration characteristics of the skew stiffened plates by using the Rayleigh-Ritz method with B-spline functions as the coordinate functions. To accommodate the skew plate shape they have used the skew coordinate system. Eishakoff et al. [50] have analyzed a finite row of skin stringer panels using modified Bolotin method for dynamic behaviour. All panels and interior stringers have been assumed to be identical. The natural frequencies for a five bay all edges clamped panel have been presented. This method demands that the stiffeners should be equally spaced and they should be of equal size. Bhat [22] has studied the effect of the spacing of stiffeners on the natural frequencies of the plate using the Rayleigh-Ritz method and equations of optimization technique. He has presented only a square stiffened plate results in his analysis. Irie et al. [69] have analyzed free vibration of trapezoidal cantilever stiffened plate by using a continuous coordinate transformation of an arbitrarily shaped plate to a square one of unit length. They have used deflection function of a cantilever and free beam in conjunction with the approximate mode shape to model the stiffened plate. The natural frequencies of the stiffened and the unstiffened cantilever trapezoidal plates have been presented by them using the Ritz method which develops the assumed deflected shapes satisfactorily with different functions. However, the requirement of choosing the deflected shape limits the generalization of this method. Balendra and Shanmugam [12] have applied the grillage method to rib stiffened plates of cellular construction. A matrix approach has been adopted to solve for the free vibration problems. Comparison of theoretical results with experimental ones has been presented [13]. However,

2.4 Review on Stiffened Plates

39

the grillage approximation approach has not become very popular for dynamic analysis of stiffened plates. Srinivasan and Thiruvenkatachari [180] have applied the concept of spreading the properties of the stiffeners over the area of the plate and have solved the problem of curved eccentrically stiffened plates with torsionally soft stiffener using the integral equation technique. This method has been applied to the all edges clamped annular sector plates with eccentric stiffeners for static and vibration analysis. Plates reinforced with regular orthogonal array of uniform beams have been analyzed by Mead et al. [107] using a method developed for the study of wave propagation in two dimensional periodic structures. A motion of plane wave type characterized by different propagation phase constants in both the directions is considered. The governing equations of free wave motion are set up using the hierarchical finite element method and they are solved as an eigenvalue problem for the frequencies at which particular waves will propagate. Though a large structure can be analyzed by this method with minimal effort, but the application is limited to the periodic structures only. Mukhopadhyay [131] has applied the semi-analytic finite difference method to the vibration and stability analysis of rectangular stiffened plates based on the plate beam idealization. The displacement functions satisfying the boundary conditions along the two opposite edges are substituted in the governing equations and they are reduced to ordinary differential equations by suitable transformations. Though the method has attractive features from the economic point of view, it has all the drawbacks inherent in the semi-analytic finite difference method. In this method, a separate formulation is needed for each different structural configuration. It is difficult to handle complex boundary conditions, concentrated load application and similar other situations.

40

REVIEW OF LITERATURE

Using the Rayleigh-Ritz method Michimoto and Zubaydi [110] have analyzed the free vibration of trapezoidal stiffened plates applying a technique of mapping the plate into a rectangular domain and evaluating the plate skin energy on the basis of the mapped domain imparting the necessary transformations. The placement of the stiffeners are parallel and perpendicular to the two parallel sides of the trapezoidal plate which are treated with respect to their actual configurations. Though this approach has extended the application of the Rayleigh-Ritz method from the conventional rectangular to trapezoidal plate shapes, the stiffener placement restrictions along the orthogonal directions still persist. Some of the theoretical results have been verified with the experimental ones and a method to determine the dimensions of a rectangular stiffened plate whose natural frequencies are equal to the trapezoidal one has been proposed. Seinosuke and Aritomi [168] have studied the free vibration of stiffened plates with a small initial curvature. They have used the Galerkin method combined with the multiple mode approximation and verified the natural frequency and mode shape results with those obtained experimentally using laser holography. The formulation is applicable to rectangular plate configurations and the stiffeners must lie parallel to either of the edges. Mizusawa [112] has used the spline finite element method to study the free vibration analysis of stiffened annular sector plates having arbitrary boundary conditions. The structure is idealized as a system of annular sector plate and curved beams rigidly connected to each other. The formulation is based on the lateral displacement only and the inplane displacements due to the eccentricity of the stiffeners are not considered. The bending and torsional effects are incorporated in the stiffener formulation. The formulation is based on the polar coordinate system. Koko and Olson [80] have applied the plate beam idealization tech-

2.4 Review on Stiffened Plates

41

nique to the finite element method for analyzing the free vibration of stiffened plates using a super element which consists of a macro element having analytical as well as the usual finite element shape functions. The lateral and inplane effects as well as the beam torsion and its horizontal bending have been incorporated in the formulation. The method limits its application to the rectangular plate configurations and the stiffeners placement demands that they should be placed on the nodal lines. Palani et al [143] have studied the performance of an eight-noded and an nine-noded isoparametric finite element models for static and vibration analysis of eccentrically stiffened plates/shells. They have derived the models by combining serendipity or Lagrangian plate/shell elements with the three-noded isoparametric beam element employing suitable transformations for the eccentricity of the stiffeners. Numerical studies have been made for the concentrically and eccentrically stiffened plates using four mass lumping schemes. Though they have used the isoparametric elements which is capable to model the arbitrary shape of a plate, they have not addressed any such plate configurations other than the rectangular ones. Moreover, their formulation demands the placement of the stiffeners along the element boundaries of the plates/shells. However, in another publication [144] they have extended their formulation to accommodate the arbitrary placement of the stiffeners and the application areas to the skew and annular stiffened plates. They have considered the ninenoded element to be superior to the eight-noded one which locks in shear for thin plates. Harik and Guo [60] have developed a compound finite element model to investigate the eccentrically stiffened plates in free vibration where they have treated the beam and the plate elements as integral parts of a compound section, and not as independent bending components. In their formulation, the neutral surface may not coincide in the orthogo-

42

REVIEW OF LITERATURE

nally stiffened directions of the compound section. They have presented results for orthogonally stiffened rectangular plates. Sheikh and Mukhopadhyay [173] applied the spline finite strip method to the free vibration analysis of stiffened plates of arbitrary shapes. In their formulation, the stiffeners can be placed anywhere within the plate strip, and need not be placed along the nodal lines. They analyzed the plates of rectangular, skew and annular shapes with concentric as well as eccentric stiffeners. Chen et al. [33] have presented a spline compound strip method for the free vibration analysis of stiffened plates in which the plate has been discretized and modelled as strip elements. The displacement function of the strip element has been expressed as the product of the conventional transverse shape functions and longitudinal cubic B-splines. The flexural, torsional and axial effects of the stiffeners in the formulation have been incorporated. The analysts have presented vibration results for one-directional and cross-stiffened rectangular plates. Holopainen [64] has proposed a finite element model for free vibration analysis of eccentrically stiffened plates. The formulation allows the placement of any number of arbitrarily oriented stiffeners within a plate element. He has modelled the behaviour of the plating by employing a plate bending element consistent with the Reissner-Mindlin thick plate theory and the stiffener element formulation is made consistent with the plate element. To avoid spurious shear locking and to guarantee good convergence behaviour, the plate and the stiffener elements are based on mixed interpolation of tensorial components. He has applied the method to analyze the rectangular and orthogonally stiffened plates. Lee and Ng [85] have studied the free vibrations of rectangular stiffened plates using the Rayleigh-Ritz method. In their formulation they have incorporated the effects of torsional restraint in addition to the bend-

2.4 Review on Stiffened Plates

43

ing restraint of the stiffeners. They have considered the characteristic beam functions as the shape functions and have studied the effects of the location and orientation of the stiffener and its relative stiffness to the plate. Bedair [20] has studied the free vibration characteristics of stiffened plates due to plate/stiffener proportions. He has considered the plate and the stiffener as the discrete elements rigidly connected at their junctions and the nonlinear strain energy function of the assembled structure has been transformed into an unconstrained optimization problem to which Sequential Quadratic Programming has been applied to determine the magnitudes of the lowest natural frequency and the associated mode shape. The formulation is restricted to identical and equally spaced stiffeners thereby loosing the generality of accommodating the stiffeners arbitrarily. Moreover, the method can predict only the lowest frequency and its mode shape.

2.4.3 Stability Analysis of Stiffened Plates
Bryan [28] was the first investigator to deal with the stability problems of plates stiffened with equispaced longitudinal stiffeners where he made important suggestions about the placement of the stiffeners in order to achieve maximum strength. Timoshenko [183] has investigated the problem of minimum stiffness of the stiffeners to prevent overall buckling. Cox and Riddel [43] have extended the concept of Timoshenko by including the torsional effects of the stiffener using a strain energy formulation. They have also studied a multiple stiffener case. Seide [167] has introduced the effect of eccentrically positioned stiffeners in his formulation through the effective moment of inertia of the stiffeners. The effective moment of inertia has been varied with the pro-

44

REVIEW OF LITERATURE

portion of the plate area and with the stiffener area. Klitchieff [79] has presented an expression for the minimum dimensions of the stiffeners to withstand a predetermined critical load. Sherbourne et al. [174] have used the orthotropic plate approach for the behaviour of the simply supported stiffened and corrugated plates under uniform axial compression. This method has all the drawbacks of the orthotropic plate modelling. Dean and Abdel-Malek [44] have presented a discrete field approach to compute the elastic buckling of stiffened plates subjected to uniform longitudinal compression. As they have used the orthotropic stiffened plate modelling, the formulation is restricted to the equally spaced and equally sized stiffeners. Also it is confined to the simply supported plates of rectangular geometries. Allman [6] has carried out the analysis for buckling loads of square and rectangular plates using triangular element. He has presented the results both by including and neglecting the torsional stiffness of the stiffeners and has considered three cross-sections of the stiffeners such as square, rectangular and circular. Shastry et al. [171] have solved the problem of buckling analysis of stiffened plates with arbitrarily oriented stiffeners using finite element method. In their modelling, they have used triangular plate bending element and compatible beam element and applied the method to the buckling analysis of square and rectangular stiffened plates. Hovichitr et al. [66] have presented an analytical approach to analyze orthogonally, equally spaced, simply supported stiffened plates for bending and stability. They have treated the stiffener sections, which were assumed to be identical, and a portion of the plate as single unit. Using a variational method, they have generated governing differential equations of order of ten which in turn were reduced to eight and then to four using

2.4 Review on Stiffened Plates

45

simplifying assumptions. Using Fourier series approximations, numerical solutions were obtained for simply supported panels and comparisons were made between the tenth, eighth and fourth order solutions. This method has many limitations such as stiffeners should be identical and equally spaced and the edges are to be simply supported. Mizusawa et al. [118] have applied the Rayleigh-Ritz method with Bspline functions as the coordinate functions for analyzing skew stiffened plates. The B-spline functions used are continuous at nodal points for higher order derivatives. They have studied the effect of various stiffness parameters of the stiffener on the buckling load. The method has been applied to the rectangular and the skew stiffened plate buckling. Brown and Yettram [27] have proposed a conjugate load/displacement method of analysis for the determination of the elastic buckling loads of stiffened plates under various loading and support conditions. They have highlighted the significance of the torsional rigidity of the stiffeners on the overall behaviour of the complete structure. The method demands the placement of the stiffeners to be oriented parallel to the x or y-coordinate axes. They have analyzed buckling loads for rectangular stiffened plates. Peng-Cheng et al. [145] have presented semianalytical approach using Rayleigh-Ritz method with B-spline functions as coordinate functions to analyze static, vibration and stability behaviour of stiffened plates. They have followed an alternative semianalytical approach and a computational scheme suitable for various types of boundary conditions. The displacement components of the stiffened plate are defined in the form of B-3 spline functions and the ribs are arranged parallel to x and ydirections. They have analyzed rectangular plates with orthogonal orientation of the stiffeners. Mukhopadhyay and Mukherjee [135] have used an isoparametric stiffened plate bending element for the buckling analysis of stiffened plates

46

REVIEW OF LITERATURE

in which the stiffener can be positioned anywhere within the plate element and need not necessarily be placed on the nodal lines. They have presented buckling results for square and skew stiffened plates and have studied the effect of stiffener rigidity, torsional stiffness and eccentricity of the stiffener on the buckling load. Though the element can readily accommodate curved boundaries they have considered only the rectangular and skew plates in their analysis. Recently, an extensive review on the stability of stiffened plates has been carried out by Bedair [19]. He has also presented a numerical method for the prediction of the buckling load of multi-stiffened plates under uniform compression following the philosophy of plate beam idealization. He has employed the sequential quadratic programming to the strain energy components of the plate and the stiffener elements which are in terms of the out-of-plane and in-plane displacement functions. A number of examples pertaining to the straight-edged orthogonally stiffened plates buckling are presented. However, this method lacks in analyzing the curved boundary stiffened plates buckling.

Chapter -

3

MATHEMATICAL FORMULATION
3.1 The Basic Problems

This chapter presents the mathematical formulation for static, free vibration and stability analyses of the bare and stiffened plates of various shapes. The analysis techniques are applied to the plates and the stiffeners. Since the displacement functions chosen for the formulation of the bare and the stiffened plates are different, they are presented in separate sections. The equations of equilibrium for an elastic system undergoing small displacements in matrix form are: 1. Static Analysis [K]{δ} = {P } 2. Free Vibration Analysis ¨ [K]{δ} + [M ]{δ} = {0} 3. Stability Analysis [K]{δ} − λ [KG ] {δ} = {0} 47 (3.1.3) (3.1.2) (3.1.1)

48

MATHEMATICAL FORMULATION

where [K], [M ] and [KG ] are the global elastic stiffness, consistent mass ¨ and geometric stiffness matrices respectively, {δ} and {δ} are the displacement and acceleration vectors in the global coordinate system and {P } is the load vector acting at the nodes. The global matrices used in the Eqs.(3.1.1)-(3.1.3) are obtained by assembling the corresponding element matrices which are derived in the forthcoming sections of this Chapter.

3.2 Proposed Analysis
In the proposed method of analysis two types of basic structures such as bare plates and stiffened plates are considered. The bare plate consists of only a flat plate skin of arbitrary shape whereas the stiffened plate comprises the stiffening ribs in addition to the arbitrarily shaped flat plate skin. In the present formulation the plates and the stiffeners are modelled as discrete elements and the compatibility between them is maintained by expressing the element stiffness matrix of the stiffener in terms of the nodal degrees of freedom of the plate element in which the stiffener is free to assume an arbitrary orientation, disposition and location. The middle plane of the plate is taken as the reference plane. The formulation is done for the plates having both the concentrically and eccentrically placed stiffeners. Under the action of lateral loads the eccentrically stiffened plates are having in-plane deformations in addition to the lateral ones because of the eccentric position of the stiffeners. Hence the formulation takes into account both the lateral and the in-plane displacements. The boundary conditions are incorporated in the most general manner to cater to the need of the curved boundary as well as to the more practical mixed boundary conditions.

3.2 Proposed Analysis

49

3.2.1 The Basic Assumptions
The formulation is based on the following assumptions: 1. The normal to the middle plane of the plate before bending remains straight and normal to the middle plane of the plate after bending. 2. The common normal to the plate and the stiffener system before bending remains straight and normal to the deflected middle plane of the plate after bending. 3. The horizontal bending of the stiffener is not taken into account. 4. The stress in the z-direction is small compared to the other stress components and is thus neglected. 5. The material of the plate and the stiffener is same and follows Hooke’s law. 6. The lateral deflection is small compared to the thickness of the plate.

3.2.2 The Transformation of the Coordinate
The arbitrary shape of the whole plate is mapped into a Master Plate of square region [-1,+1] in the s-t plane with the help of the relationship given by (Zienkiewicz and Taylor [198]):
12 12

x=
i=1

Ni (s, t) xi

y=
i=1

Ni (s, t) yi

(3.2.1)

where (xi , yi ) are the coordinates of the i-th node on the boundary of the plate in the x-y plane and Ni (s, t) are the corresponding cubic serendipity

50

MATHEMATICAL FORMULATION Table 3.1: Cubic Serendipity Shape Function Node Corner (1,4,7,10) Mid-side (2,3,8,9) Mid-side (5,6,11,12)
9 (1 32 1 (1 32

Ni (ξ, η) + ξi ξ)(1 + ηi η)
2 2

Value of ξi and ηi ξi = ±1 ηi = ±1 ξi = ±1 ηi = ± 1 3 ξi = ± 1 3 ηi = ±1

[9(ξ + η ) − 10]
9 (1 32

+ ξi ξ)(1 − η 2 ) (1 + 9ηi η) + ηi η)(1 − ξ 2 ) (1 + 9ξi ξ)

y 1 2 3

t 12 11 10 9 8
(-1,1)

1

12

11

10
(1,1)

2 3
(-1,-1)

9 (1,1/3) s 8 (1,-1/3)
(1,-1)

4

5

6

7 x

4

5
(-1/3,1)

6
(1/3,-1)

7

(a) Original plate

(b) Master plate

Figure 3.1: Mapping of the arbitrarily shaped plate

shape functions presented in the Table 3.1. The mapping of the original plate to the Master plate is as shown in the Fig. 3.1. In a mapping based on the serendipity shape function the interior opening at a corner node should not be greater than 180◦ (Zienkiewicz and Taylor [198]). This

3.2 Proposed Analysis

51

t
(−1,1)

η
1 2 12 11 (1,1) 10 9 8 5 7 6 (1,−1)

s
3
(−1,−1)

ξ

4

(a) Element in a 4x4 mesh in s-t plane

(b) Master element in ξ−η plane

Figure 3.2: Mapping of the element

angle is maximum in the case of the circular plate problems considered in this investigation and is just equal to 180◦ . The Master Plate in the s-t plane, which is a square one instead of an arbitrary one, is divided into a number of rectangular elements. For each rectangular element in the s-t plane, twelve number of suitable nodes on its periphery are chosen and their (x, y) coordinates are determined by using the Eq.(3.2.1) which is based on the mapping of the whole arbitrary plate to the Master Plate of the Fig. 3.1. Thus the process of division of the Master Plate in the st plane into the rectangular elements and the determination of the (x, y) coordinates of the twelve nodes on the boundary of the elements becomes simple because of its square geometry which rather would have been more complex and tedious for the arbitrary geometry in the x-y plane. Now the (x, y) coordinates of the twelve nodes on the boundary of each rectangular element being known, each element is mapped to a Master Element of square region [-1,+1] in the ξ-η plane as shown in the Fig. 3.2

52

MATHEMATICAL FORMULATION

in a similar way as the original plate is mapped into the Master Plate in the s-t plane using the same cubic serendipity shape functions given in Eq.(3.2.1), but now the variables being changed from (s, t) to (ξ, η).

3.3 Arbitrary Bare Plate Bending Formulation
This section consists of the formulation of the elastic stiffness matrix, the mass matrix and the geometric stiffness matrix of the bare plate element which are [Ku ]e , [Mu ]e and [KuG ]e respectively and assembling them into the respective global matrices [Ku ], [Mu ] and [KuG ]. Additionally, the stiffness matrix [Ku ]b for the general curved boundary line is consistently formulated (straight and skew ones being the special cases of them) and added to the respective elastic stiffness matrix of the element. A single general element is used for the solution of the static, free vibration and stability problems of plates of arbitrary configurations.

