INTERNSHIP REPORT Name of Organization Specialization: MBA (Banking and Finance


Submitted To:

Chairman, Dept. of Business Administration

Submitted By:

Name: Sheikh Abdullah Atif Roll No: T518737 Registration No: 06-PLR_0459 Mailing Address: 61/A Sheikh Colony Jhang Road near Karmawala Jeneral Store Faisalabad Contact No: 03339780752 Date of Submission:




My Parents
By virtue of whose prayers, I have been able to reach at this position, who always caring, loving for me, who always encouraged me to go up in my life. Who worked very hard in their life to give us every facility in life. They are source of inspiration for me. Ami and Abu! I love you both so much. You are best Father and Mother in this world.


I am thankful to all who help me completing this Internship Report. And it is not difficult to identify them. First of all I like to express our thanks and gratitude to ALLAH Almighty. He gives me strength to accept and complete this task, he provides me with all the resources that I required in successful completion of this report and after that, my deep love and humble thanks is there for Holy Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) who advises me to enlighten the way of life by seeking knowledge. I feel pleasure to acknowledge the opportunity that Allama Iqbal Open University is providing to the students all over the Pakistan and noble guidance, encouragement, tremendous co-operation and valuable discussion of all my Instructors during my MBA (Banking & Finance) from AIOU. I am highly thankful to all my respectful instructors. I have no appropriate words that fully convey the sense of immense indebtedness and deep gratitude that I owe to my Internship Supervisor, Mr. Ghulam Yasin Khan, Branch Manager, Habib Bank Limited who co-operated with me fully and guided me for successful completion of this Internship. Last but not least, I would also like to pay my heartiest gratitude to my affectionate Parents, my brothers, who always praying for my success. You all will live alive in my mind, in my heart, throughout the whole span of my life. May Allah! Give easiness to all of you in your life and give you strength to spread easiness to others.

Sheikh Abdullah Atif iii

4-EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Allah bestowed his blessing upon me and I availed this opportunity to prepare this internship report under the supervision of AIOU & Habib Bank Ltd. poverty elimination. Sheikh Abdullah Atif iv . HBL staff helped me much during my internship. I would like to thank all the officers who helped me a lot in the preparation of this internship report. Despite of all limitations this excellent activity groomed me much and I learned much knowledge from this activity. I availed many such opportunities to prepare many such projects & reports and all these opportunities gave me much more confidence to understand the practical world. Regards. During my study with AIOU (during MBA ). It influences and facilitates many different but integrated economic activities like resources mobilization. production and distribution of public finance. Banking is one of the most sensitive businesses and plays a significant role in a contemporary world of money and economy. Also I would like to thank AIOU for providing such challenging and grooming opportunities to students.

4 10 10.3 9.2 9.2 8.4 8. No. 1 Title Page Dedication Acknowledgement Executive summary Title Page No. Scanned Copy of Internship Certificate Table of Contents Brief Introduction of the Organization’s business sector Overview of the Organization Brief History Nature of Organization Product Lines Competitors Business Volume Organizational Structure Organizational Hierarchy Chart Number of Employee Main Offices Comments on the Organizational Structure Plan of Internship Program Brief Introduction of the Branch i ii iii iv v vi 1 3 23 29 v .5 9 9. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 8.1 9.6-TABLE OF CONTENTS Sr.3 8.1 8.

2 13. 2 12. 7 13. 2 12. 3 13. 1 12. 3 11. 2 10.11 10. 8 Starting & ending dates of the Internship Department wise training Training Program Introduction to all departments Detailed Description of work assigned in each department Structure of the Finance Department Departmental Hierarchy Number of Employees in Finance Department Finance & Accounting Operations Functions of the Finance Department Accounting System of the Organization Finance System of the Organization Role of Financial Manager Use of Electronic Data in Decision Making Information Technology Mobilization of funds Generation of Funds Sources of Funds 31 12 39 13 41 vi . 1 13. 5 13. 4 13. 6 13. 3 13. 1 11.

5 14. 3 14. 7 Allocation of Funds Critical Analysis Financial Analysis Balance Sheet in a Single Table Form Profit & Loss Statement in a Single Table Form Ratios Analysis Horizontal analysis Vertical Analysis Comparison With Other Banks SWOT Analysis Conclusions & Recommendations for improvement Reference & Sources used Annexes 48 15 16 17 18 72 75 78 79 vii . 2 14. 6 14. 1 14. 4 14.14 13. 9 14.

