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Forces encountered in flowing fluids include those due to inertia, viscosity, pressure, gravity,

surface tension and compressibility. These forces can be written as

The ratio of any two forces will be dimensionless. Inertia forces are very important in fluid

mechanics problems. So, the ratio of the inertia force to each of the other forces listed above

leads to fundamental dimensionless groups.

1. Reynolds number :

• It is defined as the ratio of inertia force to viscous force. Mathematically,

(1)

where is the velocity of the flow, is the characteristics length, are the density,

dynamic viscosity and is the fluid respectively. If is very small, there is an indication that

the viscous forces are dominant compared to inertia forces. Such types of flows are

commonly referred as "creeping/viscous flows". Conversely, for large , viscous forces are

small compared to inertial effects and flow problems are characterized as inviscid analysis.

This number is also used to study the transition between the laminar and turbulent flow

regimes.

2. Euler number :

In most of the aerodynamic model testing, the pressure data are usually expressed

mathematically as,

(2)

where is the difference in local pressure and free stream pressure, is the velocity of the

flow, is the density of the fluid.

The denominator in Eq. (2) is called "dynamic pressure". So, is the ratio of pressure force to

viscous force and it is also called as the pressure coefficient . In the study of cavitations

phenomena, similar expressions are used where is the difference in liquid stream pressure and

liquid-vapour pressure. The dimensional parameter is called “cavitation number”.

3. Froude number :

It is interpreted as the ratio of inertia force to gravity force. Mathematically, it is written as,

(3)

where is the velocity of the flow, is the characteristics length descriptive of the flow field and

is the acceleration due to gravity. This number is very much significant for flows with free surface

effects such as in case of open-channel flow. In such types of flows, the characteristics length is

the depth of water. For less than unity indicates sub-critical flow and values greater than unity

indicate super-critical flow. It is also used to study the flow of water around ships with resulting

wave motion.

4. Weber number :

The ratio of the inertia force to surface tension force is called Weber number. Mathematically,

(4)

where is the velocity of the flow, is the characteristics length descriptive of the flow field, is

the density of the fluid and is the surface tension force. This number is taken as in index of

droplet formation and flow of thin film liquids in which there is an interface between two fluids. For

, inertia force is dominant compared to surface tension force (e.g. flow of water in a river).

5. Mach number :

It is the key parameter that characterizes the compressibility effects in a fluid flow and is defined

as the ratio of inertia force to compressibility force. Mathematically,

(5)

where is the velocity of the flow, is the local sonic speed, is the density of the fluid and is

the bulk modulus. Sometimes the square of the Mach number is called "Cauchy number" i.e.

(6)

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