3.3.1 The Displacement Function
Each square element in the ξ-η plane is considered for the generation of the element matrices. For the proposed element, the four-noded rectangular non-conforming ACM plate bending element with 12 degrees of freedom (Adini and Clough [1]) is taken as the basic element. As the element is in the ξ-η plane, the shape functions and the nodal parameters for the displacements and slopes are expressed in terms of the coordinates ξ and η unlike the x and y coordinates of the parent ACM element. Thus the displacement field can be written as w = [Nw ] {δu } (3.3.1)

3.3 Arbitrary Bare Plate Bending Formulation where
1 1 1 2 2 [Nw ] = [Nw Nθξ Nθη Nw Nθξ 3 Nw 3 Nθξ 3 Nθη 4 Nw 4 Nθξ

53

 2 Nθη 
4 Nθη ]

 ∂w ∂η

(3.3.2)
T 4

{δu } = w1

∂w ∂ξ

(3.3.3) The shape functions for the displacement field for the jth node are given as (Zienkiewicz and Taylor [198]): 1 j j j [Nw , Nθξ , Nθη ] = [(ξ0 + 1)(η0 + 1)(2 + ξ0 + η0 − ξ 2 − η 2 ), 8 ξj (ξ0 + 1)2 (ξ0 − 1)(η0 + 1), ηj (ξ0 + 1)(η0 + 1)2 (η0 − 1)](3.3.4) ξ0 = ξξj η0 = ηηj (3.3.5)

1

∂w ∂η

. . . . . . w4
1

∂w ∂ξ

4

3.3.2 Elastic Stiffness Matrix Formulation
3.3.2.1 Stress-Strain Relationship
The generalized stress-strain relation in matrix form is given by {σu } = [Du ] { u } where {σu } is the stress resultant vector given by {σu } = [Mx My Mxy ]T  0 0 DXY    (3.3.8) (3.3.7) (3.3.6)

and [Du ] is the rigidity matrix given by  D D1  X [Du ] =  D1 DY  0 0

54

MATHEMATICAL FORMULATION When isotropic material is considered; Et3 DX = DY = 12(1 − ν 2 ) D1 = νDX 1−ν DXY = DX 2 The generalized strains are given by ∂2w ∂x2 ∂ 2w ∂ 2w 2 ∂y 2 ∂x ∂y
T

           (3.3.9)

{ u} = −

(3.3.10)

3.3.2.2 Strain-Displacement Relationship
The displacement functions of the plate element is expressed in terms of the local ξ-η coordinate system whereas the strains are in terms of the derivatives of the displacements with respect to the x and y coordinates. Hence before establishing the relationship between the strain and the displacement the first and second order derivatives of the displacement w with respect to the x-y coordinates are expressed in terms of those of the ξ-η coordinates using the chain rule of differentiation and are obtained as below:  ∂w          ∂x   −1 = [J]  ∂w         ∂y ∂w ∂ξ     (3.3.11)

∂w    ∂η

3.3 Arbitrary Bare Plate Bending Formulation

55

  ∂2w  −   ∂x2      ∂2w − 2  ∂y      ∂ 2w   2  ∂x∂y where

         

 2  ∂ w    ∂ξ 2      2 ∂ w −1 = [J2]   ∂η 2         2   ∂ w       ∂ξ∂η

         

 ∂w       ∂ξ  −1 −1 − [J2] [J1][J]   ∂w           ∂η    (3.3.12)

 ∂x  ∂ξ [J] =   ∂x ∂η ∂ 2x  ∂ξ 2   2  ∂ x [J1] =   ∂η 2    ∂ 2x ∂ξ∂η 

∂y  ∂ξ   ∂y  ∂η  ∂ 2y ∂ξ 2    2 ∂ y   ∂η 2    2 ∂ y  ∂ξ∂η
2

(3.3.13)

(3.3.14)

∂x  − ∂ξ   2  ∂x [J2] =  −  ∂η    ∂x ∂x − ∂ξ ∂η

2

∂y − ∂ξ ∂y − ∂η − ∂y ∂y ∂ξ ∂η

∂x ∂y ∂ξ ∂ξ ∂x ∂y ∂η ∂η 1 2 ∂x ∂y ∂x ∂y + ∂ξ ∂η ∂η ∂ξ

          (3.3.15)

2

From the above equations the strain vector of Eq.(3.3.10) can be ex-

56 pressed as

MATHEMATICAL FORMULATION

  ∂ 2w  −    ∂x2     ∂ 2w − 2  ∂y      ∂2w   2  ∂x∂y

                   = [TF 1 ] [TF 2 ]

                   

∂w ∂ξ ∂w ∂η

∂2w  ∂ξ 2       2   ∂ w           ∂η 2          2    ∂ w        ∂ξ ∂η

                    (3.3.16)

or { (x, y)u } = [Tu ] { (ξ, η)u } where [TF 1 ] = −[J2]−1 [J1][J]−1 [TF 2 ] = [J2]−1 (3.3.18) (3.3.17)

and { (x, y)u } and { (ξ, η)u } denote the strain vectors in the respective coordinate systems, the expression for { (ξ, η)u } being given by; ∂w { (ξ, η)u } = ∂ξ ∂w ∂η ∂ 2w ∂ξ 2 ∂ 2w ∂η 2 ∂2w ∂ξ∂η
T

(3.3.19)

Using Eqs. (3.3.1) and (3.3.2), the Eq.(3.3.19) can be rewritten as ¯ { (ξ, η)u } = Bu {δu } where ∂Nw ¯ Bu = ∂ξ ∂Nw ∂η ∂ 2 Nw ∂ξ 2 ∂ 2 Nw ∂η 2 ∂ 2 Nw ∂ξ ∂η
T

(3.3.20)

(3.3.21)

3.3 Arbitrary Bare Plate Bending Formulation Hence the combination of Eqs.(3.3.17) and (3.3.20), yields { (x, y)u } = [Bu ]{δu } where ¯ [Bu ] = [Tu ][Bu ]

57

(3.3.22)

(3.3.23)

The stress-strain relationship from Eq.(3.3.6) can be expressed with the help of the Eq.(3.3.22) as {σu } = [Du ][Bu ]{δu } (3.3.24)

3.3.2.3 Stiffness Matrix of the Bare Plate Bending Element
Total potential energy of the plate element is given by Πp = 1 2 { (x, y)}T {σ(x, y)} dx dy − wT q dx dy (3.3.25)

Applying the principle of minimum potential energy and making appropriate substitutions for { (x, y)} and {σ(x, y)}, Eq.(3.3.25) reduces to [Ku ]e {δu } = {P }e (3.3.26)

where {δu } is the vector of nodal displacements and {P }e is the vector of nodal forces and [Ku ]e is the plate element stiffness matrix given by [Ku ]e = [Bu ]T [Du ][Bu ] dx dy (3.3.27)

Since the [Bu ] matrix is a function of ξ and η, the Eq.(3.3.27) can be rewritten as [Ku ]e = [Bu ]T [Du ][Bu ] |J| dξ dη (3.3.28) where |J| is the determinant of the Jacobian matrix [J] given by Eq.(3.3.13). The integration of the Eq.(3.3.28) is carried out numerically by adopting 2 × 2 Gaussian quadrature formula.

58

MATHEMATICAL FORMULATION

3.3.3 Consistent Mass Matrix of the Bare Plate Element
A consistent mass matrix of the plate element is formulated on the basis of the lateral displacement w. The acceleration of a point in the middle plane of the plate in terms of the interpolation function given in Eq.(3.3.1) can be expressed as ¨ ¨ ¨ {f } = {w} = [Nw ] {δu } (3.3.29)

Hence the inertia force of a small element of volume dV at that point is given by ¨ ¨ {fI } = ρ dV {w} = ρ dV [Nw ] {δu } (3.3.30) where ρ is the mass density of the plate material. If {FI } is the nodal inertia force parameter, then the contribution of the inertia in the equation of motion can be obtained from the principle of virtual work and can be expressed as dδ T {FI } =
v

df T {fI }

(3.3.31)

The above equation with the help of the Eq.(3.3.30) can be rewritten as dδ T {FI } =
v

¨ dδ T [Nw ]T ρ dV [Nw ] {δu }

(3.3.32)

from which {FI } = ρ
v

¨ ¨ [Nw ]T [Nw ] dV {δu } = [Mu ]e {δu }

(3.3.33)

where [Mu ]e is the mass matrix of the bare plate element and for constant thickness t it is given by [Mu ]e = ρ
v

[Nw ]T [Nw ] dV = ρt

[Nw ]T [Nw ] |J| dξ dη

(3.3.34)

3.3 Arbitrary Bare Plate Bending Formulation

59

3.3.4 Geometric Stiffness Matrix of the Bare Plate Element
To formulate the geometric stiffness matrix, the action of the in-plane loads causing bending strains is considered. The membrane strains asso∂w ∂w ciated with the small rotations and of the plate mid-surface are ∂x ∂y given by   2  1 ∂w         2 ∂x            x       2 1 ∂w (3.3.35) = { uG } =   y   2 ∂y             γxy  ∂w   ∂w      ∂x ∂y If the stresses σx , σy and τxy are assumed to remain constant during the occurrence of the strains { uG }, the associated work is given by the equation W = where {σ} = [σx Substituting the value of { W = = 1 2 ∂w ∂x
2 uG }

{

uG }

T

{σ} dx dy dz τxy ]T

(3.3.36)

σy
2

(3.3.37)

from Eq.(3.3.35) in Eq.(3.3.36), yields ∂w ∂y ∂w ∂x ∂w ∂y {σ} dx dy dz

1 2

1 {θu }T [σu ]{θu } dx dy dz 2 (3.3.38)

where

∂w ∂w {θu } = ∂x ∂y

T

(3.3.39)

60 and

MATHEMATICAL FORMULATION  [σu ] =  σx τxy  τxy  σy (3.3.40)

The Eq.(3.3.39) can be expressed in terms of ξ and η and can be rewritten as  ∂w   ∂w         ∂x    ∂ξ   {θu } = = [TuG ] (3.3.41)  ∂w   ∂w          ∂y ∂η where [TuG ] = [J]−1 (3.3.42) and  ∂w      ∂ξ   ¯ = BuG {δu }  ∂w      ∂η ¯ BuG = ∂Nw ∂ξ ∂Nw ∂η
T

(3.3.43)

where

(3.3.44)

Hence combining Eq.(3.3.41) and Eq.(3.3.43) {θu } can be expressed as ¯ {θu } = [TuG ] BuG {δu } = [BuG ] {δu } where ¯ [BuG ] = [TuG ] BuG (3.3.46) Substituting the value of {θu } from Eq.(3.3.45) the Eq.(3.3.38) becomes W = t = 2 1 {δu }T [BuG ]T [σu ] [BuG ] {δu } dx dy dz 2 {δu } [BuG ] [σu ] [BuG ] {δu } dx dy
T T

(3.3.45)

(3.3.47)

3.3 Arbitrary Bare Plate Bending Formulation The external work done by the nodal forces is given by 1 W = {δu }T [KuG ] {δu } 2

61

(3.3.48)

From Eqs.(3.3.47) and (3.3.48) the geometric stiffness matrix of the bare plate element can be written as [KuG ]e = t [BuG ]T [σu ] [BuG ] dx dy = t [BuG ]T [σu ] [BuG ] |J| dξ dη

(3.3.49) where the subscript e denotes that the matrix is for the plate element.

3.3.5 Boundary Conditions for the Bare Plate
As a general case the stiffness matrix for a curved boundary supported on elastic springs continuously spread in the directions of possible displacements and rotations along the boundary line is formulated from which specific boundary conditions can be obtained by incorporating the appropriate value of the spring constants. Considering a local axis system x1 -y1 at a point P on a curved boundary along the direction of the normal to the boundary at that point as shown in the Fig. 3.3 the displacement components along it can be found.

Let the angle made by the local axis x1 -y1 with the global axis x-y be β. Hence a relationship between the two axes can be established as given below.       x   x  cosβ −sinβ  1 (3.3.50) =  y  sinβ cosβ  y1 

62

MATHEMATICAL FORMULATION

y y1

P β

x1

x

Figure 3.3: Coordinate axes at a typical point of a curved boundary

The displacements at P which may be restrained can be expressed as

    w                      = {fbu } =  θn                      θt

 w        ∂w  ∂x1      ∂w    ∂y1

(3.3.51)

where θn and θt represent the slopes which are normal and transverse to the boundaries respectively. Substituting from Eqs.(3.3.50), the Eq.(3.3.51) can be written as

3.3 Arbitrary Bare Plate Bending Formulation   w          ∂w  ∂x        ∂w     ∂y Expressing Eq.(3.3.52) in terms of the shape functions;  {fbu } = [Nbu ] {δu } where    [N ]      w       1 0 0                 ∂[Nw ]         ∂x [Nbu ] =  0 cosβ sinβ               ∂[N ]    w          0 −sinβ cosβ  ∂y           1 0 0                {fbu } =  0 cosβ sinβ                0 −sinβ cosβ 

63

(3.3.52)

(3.3.53)

(3.3.54)

The reaction components per unit length along the boundary line due to the elastic springs corresponding to the possible boundary displacements given in the Eq.(3.3.51) can be expressed as        fkw   kw w                            kα θ n {fku } = = (3.3.55)  fkα                      kβ θ t         fkβ  

64

MATHEMATICAL FORMULATION

where kw , kα and kβ are the spring constants or restraint coefficients corresponding to the direction of w, θn and θt respectively. The Eq.(3.3.55) can be rewritten by combining the Eqs.(3.3.51), (3.3.52) and (3.3.53) as {fku } = [Nku ]{δu } where  k  w     [Nku ] =  0     0    [Nw ]      0 0                 ∂[N ]  w   kα cosβ kα sinβ   ∂x                 ∂[Nw ]     −kβ sinβ kβ cosβ  ∂y (3.3.56)

(3.3.57)

Using Equations (3.3.52) and (3.3.55) the stiffness matrix can be obtained by the virtual work principle and it can be expressed as [Kbu ] = [Nbu ]T [Nku ] |Jb | dλ1 (3.3.58)

where λ1 is the direction of the boundary line in the ξ-η plane and the ds1 Jacobian |Jb | = . dλ1 The value of the Jacobian along a boundary line is considered as a constant quantity and is evaluated by the ratio of the actual length to the length on the mapped domain considering any segment of the boundary line. A classical boundary condition can be attained by substituting a high value of the restraint coefficients corresponding to the restraint direction.

3.4 Arbitrary Stiffened Plate Element Formulation

65

3.3.6 Stresses at the Nodes of the Bare Plate
Once the element nodal degrees of freedom {δu } are known the bending moments [Mx My Mxy ] at the nodes are calculated by using the Eqs.(3.3.6), (3.3.7) and (3.3.24) which becomes {σu } = [Mx My Mxy ]T = [Du ]{ u } = [Du ][Bu ]{δu } (3.3.59)

3.4 Plate Element Formulation for Eccentrically Stiffened Arbitrary Plate
The eccentrically stiffened plates consist of the stiffeners whose positions are not symmetric with respect to the reference plane (plate mid-plane). In such a situation there exists a coupling between the axial and the flexural effects. Hence as a general case, a curved stiffener with eccentricity with respect to the plate mid-plane is considered for the formulation. The matrices for the concentric stiffeners can be obtained from those of the eccentric ones by excluding the axial effects in the formulation. For solving the static, free vibration and stability problems of arbitrarily shaped plates stiffened with the arbitrarily oriented stiffeners the elastic stiffness, mass and geometric stiffness matrices of the plate element [Kp ]e , [Mp ]e and [KpG ]e respectively and those of stiffener element [KS ]e , [MS ]e and [KSG ]e respectively are derived and they are assembled into the respective global matrices. The stiffness matrices [Kp ]b for the general curved boundaries are also derived following the similar procedure as in the case of the boundaries of bare plate formulation.

66

MATHEMATICAL FORMULATION

3.4.1 The Displacement Function
For the proposed stiffened plate bending element, the bending deformation has been represented combining the four-noded rectangular nonconforming ACM plate bending element with 12 degrees of freedom (Adini and Clough [1]), already used in the formulation of the bare plate, and the four-noded rectangular plane stress element with 8 degrees of freedom for the in-plane deformations. As before, the element is in the ξ-η plane, and the shape functions as well as the nodal parameters for the displacements and slopes are expressed in terms of the coordinates ξ and η instead of x and y coordinates of the parent ACM element. Thus the displacement field can be written as:      u   [Nu ]                          {δ } = {f } =  v   [Nv ]  p                         [Nw ] w

(3.4.1)

where [Nu ], [Nv ] and [Nw ] are the vectors of the respective shape functions out of which [Nu ] and [Nv ] are given as:
1 [Nu ] = [Nu 3 Nu 2 0 0 0 Nu 4 0 0 0 Nu

0 0

0 0

 0 0 0        0 0 0]     (3.4.2)

[Nv ] =

[0 0

1 Nv 0 0 0 3 Nv 0 0 0

0 0

2  Nv 0 0 0        4 Nv 0 0 0]   

3.4 Arbitrary Stiffened Plate Element Formulation

67

and [Nw ] is given by the Eq.(3.3.2) and the displacement vector {δp } for the stiffened plate is expressed as: {δp } = [u1 v1 w1 u4 ∂w ∂ξ v4 ∂w ∂η w4 ...
1

... ∂w ∂η
T 4

      

1

∂w ∂ξ

4

(3.4.3)

The shape functions for the displacement field corresponding to a particular node, say the jth node can be expressed as: • for the inplane displacements: 1 j j Nu = Nv = (1 + ξ0 )(1 + η0 ) 4 (3.4.4)

• and for the out of plane displacements: the same expression as given by Eq.(3.3.4). where ξ0 and η0 have their usual meanings as before.

3.4.2 The Plate Element Formulation
3.4.2.1 Stress-Strain Relationship
Considering the middle plane of the plate as the reference plane and taking the lateral and the in-plane displacements into account, the generalized stress-strain relationship can be obtained following the procedure of section (3.3.2.1), the expressions for the stress and strain vectors and the rigidity matrix being given by: {σp } = [Fx Fy Fxy Mx My Mxy ]T (3.4.5)

68  DXA D1A DY A

MATHEMATICAL FORMULATION  0 DXY A DXF 0 D1F D1F DY F DXY F where the elements of the matrix for isotropic material are given by:  Et Et3   DXA = DY A = DXF = DY F = 2 2)  1−ν 12(1 − ν      (3.4.7) D1A = νDXA D1F = νDXF       1−ν 1−ν   DXY A = DXA DXY F = DXF 2 2  ∂u     ∂x       ∂v     ∂y       ∂u ∂v     ∂y + ∂x
2   −∂ w    ∂x2      2    −∂ w    ∂y 2     2    2∂ w  ∂x∂y

  D1A    [Dp ] =      

          

(3.4.6)

                                                 (3.4.8)

{ p} =

3.4 Arbitrary Stiffened Plate Element Formulation

69

3.4.2.2 Strain-Displacement Relationship
Using the relationship between the x-y and the ξ-η coordinate systems as obtained in the section (3.3.2.2), the first order derivatives of the displacements with respect to the x and y coordinates in the expressions of Eq.(3.4.8) can be written in terms of the ξ and η coordinates such as:         ∂u ∂ξ ∂η     0 0      ∂x ∂x     ∂x ∂u               ∂η  ∂v ∂ξ ∂η  0 = 0    ∂y ∂y ∂y ∂v              ∂u ∂v     ∂ξ  ∂ξ ∂η ∂ξ ∂η       +   ∂y ∂x ∂y ∂y ∂x ∂x ∂v    ∂η (3.4.9) and the expression for the second order derivatives is same as that given by the Eq.(3.3.16). Hence the strain vector of Eq.(3.4.8) can be expressed as:   ∂u           ∂x           ∂v           ∂y       ∂u ∂v           + [TA ] 0 0   ∂y ∂x   (3.4.10) 2  { (ξ, η)p } ∂ w =  −      0 [TF 1 ] [TF 2 ] ∂x2            2   −∂ w        ∂y 2           2   ∂ w     2    ∂x∂y ∂u ∂ξ ∂u ∂ξ                                                 ∂u          ∂η = [TA ]  ∂v           ∂ξ            ∂v     ∂η

70 or,

MATHEMATICAL FORMULATION

{ (x, y)p } = [Tp ] { (ξ, η)p } where   [Tp ] =  [TA ] 0 ∂u { (ξ, η)p } = ∂ξ ∂u ∂η ∂v ∂ξ ∂v ∂η 0 0   

(3.4.11)

(3.4.12)

[TF 1 ] [TF 2 ] ∂w ∂ξ ∂w ∂η ∂ 2w ∂ξ 2 ∂ 2w ∂η 2
T

∂ 2w ∂ξ ∂η (3.4.13) Following the same procedure as in the case of the bare plate, the strain-displacement relationship can be written as: {σp } = [Dp ] [Bp ] {δp } where ¯ [Bp ] = [Tp ] Bp and ∂Nu ¯ Bp = ∂ξ ∂Nu ∂η ∂Nv ∂ξ ∂Nv ∂η ∂Nw ∂ξ ∂Nw ∂η ∂ 2 Nw ∂η 2 ∂ 2 Nw ∂ξ ∂η
T

(3.4.14)

(3.4.15)

∂ 2 Nw ∂ξ 2

(3.4.16)

3.4.2.3 Elastic Stiffness Matrix of the Plate Element of the Stiffened Plate
Applying the principle of minimum potential energy and following the same procedure of the bare plate, the stiffness matrix of the plate skin can be written as: [Kp ]e = [Bp ]T [Dp ] [Bp ] |J| dξ dη (3.4.17)

3.4 Arbitrary Stiffened Plate Element Formulation

71

where the integration of the above equation is carried out numerically by 2 × 2 Gaussian quadrature formula.

3.4.2.4 Consistent Mass Matrix of the Plate Element of the Stiffened Plate
A consistent mass matrix for the plate element is formulated on the basis of lateral as well as in-plane displacements. The displacement components of a point at a depth z from the middle plane of the plate can be expressed in terms of those at the plate midplane as      u   u − z ∂w    ¯          ∂x              ∂w = (3.4.18) {f } = ¯  v   v − z ∂y                          w ¯ w Using the displacement interpolation function from Eq.(3.4.1), the Eq.(3.4.18) can be written as {f } = [G][L][N ]{δp } = [Np ] {δp } where (3.4.19)

    [G] =  0 1 0    0 0 1 1 0 0 −z 0 0 0

    −z     0

(3.4.20)

72 

MATHEMATICAL FORMULATION  0 0 0 ∂η ∂x ∂η ∂y                  
T

1 0 0 0      0 1 0 0     [L] =  0 0 1 0     0 0 0 ∂ξ  ∂x    ∂ξ 0 0 0 ∂y

(3.4.21)

∂[Nw ] ∂[Nw ] [N ] = [Nu ] [Nv ] [Nw ] (3.4.22) ∂ξ ∂η The mass matrix of the plate element for constant thickness t and constant mass density ρ as derived earlier for the bare plate is given by: [Mp ] = ρ [Np ]T [Np ] dv
v

(3.4.23)

which can be rewritten as [Mp ] = ρt where [N ]T [L]T [P ][L][N ] |J| dξ dη  1 0 0 0      0 1 0 0     [P ] =  0 0 1 0    2  0 0 0 t  12    1 0 0 0 0      0     0      0     2  t 12 (3.4.24)

(3.4.25)

3.4 Arbitrary Stiffened Plate Element Formulation

73

3.4.2.5 Geometric Stiffness Matrix of the Plate Element of the Stiffened Plate
For the analysis of the buckling behaviour, the action of the in-plane loads causing bending strains is considered by which the stiffness matrix is modified by another matrix Kp G (geometric stiffness matrix) and then the eigenvalue problem as mentioned in the Eq.(3.1.3) is solved to obtain the buckling parameter. The stretched length for the transverse and in-plane displacements in an element of length dx as shown in the Fig. 3.4 is expressed as: ∂u dx  ∂x ∂w dx ∂x
? 6

dx

-

dx

Figure 3.4: Stretching of an element

dx =

dx +

∂u dx ∂x
2

2

+

= dx

∂u 1+ ∂x

+

∂w dx ∂x 1 2 2 ∂w ∂x
2

2

(3.4.26) ∂w ∂x
2

∂u 1 = dx 1 + + ∂x 2

∂u ∂x

1 + 2

+ ...

74

MATHEMATICAL FORMULATION

Neglecting the higher order terms, the expression for the axial strain of the mid-plane of the plate in the x-direction is:

x

=

∂u 1 + ∂x 2

∂u ∂x

2

+

1 2

∂w ∂x

2

...