security brokers and dealers. savings and loan associations. as it has become a second habit with the people. provide brokerage services and implement domestic as well as foreign economic polices of the government. These banks also administer estates. the banks do not have to make many efforts in mobilizing savings. with the passage of time the commercial banking operations are under going remarkable qualitative change. and credit unions. In Pakistan for instance. exchanges. Four types of banks specialize in offering these basic banking services: commercial banks. insurance companies. This broader definition includes many other financial institutions that are not usually thought of as banks but which nevertheless provide one or more of these broadly defined banking services. or safeguards money for its customers. which can be used like money to make payments and purchase goods and services. collects. Planned efforts are being made to enhance the supply of .7-Brief Introduction of the Organization’s Business Sector Banking is the business of providing financial services to consumers and businesses. acts as insurance agents and underwriters. investment companies. and real estate investment trusts. Commercial banks in developing countries have to make vigorous efforts of resource mobilization at all levels. pension funds. invests. A broader definition of a bank is any financial institution that receives. mortgage companies. banking facilities are being extended to the un-banked places. In the developed societies. loans that consumers and businesses can use to purchase goods and services. The basic services a bank provides are checking accounts. transfers. savings accounts and time deposits that can be used to save money for future use. However. The commercial banks are financing the short and long-term capital needs of the business. The loans and discounts of commercial banks include real state mortgages and long term loans. pays. investment banks. and basic cash management services such as check cashing and foreign currency exchange. which extend to as long a period as ten years. These institutions include finance companies. lends. savings banks.

such as market . In a country like Pakistan. Whereas in Pakistan the rate of saving has varied from 13% to 20% only. One reason of this capital deficiency is the non-adoption of modern marketing tools. the rate of capital formation ranges from 17% to 30% of their Gross National Product. They accumulate the idle savings of the people and make them available for investment. disparity of wealth. They provide a variety of facilities for remitting a large amount of money from one place to another by the transfer of a small slip of paper. and well –organized banking system is the need of the day. Banks play a vital role in the economic development of country. Japan. ineffective fiscal measures etc. The scheme provides for short and medium term loans to farmers under a much-simplified procedure. which is still in the initial stages of economic development. A special scheme to induct commercial banks in the field of agricultural credit was introduced in December 1972. The banks have to play an important role in promoting capital formation. They also create new demand deposits in the process of granting loans and purchasing investment securities. Mandatory targets for small loan credit to the agriculture sector and for housing have been prescribed and are being enforced. lower per capital income. In advanced countries of the world like America. unorganized banking system. Corporate banking is also being reorganized and reactivated on more viable fines. This deficiency of capital accumulation is due to so many reasons like. State Bank’s measures aimed at increasing the flow of credit to the small man in business and industry as well as to housing and non-traditional exports have also yielded positive results. They facilitate trade both inside and outside the country by accepting and discounting of bills of exchange. which in fact has let us down on almost all the crucial happenings in the country. The country thus becomes independent of foreign capital. Germany. In order to accelerate the rate of economic development the Government has been acquiring foreign capital. The banks by launching a vigorous campaign both in the villages and cities can mobilize the idle savings and can increase the rate of investment. in controlling speculation in maintaining a balance between requirements and availability and in direction physical resources in to desired channels. The “Credit Guarantee Scheme” is covering the large risk to the commercial banks in the sphere of agricultural finance and small loans to a reasonable extent. There is acute shortage of capital in advances to the new priority sectors in consonance with the present day socio-economic needs. Banks also increase the mobility of capital.

advertising etc. sales organization. sales management. .research. sales training. for attracting deposits.

Meritocracy: . The markets in which we operate are becoming increasingly competitive.8-Overview of the Organization Vision “Enabling people to advance with confidence and success” Mission “To make our customers prosper. our products and premises .and society in general . giving our customers an abundance of terms of the service we offer.expect us to possess and steadfastly adhere to high moral principles and professional standards. Customer Focus: We understand fully the needs of our customers and adapt our products and services to meet these. Our customers . Integrity: We are the leading bank in Pakistan and our success depends upon trust. our staff excel and create value for shareholders” Objectives Our values or objectives are the fundamental principles that define our culture and are brought to life in our attitudes and behavior. It is our values that make us unique and unmistakable. We always strive to put the satisfaction of our customers first. Only through being the very best .can we hope to be successful and grow. Our values or objectives are defined below: Excellence: This is at the core of everything we do.

