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1) What are the main functionalities of a wing ?

 The main functionality of the wing is to provide the necessary lift to the
aircraft with the help of flaps and slats which are the controlling surfaces.

 To withstand the bending moment which are greatest during flight and
upon landing.

2) How are wings classified ?

There are several types of wing structures for modern high speed

 Thick box beam structure ( usually built up with two or three spars for
high aspect ratio of wings as
shown in the figure a.

 Multi spar box structure with

for lower aspect ratio of
wings with thin wing airfoil
as shown in the figure b.

 Delta wing box as shown in

figure c.

Figure b
Figure a
Figure c

3) What are the main components of a wing ?

The main components of a wing are shown in the below diagram.

4) Design the wing with lightening strike considerations ?

Airplanes flying in and around thunderstorms are often subjected to direct

lightening strikes and also to lightening discharges that produce carona and
streamer formations.

Three zones may be identified for the understanding purpose.

Zone 1 : Surfaces of the aircraft for which there is a high probability of

direct stroke attachment.

 All surfaces of the wing tips located approximately within 18 inches of the
tip ( measured parallel to the lateral axis of the aircraft )
 Forward projections such as engine nacelles, external fuel tanks and
propeller disks.

 Any other projecting part that might constitute a point of direct stroke

Zone 2 : Surfaces for which there is a probability of strikes being swept

rewarded from a zone 1 point of direct strike attachment such as ( engine
nacelles, propellers.. etc ). Zone 2 extends approximately 18 inches laterally to
each side of fore and aft lines passing through the zone 1 forward projections of
stroke attachment.

Zone 3: Surfaces for which there is a low probability of wither direct or swept
strokes. Ignition sources in these areas would exist only in the event of
streamering. This zone includes all surfaces of the aircraft not coming under
definitions of zone 1 and 2.

Please see the below picture representing the different zones.

5) What are the design factors considered for a wing ?
6) What are the general rules for spar design ?
Part B Fuselage

1. Why the Fuselage of a pressurized airplane built into the circular shape?

Because fuselage is an aerofoil, it has a low pressure area over the

upper surface and higher pressure at the lower surface. when the fluid flow
through an aerofoil this creates a variance in temperature and pressure inside
the fuselage. So to minimize this effect inside the fuselage, it is made of circular
cross section

• Circular cross section can resist Hoop's stress effectively as compared to

other cross section.

• Distribution of air is uniform.

• Increases area of the fuselage.

2. What is Panel Instability?

The internal frames in a semi monocoque structure, such as fuselage,

divide the longitudinal stringers and their attached skin into lengths called
panels. If these frames are sufficiently rigid, a monocoque structure if subjected
to bending will fail on compression side. The longitudinal stringers acts as
columns with an effective length equal to that of the frame spacing which is the
panel length. Initial failure thus occur in a single panel and is referred to as
Panel Instability.

3. Summary of fuselage loads

• Ultimate design conditions:

Flight loads

Flight loads + Cabin pressure

Cabin pressure only

Landing and ground loads

• Fatigue design conditions:

Fatigue loads based on the flight profile developed by the
manufacturer to encompass

anticipated airplane usage

Fatigue objective- design flight hours of service life without

modification of primary


• Special area conditions:

Depressurization of one compartment

Bird strike

Hail strike

Cargo and passenger loads on floors

Crash loads (emergency landings)

4. what are the materials considered for the design of fuselage ?

• Aluminum alloy
• Graphite epoxy composite material
• copper-aluminum alloy
• Steel
• Glass/epoxy
• Kevlar/epoxy

5. What are the requirements to consider to design the fuselage ?

• Size of the Aircraft for the required application

• Producibility
• Structural efficiency
• Weight
• Effect on fuselage for the outside diameter of the shell
• Noise attenuation
• Structural arrangement
• Corrosion resistance
• Stability
• Aerodynamic shape for the maneuverability

6. What are the other aircraft systems interface with Fuselage ?

• Wings
• Cockpit
• Fairings
• Empennage
• Landing gears
• Electrical systems
• Hydraulic and Pneumatic system

7. How do you determine the primary structure spacing on the shell

L = MD2 /16000*EI

This is the theoretical formula to calculate the spacing between the


M = Bending moment of fuselage

D = Diameter of the stiffened fuselage

E = Modulus of Elasticity

I = Moment of Inertia of fuselage