(3.4.27)

The presence of the quadratic terms in the mid-plane strain accounts for the transverse displacement. The expression for the strain at the midplane of the plate is written as:

{ }={

pE }

+{

pG }

(3.4.28)

where pE and pG are the elastic and the geometric plate strain respectively, and are given by:  ∂u     ∂x      ∂v      ∂y     ∂u ∂v + { pE } =  ∂y ∂x      ∂w     ∂x       ∂w   ∂y                                      (3.4.29)

3.4 Arbitrary Stiffened Plate Element Formulation and

75

                   {
pG }

1 2 1 2 ∂w ∂x

∂w ∂x ∂w ∂y ∂w ∂y

2

1 + 2 1 + 2 ∂u ∂x

∂u ∂x ∂u ∂y

2

1 + 2 1 + 2 +

∂v ∂x ∂v ∂y ∂v ∂x

2

2

2

2

                   ∂v ∂y                   (3.4.30)

=

                 

+

∂u ∂y 0 0

The contribution of in-plane displacements to the geometric stiffness matrix being insignificant, it is not considered in the formulation. Hence the displacement field for the plate element can be written as:

   −z ∂w        ∂x    u            ∂w = {f } =  v   −z ∂y             w      w

(3.4.31)

Substituting the values of u, v and w from Eq.(3.4.31) in Eq.(3.4.30) yields,

76

MATHEMATICAL FORMULATION

                      {
pG } =

1 2 1 2 ∂w ∂x ∂w ∂y

∂w ∂x ∂w ∂y

2

z2 + 2 + z2 2

∂ 2w ∂x2 ∂ 2w ∂x ∂y

2

z2 + 2
2

∂ 2w ∂x ∂y ∂ 2w ∂y 2 ∂ 2w ∂y 2

2

2

+

z2 2

2

                    

+ z2

∂ 2w ∂x2

∂2w ∂x ∂y 0

+ z2

∂2w ∂x ∂y

                                          

0

1 = [A]{θp } 2 (3.4.32) where ∂w  ∂x    [A] =  0     ∂w ∂y and ∂w {θp } = ∂x ∂w ∂y ∂ 2w −z 2 ∂x ∂ 2w −z 2 ∂y ∂ 2w −z ∂x ∂y
T

0 ∂w ∂y

∂2w −z 2 ∂x 0 −z

0 ∂ 2w ∂y 2

∂ 2w −z ∂x ∂y −z ∂ 2w ∂x ∂y

         

∂w ∂2w ∂ 2w −z −z −z ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂x ∂y

∂ 2w ∂ 2w + ∂x2 ∂y 2 (3.4.33)

(3.4.34)

Taking the variation of Eq.(3.4.32) δ{
pG }

=

1 1 δ [A]{θp } + [A] δ {θp } 2 2

(3.4.35)

3.4 Arbitrary Stiffened Plate Element Formulation It can be shown that (Zienkiewicz and Taylor [198]): δ [A]{θp } = [A] δ {θp } Hence δ{ or {
pG } pG }

77

(3.4.36)

= [A] δ {θp }

(3.4.37)

= [A] {θp }                                       

(3.4.38)

The strain vector {θp } can be rewritten as:    ∂w    1 0 0 0 0    ∂x         ∂w   0 1 0 0 0   ∂y            ∂ 2w  {θp } = 0 0 +z 0 0    − ∂x2          ∂ 2w   0 0 0 +z 0  −    ∂y 2       2 1    0 0 0 0 − z  2 ∂ w 2  ∂x ∂y = [HpG ] {¯pG }

(3.4.39)

The vector {¯pG } can be expressed in terms of the ξ-η coordinates as: {¯pG (x, y)} = [TpG ] {¯pG (ξ, η)} (3.4.40)

where {¯pG (x, y)} denotes the strain vector in the x-y coordinate system and   [TF 3 ] 0   (3.4.41) [TpG ] =   [TF 1 ] [TF 2 ]

78

MATHEMATICAL FORMULATION

{¯pG (ξ, η)} =

∂w ∂ξ

∂w ∂η

∂ 2w ∂ξ 2

∂ 2w ∂η 2

∂ 2w ∂ξ ∂η

T

(3.4.42)

[TF 1 ] = −[J2]−1 [J1][J]−1 [TF 2 ] = [J2]−1 [TF 3 ] = [J]−1 The Eq.(3.4.42) can be rewritten as: ¯ {¯pG (ξ, η)} = BpG {δp } where ¯ BpG = ∂Nw ∂ξ ∂Nw ∂η ∂ 2 Nw ∂ξ 2 ∂ 2 Nw ∂η 2 ∂ 2 Nw ∂ξ ∂η (3.4.45)
T

(3.4.43)

(3.4.44)

Hence combining Eq.(3.4.40) and Eq.(3.4.44) yields, ¯ {¯pG (x, y)} = [TpG ] BpG {δp } = [BpG ] {δp } Hence {θp } = [HpG ] {¯pG } = [HpG ] [BpG ] {δp } (3.4.47) (3.4.46)

The internal work done by the distributed internal stresses can be expressed as: δW = where {σ} = [σx Substituting the values of {
pG }

{

pG }

T

{σ} dx dy dz τxy ]T

(3.4.48)

σy

(3.4.49)

from the Eq.(3.4.46) in the Eq.(3.4.48)

3.4 Arbitrary Stiffened Plate Element Formulation

79

δW = δ

{δp }T [BpG ]T [HpG ]T [A]T {σ} dx dy dz

(3.4.50)

0          ∂w ∂w   0     σx  ∂y ∂x            2 2   ∂ w ∂ w T  −z  0 −z [A] {σ} =    σy  ∂x2 ∂x ∂y          2 2     ∂ w ∂ w    τxy  0 −z 2 −z   ∂y ∂x ∂y     2 2 2 2  ∂ w ∂ w  ∂ w ∂ w −z −z −z + ∂x ∂y ∂x ∂y ∂x2 ∂y 2     ∂w        σx τxy 0 0 0 ∂x                ∂w        τxy σy 0 0 0    ∂y            2   ∂ w  = 0 0 σx 0 τxy   −z ∂x2             2    ∂ w    0 0 0 σy τxy   −z 2        ∂y            2  ∂ w     0 0 τxy τxy (σx + σy )  −z   ∂x ∂y = [σp ]{θp } (3.4.51)

∂w ∂x

∂w ∂y

80

MATHEMATICAL FORMULATION Hence Eq.(3.4.50) can be rewritten as: δW = δ =δ {δp }T [BpG ]T [HpG ]T [σp ]{θp } dx dy dz {δp }T [BpG ]T [HpG ]T [σp ] [HpG ] [BpG ] {δp } dx dy dz (3.4.52) The external work done by the nodal forces is given by: δW = δ{δp }T {R} Equating the external work and the internal work {R} = [BpG ]T [HpG ]T [σp ] [HpG ] [BpG ] {δp } dx dy dz (3.4.54) = [KpG ]e {δp } (3.4.53)

where [KpG ]e is the geometric stiffness matrix given by: [KpG ]e = [BpG ]T [HpG ]T [σp ] [HpG ] [BpG ] dx dy dz (3.4.55)

As the reference plane is the mid-plane of the plate, only the innermost integral contains the terms z. Hence this integration can be performed separately. Hence [KpG ]e = = where [¯ ] = σ
−t/2

[BpG ]T [¯ ] [BpG ] dx dy σ (3.4.56) [BpG ] [¯ ] [BpG ] |J| dξ dη σ
t/2 T

[HpG ]T [σp ] [HpG ] dz

(3.4.57)

3.4 Arbitrary Stiffened Plate Element Formulation

81

3.4.3 The Stiffener Element Formulation
The stiffener is modelled as a separate element and the formulation of its stiffness matrix is carried out by considering the axial force, bending moment and torsional moment. As a general case, a curved stiffener having eccentricity with respect to the mid-plane of the plate and placed arbitrarily within the plate element is considered. Since the stiffener is a curved one, its axis changes its direction from point to point and hence its deformation at a particular point, say P is to be considered in the direction of the tangent to the stiffener at that point as shown in the Fig. 3.5. The displacement field is based on the assumption that the common normal to the plate and the stiffener system before bending remains straight and normal to the middle plane of the plate after bending.
y y’

P α

x’

x

Figure 3.5: Coordinate axes at any point of a curved stiffener

3.4.3.1 Coordinate Transformation for the Stiffener
In the Fig. 3.5, x -y is the local coordinate system at point P where x is the direction of the tangent to the stiffener which is at an angle α in

82

MATHEMATICAL FORMULATION

anti-clockwise direction with respect to the global x-axis direction. The coordinate systems x-y and x -y are related as          x cos α −sin α  x (3.4.58) =  y  sin α cos α  y  The derivatives of x and y with respect to x and y are obtained as  ∂x  = cos α     ∂x     ∂x  = −sin α    ∂y (3.4.59) ∂y  = sin α    ∂x      ∂y  = cos α    ∂y The relationship between the local and the global displacements at point P in the reference plane which is the mid-plane of the plate is given by       u   u         cos α sin α 0     −sin α cos α 0  v (3.4.60) =    v          w w 0 0 1 where u , v , w are the displacements at the middle plane of the plate along x , y and z (z = z) directions respectively.

3.4.3.2 Stress-Strain Relationship
The axial displacement of a point, say P1 in the stiffener at a depth z (Fig. 3.6) from the reference middle plane of the plate and normal to it is expressed as ∂w u =u −z ¯ (3.4.61) ∂x

3.4 Arbitrary Stiffened Plate Element Formulation

83

z P

Figure 3.6: Sectional view of a typical stiffener

The corresponding strain in the stiffener is ¯sl = and the normal stress is σsl = E ¯ ∂u ∂ 2w −z ∂x ∂x 2 ∂ 2w ∂x 2 (3.4.63) ∂u ∂2w −z ∂x ∂x 2 (3.4.62)

The axial force in the stiffener is given by Fs = σsl dAs = E ¯
As

∂u ∂x

dAs − E
As

z dAs
As

= EAs

∂ 2w ∂u − ESs ∂x ∂x 2

(3.4.64)

where As is the cross sectional area and Ss is the first moment of area of the stiffener with respect to the middle plane of the plate. The value of Ss depends on the disposition of the stiffener. The bending moment is Ms = σsl ¯ As z dAs (3.4.65)

Substituting the value of σs from Eq.(3.4.63) in Eq.(3.4.65), it yields ¯ Ms = ESs ∂2w ∂u − EIs ∂x ∂x 2 (3.4.66)

84

MATHEMATICAL FORMULATION

where Is is the second moment of area (reference plane being the midplane of the plate) of the stiffener. It is observed from Eqs.(3.4.64) and (3.4.66) that the eccentricity of the stiffener produces coupling between the axial and the flexural effects. The torsional moment is given by Ts = −G Js ∂ 2w ∂x ∂y (3.4.67)

where G is the modulus of rigidity and Js is the torsional constant of the stiffener. Combining Eqs.(3.4.64), (3.4.66), and (3.4.67) the generalized stressstrain relationship of the stiffener in the local axis system at the point P is expressed as {σs } = [Ds ] { s } (3.4.68) where {σs } = [Fs Ms Ts ]T { s} = and ∂u ∂x  − ∂ 2w ∂x 2 − ∂ 2w ∂x ∂y  (3.4.71)
T

(3.4.69) (3.4.70)

E A s E Ss 0    ES EI [Ds ] =  0  s s  0 0 G Js

3.4.3.3 Strain-Displacement Relationship
The local displacements and coordinate parameters in the generalized strain vector of the stiffener given in Eq.(3.4.70) are replaced by the global parameters using Eqs.(3.4.58) and (3.4.60) and it becomes { s } = [Ts ] {¯s } (3.4.72)

3.4 Arbitrary Stiffened Plate Element Formulation where 

85

 1 0 0 0  cos α sin α 2 sin2α      1   2 2 [Ts ] =  0 0 0 cos α sin α − sin2α    2     1 1 1 sin2α − cos2α 0 0 0 − sin2α 2 2 2 (3.4.73) and
2 2

∂ 2w ∂ 2w − 2 ∂y 2 ∂x ∂y (3.4.74) Once the strain vector of the stiffener is expressed in terms of the displacement components at the mid-plane of the plate, the same displacement shape function of the plate element is used which yields the stiffness matrix of the stiffener in terms of the nodal parameters of the plate element and by this process, the compatibility between the plate and the stiffener element is retained. It may be observed from Eqs.(3.4.74) and (3.4.10) that ∂u {¯s } = ∂x ∂v ∂y ∂u ∂v + ∂y ∂x {¯s } = { (x, y)p } (3.4.75)

∂ 2w − ∂x2

T

Hence using the same interpolation functions given in Eq.(3.4.4) and Eq.(3.3.4), the Eq.(3.4.74) can be expressed with the help of Eq.(3.3.22) as {¯s } = [Bp ]{δp } (3.4.76) Combining Eqs.(3.4.72) and (3.4.76), yields { s } = [Ts ] [Bp ]{δp } = [Bs ] {δp } where [Bs ] = [Ts ][Bp ] (3.4.78) (3.4.77)

86
(-1,+1)

MATHEMATICAL FORMULATION
η λ ξ (+1,+1)

(-1,-1)

(+1,-1)

Figure 3.7: Stiffener orientation in the mapped domain

3.4.3.4 Elastic Stiffness Matrix of the Stiffener Element
Following the steps mentioned earlier for the plate element, the elastic stiffness matrix of the stiffener element is given by [Ks ]e = [Bs ]T [Ds ][Bs ] dl (3.4.79)

Here l is taken along the stiffener axis in x-y plane. This can be rewritten as [Ks ]e = [Bs ]T [Ds ][Bs ] |Jst | dλ (3.4.80)

where λ is in the direction of the stiffener axis in the ξ-η plane as shown in the Fig. 3.7 and the Jacobian |Jst | is given by |Jst | = dl dλ (3.4.81)

The Jacobian is calculated by the ratio of the actual length to the length on the mapped domain considering any segment of the stiffener and is

3.4 Arbitrary Stiffened Plate Element Formulation

87

constant when a straight line or a circular arc in the x-y plane is mapped dl into a straight line. But in case of a complex mapping, the ratio dλ may change from point to point. The integration is carried out along the stiffener axis which is λ in the ξ-η plane by taking Gauss points on the mapped stiffener axis.

3.4.3.5 Consistent Mass Matrix of the Stiffener Element
The consistent mass matrix for the arbitrarily oriented stiffener element is formulated following the steps similar to that of the plate element and it can be written as:

[Ms ] = ρ [N ]T [L]T [Ts ]T [Ps ][Ts ][L][N ] |Jst | dλ

(3.4.82)

where  As sinαcosα 0 −Ss cosα 0  As cos α    As sin2 α 0 −Ss sinα 0  As sinα cosα    [Ps ] =  0 0 As 0 0      Ss cosα −Ss sinα 0 Is 0    0 0 0 0 Js
2

          (3.4.83)        

88          [Ts ] =         

MATHEMATICAL FORMULATION  1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0     0 0     0 0      cosα sinα     −sinα cosα 0 0

(3.4.84)

and the matrices [L] and [N ] are given by the Eqs.(3.4.21) and (3.4.22) respectively.

3.4.3.6 Geometric Stiffness Matrix of the Stiffener Element
The stiffener strain for an x-directional stiffener is expressed as:     ∂U   2 2     1 ∂U  ∂x   1 ∂W        +        2 ∂x  2 ∂x      ∂V        + { s} = 0  ∂x    (3.4.85)          ∂W                   ∂x    0   ={
sE }

+{

sG }

The field variables are expressed as:     U         −z ∂w            ∂x              V ∂w {f } = =    −z ∂y                    W           w

(3.4.86)

3.4 Arbitrary Stiffened Plate Element Formulation Substituting the values of U, V and W in the expression for {    z 2 ∂ 2 w 2 1 ∂w 2      +    2 ∂x2  2 ∂x       { sG } = 0                 0 1 = {θs }T {θs } 2 where {θs }T = It can be shown that δ{ {θs } can be written as: {θs } = [HsG ] {¯sG } where  [HsG ] =  and {¯sG }T = {¯sG } can be expressed as:    ∂w    ∂x   {¯sG } = = [BsG ] {δp }    ∂ 2w    ∂x2 1  0 0 −z ∂ 2w ∂x2
sG } sG },

89 yields

(3.4.87)

−z

∂ 2w ∂x2

∂w ∂x

(3.4.88)

= {θs }T δ {θs }

(3.4.89)

(3.4.90)

(3.4.91)

∂w ∂x

(3.4.92)

(3.4.93)

90 Hence

MATHEMATICAL FORMULATION

{θs } = [HsG ] [BsG ] {δp }

(3.4.94)

The internal work done by the distributed internal stresses can be expressed as: δW = =δ {
T sG }

σx dx dy dz

{δp }T [BsG ]T [HsG ]T σx [HsG ] [BsG ] {δp } dx dy dz (3.4.95)

In the case of the stiffener along the x-direction, the integration with respect to y and z can be performed with the innermost integral only, putting y-coordinates in the [BsG ] matrix.  [HsG ]T σx [HsG ] =  1   

= σx

0  1 0  σx 0 −z 0 −z   1 0  0 z2

(3.4.96)

Hence,  [HsG ]T σx [HsG ] dy dz =  σx As 0  0  σx Is (3.4.97)

= [σs ] If the stiffener coordinate axis is at an angle of α with respect to the global x-axis (Fig. 3.5) then with the help of the Eq.(3.4.58) the derivatives with respect to the x-y and the x -y coordinates are related as:

3.4 Arbitrary Stiffened Plate Element Formulation                               ∂w     ∂y      2 ∂ w  − 2 ∂x      2 ∂ w   − 2    ∂y      2 ∂ w     2 ∂x ∂y ∂w ∂x

91

   ∂w    ∂x   = [TsG 1 ]  ∂ 2w           2  ∂x              where   [TsG 1 ] =  cos α sin α 0 0 0
2

(3.4.98)

 0
2

0

 

(3.4.99)

− cos α − sin α sin α cos α

The derivatives with respect to the x-y coordinates can be expressed in terms of ξ-η coordinates such as:                     ∂w ∂x ∂w ∂y                                         ∂w ∂ξ ∂w ∂η                     (3.4.100)

∂ 2w − 2 = [TsG 2 ] ∂x             ∂ 2w           −        2    ∂y               ∂ 2w       2      ∂x ∂y

∂ 2w ∂ξ 2     2  ∂ w     2  ∂η      2 ∂ w     ∂ξ ∂η

92 where

MATHEMATICAL FORMULATION   [TsG 2 ] =   [0]   (3.4.101)

[J]

−1

[TF 1 ] [TF 2 ] and [J] is the Jacobian and [TF 1 ], [TF 2 ] being given by the Eq.(3.3.18). Hence from the Eq.(3.4.93)   ∂Nw    ∂ξ      ∂N  w     ∂η     2  ∂ N w {¯sG } = [TsG 1 ] [TsG 2 ] 2  ∂ξ    2  ∂ N   w    ∂η 2     2   ∂ Nw    ∂ξ ∂η                                        {δp } (3.4.102)

¯ = [TsG1 ] [TsG2 ] BsG {δp } = [BsG ] {δp } The geometric stiffness matrix is given by [KsG ]e = [BsG ]T [σs ] [BsG ] dx = ¯ BsG
T

¯ [TsG 2 ]T [TsG 1 ]T [σs ] [TsG 1 ] [TsG 2 ] BsG |Jst | dλ (3.4.103)

3.4 Arbitrary Stiffened Plate Element Formulation

93

3.4.4 Boundary Conditions for the Stiffened Plate
The boundary conditions for the arbitrary stiffened plate are considered following the same procedure as adopted in the case of the arbitrary bare plate. Referring to the Fig. 3.3, the relationship between the in-plane displacements in the local and the global coordinates at the point P is given by:       u  cosβ sinβ   u  1 =  v  −sinβ cosβ  v  1

(3.4.104)

where u1 and v1 are the displacements along the direction of x1 and y1 respectively. The displacements at the point P which may be restrained can be expressed as      u   u   1    1                                v1      v1                           w = (3.4.105) {fbp } =   w                ∂w             θn     ∂x        1                  ∂w          θ     t ∂y1 where θn and θt represent the slopes which are normal and transverse to the boundaries respectively as in the case of bare plate. Substituting from Eqs.(3.3.50) and (3.4.104), the Eq.(3.4.105) can be

94 written as

MATHEMATICAL FORMULATION                                                 

 u   cosβ sinβ 0 0 0                 v   −sinβ cosβ  0 0 0              w (3.4.106) {fbp } =  0 0 1 0 0            ∂w       0 0 0 cosβ sinβ   ∂x            ∂w    0 0 0 −sinβ cosβ ∂y Expressing Eq.(3.4.106) in terms of the shape functions;  {fbp } = [Nbp ] {δp } (3.4.107)                                                          [Nu ]             [Nv ]             [Nw ]       ∂[Nw ]     ∂x         ∂[Nw ]      ∂y     (3.4.108)

where  cosβ sinβ       −sinβ cosβ      [Nbp ] =  0 0       0 0     0 0 0 0 0

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

cosβ sinβ

0 −sinβ cosβ

3.4 Arbitrary Stiffened Plate Element Formulation

95

The reaction components per unit length along the boundary line due to the elastic springs corresponding to the possible boundary displacements given in Eq.(3.4.105) can be expressed as

  f  ku          fkv       {fkp } =  fkw        fkα          f

   k u   u 1                   k v v1                  kw w =                  kα θ n                           k θ     β t                          

(3.4.109)

where ku , kv , kw , kα and kβ are the spring constants or restraint coefficients corresponding to the direction of u1 , v1 , w, θn and θt respectively. The Eq.(3.4.109) can be rewritten by combining the Eqs.(3.4.105), (3.4.106) and (3.4.107) as

{fkp } = [Nkp ]{δp }

(3.4.110)

96 where 

MATHEMATICAL FORMULATION

k cosβ ku sinβ 0  u      −kv sinβ kv cosβ 0      [Nkp ] =  0 0 kw       0 0 0     0 0 0

    0 0             0 0           0 0           kα cosβ kα sinβ              −kβ sinβ kβ cosβ 

 [Nu ]             [Nv ]            [Nw ]        ∂[Nw ]      ∂x         ∂[Nw ]    ∂y (3.4.111)

Following the procedure similar to the case of bare plate the stiffness of the boundary for the stiffened plate can be expressed as [Kbp ] = [Nbp ]T [Nkp ] |Jb | dλ1 (3.4.112)

3.4.5 Stresses in the Stiffener
Once the nodal displacements of the stiffened plate are known, the stress resultants of the stiffener as expressed in the Eq.(3.4.69) can be obtained with the help of the Eq.(3.4.68) and Eq.(3.4.67). The stresses in the stiffener at a depth z from the mid-plane of the plate can be computed as: σz = Fs Fs e Ms − z+ z As Is Is (3.4.113)

3.5 Consistent Load Vector

97

where Fs , Ms , As and Is denote the axial force, bending moment, crosssectional area and moment of inertia respectively of the stiffener and e is the eccentricity of the stiffener with respect to the plate mid-plane.