France. U. It was established with a paid up capital of Rs. 2 affiliates.A. our business concentration has remained consistent for Retail. Africa and the Far East. Lebanon. HBL also has a presence in 25 countries with subsidiaries in Hong Kong and the UK and affiliates in Nepal and Nigeria. Hong Kong. . These branches are in U.A. Consumer. It was the first Muslim Bank of the sub-continent. SME and Agriculture lending programs and banking services are offered in both urban and rural centers. Overseas operations of Habib Bank Limited comprise 65 branches. 8. Turkey. Netherlands. Oman.400 branches across the country and a customer base exceeding five million. and a spirit of enterprise.E.A. Sudan. Bahrain. 2 representative offices and 2 subsidiaries. Over the years. Progressiveness: We believe in the advancement of society through the adoption of enlightened working practices. Nigeria. in recent years. Y.1Brief History HBL was the first commercial bank to be established in Pakistan in 1947. Using our branch network as a key competitive advantage.K.5 million.S.We believe in giving opportunities and advantages to our employees on the basis of their ability. and Corporate and SME clients. the number of its branches was only 12. Now Habib Bank Limited is the largest commercial bank of Pakistan comprising 9 Regional Head Quarters.. Malaysia. HBL has the largest Corporate Banking portfolio in the country with an active Investment Banking arm. South and Central Asia. Kuwait. In 1973. At an early stage. all the commercial banks were nationalized under the Bank Nationalization Act 1974. Habib Bank Limited was established by Mr. innovative new products and processes. Egypt. Belgium. HBL is expanding its presence in principal international markets including the UK.. We believe in rewarding achievement and in providing first-class career opportunities for all. 1942 at Bombay. U. Bangla Desh. 2. 1198 branches in the country on 31st December 1999. Iran. UAE. 42 Zones. HBL’s key area of operations encompasses product offerings and services in Retail Banking and. Ismail Habib (Late) on August 25.R. Consumer Banking as well. the bank has grown its branch network and become the largest private sector bank with over 1.

Pakistan Phone: 051-2872203-2821183 Fax: 051-2872205 Head Office Habib Bank Plaza I. Mauritius and Australia.033 and no of branches as on 31-1299 was 1760.Sri Lanka.Azam’s Account with HBL having largest Branches network all over the Pakistan 1456 with in and out side the Pakistan. 8. Pakistan Phone: 021-2418000 [50 lines] Fax: 021-9217511 Websites Seychelles. This is summarized in our vision.3Product Lines: For Individual Customers  Credit Cards    Car Loans (Car to Car) Debit Cards Bancassurance Corporate Website Treasury Website Ebank (Internet Banking) .2Nature of Organization: Scope of the HBL’ businesses are very large from retail products to corporate loan. Number of staff of Habib Bank Ltd as on 31-12-99 was 23. www. Market Leader in Banking with 12 Billion profits of last 6 months till June. Kenya. Habib Bank Ltd has its registered office at Karachi.hblebank. mission and is supported by our values. Chundrigar Road Karachi – 75650. Habib Bank Tower Jinnah Avenue Islamabad. Registered Office 4th Floor.hblgtr. Singapore. Honor of Having www. Maldives. The oldest Bank of Pakistan. Indonesia. Our brand identity is the outward expression of what we stand for as an 8.

flexibility and opportunity. HBL CreditCard makes shopping fun and paying simple. Phone Banking Credit Cards HBL Credit Card welcomes its cutomer to a world of convenience. Accepted at over 24 million merchants worldwide. Make the most out of your shopping experience with your very own HBL CreditCard. You cannot lose cash if you don’t carry it. simply present your HBL CreditCard to the shopkeeper and pay for anything you want. Convenience Instead of paying with cash. Check the amount in your monthly card statement and make the payment with your regular card payment. Bill Payments We'll pay your bills on your behalf and charge the amount to your HBL CreditCard. call us at HBL PhoneBanking and your card will be blocked immediately. SMS Alerts . Security Your HBL CreditCard ensures your money stays completely secure. In the unlikely event that your card is stolen. You can give one-time standing instructions to pay your monthly bills. The HBL CreditCard will add simplicity and excitement to your life.

the monthly installment may even be 40% to 50% less than that of conventional financing.For all transactions. As a result. This amount is deducted from the car price thus lowering the finance amount. you only pay for that part of the car’s value that you use during the lease term. This finance amount is based only on a part of the car’s value and not the full value of the car. With HBL CarToCar. It makes the car of your choice affordable and practical with a buy back guarantee. E-Statements You can enroll for an e-statement with a simple call. we will directly settle this outstanding liability for you under the buy back guarantee. When you lease a car under HBL CarToCar. HBL CarToCar offers matchless features and unique options at the end of the lease. You won’t have to wait for your paper statement any more or have to worry about storing it. you only have to pay the difference between the car price and the pre-agreed residual value to the bank. Hence. An e-statement with details of all your transactions will be sent to your specified email address every month. you can upgrade to a new car as frequently as two years* without any complication and hassle. Car Loans (Car to Car) HBL CarToCar is a revolutionary car financing offer. The car’s residual value* (forecasted for the end of the specific lease term) is agreed with you at the start of the lease term. an SMS alert will be sent to you on your mobile phone to confirm that the transactions have been conducted by you. Eligibility Criteria is: Self-Employed Business persons/ Professionals Pakistani Salaried Individuals Citizenship Pakistani . HBL gives you the guarantee that if you wish to return the car to us at the end of the lease term. you will not have to pay off the car’s residual value. HBL CarToCar offers very low installments as compared to any conventional financing. Instead. A nominal fee will be charged for this service. Now you can drive a new car at the end of every two years. Therefore.