3.5 Consistent Load Vector
The nodal load vector for an element when subjected to a uniformly distributed load of intensity q(x, y) can be obtained by the expression {P }e =
+1

[Nj ]T q dx dy
+1 −1

(3.5.1) [Nj ] q |J| dx dy
T

=
−1

where [Nj ] is the displacement function for the j-th node and |J| is the determinant of the Jacobian. The global load {P } can be obtained by assembling the nodal load vector {P }e of each of the elements. When concentrated load is present at any of the nodal points, the load value is added to the corresponding degree of freedom of that particular node.

3.6 Solution Procedures
The solution procedures adopted in the analysis of the arbitrary stiffened and bare plates for static, dynamic and stability analyses are presented in this section.

3.6.1 Static Analysis
The elastic stiffness matrices of the plate as well as the stiffener elements are computed and they are assembled into the global elastic stiffness matrix [K] which is stored by adopting the skyline storage (Zienkiewicz and

98

MATHEMATICAL FORMULATION

Taylor [198]) technique. In this process of storage, the matrix is stored in a single array eliminating the zero entries if any within the band thus reducing the storage requirement of the computer. The equation of equilibrium for the static analysis given by the Eq.(3.1.1) is solved following the Cholesky decomposition method by adopting the algorithm of Corr and Jennings [39].

3.6.2 Free Vibration Analysis
The equilibrium equation for undamped free vibration is given by the Eq.(3.1.2). Considering the motion as harmonic the solution of the equation (3.1.2) is {δ} = H{ψ}eiωt (3.6.1)

where {ψ} is a normalized vector of the order of {δ}, H is the weighting parameter of {ψ} and ω is the frequency of vibration in radians per second. On substitution the equilibrium equation becomes [K]{ψ} = ω 2 [M ]{ψ} (3.6.2)

This is a generalized eigenproblem and is solved by the simultaneous iteration algorithm of Corr and Jennings [39] and its solution is the eigenvalue ω 2 and the eigenvector {ψ}. The same skyline storage scheme as earlier is adopted for the global elastic stiffness matrix [K] and the mass matrix [M ].

3.6 Solution Procedures

99

3.6.3 Stability Analysis
The equilibrium equation for the stability analysis is given by the Eq.(3.1.3). Since the matrix [K] is positive definite, it can be decomposed as: [K] = [L][L]T (3.6.3)

where [L] is a lower triangular matrix. Hence Eq.(3.1.3) can be rewritten as: 1 [L]−1 [KG ] [L]−T [L]T {δ} = [L]T {δ} (3.6.4) λ The above equation represents a standard eigenvalue problem which is solved by the simultaneous iteration algorithm of Corr and Jennings [39] and the eigenvalues corresponding to the lowest buckling loads are obtained.

Chapter -

4

COMPUTER IMPLEMENTATION
4.1 Introduction

The finite element method has been established as a powerful numerical tool because of its broad spectrum of generality and its ease of applicability to rather more complex and difficult problems showing greater efficacy in its solution than that of any other existing similar techniques. This advantage of the method over others has led various research organizations and modern industries to endeavour the development of general purpose software packages and other in-house codes for solving practical problems of more complex nature. In an effort to make the method more powerful and to address more complicated problems, the finite element analysis programmes themselves become extremely complex and computationally involved. These programmes are available as black box modules which are to be used with the help of CAD programmes. These conventional programmes cannot easily be modified to perform a desired task necessitating redesign and rebuild of finite element libraries to suit one’s need. Hence there is a requirement for finite element analysis programmes to be easily modifiable to introduce new analysis procedures 101

102

COMPUTER IMPLEMENTATION

and new kinds of design of structural components or even emerging technology of new materials whenever needed. In the present investigation, the computer codes have been generated with such modularity which is amenable to easy modification whenever the need arises. Throughout all these years the finite element codes have been developed employing procedural language such as FORTRAN which is unstructured in its nature. Now there is a trend to pay attention to the verification, portability and reusability of the computer programmes during the process of their development and to the possibility of the use of other software products . However, FORTRAN does not have the provision to meet all these requirements. The C++ language, apart from its object-oriented programming approach allows for more efficient software development, because it includes the dynamic memory allocation, declaration of datatypes, modularization and the pointer concept. Though, the benefit of object-oriented programming has not been utilized in the present investigation, but the other advantages of the language as mentioned above have been fully utilized. Few of the utilities are of utmost importance which are provided by Press et al. [150] and are used extensively in the codes generated for the present investigation. Apart from these, for efficiency of the finite element programmes, advance features like automatic mesh generation, automatic nodal connectivity and skyline storage scheme have been implemented in the computer codes.

4.2 Application Domain
The Computer Programmes have been developed in the present investigation by making use of the C++ programming language to include a wide spectrum of application domain. They have the analytical modules to solve the following types of problems:

4.2 Application Domain

103

1. Static analysis of arbitrary bare plates - to evaluate displacements and stress resultants at salient points of the bare plates of arbitrary shape. 2. Free vibration analysis of arbitrary bare plates - to extract the natural frequencies (eigenvalues) and the corresponding mode shapes (eigenvectors) of the structure. 3. Stability analysis of arbitrary bare plates - to estimate the elastic buckling load and the buckled mode shapes of the structure from the eigenvalue solution. 4. Static analysis of arbitrary stiffened plates - to determine the displacements and stress resultants at various points of the plate skin and to evaluate stiffener stresses at different sections of the eccentric and concentric stiffeners. 5. Free vibration analysis of arbitrary stiffened plates - to determine the natural frequencies of the stiffened plated structures along with its corresponding mode shapes. 6. Stability analysis of arbitrary stiffened plates - to assess the elastic buckling load of the structures and their buckling mode shapes. Computer programme codes have been written to incorporate various boundary and loading conditions of the structures. The modularity of the programme development has been retained by employing different modules in the shape of different C++ functions performing specific functionalities of the programmes.

104

COMPUTER IMPLEMENTATION

4.3 Description of the Programme
The finite element procedure involves three basic steps in terms of the computation carried out which may be termed as: • Preprocessor • Processor • Postprocessor The different functions of these steps have been elaborated in the Fig. 4.1.

4.3.1 Preprocessor
This module of the programme reads the necessary information about the geometry and boundary conditions of the plate, material properties, loading configuration and its magnitude, stiffener orientation and its properties etc. Also in this module, all the nodal coordinates and the nodal connectivity are generated. The different functions which are used in this module are described briefly in the subsequent sections. A flowchart of the preprocessor unit has been shown in the Fig. 4.2.

4.3.1.1 function input()
The following variables are used in the function input() to generate the data required for the analysis of the bare and the stiffened plates.

4.3 Description of the Programme

105

START PREPROCESSOR
Read the Input Data Generate the mesh Generate Nodal Connectivity Read the Stiffener Position and Orientation

PROCESSOR
Generate Element Matrices for the Plate Generate Element Matrices for the Stiffener if required Generate Boundary Stiffness Matrices for the Boundaries Assemble the Matrices to Global Matrix Solve the Equations for different Analyses Sole the Equations for Different Analyses 1. Static Analysis of Bare Plates 2. Free Vibration Analysis of Bare Plates 3. Stability Analysis of Bare Plates 4. Static Analysis of Stiffened Plates 5. Free Vibration Analysis of Stiffened Plates 6. Stability Analysis of Stiffened Plates

POSTPROCESSOR
Echo the Input Data print the Output

END
Figure 4.1: Basic Elements of the Computer Programmes

106 bpoin bcord nnode ndofn ngaus nxi neta nelem npoin nodes tdof young poiss thick ntype

COMPUTER IMPLEMENTATION : Number of points on the boundary for the mapping of the plate geometries : Cartesian coordinates of the boundary points : Number of node in the element : Number of degrees of freedom per node : Number of gauss points : Number of mesh in s-direction in the mapped domain : Number of mesh in t-direction in the mapped domain : Number of elements : Number of nodal points generated for the mapping of the elements : Number of nodes for the analysis : Number of total degrees of freedom : Young’s modulous of elasticity : Poisson’s ratio : thickness of the plate : Shape of the plate geometry =1 Square plate =2 Rectangular plate =3 Annular plate =4 Circular plate =5 Skew plate =6 Sector plate =7 Elliptical plate =8 Trapezoidal plate =9 Triangular plate

4.3 Description of the Programme stif : Index for bare or stiffened plate =0 Bare plate analysis =1 Stiffened plate analysis soln : Index for type of analysis =1 Static analysis =2 Free vibration analysis =3 Buckling analysis

107

4.3.1.2 function nodgen()
The different variables used in the function nodgen() which is used to generate the peripheral nodes in each of the element’s boundary are as presented below. mnods ielem inode : Nodal numbers in the element boundary : Element counter : Node counter

4.3.1.3 function stcod()
The function stcod() is used to generate the nodal coordinates in the mapped s-t domain of the plate. The different variables used in the function are: coord : Coordinates in the mapped domain xi-divn eta-divn xi-small eta-small : Length of element in s-direction in mapped domain : Length of element in t-direction in mapped domain 1 : of xi-divn 3 1 : of eta-divn 3

108

COMPUTER IMPLEMENTATION

input()
bpoin, bcord, nnode, ndofn, ngaus, nxi, neta, nelem, npoin, nodes, tdof, young, poiss, thick, ntype, stif, soln

nodgen()
mnods, ielem, inode

xycod()
xynod,xi,eta

sfr1()
shape1, deriv1

stcod()
coord, xi-divn, eta-divn, xi-small, eta-small

rgdplt()
dmatx1, young, poiss, thick

connect()
lnods

stifin()
w, d, e

band()
hband, sky

rgdstf()
As, Ss, Is, G Js, dmatx2

Figure 4.2: Preprocessor unit of the computer codes

4.3 Description of the Programme

109

4.3.1.4 function connect()
The function connect() generates the nodal connectivity in the elements. The variables used along with others is: lnods : Node numbers associated with the element

4.3.1.5 function band()
The function band() computes the half bandwidth of the matrix and the skyline value for the skyline storage scheme. It has the following variables: hband : Half bandwidth of the matrix sky : Skyline value for the skyline storage

4.3.1.6 function xycod()
The function xycod() generates all the nodal x-y coordinates of the elements. The variables used are: xynod : Cartesian coordinates of the node xi eta : s-coordinate of the node in mapped domain : t-coordinate of the node in mapped domain

4.3.1.7 function sfr1()
The function sfr1() calculates the cubic serendipity shape functions, their derivatives and elements of the Jacobian matrix. The different variables in this function are: shape1 : Cubic serendipity shape functions deriv1 : Shape function derivatives

110

COMPUTER IMPLEMENTATION

4.3.1.8 function rgdplt()
The function rgdplt() has been used for computing the rigidity matrix of the plate element. It comprises the following variables: dmatx1 young poiss thick : : : : Elements of the plate rigidity matrix Young’s modulous of elasticity Poisson’s ratio Plate thickness

4.3.1.9 function stifin()
The function stifin() reads the necessary information of the stiffeners. It has the following variables: w d e : : : Width of the stiffener Depth of the stiffener Eccentricity of the stiffener

4.3.1.10 function rgdstf()
The function rgdstf() calculates the different elements of the rigidity matrix of the stiffener. The following variables are used in the function: As Ss Is G Js dmatx2 : : : : : : Cross-sectional area of the stiffener First moment of area of the stiffener Second moment of area of the stiffener Modulus of rigidity of the stiffener Torsional constant of the stiffener Elements of the stiffener rigidity matrix

4.3 Description of the Programme

111

4.3.2 Processor
This module of the programmes performs the following tasks: 1. Generation of the element matrices. 2. Assembly of the element matrices into global matrices. 3. Imposition of the boundary conditions. 4. Solution of the algebraic equations for static analysis of plates to obtain nodal unknowns and the computation of the stress resultants for the skin and the stiffener at all the nodes. 5. Determination of eigenvalues and eigenvectors for the free vibration and buckling analyses using simultaneous vector iteration technique. A flowchart showing the processor unit is presented in the Fig. 4.3. The various modular functions which are used in this processor unit are briefly presented herein.

4.3.2.1 function form-stif-mass-geom()
The function form-stif-mass-geom() calls the other functions in turn for the processing of each of the elements.

4.3.2.2 function elm-stif-mass-geom()
This function generates the elastic and geometric stiffness and mass matrices for the plate element.

112

COMPUTER IMPLEMENTATION

sfr1()

jacob1()

sfr2()

bmat()

elm-stif-mass-geom()
Computes element matrices for the plate

elm-stf-mass-geom()
Computes element matrices for the stiffener

stfin()

global-stif-mass-geom()

global-stf-mass-geom()

global()

global-stif()

Bare Plate Analysis

0

stif

1

Stiffened Plate Analysis

soln

1 Static Analysis

2 Free Vibration Analysis

3 Buckling Analysis

stop

end

Figure 4.3: Processor unit of the computer codes

bnd-stif()

4.3 Description of the Programme

113

4.3.2.3 function elm-stf-mass-geom()
This function generates the elastic and geometric stiffness matrices and the mass matrices of the stiffener elements.

4.3.2.4 function global-stif-mass-geom()
The assembly of all the element matrices of the plate elements into the global ones are carried out through this function.

4.3.2.5 function global-stf-mass-geom()
The assembly of all the element matrices of the stiffener elements into the global mtrices are performed through this function.

4.3.2.6 function global()
This is a common function called by the individual functions to assemble all the element matrices into global matrix.

4.3.2.7 function elm-load()
This function calculates the consistent element load vector and takes into account any application of concentrated load on the plate.

4.3.2.8 function gbl-load()
The generated element load vectors are assembled into global load vector using this function.

114

COMPUTER IMPLEMENTATION

4.3.2.9 function bnd-stif()
The stiffness of the boundary lines of the plate element if it happens to be one of the elements in the periphery is computed in this function.

4.3.2.10 function sfr2()
This module calculates the displacement shape functions and their derivatives.

4.3.2.11 function bmat()
This function evaluates the matrix for the strain-displacement relationship.

4.3.2.12 function dbmat()
The stress resultants are computed in this function.

4.3.2.13 function solve()
The function solve() is used to solve the simultaneous algebraic equations generated in the process of analysis. The equilibrium equations are in the form of [A]{X} = {B}, where [A] is the global stiffness matrix, {B} is the global load vector and {X} is the nodal unknown vector whose solution is sought. This has been solved using Choleski factorization by performing decomposition, forward elimination and backward substitution with the help of the functions decomp(), forsol(), and backsol().

4.3.2.14 function r8usiv()
This function is used for the eigenvalue solution. Using this module, a simultaneous iteration algorithm has been adopted for the free vibration

4.3 Description of the Programme

115

and buckling analyses. The input data to this function are the global elastic stiffness matrix gstif, the global geometric stiffness matrix gbl-geom, the global mass matrix gbl-mass and the corresponding pointer vectors. Through this function the eigenvalues and the corresponding eigenvectors are extracted. The required number of modes of vibration or buckling is to be specified by the user. The function requires three arrays u, v and w, of size (n,m) where n is the total degrees of freedom and m is a value higher than the number of modes. The numerical value of m has been considered as 1.5 times the number of modes in the present programme. The tolerance value has been set to 10−6 and the maximum number of iterations to 40. The initial trial vectors are generated from a random number generator. The r8usiv() module consists of a number of functions which are presented below with brief descriptions of their functionalities and sequence in which they are called inside the function r8usiv(). function r8ured() function r8uran() function r8uort() function r8ubac() function r8upre() function r8ufor() : decomposes a symmetric matrix into lower triangular matrix : generates random trial vectors : orthonormilises the vectors by the Schmidt process : solves the equation [l]T {v} = {u} by backward substitution : performs premultiplication in the form {v} = {l}{u} : solves equation {l}{v} = {u} by forward substitution

116 function r8udec() function r8uran() function r8uort() function r8uerr() : : : :

COMPUTER IMPLEMENTATION sorts the vectors {u} and {v} according to the descending order of eigenvalue prediction generates trial vectors in {w} orthonormalizes {w} estimates the vector errors in successive trials

A flowchart of this module is shown in the Fig. 4.4

4.3.3 Postprocessor
In this part of the programme , all the input data are echoed to check for their accuracy. The function print-disp() is used to print the output data in terms of displacements, moments, stresses, eigenvalues etc. depending on the type of analysis carried out. The results are stored in a series of separate output files for each category of problems analyzed and those values are used to prepare tables and graphs etc.

4.3 Description of the Programme

117

Elastic Stiffness Matrix Geometric Stiffness Matrix Mass Matrix r8ured() enter r 8 u s i v r8uran() r8uort() r8ubac() r8upre() Computation of Natural frequencies and buckling load r8ufor() r8udec() r8uerr()

return

end
Figure 4.4: Flowchart for free vibration and buckling analysis

Chapter -

5

NUMERICAL EXAMPLES
5.1 Introduction

The stiffened as well as bare plates with arbitrary geometries have got
an important role to play as one of the structural elements in the modern day structures. These plates having various boundary conditions are subjected to varieties of loading for which the stress analysis is to be carried out. The present day trend for the stress analysis is to use some software packages for this type of analysis. But these commercial softwares have got the limitation in the sense that they are inefficient to handle the arbitrary orientation of the stiffener as they demand the mesh division to be along the stiffener. Moreover, they are unable to implement the boundary conditions successfully for a plate of arbitrary configuration having a curved edge. The element developed here is very much efficient to address the problems pertaining to the arbitrarily oriented stiffeners as well as the curved-boundary arbitrary plates. In this chapter a large number of numerical examples for the stiffened and bare plates of arbitrary configurations having various boundary conditions and subjected to various loading conditions are presented as a rigorous test to study the performance of the proposed element. The following types of problems are considered in this chapter: 119

120 1. Arbitrary Bare Plates (a) Static Analysis (b) Free Vibration Analysis (c) Stability Analysis 2. Arbitrary Stiffened Plates (a) Static Analysis (b) Free Vibration Analysis (c) Stability Analysis

NUMERICAL EXAMPLES

The results obtained by this present formulation are compared with the theoretical and/or experimental ones published by the other investigators wherever possible. The computer programmes are written in C++ and have been run in the HP - UX 9000/819 work station and ORIGIN 200. Unless otherwise mentioned the mesh division used in the present analysis is 16 × 16 considering the whole plate for almost all the geometrical configurations.

5.2 Arbitrary Bare Plates
The problems relating to plates of arbitrary configurations without any stiffeners are considered when they are subjected to static, dynamic and buckling loads and are presented in the subsequent sections.

5.2.1 Static Analysis of Arbitrary Bare Plates
The plates with various geometries such as square, rectangular, skew, annular, circular are analyzed under the static load to test the accuracy of the

5.2 Arbitrary Bare Plates

121

y 1 b/3 2 b/3 3 b/3 x 4 a/3 5 a/3 6 a/3 7 8 9 12 11 10

Figure 5.1: Location of the boundary nodal points of a rectangular plate

present method. The plates are subjected to uniformly distributed and/or concentrated static load and the results obtained are compared with the published ones wherever possible.

5.2.1.1 Rectangular Plates Under Uniformly Distributed Load
Rectangular plates of various aspect ratios subjected to uniformly distributed load are analyzed and the factors α, β and β1 for the maximum deflection and the maximum moments in x and y directions are compared with the analytically obtained results of Timoshenko and WoinowskyKrieger [185] in the Table 5.1. The agreement between the results is excellent. The location of the twelve number of the boundary nodal points of the rectangular plate which are used for the mapping to the Master Plate is shown in the Fig. 5.1.

122

NUMERICAL EXAMPLES Table 5.1: Numerical factors α, β and β1 for uniformly loaded simply supported rectangular plates wmax = α qa4 D (Mx )max = β q a2 β Present 0.0480 0.0813 0.1020 Ref. [185] 0.0479 0.0812 0.1017 Present 0.0480 0.0499 0.0464 (My )max = β1 q a2 β1 Ref. [185] 0.0479 0.0498 0.0464

b a Present 1.0 1.5 2.0 0.00407 0.00773 0.01015

α Ref. [185] 0.00406 0.00772 0.01013

5.2.1.2 Rectangular Plates Under Concentrated Load
The factors α for the maximum deflection of the rectangular plates of various aspect ratios subjected to a central concentrated load P are computed and compared with the analytical results of Timoshenko and WoinowskyKrieger [185] in the Table 5.2. The results are found to compare well. Table 5.2: Numerical factors α for simply supported rectangular plates with central concentrated load wmax = α b a Present Ref. [185] 1.0 0.01164 0.01160 1.2 0.01360 0.01353 P a2 D 1.6 0.01575 0.01570 2.0 0.01659 0.01651 3.0 0.01704 0.01690

5.2 Arbitrary Bare Plates

123

5.2.1.3 All Edges Clamped Rhombic Plates Under UDL
The skew rhombic plates with all the edges clamped and subjected to uniformly distributed load are analyzed for different skew angles and the obtained results for the deflection and the principal moments at the centre are compared with those of Iyengar and Srinivasan [70], Ramesh et al. [153], Morley [120], GangaRao and Chaudhary [53] and Butalia et al. [29] in the Table 5.3. Quite fair agreement has been obtained with all the results even up to the skew angle of 75◦ except those of Ramesh et al. [153] which are comparatively less than all other values. Table 5.3: Deflection and moments at the centre of the all edges clamped skew rhombic plates under UDL skew angle Source of Results Present Iyengar et al. [70] 15
o

wmax qa4 = × 10−2 D 1.8033 1.7968 1.7950 1.7968 1.7948 1.2360 1.2299 1.2258 1.2304 1.2304 1.2281

Mpl max = qa2 × 10−2 9.1711 9.2520 9.2520 9.2207 7.9714 8.000 7.9906

Mpl min = qa2 × 10−2 8.1365 8.1785 6.2284 6.2273 continued . . . . . .

Ramesh et al. [153] Morley [120] Butalia et al. [29] Present Iyengar et al. [70]

30

o

Ramesh et al. [153] Morley [120] GangaRao and Chaudhary [53] Butalia et al. [29]

124

NUMERICAL EXAMPLES

. . . . . . continued from previous page skew angle Source of Results Present Iyengar et al. [70] 45o Ramesh et al. [153] Morley [120] Butalia et al. [29] Present Iyengar et al. [70] 60o Ramesh et al. [153] GangaRao and Chaudhary [53] Butalia et al. [29] Present Iyengar et al. [70] 75o Ramesh et al. [153] Butalia et al. [29] 0.1728 0.1704 0.0147 0.0144 0.0120 0.0143 3.2602 1.0042 0.9998 1.7639 0.4065 0.3942 wmax qa4 = × 10−2 D 0.6068 0.6018 0.5952 0.6032 0.5997 0.1747 0.1717 0.1638 Mpl max = qa2 × 10−2 5.8443 5.827 3.2903 Mpl min = qa2 × 10−2 3.9521 3.8933 1.8465 -

5.2.1.4 All Edges Simply Supported Rhombic Plates Under UDL
The same rhombic plates which are analyzed in the previous example are considered here when subjected to uniformly distributed load but with the edges being simply supported. The deflection and the principal moments at the centre of the plates are compared with the results of GangaRao and

5.2 Arbitrary Bare Plates

125

Chaudhary [53], Morley [119], Argyris [8], Rossow [156], Jirousek [71] and Butalia et al. [29] in the Table 5.4. The results for the skew angles 45◦ and less have compared well with those of others. The results for skew angle 60◦ has deviated from others, but it is closer to that of Butalia et al. [29]. Even the the 75◦ angle result is close to the result of Butalia et al. [29]. The location of the boundary nodal points of the skew plate is shown in the Fig. 5.2. The different values adopted for the analysis of these plates are: Length of each side of the rhombic plate (2a) Thickness of the plate (t) Young’s modulus of elasticity (E) = = = 8 0.08 8.736 × 107 0.3 16.0

Poisson’s ratio (ν) = Uniformly distributed load (q) =

y 1 θ 2 3 8 b/3 x 4 a/3 5 a/3 6 a/3 7 9 b/3 12 11 10 b/3

θ = Skew angle

Figure 5.2: Location of the boundary nodal points of a skew plate

126

NUMERICAL EXAMPLES Table 5.4: Deflection and moments at the centre of the all edges simply supported skew rhombic plates under UDL

skew angle

Source of Results Present GangaRao and

wmax qa4 = × 10−2 D 5.8238 5.8240 5.8013 4.0573 4.0960 4.0960 3.9832 2.0008 2.1120 2.0787 1.9125 0.5538 0.6528 0.6496 0.6158 0.6526 0.6526 0.5194 0.0414 0.0422

Mpl max = qa2 × 10−1 1.9224 1.9207 1.6962 1.7000 1.6790 1.2579 1.2983 1.2266 0.6948 0.7640 0.7668 0.7625 0.6662 0.1860 0.1906

Mpl min = qa2 × 10−1 1.7063 1.7082 1.3185 1.3320 1.2980 0.8207 0.8570 0.7803 0.3401 0.4320 0.4028 0.4343 0.3166 0.0583 0.0639

15o

Chaudhary [53] Butalia et al. [29] Present Morley [119] GangaRao and

30

o

Chaudhary [53] Butalia et al. [29] Present GangaRao and Chaudhary [53]

45

o

Argyris [8] Butalia et al. [29] Present Morley [119] GangaRao and Chaudhary [53]

60o

Argyris [8] Rossow [156] Jirousek [71] Butalia et al. [29] Present

75

o

Butalia et al. [29]

5.2 Arbitrary Bare Plates

127

5.2.1.5 Annular Sector Plate Under Concentrated Loads
A perspex model bridge slab presented by Coull and Das [41] is analyzed and the results are presented in the Table 5.5. The model bridge as shown in the Fig. 5.3 is having its radial edges simply supported and the curved ones free. Three cases of loading corresponding to unit load placed at the inner radius, outer radius and mid radius along the x-axis of the slab are considered. The comparison of the present results with those of Coull and Das [41] indicates excellent agreement.

y
a/

a 3e

ch

10 11

3@ 12
¡   ¡   ¡   ¡   ¡   ¡   ¡   ¡   ¡   ¡   ¡   ¡   ¡   ¡   ¡   ¡   ¡   ¡   ¡   ¡   ¡   ¡   ¡   ¡   ¡   ¡   ¡   ¡  

Ri
¡   ¡   ¡   ¡   ¡   ¡   ¡   ¡   ¡   ¡   ¡   ¡   ¡  

1 α/3 α/3 α/3 4 5 6
¡   ¡   ¡   ¡   ¡   ¡   ¡   ¡   ¡   ¡   ¡  

α = included angle

Figure 5.3: Annular sector plate showing boundary nodal points

¡   ¡   ¡   ¡   ¡   ¡   ¡   ¡   ¡   ¡   ¡   ¡   ¡  

9 2 3 8 x

7

128

NUMERICAL EXAMPLES Table 5.5: Deflection and moments along the mid-span radial line (x-axis) of the annular sector plate t = 0.168, ν = 0.35, E = 4.6 × 105 wmax Mr max Present Analysis 0.3278 0.2055 0.1651 0.4834 0.5058 0.6239 0.4481 0.4884 0.4804 0.3852 Coull and Das [41] 0.312 0.204 0.186 0.465 0.492 0.540 0.437 0.493 0.462 0.384

Load Position Unit load at inner radius Unit load at outer radius Unit load at mid radius

Radial distance 7.0 9.0 11.0 13.0 7.0 9.0 11.0 13.0 7.0 9.0 11.0 13.0

Present Analysis 0.01701 0.01517 0.01640 0.01945 0.01945 0.03538 0.05786 0.08816 0.01551 0.02410 0.03424 0.04571

Coull and Das [41] 0.0169 0.01517 0.0163 0.0195 0.0194 0.0353 0.0578 0.0876 0.0155 0.0241 0.0342 0.0457

5.2.1.6 Circular Plate Under Different Loadings and Boundary Conditions
A circular plate of unit radius (Fig. 5.4) subjected to uniformly distributed load as well as concentrated loads is considered for the analysis. The results are obtained for the plate having all the edges simply supported and clamped considering a mesh division of 16 × 16 for the entire plate and they are compared with the analytical results of Timoshenko and

5.2 Arbitrary Bare Plates

129

Woinowsky-Krieger [185] and spline finite strip results of Li et al. [96]. The present results agree well with those obtained from different sources.

Table 5.6: Deflection and moments at the centre of the circular plate under different loading and boundary conditions radius (a) = 1.0, D = 1.0, UDL = 1.0, Point load = 1.0 Bounday conditions Loading conditions Uniformly distributed load Point load at r=0 Point load at r = a/2 Present Ref. [96] 0.02929 0.02934 0.00719 0.00728 Present Ref. [185] 0.05066 0.05050 0.01998 0.01989 Present Ref. [185] Method Simply supported w 0.06359 0.063702 Mr 0.2071 0.20625 Clamped w 0.01549 0.015625 Mr 0.08191 0.08125

130
y 12 1
15 15
o o

NUMERICAL EXAMPLES
11
30
o

10

2

9 x 8

3

4

7

5 6 Figure 5.4: Circular plate with boundary nodal points

5.2.2 Free Vibration Analysis of Arbitrary Bare Plate
Using the proposed element the bare plates of various shapes such as square, rectangular, skew, trapezoidal, triangular, annular sector, circular and elliptical are analyzed to test the performance of the present method in the free flexural vibration analysis. The plates are tested for various boundary conditions and the results are compared with the published ones wherever possible. Usually, the results tabulated are obtained with a mesh division of 24 × 24. The results are presented in tabular form and in the presented tables the various abbreviations used are: SC CC Support condition All edges clamped SS - All edges simply supported M - Mode sequence numbers

5.2 Arbitrary Bare Plates

131

5.2.2.1 Free Vibration of Rectangular and Square Bare Plates
Rectangular plates with all edges simply supported and clamped having aspect ratios of 1 and 0.4 are analyzed and first few frequencies obtained are presented in the Table 5.7. The results are compared with those of Leissa [87] where the plates having opposite edges simply supported were dealt by using existing well-known exact solutions and those with clamped supports by using the Ritz method. The results are found to be in excellent agreement. The convergence study for the different mesh sizes for the simply supported rectangular plate of aspect ratio 1 (square plate) is also presented in the Table 5.8 where excellent convergence of the element with increasing mesh divisions of the plate is obtained.

Table 5.7: Frequency parameters λ = ωa2 (ρ/D)1/2 for rectangular plate a/b 1.0 SC SS CC 0.4 SS CC M A B A B A B A B A - Leissa [87]; 1 19.7392 19.7209 35.992 35.922 11.4487 11.4352 23.648 23.605 2 49.3480 49.2753 73.413 73.221 16.1862 16.1403 27.817 27.669 3 49.3480 49.2753 73.413 73.221 24.0818 23.9941 35.446 35.158 4 78.9568 78.6671 108.27 107.63 35.1358 34.9980 46.702 46.290 5 98.6960 98.5340 131.64 131.26 41.0576 41.0002 61.554 60.997 6 98.6960 98.5340 132.24 131.91 45.7950 45.5792 63.100 62.981

B - Present

132

NUMERICAL EXAMPLES

5.2.2.2 Free Vibration of Bare Skew Plates
Skew plates of different skew angles (Fig. 5.5) having aspect ratios 1:1 and 1:2 for all edges simply supported and all edges clamped are analyzed and the results are compared with those of Liew and Lam [99], Durvasula [47], Mizusawa et al. [116] and Singh and Chakraverty [177] in Table 5.9 and 5.10. These investigators used various methods like two-dimensional orthogonal plate function, Galerkin method, B-spline functions and boundary characteristic orthogonal polynomials to obtain the solution. In the solution for skew angle equal to 60◦ , the mesh size was increased to 36 × 36. The comparison is reasonably good for this case with Mizusawa et al. [116]. It may be seen that for this skew angle, results of Singh and Chakraverty [177] have differed substantially with those of Mizusawa et al. [116]. The results are in excellent agreement except in a few cases of higher modes with higher skew angles. Table 5.8: Convergence of frequency parameters λ = ωa2 (ρ/D)1/2 for all edges simply supported square plate Mode 4×4 1 2 and 3 4 5 and 6 19.1434 47.2841 71.7430 94.8795 8×8 19.5785 48.7307 76.5736 97.4219 Mesh divisions 12 × 12 19.6668 49.0635 77.8369 98.0808 16 × 16 19.6983 49.1859 78.3142 98.3394 20 × 20 19.7129 49.2436 78.5417 98.4645 24 × 24 19.7209 49.2753 78.6671 98.5340

5.2 Arbitrary Bare Plates

133

Table 5.9: Frequency parameters λ = ωa2 (ρt/D)1/2 of skew plates for different skew angles (φ) and for a/b = 1.0, ν = 0.3 SC φ 30
o

M A B C A

1 25.069 25.314 25.0219 34.938 36.970 35.6320 73.135 66.3452 46.140 46.166 45.9824 65.929 66.330 65.4204 120.90 127.06 121.274

2 52.901 52.765 52.5501 66.422 67.023 66.1028 112.64 104.637 81.691 81.613 81.3367 106.59 106.77 105.950 177.75 185.00 176.750

3 72.344 73.006 71.9398 100.87 113.26 99.9479 209.84 147.839 105.51 105.56 104.849 149.031 156.34 146.859 231.74 282.94 229.394

4 84.780 87.478 83.5642 107.78 114.93 108.844 233.52 194.135 119.52 119.98 118.479 158.900 160.25 156.569 292.54 322.61 287.224

5 130.25 122.031 175.28 139.403 323.51 213.670 165.80 167.16 163.449 199.366 213.58 193.976 301.81 385.49 303.618 C - Present

6 122.558 167.678 245.783 164.744 231.936 228.140 357.58 347.786

SS

45 60

o

B C B C D

o

30

o

B C D

CC

45o

B C E

60o

B C

A - Liew and Lam [99]; D - Durvasula [47];

B - Singh and Chakraverty [177];

E - Mizusawa et al. [116]

134

NUMERICAL EXAMPLES Table 5.10: Frequency parameters λ = ωa2 (ρ t/D)1/2 of skew plates for different skew angles (φ) and for a/b = 2.0, ν = 0.3

SC

φ 30
o

M B C B C B C A

1 64.069 63.633 93.772 92.184 182.44 176.098 128.74 128.90 128.507 189.18 190.00 188.820 369.28 372.52 368.474

2 96.558 95.779 132.09 129.008 240.11 223.932 159.41 159.72 158.586 222.07 223.90 220.701 405.44 416.35 401.809

3 153.76 146.907 209.83 184.164 394.64 288.403 213.38 215.29 211.808 279.78 294.67 276.869 470.19 552.09 460.590

4 218.69 209.653 302.31 251.531 562.85 361.768 287.36 291.45 284.784 358.94 385.53 353.380 563.36 707.17 543.175

5 237.12 226.004 341.10 323.616 675.53 445.835 340.23 341.33 339.577 449.26 509.03 439.970 681.00 1010.4 642.036

6 252.081 331.569 541.334 356.976 503.396 749.318

SS

45o 60
o

30

o

B C A

CC

45

o

B C A

60o

B C

A - Mizusawa et al. [116];
y φ

B - Singh and Chakraverty [177];

C - Present

b x a

Figure 5.5: A typical skew plate

5.2 Arbitrary Bare Plates

135

5.2.2.3 Free Vibration of Trapezoidal Bare Plates
The bare trapezoidal plates having symmetrical geometry for different a values of the ratio (Fig. 5.6) are analyzed for simple supports for a b mesh division of 16 × 16 and compared with the results of Saliba [160] and Geannakakes [54] in the Table 5.11 and the results of the clamped c a support conditions of the plates having different and ratios (Fig. 5.7) b b are compared with those of Liew and Lim [101] in the Table 5.12. Saliba [160] used the superposition techniques whereas Geannakakes [54] used Rayleigh-Ritz method together with natural coordinate regions and normalized characteristic orthogonal polynomials. Liew and Lim [101] solved the problem by using pb-2 Rayleigh-Ritz method. The results of simply supported plates are in good agreement; those of Geannakakes [54] are marginally higher. The clamped plate results are also in good agreement except the higher frequencies of higher c/b ratio because of the high distortion of the elements.

y 
 

4
) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (

b

Figure 5.6: Trapezoidal plate for simple supports showing the boundary nodal points

' &

' &

' &

) (

) (

) (

) (

) (

) (

) (

) (

) (

5
) (

6

7

% $

% $

% $

% $

§ ¦

% $

§ ¦

# "

¥ ¤

¥ ¤

£ ¢

¢ 



3
¡    

! 



α 2

© ¨

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1

10 9 a 8 x

1 0

1 0

1 0

1 0

12 11 

136

NUMERICAL EXAMPLES Table 5.11: Frequency parameters λ = ωa2 (ρ/D)1/2 for all edges simply supported trapezoidal plate (Ref. Fig. 5.6) (α = 15o , ν = 0.3) Mode sequence number 1 0.9512 0.9517 0.9522 0.7601 0.7603 0.7600 0.7205 0.7206 0.7198 2 1.6737 1.6746 1.6746 0.9147 0.9150 0.9140 0.7563 0.7564 0.7535 3 2.8344 2.8353 2.8323 1.1719 1.1726 1.1700 0.8159 0.8163 0.8100 4 3.1078 3.1090 3.1052 1.5311 1.5323 1.5272 0.8994 0.8999 0.8896 5 3.7711 3.7724 3.7591 1.9912 2.0620 1.9844 1.0067 1.0185 0.9925 6 4.5410 4.5495 4.5380 2.5490 2.7350 2.5382 1.1377 1.1729 1.1189

a/b 1/2

1/4

1/8

A - Saliba [160];

Ref. A B C A B C A B C

B - Geannakakes [54];

C - Present

y

c
£ ¢ £ ¢ £ ¢ £ ¢ ¡  

a

x

b

Figure 5.7: Trapezoidal plate for clamped supports

¡   ¡   ¡  

5.2 Arbitrary Bare Plates ωa2 2π edges clamped trapezoidal plate (Ref. Fig. 5.7) a/b 1.0 c/b 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.5 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 2.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 Ref. Mode sequence number 1 11.34 11.38 9.224 9.177 7.560 7.164 6.444 5.209 19.21 19.16 16.38 16.34 13.74 13.69 11.44 11.00 29.12 29.02 25.55 25.48 22.10 22.05 18.72 18.60 2 19.89 19.93 15.58 14.79 13.35 9.84 12.27 7.43 30.57 30.44 24.45 24.33 19.54 18.47 16.60 13.11 43.43 43.17 35.91 35.73 28.98 28.74 23.58 21.49 3 23.31 23.34 19.89 19.82 16.71 14.77 13.89 13.05 42.30 42.08 33.73 33.09 27.93 22.74 25.27 17.97 59.34 58.88 47.02 46.69 37.03 34.96 31.48 25.48 4 30.34 30.37 24.51 20.24 22.42 16.64 19.44 13.43 43.70 43.46 37.55 37.39 32.93 30.12 28.29 26.41 66.76 66.31 59.27 58.53 48.01 40.99 42.99 33.16 5 36.22 36.19 29.19 27.37 23.26 22.32 21.50 15.99 58.72 58.32 45.30 41.95 39.76 32.83 34.02 28.19 77.08 76.36 60.59 60.25 54.44 50.82 48.05 44.41 6 39.10 39.06 34.22 29.02 29.64 23.46 25.15 21.27 60.67 60.14 51.11 50.75 42.05 41.46 37.40 32.47 90.87 89.82 73.47 70.86 62.53 54.21 55.06 47.92 ρ for all D

137

Table 5.12: Frequency parameters λ =

A B A B A B A B A B A B A B A B A B A B A B A B

A - Liew and Lam [101];

B - Present

138

NUMERICAL EXAMPLES

y 1 2 b 3 4 5 a 6 12

11

10

9

8 7 x

Figure 5.8: Right triangular plate with boundary nodal points

5.2.2.4 Free Vibration of Triangular Bare Plates
The results for the simply supported and clamped right triangular plates (Fig. 5.8) with different ratios of height (b) to base (a) are compared in the Table 5.13 with those of Kim and Dickinson [78] and Geannakakes [54]. Kim and Dickinson [78] used Rayleigh-Ritz method but Geannakakes [54] used Rayleigh-Ritz method along with normalized characteristic orthogonal polynomials to obtain the results. The results have compared very well except few cases of higher frequencies for plates with higher b/a ratio where the results of Geannakakes [54] are having higher values.

5.2 Arbitrary Bare Plates ρ for trianD

139

Table 5.13: Frequency parameters λ = ωa2 gular plates Ref.

Mode sequence number 1 49.35 49.34 49.23 34.28 34.28 34.21 27.76 27.76 27.70 24.15 24.14 24.09 21.85 21.84 21.78 93.78 93.78 93.49 53.44 53.44 53.30 42.75 45.75 42.50 2 99.76 98.69 98.30 65.69 65.59 65.35 49.91 49.88 49.69 41.15 41.14 40.94 35.63 35.65 35.42 157.79 157.78 157.44 82.43 82.44 81.89 61.00 61.05 60.27 3 128.4 128.30 127.51 91.99 91.86 91.35 74.85 74.88 74.15 60.65 61.145 60.06 51.27 52.15 50.60 194.77 194.76 193.65 113.51 113.70 112.41 80.80 81.26 79.18 4 169.1 167.80 166.75 108.0 107.48 106.78 81.84 81.51 80.91 72.28 71.99 71.45 66.73 66.67 65.70 242.80 242.81 241.65 121.92 122.03 121.17 99.90 100.27 98.10 5 200.3 197.46 195.53 140.9 139.39 137.85 107.4 108.43 105.05 84.92 86.49 82.33 71.03 73.97 68.35 277.67 277.71 275.54 152.09 153.32 149.99 104.12 107.33 101.22 6 249.8 246.86 243.80 161.9 162.42 157.87 122.2 121.65 118.88 104.2 103.66 101.31 92.84 94.15 85.93 335.77 335.84 332.22 168.68 168.77 166.38 129.69 132.72 121.99

SC

b/a 1.0

A B C A 1.5 B C A SS 2.0 B C A 2.5 B C A 3.0 B C A 1.0 B C A CC 2.0 B C A 3.0 B C

A - Kim and Dickinson [78];

B - Geannakakes [54];

C - Present

140

NUMERICAL EXAMPLES

5.2.2.5 Free Vibration of Bare Annular Sector Plates
Annular sector plates of sector angle 90◦ (Fig. 5.9) having different ratios of inside to outside radii are analyzed for various boundary conditions. Mukhopadhyay [129] solved the problems by using semianalytic finite difference method. The results are compared in the Table 5.14 and they are in good agreement. At higher radii ratio, however, the results have differed at higher modes for plates having edges other than simply supported. The different abbreviations used in the table are: CCCC CSSS SSCC SSSS SSFF - All edges clamped - One radial edge clamped and all others simply supported Radial edges simply supported and curved edges clamped - All edges simply supported - Radial edges simply supported and curved edges free

y

Figure 5.9: Annular sector plate of sector angle 90◦

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Ri
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x

Ro

5.2 Arbitrary Bare Plates Table 5.14: Values of ω for annular sector plates (D = 1, ρh = 1, ν = 0, Ro= 1, α = 90o ) SC Ri /Ro 0 CCCC 0.25 0.5 0 0.25 0.5 0 SSCC 0.25 0.5 M A B A B A B A B CSSS A B A B A B A B A B 1 48.20 48.74 52.01 52.58 94.08 95.17 31.01 30.94 32.18 32.21 48.74 48.69 31.01 30.94 32.18 32.21 48.74 48.69 2 86.89 87.39 87.60 87.72 113.98 114.26 64.24 63.87 64.41 64.11 73.34 72.81 64.24 63.87 64.41 64.11 73.34 72.81 3 103.02 104.17 121.18 123.43 149.27 149.40 78.80 78.71 88.35 88.50 111.82 111.03 78.80 78.71 88.35 88.50 111.82 111.03 4 135.89 136.14 136.01 136.38 199.21 199.69 108.37 106.76 107.91 107.19 166.90 161.22 108.37 106.76 107.91 107.19 166.90 161.22 5 161.86 162.93 166.65 167.21 246.96 253.01 131.91 131.12 133.91 133.22 193.20 167.49 131.91 131.12 133.91 133.22 193.20 167.49

141

continued in the next page . . . . . .

142

NUMERICAL EXAMPLES continued from the previous page . . . . . .