You don’t have to carry cash and your monthly statement provides you with a complete record of all your transactions so you can manage your expenses with ease. Features:     No Interest Ease & Security No Liability International Recognition& Acceptability .Age Minimum monthly income 22-60 years Rs. 25.000 Documentation required is as under: Salaried Individuals    Copy of CNIC 2 recent passport size photographs Latest original salary slip and personal bank statement for last 3 months Copy of CNIC 2 recent passport size photographs Bank statement for last 6 months and bank letter confirming details of account Proof of business Self-Employed Business persons/Professionals     Debit Cards HBL Visa Debit Card allows you to pay for your purchases directly from your bank account.000 22-65 years Rs. 20.

    Spending Limits Free Account Statement 24 hour Customer Service Global Customer Assistance Service Bancassurance HBL and New Jubilee Life Insurance Company Limited (NJLI) introduce Amaan (Retirement Plan ) and Tabeer (Child Education & Marriage). . Amaan is a pension plan that provides an opportunity for growth through investment in a balanced portfolio with post-retirement income benefits. 500. Policy can be cashed in total 2.000 will be paid for the marriage of the nominated female child. The plan covers life insurance and gives attractive returns on investment to its customers. Tabeer Plan An insurance plan that enables parents to cover education and marriage costs. 3. Tabeer is a plan that provides parents with a means to accumulate a fund over a period of time which can then be used to pay for a child’s education or marriage. Eligible age Minimum payment Benefit on accidental death 18 – 60 years Rs.000 per month In addition to other benefits. given that female child is at least 18 years of age Allowed Partial withdrawals Maturity benefits Two options available: 1. Rs. Plans are available for both under and over 45 years of age. Funds are paid back as per policyholder's designated time period Amaan Plan A pension plan that offers attractive investment returns. These products have been designed keeping HBL’s customer base as the focus and will provide life insurance along with an investment option.

HBL PhoneBanking services for Deposit Account customers You can use the Interactive Voice Response (IVR) system or talk to our PhoneBanking Officers to:    Get your account balance Get information about the last 5-10 transactions carried out on your account Request your bank statement. 200.000 will be paid along with other benefits Rs.000 will be paid along with other benefits Allowed Two options available: 1. Policy can be cashed in total 2. Your query will be resolved in a single telephone call from anywhere and at anytime. Pension can be recieved for life Phone Banking Your bank is just a phone call away. either through fax or email (as supplied in your subscription form)  Get details of your transactions from the last 6 months on each of the accounts listed on your subscription form   Change and/or modify your contact details Transfer funds between your own accounts (as listed in the subscription form) or from your account to a third party account (as listed in the Third Party Authorization Form)  Transfer funds from your own account to an account in another bank under the 1-Link network (Inter Bank Funds Transfer) . You can now call HBL PhoneBanking and save a trip to the branch. 800.Eligible age Minimum payment Minimum age to exercise pension option Benefit on accidental death Benefit on death Partial withdrawals Maturity benefits 18 – 60 years Rs.000 per month 55 years Rs. For details on features and benefits please see below. 2.

. Account Maintenance You can request for the following facilities related to your Loan account including:    Change/modification in your Contact Details Partial Payment Early Settlement Car Theft/Damage In case of car theft/damage. please inform any of our Phone Banking Officers and your notification will be forwarded to the Car Loan department. including: o Pay Order o Demand Draft o Statement o Balance Certificate o Cheque Book HBL PhoneBanking services for HBL CarToCar and CarLoan customers HBL CarToCar and HBL CarLoan customers can enjoy the following services through HBL PhoneBanking: Balance Inquiry Get information regarding the balance of your Loan and Repayment Account. Last 5-10 Transactions Get details regarding the last 5-10 transactions carried out on your Loan and Repayment Account.     Generate your own choice of ATM Pin without filling a request at your branch Inquire about our product offerings Lodge a complaint in case of any inconvenience Inquire about the daily accounts related profit rates and currency exchange rates Request a number of physical instruments and/or branch banking related services that you might require. You will be provided complete assistance in resolving the issue promptly and efficiently. Statement Generation (Email and Fax) Request for the statement of your Loan and Repayment Account. either through Fax or Email.