SC

Ri /Ro 0 0.25 0.5 0 0.25 0.5

M A B A B A B A B A B A B

1 25.148 25.176 28.345 28.407 47.142 47.182 6.634 6.150 5.856 5.664 4.740 4.642

2 56.425 56.273 56.719 56.507 68.264 67.986 25.221 24.079 24.916 24.029 23.355 22.777

3 69.105 69.382 84.687 85.077 103.224 102.732 36.423 35.334 34.428 33.554 35.076 33.970

4 97.624 96.926 97.653 97.225 150.747 149.938 54.045 51.142 53.383 51.236 52.072 50.632

5 120.680 120.539 123.949 123.669 165.734 166.556 77.609 74.861 76.348 74.077 71.832 69.507

SSFF

SSSS

A - Mukhopadhyay [129];

B - Present

5.2.2.6 Free Vibration of Bare Elliptical and Circular Plates
The free vibration results of elliptical plates with simply supported and clamped boundary conditions having different ratios (a/b) of major to minor axis (a/b = 1; for circular plate) are compared with those of Lam et al. [82], Leissa and Narita [94], Kim and Dickinson [77] and Geannakakes [54] in the Table 5.15. Lam et al. [82] used two-dimensional orthogonal polynomials whereas Leissa and Narita [94] used Bessel functions and their asymptotic expansions. Rayleigh-Ritz method with orthogonally generated polynomial admissible functions was used by Kim and Dickinson [77] and Geannakakes [54] used Rayleigh-Ritz method

5.2 Arbitrary Bare Plates

143

Table 5.15: Frequency parameters λ = ωa2 (ρh/D)1/2 for elliptical and circular plates SC a/b M A B 1 C D E A 2 D E A SS 3 D E A 4 D E 1 4.935 4.935 4.935 4.938 4.962 13.213 13.254 13.733 27.080 27.164 28.793 45.916 46.076 49.015 2 13.898 13.898 13.898 13.910 13.890 23.641 23.648 24.215 40.114 40.123 41.274 61.953 61.999 64.332 3 13.898 13.898 13.898 13.910 13.890 38.325 38.370 40.555 56.908 57.099 63.767 81.536 82.245 94.829 4 25.613 25.613 25.613 25.623 25.495 46.149 46.214 46.954 78.315 79.279 89.222 106.454 109.023 125.100 5 25.613 25.613 25.613 25.647 25.579 57.616 57.948 61.375 98.515 98.730 101.305 135.629 148.809 161.641 6 29.724 29.720 29.720 29.785 29.642 62.764 62.991 62.060 104.549 110.496 118.383 170.688 171.261 174.742

continued in the next page . . . . . .

144

NUMERICAL EXAMPLES

continued from the previous page . . . . . . SC a/b 1 M A C D E A 2 D E A CC 3 D E A 4 D E 1 10.216 10.215 10.215 10.206 27.477 27.374 27.604 56.899 56.792 57.598 97.598 97.589 99.005 2 21.260 21.260 21.258 21.218 39.497 39.497 39.713 71.590 71.602 71.667 115.608 115.714 115.557 3 21.260 21.260 21.258 21.218 55.977 55.995 57.458 90.238 90.417 94.961 137.268 138.234 147.038 4 34.878 34.877 34.872 34.675 69.855 69.849 70.471 113.266 114.169 123.575 164.324 167.321 182.376 5 34.878 34.877 34.892 34.847 77.044 77.211 80.306 140.746 145.350 152.369 195.339 207.443 222.159 E - Present 6 39.771 39.771 39.792 39.639 88.047 88.183 87.300 150.088 150.111 156.630 255.094 261.530 264.272

A - Lam et al. [82];

B - Leissa and Narita [94]; D - Geannakakes [54];

C - Kim and Dickinson [78];

5.2 Arbitrary Bare Plates Table 5.16: Buckling parameter k = λb2 /π 2 D for uniformly compressed all edges simply supported rectangular plates Source Aspect Ratio (a/b) 0.2 26.97 27.0 0.3 13.17 13.2 0.5 6.24 6.25 0.6 5.13 5.14 0.8 4.19 4.20 0.9 4.04 4.04 1.0 3.99 4.00 1.2 4.13 4.13 1.5 4.32 4.34 -

145

2.0 3.98 4.00

A B C D

A - Present Analysis;

B - Timoshenko and Gere [184]; D - C. R. C. of Japan [30]

C - Fried and Schmitt [52];

along with normalized characteristic orthogonal polynomials. The correlation of the results is very good, though results of Geannakakes are marginally higher.

5.2.3 Stability Analysis of Arbitrary Bare Plates
Stability analysis for the plates with various configurations such as rectangular, skew, annular, circular with various boundary conditions is carried out and the buckling parameters are tabulated and compared with the available results of the other investigators wherever possible.

5.2.3.1 Buckling of Uniaxially Compressed Simply Supported bare Rectangular Plates
Buckling loads for the simply supported bare rectangular plates having different aspect ratios (a/b) are computed and the results are presented in

146

NUMERICAL EXAMPLES Table 5.17: Buckling parameter k = λb2 /π 2 D for uniformly compressed all edges clamped rectangular plates Source Aspect Ratio (a/b) 0.4 27.76 0.5 19.20 19.76 0.75 11.67 11.40 1.0 9.99 10.33 10.08 10.05 10.07 10.48 9.66 1.25 9.17 9.02 9.25 9.38 9.20 1.5 8.22 8.30 8.11 8.33 8.45 8.30 1.75 7.96 8.00 8.11 8.17 8.18 2.0 7.68 8.15 7.76 7.88 8.06 7.87

A B C D E F G

A - Present Analysis;

B - Mukhopadhyay [129]; E - Levy [95];

C - C. R. C. of Japan [30]; D - Zhang and Kr¨ tzig [196]; a F - Maulbetsch [106]; G - Faxen [51]

the Table 5.16 in the form of buckling parameter k = λb2 /π 2 D where a and b are the length and width of the plate and D is the flexural rigidity of the plate given by D = Et3 /12(1 − ν 2 ). The results are compared with the analytical results of Timoshenko and Gere [184]. Few of the buckling parameters are compared with the finite element results of Fried and Schmitt [52] and the handbook of structural stability [30]. The results are found to be in excellent agreement.

5.2 Arbitrary Bare Plates Table 5.18: Buckling parameter k = λb2 /π 2 D for all edges clamped rectangular plates with biaxial uniform compression Source Aspect Ratio (a/b) 0.5 15.56 15.76 0.8 6.91 1.0 5.26 5.33 5.33 5.30 1.5 4.09 4.11 4.14 2.0 3.89 3.87 3.94 3.65

147

A B C D

A - Present Analysis; B - Zhang and Kr¨ tzig [196]; a C - Ng [138]; D - Mukhopadhyay [129]

5.2.3.2 Buckling of Uniaxially Compressed Clamped Bare Rectangular Plates
Rectangular bare plates of different aspect ratios with all edges clamped are considered for the buckling load analysis and the results are compared in the Table 5.17 with the semianalytical results of Mukhopadhyay [129] and finite element results of Zhang and Kr¨ tzig [196] and series solution a of Levy [95], Maulbetsch [106] and Faxen [51].

5.2.3.3 Buckling of Biaxially Compressed Clamped Bare Rectangular Plates
The buckling load results of the biaxially compressed clamped rectangular plates having various aspect ratios are presented in the Table 5.18. The results obtained by Zhang and Kr¨ tzig [196] (finite element method), a

148

NUMERICAL EXAMPLES Table 5.19: Buckling parameter k = λb2 /π 2 D for uniaxially compressed all edges simply supported rectangular plates with triangular load i.e; α = 1 in y the expression Nx = N0 (1 − α ) b Source Aspect Ratio (a/b) 0.4 15.05 15.1 0.6 9.70 9.7 0.8 8.10 8.1 1.0 7.78 7.8 1.5 8.30 8.4 2.0 7.73 -

A B

A - Present Analysis; B - Timoshaenko and Gere [184];

Ng [138] (collocation least square method) and Mukhopadhyay [129] (semianalytical method) are compared in the table along with the present ones which are found to agree well.

5.2.3.4 Buckling of Simply Supported Bare Rectangular Plates Uniaxially Compressed by Triangular Load
The buckling parameters for the bare rectangular plates with varying aspect ratios subjected to uniaxial compressive triangular load i.e; α = 1 in y the expression Nx = N0 (1 − α ) are presented in the Table 5.19 along b with the analytical results of Timoshenko and Gere [184] where excellent agreement is obtained.

5.2.3.5 Buckling of Uniaxially Compressed Bare Skew Plates
Numerical results for the buckling under uniaxial compression of the skew rhombic (aspect ratio = 1) plates having angles of skew varying

5.2 Arbitrary Bare Plates

149

Table 5.20: Buckling parameter k = λb2 /π 2 D for uniaxially compressed all edges simply supported and clamped skew plates (Aspect ratio = 1.0, ν = 0.3) BC Simply Supported φ 0 15 30 45 60 0 Clamped 15 30 45 60 A 3.98 4.37 5.82 9.64 20.98 9.99 10.72 13.30 19.30 36.32 B 4.00 4.53 6.17 11.00 10.06 10.93 14.00 21.70 C 4.00 4.412 5.91 10.22 24.56 10.07 13.53 20.05 42.38 D 4.00 4.245 5.12 10.22 10.06 10.44 13.51 20.08 E 4.00 4.38 5.61 F 10.06 10.60 13.39 20.07 G 4.00 4.32 5.55 9.07 -

BC - Boundary Conditions; A - Present Analysis; C - Mizusawa et al. [118]; G - Durvasula and Nair [49]

φ = Skew Angle; D - Fried and Schmitt [52]; F - Wittrick [190];

B - Mukhopadhyay and Mukherjee [135];

E - Yoshimura and Iwata [193];

150

NUMERICAL EXAMPLES Table 5.21: Buckling parameter k = (Nr )cr a2 /D for uniformly compressed simply supported and clamped circular plates (ν = 0.3) Boundary Condition Mesh Size 4×4 6×6 Clamped 8×8 10 × 10 12 × 12 14 × 14 16 × 16 Simply Supported 4×4 6×6 8×8 10 × 10 12 × 12 14 × 14 16 × 16 Present Analysis 16.0513 15.0061 14.7807 14.7091 14.6803 14.666 14.656 3.83696 4.02363 4.09947 4.13905 4.16403 4.1824 4.19765 4.20 14.68 Timoshenko and Gere [184]

from 0◦ to 60◦ with all edges simply supported and clamped are presented in the Table 5.20 along with the results of other investigators such as Mukhopadhyay and Mukherjee [135], Mizusawa et al. [118], Fried and Schmitt [52], Yoshimura and Iwata [193], Wittrick [190], Durvasula and Nair [49]. The results are in good agreement. Best agreement is obtained with Durvasula.

5.3 Arbitrary Stiffened Plates

151

5.2.3.6 Buckling of Uniformly Compressed Bare Circular Plates
The buckling loads for the simply supported and the clamped bare circular plates are computed and the results are presented in the form of the parameter k = (Nr )cr a2 /D where (Nr )cr is the critical compressive force uniformly distributed around the edge of the plate, a is the radius of the circular plate and D is the flexural rigidity of the plate. The results are presented in the Table 5.21 for various mesh divisions of the whole plate to study the convergence of the buckling parameter and they are compared with the analytical values of Timoshenko and Gere [184]. There is excellent agreement between the results.

5.3 Arbitrary Stiffened Plates
In this section the problems relating to the arbitrary stiffened plates are analyzed when they are subjected to static, dynamic and buckling loads and are presented in the subsequent subsections.

5.3.1 Static Analysis of Arbitrary Stiffened Plates
Stiffened plates of different shapes with eccentric as well as concentric stiffeners with different boundary conditions and loadings are analyzed and results are compared with those available. The results are presented in tabular or graphical forms depending on the suitability for the purpose of comparing them with those of others.

152

NUMERICAL EXAMPLES

5.3.1.1 Square Plate with a Central Stiffener
A simply supported square plate with a central stiffener as shown in the Fig. 5.10 is considered. The problem is solved both for eccentrically and concentrically placed stiffeners. The plate and the stiffeners have the same material properties with elastic modulus E = 1.1721 × 105 N/mm2 (17 × 106 psi) and Poisson’s ratio ν = 0.3. The plate is subjected to a uniformly distributed load of 6.89476×10−3 N/mm2 (1.0 psi). The plate is analyzed by the present method using various mesh divisions and the analysis is carried out with the mesh division of 16 × 16 for the whole plate. The deflection curves along the two centre lines are compared in Table 5.22 and Fig. 5.11 with the results obtained by Rossow and Ibrahimkhail [157] who applied the constraint method of the finite element analysis. In Table 5.22, results from NASTRAN and STRUDL
Y 0.254

25.4

A

A

0.254 X 25.4 SECTION AT A-A E = 11721 x 10 N/mm ν = 0.3
All dimensions are in mm. 5 2

Figure 5.10: Simply supported square plate with a central stiffener

2.54

5.3 Arbitrary Stiffened Plates

153

Figure 5.11: Variation of deflection along centrelines of simply supported square plate with a central stiffener

are also indicated. The agreement between the results is excellent.

To test the convergence of the results obtained by the present method, the deflection, moment and top fiber stress of the plate skin at the central location of the eccentrically stiffened square plate for varying number of mesh divisions are computed and presented in the Table 5.23 from which the attainment of good convergence for all is evident.

154

NUMERICAL EXAMPLES Table 5.22: Deflection at the centre of simply supported square stiffened plate (×104 mm.) Distributed Load Eccentric 34.722 37.846 34.696 Concentric 115.722 115.291 115.875

Source Rossow and Ibrahimkhail [157] NASTRAN STRUDL Present Method

Table 5.23: Convergence of deflection (w), plate moment (My ) and plate stress (σx ) of the eccentrically stiffened square plate at its centre with different mesh divisions. Mesh Division 2×2 4×4 6×6 8×8 10 × 10 12 × 12 14 × 14 16 × 16 Deflection (w) ×104 (mm.) 32.614 34.163 34.493 34.595 34.646 34.671 34.671 34.696 Moment (My ) ×103 (N − mm/mm) 6.005 21.943 24.412 25.275 25.697 25.933 26.075 26.169 Stress (σx ) (N/mm2 ) 4.532 9.339 9.992 10.189 10.271 10.3097 10.3297 10.3394

5.3 Arbitrary Stiffened Plates Table 5.24: Central deflection of rectangular cross-stiffened plate (×103 mm.) Concentrated Load Eccentric 32.258 Concentric 87.986 Distributed Load Eccentric 224.790

155

Source Rossow and Ibrahimkhail [157] NASTRAN Chang [32] STRUDL Present method

Concentric 611.505

31.496 31.648 31.445

87.986 87.960 87.986

221.336 228.498 226.873

611.556 612.648 611.454

5.3.1.2 Cross Stiffened Rectangular Plate
A simply supported rectangular plate with a central stiffener in each direction shown in Fig. 5.12 is analyzed for a uniform pressure of 6.89 × 10−2 N/mm2 (10.0 psi) as well as for a concentrated load of 4.448 kN (1.0 kip) at the centre of the plate with a mesh division of 16 × 16. The material properties are E = 2.0684 × 105 N/mm2 (30 × 106 psi) and ν = 0.3 for both the plate and the stiffener. The same problem is solved by Rossow and Ibrahimkhail [157] by applying the constraint method to the finite element analysis and by Chang [32] using conventional finite element method. The deflection and bending moments along the different lines for eccentrically as well as concentrically stiffened plates subjected to uniformly distributed load as well as concentrated load obtained by different methods are compared in Figs. 5.13-5.23. Additionally a

156

NUMERICAL EXAMPLES

y B B 1524 A Stiffeners A 127

6.35

12.7 Section at A-A 6.35 x
5 2

E = 2.0684 x 10 N/mm ν = 0.3

12.7 Section at B-B

All dimensions are in mm.

Figure 5.12: Simply supported rectangular plate with a central stiffener in each direction

comparison of the central transverse displacements obtained by various methods is made in the Table 5.24.

76.2

762

5.3 Arbitrary Stiffened Plates

157

Figure 5.13: Deflection at x = 190.5 mm. and x = 381.0 mm. for plate with two concentric stiffeners, under distributed load

Figure 5.14: Deflection at x = 190.5 mm. and x = 381.0 mm. for plate with two eccentric stiffeners, under distributed load

158

NUMERICAL EXAMPLES

Figure 5.15: Moment Mxx at y = 381.0 mm. and y = 762.0 mm. for plate with two concentric stiffeners, under distributed load

Figure 5.16: Moment Mxx at y = 381.0 mm. and y = 762.0 mm. for plate with two eccentric stiffeners, under distributed load

5.3 Arbitrary Stiffened Plates

159

Figure 5.17: Moment M yy at x = 190.5 mm. and x = 381.0 mm. for plate with two concentric stiffeners, under distributed load

Figure 5.18: Moment Myy at x = 190.5 mm. and x = 381.0 mm. for plate with two eccentric stiffeners, under distributed load

160

NUMERICAL EXAMPLES

Figure 5.19: Deflections at x = 190.5 mm. and x = 381.0 mm. for plate with two stiffeners under concentrated load

Figure 5.20: Moment Mxx at y = 381.0 mm. and y = 762.0 mm. for plate with two concentric stiffeners under concentrated load

5.3 Arbitrary Stiffened Plates

161

Figure 5.21: Moment Mxx at y = 381.0 mm. and y = 762.0 mm. for plate with two eccentric stiffeners under concentrated load

Figure 5.22: Moment Myy at x = 190.5 mm. and x = 381.0 mm. for plate with two concentric stiffeners under concentrated load

162

NUMERICAL EXAMPLES

Figure 5.23: Moment Myy at x = 190.5 mm. and x = 381.0 mm. for plate with two eccentric stiffeners under concentrated load

5.3.1.3 Rectangular Multi-Stiffened Plate
A rectangular steel plate stiffened with nine number of equispaced Tstiffeners along the short span as shown in the Figure 5.24 is analyzed by the present method with a mesh division of 16 × 16 for the whole plate. The plate is subjected to a concentrated load of 10 kN at its centre. The long edges are considered as simply supported and the short ones free. The deflections and bending moments along the central line in the longitudinal direction are computed and the results are compared graphically in the Figures 5.25-5.26 with those of Smith [179] who solved the problem based on generalized slab beam analysis.

5.3 Arbitrary Stiffened Plates

163

y 508

A

A

2540 x 4.7752
5

152.4

E = 2.06843 x 10 N/mm ν = 0.3

2

14.224 76.2 Section at A-A
All dimensions are in mm.

Figure 5.24: Rectangular multi-stiffened plate

164

NUMERICAL EXAMPLES

Figure 5.25: Variation of deflection along the centre line of the rectangular multi-stiffened plate

Figure 5.26: Variation of plate moment Mx along the centre line of the rectangular multi-stiffened plate

5.3 Arbitrary Stiffened Plates

165

5.3.1.4 Rectangular Slab with Two Edge Beams
Three numbers of specimens of slabs having edge beams at two opposite edges made of Araldite as shown in the Figure 5.27 are considered for the analysis using the present method employing a mesh division of 16 × 16 for the whole plate. Each of the specimens is considered to be free at the edges where the beams are placed and simply supported along the edges transverse to the beams. Two concentrated loads of equal magnitude are applied at the centre of each of the beams. The Table 5.25 describes the details of the geometrical and the material properties of the specimens along with the magnitude of the concentrated loads applied to each one of them. The deflections along different sections and the normal stresses at the bottom of the beam along its length are compared graphically with the finite element results of Mukhopadhyay and Satsangi [136] in the Figures 5.28-5.31. Additionally, the numerical values of the deflections and the stresses at some typical points are compared with the theoretical and experimental results of Allen [5] along with the finite element results of Mukhopadhyay and Satsangi [136] and the spline finite strip results of Sheikh [172] in the Table 5.26. The agreement between the results is found to be reasonably close.

166

NUMERICAL EXAMPLES

Table 5.25: Geometrical and material properties of the specimens of the rectangular slab with edge beams (Ref. Figure 5.27) Specimen No. SPEC1 SPEC2 SPEC3 a (mm) 138.58 138.58 138.58 b (mm) 4.52 4.52 4.52 d (mm) 19.10 15.24 11.43 L (mm) 131.78 131.78 131.78

Specimen No. SPEC1 SPEC2 SPEC3

t (mm) 4.445 4.445 4.445

E (N/mm ) 2977 2977 2977
2

ν 0.35 0.35 0.35

P (N ) 176.59 161.03 61.39

5.3 Arbitrary Stiffened Plates

167

A

B

y L C t x C

d

A B a

b

Figure 5.27: Rectangular slab with two edge beams

Figure 5.28: Deflection along A-A of the slab with edge beams

168

NUMERICAL EXAMPLES

Figure 5.29: Deflection along B-B of the slab with edge beams

Figure 5.30: Deflection along C-C of the slab with edge beams

5.3 Arbitrary Stiffened Plates

169

Figure 5.31: Stress at the beam soffit of the slab with edge beams Table 5.26: Deflection and stress at the beam soffit of the rectangular slab with edge beams Source of Result Deflection (mm.) at 25.4 mm. from the beam centre Stress (N/mm ) at the beam centre
2

Specimen No. 1 0.4216 0.4191 0.4521 0.4064 0.4572 14.5410 15.5615 15.3339 13.3000 14.8858 2 0.7214 0.7290 0.6477 0.7087 0.6477 20.1534 21.7323 25.0568 18.3883 20.1396 3 0.5842 0.6045 0.5232 0.5918 0.6756 12.3485 13.5758 12.9759 11.4798 12.5071

Present Method Sheikh [172] Experimental [5] Theoretical [5] Mukhopadhyay and Satsangi [136] Present Method Sheikh [172] Experimental [5] Theoretical [5] Mukhopadhyay and Satsangi [136]

170

NUMERICAL EXAMPLES

5.3.1.5 Stiffened Skew Bridge Deck
A perspex scale model of a 450 skew bridge deck (Fig. 5.32) having five equispaced longitudinal beams and two transverse edge beams supported at the ends of each of the equally spaced longitudinal beams, the vertical deflection and movement in the direction of the axes of the transverse beams at these points being restrained and subjected to a concentrated vertical load of 100N acting at the midpoint of one of the longitudinal free edges is analyzed with a mesh of 16 × 16 applied to the entire plate. The transverse and the longitudinal beams are having depths and widths of 22.0 mm and 6.0 mm respectively. The Young’s modulus and Poisson’s ratio for the 3-mm thick slab are 3354.0 N/mm2 and 0.390 respectively and those for the beams are 3176.0 N/mm2 and 0.335 respectively. The vertical deflections along the loaded free edge and along the centre line in the transverse direction are compared in Fig. 5.33-5.34 with the experimental results and also with those of Just [74]. The agreement is reasonably good.