Detailed Transaction History Our Phone Banking Officers can give you the details of transactions made in the past 6 months on your Loan and Repayment Account. Product Facilitation You can speak to any of our Phone Banking Officers and inquire about our product offerings and request facilitation through registering your interest in the product(s) and forwarding the same to our country-wide sales team for follow-up with you. For Business Customers         Corporate Banking Commercial Banking Investment Banking Islamic Banking Zarai Banking Cash Management Global Treasury Assets Management . Self-service Banking through IVR System and additional services through our Phone Banking Officers. Mobile phone prepaid vouchers All you have to do is dial 111-111-425 and choose your desired denomination. T-PIN Generation/Change Your TPIN (Telephone Personal Identification Number) is generated the first time you call and you can use it as your password for verification purposes. The amount will automatically be charged to your HBL CreditCard or HBL deposit account and your prepaid voucher PIN will be sent via SMS to your mobile number registered with HBL PhoneBanking. You can even change your TPIN any time after its initial generation.

including Overdraft. our team understands your banking needs and works closely with you to realize your goals. Our RMs have the expertise you need to create tailored financial solutions catering to the specific requirements of your business. A long history of financing and nurturing relationships in Pakistan has given HBL a unique insight. we have a range of solutions designed to help you with your banking needs. Whether establishing a new venture or expanding an existing business. enabling us to provide timely and effective financial solutions for our customers to meet the growing challenges of a global economy. FE Loans. Commercial Banking . If you are a corporate customer. Letter of Guarantee and Standby Letter of Credit.Corporate Banking HBL Corporate Banking Group comprises a seasoned team of Relationship Managers (RMs) to meet the demanding service standards of large corporations. Pre and Post Shipment Export Financing (PKR and USD based) Import Financing (PKR and USD based) LMM Funding Receivable Discounting Islamic Banking facilities Cash Management Services Trade Services including Letter of Credit. We provide the following services to meet your funding requirements:         Working Capital Finance. etc. etc. with a turnover of at least PKR 300 million.

Our business units are located in Karachi. Sialkot. Lahore. HBL has the ability and the resources to meet the needs of your business with our pro-active.HBL’s Commercial Banking Group targets medium sized companies with a turnover of at least PKR 50 million. responsive and experienced Relationship Managers who are committed to understanding your business. Faisalabad. Services available are:         Working Capital Procurement of Inventory Receivables Procurement of Machinery Expansion of production facilities Import of raw materials Exports Guarantees Investment Banking . Each unit is dedicated to service business clusters located within these cities. Gujranwala and Peshawar.

The HBL team played a pivotal role across several sectors. securitizations. etc. The bulk of HBL’s project finance practice revolves around the power sector. restructurings. including energy. Recently. credit enhancement for a rapidly growing company in the consumer durables sector and numerous tier-2 capital transactions for commercial banks. agriculture. HBL actively pioneered Project Finance in Pakistan through the funding of a gas-fired co-generation plant (94 Megawatts of power and desalination of 3 million gallons per day). The Investment Banking Group functions in three specialist business areas: Project Finance. as well as a green field venture in the telecom sector worth PKR 12 billion. worth PKR 23 billion. public and private equity placements and mergers & acquisitions. term finance facilities. Depending on the requirements of its customers. In the fertilizer sector.. This is a testament to the out-of-box thinking and the innovative products we bring to our customers. HBL continues to play a fervent role in the sector and is the only Investment Bank that was Lead Advisor to all IPP transactions that achieved financial close. HBL offers a variety of products. the first bond offering for any microfinance institution in all of Asia. including PKR 15. HBL has closed over thirty transactions with a cumulative worth of over USD 2 billion. commercial papers. HBL structured a convertible debt note with a built-in Put feature for a US-based provider of agriculture technology and dairy solutions – a first of its kind transaction in Pakistan. HBL financed the largest local currency financing in Pakistan. Debt Capital Markets & Syndications and Equity Capital Markets & Advisory. fertilizers. Prior to the power policy of 2002. for raising various forms of equity and quasi-equity.14 billion TFC issue (the largest privately placed issue in Pakistan). etc. privately placed and listed TFCs. HBL also provides valuation for a company in the food and beverages sector. Subsequent to the 2002 power policy. HBL offers a breadth of equity and advisory products including innovative capital raising techniques. This year alone. Islamic Banking . HBL played the lead role in a number of significant debt transactions. including syndications. consumer products.HBL offers full-service Investment Banking capabilities to its clientele.

Services available are:     Opening of Current Account and Basic Banking Account (BBA) Collection of Foreign/Inland Bills Acquisition of Assets on Ijarah Purchase of Raw Materials. Murabaha (local & import) facilities are provided to meet the short-term financial needs of mid-market and corporate customers. Islamic Banking offers Shariah compliant products and services to meet the short and long term requirements of business and trade. Islamic Banking provides Ijarah (leasing) for vehicles. At HBL. HBL’s Islamic Banking products are fully Shariah compliant and duly certified by independent Shariah Advisors.Islamic Banking is a growing market segment that offers attractive opportunities to potential and existing customers. Semi-Finished/Finished goods or Store or Spares through Murabaha    Foreign/Inland Remittances Utility Bills Collection E-banking/Internet Banking services Zarai Banking . plants and machinery to meet long-term customer resource requirements.