5.3 Arbitrary Stiffened Plates

171

B

90 

 y :

45

3
? 6

90

 X 

Transverse Beams X 
- Y - Y  6

90 

90 

22
? 

Longitudinal Beams

> U

Section at X-X A
? 6

45

3

A
j

6 45 Y

o

B 22

3

30

0
j Y

? 

6

3
All dimensions are in mm.

Section at Y-Y

Figure 5.32: Skew bridge deck with beams in both directions

172

NUMERICAL EXAMPLES

Figure 5.33: Deflection along A-A of the stiffened skew bridge deck

Figure 5.34: Deflection along B-B of the stiffened skew bridge deck

5.3 Arbitrary Stiffened Plates

173

5.3.1.6 Stiffened Curved Bridge Deck
A perspex model of a horizontally curved bridge deck (Fig. 5.35) with two curved girders having free curved boundaries and simply supported on straight edges subjected to a concentrated load of 100 N applied at different points of the deck is analyzed with different mesh sizes. The convergence study for this problem for the load placed at position 4 and 7 for the deflection at various positions on the outer girder and the outer edge and that of the moments at the centre are presented in Table 5.27-5.28 respectively. The convergence for the deflection and moment is found to be good. The deflections obtained with a mesh division of 16 × 16 at the inner edge, inner girder, outer girder and outer edge are compared with the theoretical and experimental results of Joshipara [73], finite element results of Kalani et al. [75] and Satsangi and Mukhopadhyay [163] in Table 5.29-5.30. The elastic modulus and Poisson’s ratio are 3.6 × 104 Kg/cm2 and 0.38 respectively. At all places except the inner edge, present results compare favorably with the experimental ones.

174

NUMERICAL EXAMPLES

Figure 5.35: Curved bridge deck with two circumferential girders

5.3 Arbitrary Stiffened Plates

175

Table 5.27: Convergence of deflection at outer girder and outer edge

Load at

Mesh B 4×8 8×8

Outer Girder C 2.0520 2.0536 2.0536 2.0633 2.0669 3.4075 3.4098 3.4288 3.4361 D 1.4453 1.4464 1.4464 1.4528 1.4552 2.2145 2.2158 2.2273 2.2317 B 1.5897 1.5905 1.5899 1.5985 1.6015 3.6265 3.6301 3.6525 3.6614 1.4453 1.4464 1.4464 1.4528 1.4552 2.7119 2.7147 2.7338 2.7412

Outer Edge C 2.2318 2.2327 2.2315 2.2436 2.2475 4.4724 4.4752 4.4989 4.5080 D 1.5897 1.5905 1.5899 1.5985 1.6015 2.8711 2.8726 2.8870 2.8926

4

12 × 8 12 × 12 16 × 16 4×8 8×8

7

12 × 12 16 × 16

Table 5.28: Convergence of moments at the centre Load at 4 Mesh 4×8 8×8 12 × 12 16 × 16 4×8 7 8×8 12 × 12 16 × 16 Mx 0.3191 0.3469 0.3415 0.3377 2.6735 2.7075 2.6294 2.6199 My 1.4521 1.4614 1.4583 1.4501 0.0706 0.1086 0.0941 0.0882 Mxy 0.2795 0.2749 0.2908 0.2975 0.0542 0.0965 0.0263 0.0269

176

NUMERICAL EXAMPLES

Table 5.29: Deflection (mm.) at inner edge and inner girder Load at Source of Results Experimental [73] Theoretical [73] 1 FEM [75] FEM [163] Present Experimental [73] Theoretical [73] 4 FEM [75] FEM [163] Present Experimental [73] Theoretical [73] 7 FEM [75] FEM [163] Present Experimental [73] Theoretical [73] 10 FEM [75] FEM [163] Present B 2.12 1.99 2.03 2.31 2.03 1.28 1.20 1.32 1.22 1.14 0.40 0.44 0.49 0.22 0.35 0.46 0.47 0.52 0.22 0.30 Inner Edge C 1.54 1.47 1.46 1.37 1.42 1.92 1.79 1.88 1.84 1.70 0.65 0.67 0.72 0.34 0.55 0.60 0.65 0.69 0.32 0.43 D 0.84 0.83 0.89 0.81 0.80 1.30 1.20 1.32 1.22 1.14 0.42 0.49 0.58 0.25 0.41 0.43 0.47 0.52 0.22 0.30 Inner Girder B 1.16 1.08 1.13 1.04 1.02 1.38 1.30 1.38 1.31 1.24 1.07 1.11 1.26 0.87 1.07 1.54 1.63 1.86 1.55 1.60 C 1.22 1.20 1.24 1.10 1.14 2.04 1.93 1.99 1.96 1.85 1.57 1.49 1.68 1.13 1.45 2.12 2.29 2.69 2.17 2.24 D 0.70 0.72 0.74 0.62 0.67 1.39 1.30 1.38 1.51 1.24 1.03 1.01 1.16 0.72 0.99 1.56 1.63 1.86 1.55 1.60

5.3 Arbitrary Stiffened Plates

177

Table 5.30: Deflection (mm.) at outer girder and outer edge Load at Source of Results Experimental[6] Theoretical[6] 1 FEM[8] FEM[13] Present Experimental[6] Theoretical[6] 4 FEM[8] FEM[13] Present Experimental[6] Theoretical[6] 7 FEM[8] FEM[13] Present Experimental[6] Theoretical[6] 10 FEM[8] FEM[13] Present Outer Girder B 0.38 0.44 0.43 0.21 0.35 1.60 1.49 1.69 1.42 1.45 2.87 2.63 3.09 2.53 2.74 4.45 4.24 4.98 4.77 4.50 C 0.64 0.67 0.61 0.33 0.55 2.16 2.12 2.29 2.03 2.06 3.48 3.28 3.84 2.97 3.43 6.62 6.16 7.03 7.01 6.54 D 0.44 0.50 0.47 0.23 0.41 1.60 1.49 1.69 1.42 1.45 2.27 2.12 2.57 1.74 2.23 4.24 4.24 4.98 4.77 4.50 B 0.16 0.25 0.21 0.04 0.13 1.74 1.63 1.83 1.54 1.60 3.81 3.46 4.09 3.51 3.66 6.16 5.66 6.82 6.58 6.09 Outer Edge C 0.34 0.47 0.41 0.03 0.30 2.42 2.29 2.59 2.17 2.24 4.41 4.24 4.95 4.00 4.51 9.82 8.94 10.43 10.91 9.66 D 0.36 0.41 0.43 0.07 0.30 1.74 1.63 1.88 1.54 1.60 2.92 2.70 3.23 2.31 2.89 6.06 5.66 6.82 6.58 6.09

178

NUMERICAL EXAMPLES

Stiffener

2.54

A

A

0.254

0.254 Section at A-A 25.4
All dimensions are in mm.

Figure 5.36: Simply supported circular plate with a stiffener along the diameter

5.3.1.7 Circular Plate with a Central Stiffener
A simply supported circular plate of diameter 25.4 mm. (1.0in.) with a central stiffener (both eccentrically and concentrically placed) as shown in the Fig. 5.36 subjected to a uniform pressure of 6.8947 kPa (1.0psi) keeping all the other material and the geometric properties of the plate and stiffener same as that of the square stiffened plate solved by Rossow and Ibrahimkhail [157] is analyzed using a mesh of 16×16 by the present method and the deflection curves along the two centre lines are plotted in the Figure 5.37. The central deflections of the circular stiffened

5.3 Arbitrary Stiffened Plates

179

plate are found to be 1.1496 × 10−4 and 3.6068 × 10−4 whereas those of Rossow and Ibrahimkhail [157] for the square stiffened plate being 1.367 × 10−4 and 4.556 × 10−4 for the eccentric and the concentric stiffeners respectively. Hence the central deflection of a centrally stiffened plate is reduced by approximately 16% and 21% for eccentric and concentric stiffeners respectively when the plate configuration is changed from the square one to the circular one keeping the side of the square plate and the diameter of the circular one same, the reduction in the plate area being about 21%. This result is presented for the first time.

Figure 5.37: Deflection along diameters of a simply supported circular plate under distributed load

180

NUMERICAL EXAMPLES

5.3.2 Free Vibration Analysis of Arbitrary Stiffened Plates
Free vibration analysis of arbitrary stiffened plates having various shapes and boundary conditions are carried out and results are compared with those available. Results are presented in tabular form. Results tabulated are obtained with a mesh division of 16 × 16 for the whole plate unless otherwise mentioned.

5.3.2.1 Free Vibration of Concentrically Stiffened Clamped Square Plate
A square plate clamped in all edges having a centrally placed eccentric stiffener as presented by Nair and Rao [137] using the package STIFPT1 has been analyzed by the present method using various mesh divisions ranging from 8 × 8 to 24 × 24 for the whole plate. The problem has also been solved by Mukherjee and Mukhopadhyay [122], Mukhopadhyay [131], and Sheikh and Mukhopadhyay [173] using the finite element method, the semi-analytical method and the spline finite strip method respectively. The first six frequencies are compared with those of previous investigators in Table 5.31. The agreement is excellent with Nair and Rao [137] and Sheikh and Mukhopadhyay [173]. The results of Mukherjee and Mukhopadhyay [122] differ from present ones because they used a very coarse mesh (6 × 6 for the entire plate) in their finite element analysis. Similarly slightly varying results are obtained by Mukhopadhyay [131] because the inplane displacement is not considered in the analysis. The Table 5.31 also presents the convergence study showing good convergence of the results. Mukherjee and Mukhopadhyay [122] analyzed this plate problem to investigate the possible weaknesses of the isoparametric element which

5.3 Arbitrary Stiffened Plates Table 5.31: Frequency in Hz of a clamped square plate with a central concentric stiffener plate size = 600 mm × 600 mm, plate thickness = 1.0 mm ν = 0.34, ρ = 2.78 × 10−6 kg/mm3 , E = 6.87 × 107 N/mm2 As = 67.0 mm2 , Is = 2290 mm4 , Js = 22.33 mm4 Method Mode sequences Mesh size 8×8 12 × 12 16 × 16 20 × 20 24 × 24 A B C D 1 49.453 49.960 50.152 50.244 50.295 50.45 51.30 48.54 50.43 2 62.656 63.199 63.410 63.513 63.571 63.71 65.53 60.80 63.72 3 71.857 73.492 74.132 74.442 74.614 75.16 80.473 72.26 75.07 4 81.373 83.416 84.243 84.649 84.877 85.50 95.28 82.60 85.46 5 107.896 110.791 111.990 112.585 112.919 113.69 122.90 110.77 113.96

181

6 113.321 116.821 118.338 119.103 119.537 120.89 141.70 117.93 120.82

A - Nair and Rao [137]; C - Mukhopadhyay [131];

Present

B - Mukherjee and Mukhopadhyay [122] D - Sheikh and Mukhopadhyay [173]

has the undesirable locking effects for very thin plates. Since the width to thickness ratio of this plate is 600 the plate can be considered as very thin. They observed that the results did not converge until the shear stiffness of the very thin plate was reduced artificially to that of a thin plate which clearly depicts the effect of shear locking inherent in the element based on Mindlin plate bending theory.

182

NUMERICAL EXAMPLES

600 mm E = 6.87 x 10 N/mm ν = 0.34 -6 3 ρ = 2.78 x 10 Kg/mm A A
7 2

600 mm

1 mm

SECTION AT A-A

Figure 5.38: Clamped square plate with a central eccentric stiffener

5.3.2.2 Free Vibration of Eccentrically Stiffened Clamped Square Plate
Rao et al. [154] studied the effect of the eccentricity of the stiffener on the frequencies by investigating the same square plate as in the previous example but with a stiffener of 20mm×3mm size (Fig. 5.38). Sheikh [173] solved this problem by the spline finite strip method. Using the present element, the problem is analyzed for the free vibration and the results are compared with those of Sheikh [173] in the Table 5.32 where the results

20 mm 3 mm

5.3 Arbitrary Stiffened Plates are found to agree well. Table 5.32: Frequency in Hz of a clamped square plate with a central eccentric stiffener Method 1 Present Sheikh [173] 54.371 54.759 2 65.101 65.435 Mode sequences 3 79.808 80.805 4 84.584 85.745 5 116.531 118.521

183

6 118.676 120.966

5.3.2.3 Free Vibration of Cross Stiffened Square Plate
A square plate having central concentric stiffeners placed in both directions with all its edges clamped is analyzed by the present method using a mesh division of 16 × 16. Mizusawa et al. [116] solved this problem using the B-spline functions in both directions. The same problem was analyzed by Shastry and Rao [170] using high precision elements for the plate and the stiffener and by Sheikh [173] employing the spline finite strip method. The results obtained by the present method are presented in the Table 5.33 and compared with those of others and found to be in good agreement.

5.3.2.4 Free Vibration of Eccentrically Stiffened Rectangular Plate
A rectangular plate with simply supported edges having a central Lshaped eccentric stiffener in the shorter span direction as presented by Madsen [104] is analyzed. The results are compared with those of Madsen [104] and Sheikh and Mukhopadhyay [173] who used Rayleigh-Ritz

184

NUMERICAL EXAMPLES

Table 5.33:

Frequency parameter [ω(a/π)2 ρt/D] of square cross-stiffened plate with concentric stiffeners having all edges clamped (EIs /Da = 10.0, As /at = 0.1)

Method 1 A B C D 11.35 10.97 10.97 10.97 2 11.70 11.79 11.80 11.87

Mode sequences 3 12.65 12.61 12.62 4 12.65 12.61 12.62 5 17.42 17.74 17.67 6 24.81 24.58 24.64 7 24.96 24.68 24.81

A - Present;

B - Mizusawa et al. [116];

C - Sheikh [173];

D - Shastry and Rao [170]

Table 5.34: Frequency in Hz of a simply supported rectangular plate with a central L-shaped eccentric stiffener in the shorter span direction ν = 0.3, ρ = 7825 Kg/m3 , E = 2.051 × 1011 N/m2 Method 1 Madsen (Raleigh-Ritz Method) [104] Madsen (Differential Equations) [104] Sheikh and Mukhopadhyay [173] Present 147.92 144.06 143.03 142.76 Mode sequences 2 175.04 175.16 175.02 174.85 3 338.71 335.93 336.37 334.83

5.3 Arbitrary Stiffened Plates

185

method and the spline finite strip method respectively in Table 5.34. Madsen [104] in his analysis neglected the in-plane displacements whereas Sheikh and Mukhopadhyay [173] analyzed by both neglecting and including the in-plane displacements. The present investigation has been carried out by including the in-plane displacements. The results agree well with those of Sheikh and Mukhopadhyay [173] and with the solution of the differential equations of Madsen [104]. It appears that for this problem inplane displacements do not influence the natural frequencies significantly.

5.3.2.5 Free Vibration of Rectangular Multi-stiffened Plates
Rectangular plates with unidirectional concentric stiffeners for varying number of panels and different aspect ratios (Fig. 5.40) are analyzed using a mesh division of 16 × 16 by the present method and the first four number of frequencies are compared with the finite difference results of Wah [187] and the finite element results of Mukherjee and Mukhopadhyay [122] in the Table 5.35. The results are having good co-relation between them.

5.3.2.6 Free Vibration of Multi-stiffened Skew Plates
Simply supported skew plates having concentric stiffeners in one direction presented by Bhandari et al. (1979) are analyzed for different skew angles using mesh divisions of 20 × 20 and the first four natural frequencies of plates upto 45o skew angles are compared with those of other investigators in Table 5.36 which is found to agree well. Bhandari et al. [21] analyzed the problem by using Lagrange’s equations and

186

NUMERICAL EXAMPLES

Table 5.35: Frequency parameter [ω(a/R)2 ρt/D] of simply supported multi-stiffened rectangular plate with concentric stiffeners in one direction N M A 1 3 2 3 4 1 2 4 3 4 1 12 2 3 4 2.602 5.375 8.043 10.340 1.464 3.026 4.556 5.847 0.163 0.336 0.508 0.651 a =1 b B 2.697 5.833 7.989 10.103 1.493 3.170 4.700 6.143 0.166 0.349 0.521 0.670 C 2.611 5.378 8.062 10.346 1.470 3.027 4.569 5.798 0.164 0.337 0.510 0.647 A 1.345 2.602 4.346 5.375 0.757 1.464 2.447 3.026 0.084 0.163 0.272 0.336 a 1 = b 2 B 1.363 2.678 4.440 5.110 0.767 1.488 2.486 3.000 0.086 0.168 0.277 0.318 C 1.348 2.610 4.343 4.878 0.754 1.460 2.443 2.739 0.085 0.152 0.271 0.281

N - No. of panels; A - Wah [187]; C - Present

M - Mode sequence number; B - Mukherjee and Mukhopadhyay [122];

5.3 Arbitrary Stiffened Plates

187

11 2 E = 2.051 x 10 N/mm

450 mm

A

A

ρ = 7825 Kg/m ν = 0.3

3

650 mm

20 mm

4.98 mm 3 mm 3 mm

10 mm SECTION AT A-A

Figure 5.39: Simply supported rectangular plate with a central eccentric stiffener

188

NUMERICAL EXAMPLES

609.6 mm

b A A

a = 609.6 mm x no. of panels (R) 101.6 mm 25.4 mm SECTION AT A-A 25.4 mm

Figure 5.40: Simply supported rectangular plate with concentric stiffeners in one direction

5.3 Arbitrary Stiffened Plates Table 5.36: Frequency parameter [ω(a/R)2 ρh/D] of a simply supported multi-stiffened skew plate having concentric stiffeners in one direction a/b = 1 S 0
o

189

a/b = 2 D 1.489 3.065 4.590 5.843 1.564 3.221 4.789 5.800 1.979 4.064 5.605 6.592 2.828 5.560 7.793 8.457 4.888 8.507 12.353 13.857 A 0.747 1.447 2.437 2.727 0.810 1.525 2.659 2.789 0.989 1.736 2.992 3.303 1.445 2.295 3.613 4.903 B 0.767 1.488 2.486 3.000 0.813 1.549 2.651 2.842 0.995 1.800 3.139 3.255 1.431 2.403 3.950 4.735 C 0.767 1.488 2.486 3.000 0.815 1.552 2.659 2.849 0.986 1.775 3.108 3.276 1.409 2.310 3.786 4.791 D 0.761 1.473 2.453 2.755 0.858 1.426 2.626 2.787 1.050 1.900 3.185 3.246 1.508 2.320 3.661 4.828 3.547 4.360 5.854 7.833

M 1 2 3 4 1

A 1.447 2.990 4.562 5.780

B 1.493 3.170 4.700 6.143 1.580 3.263 4.922 6.102 1.986 3.890 5.809 6.923 2.964 5.342 8.016 8.925

C 1.493 3.170 4.700 6.143 1.581 3.372 4.934 6.416 1.895 4.029 5.736 7.316 2.649 5.431 7.866 9.376

15o

2 3 4 1

30

o

2 3 4 1

45o

2 3 4 1

60

o

2 3 4

A - Bhandari et al. [21]; B - Mukherjee and Mukhopadhyay [122] (Slope along the boundaries not restrained); C - Mukherjee and Mukhopadhyay [122] (Slope along the boundaries restrained); D - Present Analysis;

190

NUMERICAL EXAMPLES

employing beam characteristic functions in oblique coordinates whereas Mukherjee and Mukhopadhyay [122] solved the problem by finite element method. The results for plates with 60o skew angle being new the same could not be compared.
609.6 mm

b θ A A

a = 609.6 mm x no. of panels (R) 101.6 mm 25.4 mm SECTION AT A-A 25.4 mm

Figure 5.41: Simply supported skew plate with concentric stiffeners in one direction

5.3 Arbitrary Stiffened Plates

191

5.3.2.7 Free Vibration of Trapezoidal Stiffened Plates
The clamped square plate with the central concentric stiffener solved in the previous example (Section 5.3.2.1) has been extended here to the trapezoidal plate and analyzed for different c/b ratios where c and b are the two parallel top and bottom sides of the plate (Fig. 5.42) respectively. The first six natural frequencies are presented in the Table 5.37. It may be observed that all the frequencies tend to increase as the c/b ratio decreases and this increase is more prominent in the case of the lower frequencies. This result is presented for the first time.

c

600 mm (b)

Figure 5.42: All edges clamped trapezoidal plate with a concentric stiffener in one direction

600 mm

192

NUMERICAL EXAMPLES Table 5.37: Frequency in Hz of all edges clamped trapezoidal plate with a central concentric stiffener plate thickness = 1.0 mm ν = 0.34, ρ = 2.78 × 10−6 kg/mm3 , E = 6.87 × 107 N/mm2 As = 67.0 mm2 , Is = 2290 mm4 , Js = 22.33 mm4

c/b ratio 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 100.297 85.471 71.729 59.620 2 118.819 103.048 88.506 75.086

Mode sequences 3 155.765 125.777 100.451 83.927 4 161.276 139.179 117.019 97.513 5 214.771 169.577 137.554 121.217 6 216.551 185.725 153.006 130.518

5.3.2.8 Free Vibration of Concentrically Stiffened Annular Sector Plates
Two sets of annular sector plates having stiffeners concentrically placed along the circumferential directions (Fig. 5.43) and supported on two radial edges are considered for the free vibration analysis by the present method. In one of the sets the stiffeners are placed along the two circumferential edges of the plate and in the other set an additional circumferential stiffener is placed along the central line of the plate. The problems are studied by Ramakrishnan and Kunukkaseril [152] using the classical plate theory and by Sheikh and Mukhopadhyay [173] using the spline finite strip method. The present results are compared with those of others in the Table 5.38 and good agreement in the results is obtained.