Crop Inputs Crop specific finance for purchase of Agri inputs such as seed.HBL ZaraiBanking facilities are spread across the country and provide financing through more than 800 of our branches. in turn. HBL ZaraiBanking provides loans to small-scale land owning farmers as well as large institutionalized and alliance based finance. HBL ZaraiBanking enables farmers to invest in premier quality seeds. self-employed tractor operators. medicines. fertilizers. HBL’s presence in all agriculture belts of the country ensures easy access to farmers in rural areas. pesticide and other related inputs Farm Implements Finance available for purchase of farm implements & machinery like combined harvester. sprayers. providing the option to select vehicles from a range of different manufacturers Livestock Finance available for feed. agricultural implements and non-farm setups through its various product programs. raising charges and other related activities Poultry . raw material. fertilizer. pesticides. economic output of the country. enhancing agricultural harvest and. ploughs. tube wells and other crop-related tools/implements Tractors/Agricultural Vehicles Finance available to individual farmers.

poultry processing and other related activities Fish Farming Finance available for inland fish farms as well as deep-sea fishing. This includes procurement of boat. poultry feed. fish locating equipment. poultry medicines. thereby making it cost efficient. hatchery plant & machinery. Our Cash Management Services reduce the cash turn around of your company. purchase of medicines / feed and other related activities Group Lending Joint finance facility for a group of farmers with small land holdings for working capital requirement Cash Management HBL offers a comprehensive platform for customers to avail Cash Management Services throughout Pakistan. composite feed production.Finance available for all poultry related activities including poultry farm construction/equipment. nets & ropes. fish farm water solution. Advantages of cash management are:     Centralized Collections / Funds Transfer Centralized Payments / Disbursements Customized MIS Reporting Centralized Customer Support through IT/Operations Easy Collect Standing Instruction via Debit Authority (SIDA) Outward Bills for Collection (OBC) Products and Services Collections    Global Treasury . ice maker. hatchery construction/equipment.

A vibrant. collection of superior data is not an aim in itself. and processes re-engineered to increase efficiency. and local treasury expertise provide our clients with an informed overview of current events as they pertain to our clients' business. These increased volumes have been brought about by the professionalism and expertise brought in by the senior management of the bank. whereby operations have been streamlined. identify opportunities that can be capitalized upon. Our global alliances. Treasury services are even more important than before as interconnected economies are rapidly blurring physical boundaries in international trade. However. Our access to information is supplanted by our overseas branch network. and our real addition of value is in our ability to analyze the wide spectrum of data that is available. Habib Bank in its capacity as the largest commercial bank in Pakistan also has the largest Treasury in terms of volumes transacted. and increased profitability for both customers and shareholders. with the consequent ability to take proactive decisions to evolving market conditions.In today's fast paced. The ability to manage risk effectively allows us to offer the most competitive rates to our clients on all facilities ranging from deposits to encashment of export proceeds. with branches located across all time zones. from Sydney to New York. Assets Management . dynamic Treasury department is the hallmark of the changing culture of Habib Bank with its focus towards improved customer services. and from this analysis. and increasingly global world.

a. Exceeding Rs. 1000 Seed / Core Investor Trustee Auditor NAV Calculation Management Fee Sales Load Trustee Fee Other Costs Initial Offer Price / Par Value Minimum Investment Size Subsequent investment Types of Units Class A Units (Restricted) Class A Units Core Units to be issued to HBL (at Par Value) as core investors with a 2 year restriction for redemption Issued to pre-IPO / IPO investors at par value . 100 Rs. Rs.000 million Brokerage fee.The objective of the HBL-Income Fund is to provide stable stream of income with a moderate level of risk by investing in fixed income securities/instruments. Credit Rating fee etc. Legal Costs. Annual fee to SECP. 0. 1. Ferguson and Company Daily 1. 5000 Rs. The salient features of HBLIncome Fund are: Name Fund Type Objective HBL Income Fund Open End Income Fund To provide a stable stream of income with a moderate level of risk by investing in fixed income securities / instruments. Habib Bank Limited Central Depository Company A. Auditors fee. 1 billion. 2 million plus 0. Company formation cost.10% of NAV exceeding Rs.5% 0% Rs.2% p. F.7 million or 0. of NAV up to Rs. 1 billion which ever is higher. Listing fee. Rs.