5.3 Arbitrary Stiffened Plates

193

Table 5.38: Frequency parameter [ωa2 ρt/D] of annular sector plate with concentrically placed circumferential edge stiffeners Two stiffeners M 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 A 7.837 19.358 32.531 41.318 48.799 67.306 73.339 78.273 B 7.981 19.484 32.908 42.235 49.676 67.249 74.799 78.264 C 7.871 19.399 32.379 41.247 48.624 66.982 72.598 77.780 A 8.057 17.807 35.291 39.882 Three stiffeners B 8.600 20.723 36.874 41.933 56.735 74.843 76.549 78.910 C 8.662 20.998 36.616 40.793 58.349 72.726 76.892 79.646

A - Ramakrishnan and Kunukkaseril [152]; B - Sheikh and Mukhopadhyay [173]: C - Present

194

NUMERICAL EXAMPLES

A A b = 50

22.5 a = 25

o

0.5 0.5 2

SECTION AT A-A

Figure 5.43: Annular sector plate with concentrically placed circumferential stiffeners

5.3.2.9 Free Vibration of Eccentrically Stiffened Annular Sector Plate
Annular sector plates simply supported on two radial edges having stiffeners along the two circumferential edges (Fig. 5.44) presented by Mukherjee and Mukhopadhyay [123] are solved and the first six natural frequencies obtained are compared in Table 5.39. Stiffeners of two sizes (S1 and S2) as shown in the Fig. 5.44 are considered in the analysis. Mukherjee and Mukhopadhyay [123] analyzed the problem using finite element

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5.3 Arbitrary Stiffened Plates

b = 50

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Figure 5.44: Annular sector plate with eccentrically placed circumferential stiffeners
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195

196

NUMERICAL EXAMPLES

Table 5.39: Frequency parameter [ωa2 ρt/D] of annular sector plate with eccentrically placed circumferential edge stiffeners Stiffener Method Mode sequences 1 23.445 23.172 19.466 19.011 19.041 2 30.041 29.276 26.978 27.514 26.359 3 44.436 42.981 41.382 40.779 40.671 4 56.250 55.975 51.955 50.196 49.283 5 77.176 75.013 74.442 73.203 72.866 6 81.324 81.895 77.792 76.433 75.635

A S1 S2 P A B P

P - Present; A - Mukherjee and Mukhopadhyay [123]; B - Sheikh and Mukhopadhyay [173]

5.3 Arbitrary Stiffened Plates

197

5.3.2.10 Free Vibration of Circular Stiffened Plates
Three different square stiffened plates attempted in the earlier sections are extended to circular stiffened plates keeping all the properties of the corresponding plate and the stiffener same but the geometry of the plate being changed from a square to a circular one keeping the diameter equal to one of the sides of the square stiffened plate. In the first case the clamped square stiffened plate having the central concentric stiffener presented in the section 5.3.2.1 is extended to the circular one (Fig. 5.45). Similarly in the second case, the same square plate but having an eccentric rectangular stiffener (20mm×3mm) considered by Rao et al. [154] and presented in the section 5.3.2.2 is extended to the circular stiffened plate. Lastly, a clamped square cross-stiffened plate with concentric stiffeners analyzed by Mizusawa et al. [116] and attempted in the section 5.3.2.3 is extended to the desired circular one. The results of the first seven natural frequencies of all the circular stiffened plates (C1, C2, C3) are presented in Table 5.40 along with the corresponding original square stiffened plate results (S1, S2, S3) for comparison of the effects of the curved boundaries on the frequencies/frequency parameters. There is increase in the frequencies in all the cases for all the modes because of the curved boundaries which is expected, as the circular plate having the diameter equal to the side of the square plate is stiffer than the square one. The circular stiffened plate results are presented for the first time.

5.3.2.11 Free Vibration of Elliptical Stiffened Plate
The simply supported rectangular plate with a central eccentric L-shaped stiffener presented in the previous example in the Section 5.3.2.4 is extended to an elliptical stiffened plate by retaining all its properties but

198

NUMERICAL EXAMPLES

Table 5.40: Frequency (Hz/Parameter) of all edges clamped circular stiffened plates C1: Diameter = 600 mm, E = 6.87 × 107 N/mm2 , As = 67.0 mm2 , plate thickness = 1.0 mm, Is = 2290 mm4 ,

ν = 0.34 ρ = 2.78 × 10−6 Kg/mm3 , Js = 22.35 mm4

(Nair and Rao [137]) (concentric stiffener) C2: Material properties and plate dimensions same as CIR-1 but with an eccentric rectangular stiffener of size 20 mm × 3 mm (Rao et al. [154]) C3: Diameter = a, EIs/Da = 10.0, As/ah = 0.1 (Mizusawa et al. [116]) T 1 S1 C1 S2 C2 S3 C3 P H H 50.152 58.475 54.371 63.216 11.35 13.22 2 63.410 72.467 65.101 74.660 11.70 14.84 3 74.132 96.724 79.808 104.865 12.65 16.58 Mode sequences 4 84.243 111.189 84.584 111.880 12.65 16.58 5 111.990 139.549 116.531 145.922 17.42 23.25 6 118.338 149.083 118.676 156.153 24.81 28.71 24.96 30.08 7

T - Type of plate H - Frequency in Hz P - Frequency parameter [ω(a/π)2 ρt/D]

5.3 Arbitrary Stiffened Plates
600 mm

199

7 2 E = 6.87 x 10 N/mm ν = 0.34 -6 3 ρ = 2.78 x 10 Kg/mm

A

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SECTION AT A-A

Figure 5.45: Circular plate with a central stiffener

changing the geometrical shape of the plate to an ellipse by keeping the major and minor axes of the ellipse equal to the length and width of the rectangular plate respectively (Fig. 5.46). The results of the first six frequencies for the elliptical stiffened plate (ELP) as well as the corresponding rectangular stiffened plate (REC) are presented in the Table 5.41. While comparing the results of the elliptical stiffened plate with those of the rectangular stiffened plate an increase in the frequencies is observed in the second, fourth and the fifth mode of the elliptical plate but the first

200

NUMERICAL EXAMPLES

650 mm

20 mm

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4.98 mm 3 mm 11 2 E = 2.051 x 10 N/mm 3 ρ = 7825 Kg / m ν = 0.3

10 mm SECTION AT A-A

Figure 5.46: Elliptical plate with a central stiffener

and the third mode frequencies are found to be lower whereas there is hardly any change in the frequency of the sixth mode. The results are presented for the first time.

450 mm

5.3 Arbitrary Stiffened Plates Table 5.41: Frequency in Hz of a simply supported elliptical plate with a central eccentric stiffener in the shorter span direction ν = 0.3, ρ = 7825 Kg/m3 , E = 2.051 × 1011 N/m2 Plate Type REC ELP 1 142.76 129.10 2 174.85 234.75 Mode sequences 3 334.83 241.30 4 352.82 383.25 5 367.67 423.16 6 517.48 518.72

201

5.3.3 Stability Analysis of Arbitrary Stiffened Plates
Stability analysis for the stiffened plates with various configurations and boundary conditions is carried out and the buckling parameters are tabulated and compared with the published results of the other investigators wherever possible.

5.3.3.1 Buckling of Square Stiffened Plates
A number of square stiffened plates with a concentric central stiffener have been analyzed for various stiffener sizes and flexural rigidities, and the buckling parameters are presented in Table 5.42 for plates with different boundary conditions. The ratio of the cross-sectional area of the stiffener to that of the plate (As /bt) is varied from 0.05 to 0.20 and the ratio of the bending stiffness of the stiffener to that of the plate (EIs /bD)

202

NUMERICAL EXAMPLES

is varied from 5 to 25. The torsional inertia of the stiffener has been neglected in the analysis. The results are compared with the semi-analytic finite difference results of Mukhopadhyay [131] and they agree fairly well.

5.3.3.2 Buckling of Simply Supported Rectangular Stiffened Plates
A series of simply supported rectangular stiffened plates with a concentric central stiffener have been analyzed for various proportions of the plate and of the stiffener and the buckling parameters are presented along with those of other investigators in Table 5.43. The ratio of the crosssectional area of the stiffener to that of the plate (As /bt) is varied from 0.05 to 0.20 and the ratio of the bending stiffness of the stiffener to that of the plate (EIs /bD) is varied from 5 to 20. The torsional inertia of the stiffener has been neglected in the analysis. To analyze this problem Mukhopadhyay [131] used the semi-analytic finite difference method whereas Mukhopadhyay and Mukherjee [135] used the finite element method. Good agreement of the results is obtained when compared with the results of Timoshenko and Gere [184] and those of others.

5.3.3.3 Buckling of Rectangular Stiffened Plates with Different Boundary Conditions
Rectangular stiffened plates with a concentric central stiffener have been analyzed for two aspect ratios of the plate and for different proportions and rigidities of the the stiffener and the buckling parameters are presented in Table 5.44. As before the ratio of the cross-sectional area of the stiffener to that of the plate (As /bt) is varied from 0.05 to 0.20 and the ratio of the bending stiffness of the stiffener to that of the plate (EIs /bD)

5.3 Arbitrary Stiffened Plates

203

Table 5.42: Buckling parameter k = λb2 /π 2 D for square plate with a central concentric stiffener subjected to uniaxial and uniform compression in the stiffener direction ν = 0.3 EIs /bD Boundary Condition As /bt CCCC Present 24.25 24.25 24.25 24.25 24.25 24.25 24.25 24.25 24.25 24.25 24.25 24.25 24.25 24.25 24.25 [131] 25.46 25.46 25.46 25.46 25.46 25.46 25.46 25.46 25.46 CSSC Present 17.35 17.15 16.41 17.94 17.93 17.90 18.03 18.03 18.02 18.070 18.068 18.064 18.09 18.09 18.09 [131] 17.32 17.05 16.27 18.36 18.36 18.34 18.46 18.46 18.46

0.05 5 0.10 0.20 0.05 10 0.10 0.20 0.05 15 0.10 0.20 0.05 20 0.10 0.20 0.05 25 0.10 0.20

204

NUMERICAL EXAMPLES

Table 5.43: Buckling parameter k = λb2 /π 2 D for uniformly compressed all edges simply supported rectangular stiffened plates ν = 0.3 EIs /bD Aspect Ratio (a/b) As /bt 1 Present 11.84 11.02 9.64 15.73 15.73 15.49 15.73 15.73 15.73 15.73 15.73 15.73 [184] 12.0 11.1 9.72 16.0 16.0 15.8 16.0 16.0 16.0 16.0 16.0 16.0 [135] 11.72 10.93 9.70 16.0 16.0 15.44 16.0 16.0 16.0 Present 7.93 7.27 6.24 10.16 9.33 8.02 12.36 11.36 9.77 14.52 13.36 11.51 2 [184] 7.96 7.29 6.24 10.20 9.35 8.03 12.4 11.4 9.80 14.6 13.4 11.6 [131] 7.93 7.28 6.24 10.16 9.33 8.02 -

0.05 5 0.10 0.20 0.05 10 0.10 0.20 0.05 15 0.10 0.20 0.05 20 0.10 0.20

5.3 Arbitrary Stiffened Plates Table 5.44: Buckling parameter k = λb2 /π 2 D for rectangular plate with a central concentric stiffener subjected to uniaxial and uniform compression in the stiffener direction ν = 0.3 Boundary Condition EIs /bD CSCS As /bt Aspect Ratio 1 18.98 18.98 18.98 18.98 18.98 18.98 18.98 18.98 18.98 18.98 18.98 18.98 2 13.54 12.61 11.03 16.64 16.64 16.66 16.66 16.66 16.66 16.66 16.66 16.66 1 21.77 21.40 16.47 21.76 21.76 21.76 21.76 21.76 21.76 21.76 21.76 21.76 SCSC Aspect Ratio 2 18.03 16.41 13.85 21.18 21.25 19.63 21.17 21.16 21.26 21.15 21.15 21.22

205

0.05 5 0.10 0.20 0.05 10 0.10 0.20 0.05 15 0.10 0.20 0.05 20 0.10 0.20

is varied from 5 to 20. The torsional inertia of the stiffener has been neglected in the analysis. These results are presented for the first time.

206

NUMERICAL EXAMPLES Table 5.45: Buckling parameter k = λb2 /π 2 D for skew stiffened plate (Aspect Ratio = 1.0) EIs /bD = 10.0; GJs /bD = 0.0; As /bt = 0.1; ν = 0.3 Boundary Condition Skew Angle 0 30 45 0 All Edges Clamped 30 45 Present 16.0 19.96 27.68 24.24 32.41 47.97 [118] 16.0 20.28 28.68 24.89 33.74 51.62 [135] 16.0 20.90 29.89 30.8 36.9 56.3

All Edges Simply Supported

5.3.3.4 Buckling of Skew Stiffened Plates with Different Boundary Conditions
Skew stiffened plates with a concentric central stiffener and having different boundary conditions have been analyzed for different skew angles and the buckling parameters are presented in Table 5.45. The present results agree well with the finite element results of Mukhopadhyay and Mukherjee [135] and those of Mizusawa et al. [118] who analyzed the problem using B-spline functions.

5.3.3.5 Buckling of Uniformly Compressed Diametrically Stiffened Circular Plates
The buckling loads for the all edges simply supported (SS) and clamped (CC) circular plates with concentric stiffeners along the diameters are computed with varying flexural and torsional stiffness parameters of the

5.3 Arbitrary Stiffened Plates Table 5.46: Buckling parameter k = (Nr )cr a2 /D for uniformly compressed circular plates with concentric stiffeners along the diameter with varying flexural and torsional stiffness parameters of the stiffener As /at = 0.1; EIs aD GJs aD Single Stiffener SS 0.0 2.5 5.0 7.5 10.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 2.5 5.0 4.20 7.09 9.66 11.92 13.19 4.20 4.27 4.27 CC 14.72 26.64 26.65 26.65 26.65 14.72 14.97 14.97 ν = 0.3 k Cross Stiffeners SS 4.20 10.79 16.67 22.21 27.22 4.20 4.63 4.63 CC 14.72 44.34 44.35 44.35 44.35 14.72 16.28 16.29

207

stiffener and the results are presented in the form of buckling parameter k = (Nr )cr a2 /D where (Nr )cr is the critical compressive force uniformly distributed around the edge of the plate, a is the radius of the circular plate and D is the flexural rigidity of the plate . The results are presented in the Table 5.46. These results are presented for the first time.

Chapter -

6

CONCLUSIONS
6.1 Summary

The investigation carried out in this thesis may be summarized as follows: • A new four-noded plate bending element has been proposed in the manner of isoparametric element for the analysis of the bare plates, which is derived from the simplest rectangular basic plate bending element having 12 degrees of freedom largely known as ACM element. The new element has all the advantages of an isoparametric plate bending element by which it is capable of accommodating the arbitrary geometrical configuration of a plate but without the disadvantages of the shear-locking problem inherent in the isoparametric element. • A stiffened plate bending element has been proposed for the analysis of the stiffened plates by combining the 12 degrees of freedom rectangular basic ACM element and a four-noded rectangular plane stress element of 8 degrees of freedom. For this stiffened plate element, a general curved stiffener element has been proposed 209

210

CONCLUSIONS as a discrete element whose direction and orientation are arbitrary inside the plate element facilitating its placement and the mesh generation in the plate independent of the nodal lines. The compatibility between the stiffener element and the plate skin is maintained by expressing the stiffness matrix of the stiffener element in terms of the nodal degrees of freedom of the plate element. Through this compatibility, the contribution of the stiffener to the stiffness of the plate bending element is truly reflected by its location and orientation inside the element, contributing more to the nodes at the vicinity and less to the far ones.

• A consistent formulation has been carried out for the derivation of the stiffness matrix for a curved boundary assuming it to be supported on elastic springs continuously spread along the boundary line. The springs are considered in the directions of the possible displacements and rotations of the boundary line. Any specific boundary condition can be attained from this general one by assigning an appropriate value to the spring constants. • Using these elements, static, free vibration and stability analyses of bare plates and the stiffened plates have been carried out. In the extensive numerical examples presented, an attempt has been made to include various plate geometries such as square, rectangular, skew, trapezoidal, triangular, circular, elliptical, annular sector etc. in these three categories of analysis both for bare as well as stiffened plates having eccentric and concentric stiffeners. Convergence studies for few typical plate geometry problems have been carried out and results have been compared with the published ones to validate the proposed method of analysis. Few of the new results have also been presented.

6.2 Conclusions

211

6.2 Conclusions
Based on the present investigation, the following concluding remarks can be made: • Since the starting of the pioneering work on the finite element method in the early 1960s, a huge number of elements for the plate analysis have been proposed by various researchers. In this pursuit, many of the elements have been found by the analysts to be inadequate in some way or other when attempt has been made to make use of them in certain category of problems, thereby introducing further new elements. In the present investigation, it was felt that there was hardly a common successful element to address to the problem of thin plates having arbitrary plate geometries in spite of the whole wealth of plate elements available in the literature. This has prompted the present investigation to the proposition of new elements for bare and stiffened plate analyses of arbitrary geometrical configurations. • The elements proposed for the bare and stiffened plate analyses are well equipped to model the arbitrary shape of the plate, though they are based on simplest rectangular plate bending element. • The number of examples dealt for the static, free vibration and stability analyses of bare and stiffened plates using these elements have encountered no numerical difficulties during the computation showing their versatility in the analysis of arbitrary plate domain. • The stiffener in the stiffened plate bending element has been modelled as a general curved discrete element whose position, orientation and disposition are independent of the nodal networks of

212

CONCLUSIONS the plate and thus has a distinct advantage over the other model of stiffened plate element. Any number of stiffeners having different shape and size can be accommodated anywhere inside the element making its use attractive enough.

• Using a single stiffened plate bending element, analysis of a large number of plates of various geometrical configurations with various stiffener orientations and positions is possible. • The various loading conditions have been incorporated by considering the consistent load vector. The boundary conditions along the curved boundary have been dealt with properly by consistently formulating the stiffness matrix of the curved boundary line. • The various classes of problems attempted using these elements and the correlation of the results obtained by them with those of published ones show the versatility and the efficacy of the proposed method.

6.3 Further Scope of Research
The possible extensions to the present investigation are as presented below: • The present study has been confined to the linear range of analysis. With little effort, this proposition can be easily extended to include the works relating to large deflection and large amplitude vibration analyses of bare and stiffened plates of arbitrary shape. • The post buckling behaviour of the arbitrary stiffened plates can be included as further extension to the present study of buckling behaviour.

6.3 Further Scope of Research

213

• Response analysis of arbitrary bare and stiffened plates is another area of extension which can be attempted. • The present formulation can be extended to include the random vibration analysis of arbitrary stiffened plates. • Material nonlinearity may be taken into account in the formulation for further extension of the arbitrary stiffened plate configurations. • The modern age structures have extensive use of composite materials. To the present investigation these composite materials can be added as a further extension. • The plates studied here are of uniform thickness. The elements can be modified to incorporate the plates of varying thickness. In a similar manner, the study can be extended to the stiffeners having varying depth. • For the thick plate analysis, the inclusion of shear is inevitable. The present model can be extended to include the shear effect and thereby making the thick plate analysis of arbitrary shape possible.

List of Publications
International Journal
1. Manoranjan Barik and Madhujit Mukhopadhyay, “Finite element free flexural vibration analysis of arbitrary plates”, Finite Elements in Analysis and Design, 29, pp. 137-151, 1998. 2. Manoranjan Barik and Madhujit Mukhopadhyay, “Free flexural vibration analysis of arbitrary plates with arbitrary stiffeners”, Journal of Vibration and Control, (Accepted for publication). 3. Madhujit Mukhopadhyay, Manoranjan Barik and Abdul Hamid Sheikh, “Bending analysis of arbitrary plates with arbitrary stiffeners”, Structural Engineering and Mechanics (Communicated for publication). 4. Manoranjan Barik and Madhujit Mukhopadhyay, “Finite element stability analysis of arbitrary stiffened plates”, Computers and Structures, (Communicated for publication). 5. Manoranjan Barik and Madhujit Mukhopadhyay, “Finite element buckling of arbitrary plates”, Journal of Engineering Mechanics, ASCE, (Communicated for publication). 215

216

LIST OF PUBLICATIONS

Conference
1. Madhujit Mukhopadhyay,Y. V. Satish Kumar and Manoranjan Barik, “A novel analysis of grillage structures using stiffened plate bending element”, Trends in Structural Engineering Towards the 21st Century: Structural Engineering Convention 1997, Indian Institute of Technology, Madras, Chennai, pp.55-62, 1997.

Bibliography
[1] Adini, A. and Clough, R. W. Analysis of plate bending by the finite element method. Report to National Science Foundation, U.S.A., G.7337, 1961. [2] Aksu, G. Free vibration analysis of cross-stiffened rectangular plates. METU J. Pure App. Science, 9, 209–226, 1976. [3] Aksu, G. Free vibration analysis of stiffened plates including the effect of inplane inertia. Journal of Applied Mechanics, Trans. of ASME, 49, 206–212, 1982. [4] Al-Shawi, F. A. N. and Mardirosian, A. H. Improved dynamic relaxation method for the analysis of plate bending problems. Computers and Structures, 27, 237–240, 1987. [5] Allen, D. N. De G. and Severn, R. T. Composite action of beams and slabs under transverse loading. The Structural Engineer, 39, 235–239, 1961. [6] Allman, D. J. Calculation of the elastic buckling loads of thin flat reinforced plates using triangular finite elements. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering, 9, 415–432, 1975. 217

218

BIBLIOGRAPHY

[7] Anderson, R. G., Irons, B. M., and Zienkiewicz, O. C. Vibration and stability of plates using finite elements. International Journal of Solids and Structures, 4(4), 1031–1055, 1968. [8] Argyris, J. H. Continua and discontinua. In Proc. Conf. Matrix Methods in Structural Mechanics, pages 112–119. WPAFB, OH, 1965. [9] Argyris, J. H. Continua and discontinua. In Proc. Conf. Matrix Meth. Struct. Mech., pages 11–189, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio, AFFDL-TR-66-80, 1966. [10] Au, F. T. K. and Cheung, Y. K. Isoparametric spline finite strip for plane structures. Computers and Structures, 48, 23–32, 1993. [11] Ayad, R., Dhatt, G., and Batoz, J. L. A new hybrid-mixed variational approach for Reissner-Mindlin plates: The MiSP Model. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering, 42, 1149–1179, 1998. [12] Balendra, T. and Shanmugam, N. E. Free vibration of plated structures by grillage method. Journal of Sound and Vibration, 99, 333–350, 1985. [13] Balendra, T. and Shanmugam, N. E. Vibrational characteristics of multicellular structures. Journal of Structural Engineering, ASCE, 111, 1449–1457, 1985.

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