000 IPO Dates 8.5 Business Volume of HBL REVENUE . 200. 8. 16 th & 17 March 2007. United Bank Limited Allied Bank Limited Bank Alfalah Limited Emirates Global Islamic Bank NIB Bank Limited Standard Chartered Bank Royal Bank of Scotland Meezan Bank Limited Bank Al-Habib Limited 15 th .5Competitors             National Bank Of Pakistan Bank of Punjab MCB Bank Ltd.Class B Units Tax Benefit Issued to all types of investors after expiry of IPO Capital Gains: Exempt till June 2007 Cash Dividend tax rate: Individual 10% Corporate 5% Tax Credit for investments of up to Rs.

YEAR 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 VOLUME (IN ‘000) 32343206 43685740 50481021 63305033 76076347 DEPOSIT YEAR 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 VOLUME (IN ‘000) 432545165 459140198 531298127 597090545 682750079 ADVANCES YEAR 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 VOLUME (IN ‘000) 316881635 349432685 382172734 456355507 454662499 INVESTMENTS YEAR 2005 2006 2007 VOLUME (IN ‘000) 107384470 119587476 177942251 .

Credit. Audit. Compliance.1Organizational Hierarchy Chart Regional Chief Regional Manager (Operations. EXECUTIVE INCHARGE FINANCE DIVISION 9. Development GROUP Executive Audit GROUP Executive Chief Compliance Officer GROUP Executive Retail & Consumer Banking GROUP Executive IT GROUP Executive Investment Banking GROUP Executive Global Operations EXECUTIVE INCHARGE LEGAL AFFAIRS DIVISION 9-Organizational Structure EXECUTIVE INCHARGE AUDIT & INSPECTION DIV.2008 2009 138145692 216467532 PRESIDENT GROUP Executive Corporate Banking GROUP Executive Chief Financial Officer GROUP Executive Human Resource & Org. Marketing) Senior Managers Managers (Operations. HR. Credit) Assistant Managers Officer/Cashiers .

Directors of Habib Bank Limited. Board of Directors elects a president who then heads the executive board of directors. President or CEO.Board of Directors The board of directors is the supreme governing body of Habib Bank Limited. Sultan Ali Allana Chairman Zakir Mahmood President & CEO . It comprises of a Chairman.

Iain Donald Cheyne Director Mushtaq Malik Director Sajid Zahid Director Ahmed Jawad Director Management Committee Zakir Mahmood President & CEO Sima Kamil Group Executive. Razi Azmat Group Executive. Investment Banking Nausheen Ahmad Company Secretary & . Audit. BRR & Investigation Tulu Islam Group Executive. Chief Financial Officer Dr. Human Resources & Organisational Development Jamil Iqbal Group Executive. Chief Compliance Officer Salim Amlani Group Executive. IT & Systems Kashif Shah Group Executive. Corporate Banking Ayaz Ahmed Group Executive.

UK Abid Sattar Group Executive. Asset Remedial Management Mirza Saleem Baig Group Executive. Administration & Services Group Aly Mustansir Head of Marketing & Brand Management Audit Committee Iain Donald Cheyne Chairman Sajid Zahid Member . Retail & Consumer Banking Mudassir H. Khan Group Executive.Head of Law Division Sohail Malik Group Executive. Habib Allied International Bank Plc. Global Treasurer Aslam Gadit Group Executive. Risk Management Nauman K. International Banking & CEO.. Global Operations Faizan Mitha Group Executive. Khan Group Executive. Commercial Banking Jamil A. Dar Group Executive.

Ahmed Jawad Member Risk Management Committee Sultan Ali Allana Chairman Zakir Mahmood Member Mushtaq Malik Member Human Resource Committee Sultan Ali Allana Chairman Zakir Mahmood Member Sajid Zahid Member Group Chief Financial Officer Mr. Nausheen Ahmed Legal Advisor Mahmood Yousaf Mandviwalla Bar-at-Law Auditors KPMG Taseer Hadi & Co. Chartered Accountants 9. Ayaz Ahmed Company Secretary Ms.2Number of Employees .

3Main Offices HBL has its main offices in every city. 9.4Comments on Organizational Structure The structure of Habib Bank Limited is given above.552 staff members of HBL serving in 1.In offline branches. which comprises of Regional Chiefs and Division Heads etc.489 branches all over the world. it is directly under the regional office. In one city there is only one main branch. When more power will be in . 9. There was the commanding style of management exists in that organization and it is also not good thing. Habib Bank is divided into various regions across all the provinces of Pakistan. there are 14. On the whole. The board of directors elects a president who then heads the executive board of directors. Top governing body of National Bank of Pakistan is the board of directors. there are 4 to 6 employees on average where as in online branches. One of the most common weaknesses of this structure is that decision making is slow. there are 10-20 employees on average depending upon the departments in the branch and number of services available. The Composition of the Region is as under:             Regional Chief Executive Regional Manager Operations & Support Services Regional Manager Credit Regional Manager Human Resources Regional Manager Compliance Regional Manager Audit Regional Manager Marketing Area Managers/Senior Manager/Chief Manager/Branch Manager Manager Operations Manager Credit Assistant Managers/Officers Cash Officers/Cashiers The structure is typical bureaucratic structure which hierarchical based.

Rurala Road Branch is an excellent branch business wise.the hands of the upper management then there must be political game play. It is situated on the main road. . So flatter structure is better then this because in this structure more power is distributed among various members rather in the single hand. So in the case of loss upper management will be responsible and it is again bad thing. Moreover. Another disadvantage of this structure is that more responsibilities are in hands of upper level management. 10-Plan of Internship Program 10.1Brief Introduction of branch: Habib Bank Limited. there will be excessive demotivation of lower level of staff and there inefficiencies can be occurred.

07.10 12.10 30. 10 20.06.3Departments Attended: Sr.07.10 8 weeks 10.07. No.06.10 29. It deals in all type of Banking Operations like: Remittances General Banking Retail Banking Consumer Banking Agriculture Financing Commercial Financing Auto Financing Bancassurance Credit Cards/Dbit Cards Guarantees           10.07. Faisalabad Region of Habib Bank is further divided in to small areas consisting of 8-15 branches each.10 15.10 13.10 10.2010 31.07.07. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Department Liabilities & Deposits Operations & Accounts Finances/Credit Financial Analysis Remittances Bills Consumer Banking Duration From To 01.07.Rurala Road Branch is one of the progressing branches of HBL in the region (Faisalabad).06.2Internship Span (Duration): Starting Date: Ending Date: Total Duration: 01.10 15.10 21.06.10 14.07.10 .10 28.07.10 16.06.

07. individuals. charitable institutions.1Introduction of Departments: Liabilities & Deposits: Mobilization of deposits is one of the core banking businesses.10 11-Training Program 11.10 31.07.g. provident and benevolent funds of business .8 Bancassurance 29. HBL offers various accounts for depositors e.

100.09 5 0. 1 & above The profit is payable on six monthly basis and calculated on minimum balance during the month. The Profit will be credited to respective account at quarter end.12 3 7.000 For minimum balance during the month above Rs.000 but less than Rs.00 Annualized Rate of Return (%) 5.25 5.000 & Above The profit is payable on quarterly basis and calculated on daily product basis.000 The profit is payable on quarterly basis and calculated on minimum balance between first day and last day of the month.organizations with attractive returns.         HBL PLS Savings Account HBL Enhanced Savings Account – ESA HBL Value Account HBL Super Value Account HBL Basic Banking Account – BBA HBL Advantage Account Foreign Currency Account – FC Munafa Plus Deposit Certificates . RMPSA (Remittance Manafa Plus Saving Accounts) The profit is calculated on minimum balance during the month. Category of Deposit PLS Saving Chequing Account For Balance from Rs.000 For minimum balance during the month above Rs. Indicative Rate of Profit P.00 5.25 5.00 7.45 5. 1.00 5.19 5.000 On daily actual deposits less than Rs. For business purposes Current Account is the most preferred as no financing is allowed on Saving Accounts. 500.000. The Profit will be credited to respective account at quarter end. The Profit will be credited to respective account on the last working day of each month.A (%) 5.32 5.MPDC Product Line & Annualized and Indicative Rates of Profit (%) Sr.35 . 2. 1.00 4. 100.09 4 7.000 The profit is payable on quarterly basis and calculated on minimum balance between first day and last day of the month.500.000 On daily actual deposits less than Rs. 500.00 4.06 1 2 5. No.500. The Profit will be credited to respective account on 30th of June and 31st of December. HBL – Super Value Accounts (SVA) For minimum balance during the month upto Rs.000.00 7. HBL – BusinessValue Accounts (BVA) On daily actual deposits less than Rs.25 0. The Profit will be credited to respective account at quarter end. HBL – Value Accounts (VA) For minimum balance during the month upto Rs. 2.

250m On daily actual deposits of Rs.73 11.50 11.75 14.50 10. 1 Billion On daily actual deposits less than Rs.70 7.25 11. 250m but less than Rs.50 7.20 1.80 0.57 11.00 12.30 Three Years Five Years Ten Years 9 F.30 11. 250m On daily actual deposits less than Rs.10 1. 500m but less than Rs. 500k On daily actual deposits of Rs. 1B & Above The Profit will be credited to respective account on the last working day of each month.15 0.50 11.00 5.20 1. 500k but less than Rs.01 12.50 9.00 10. 100m but less than Rs. 1 Billion & Above The Profit will be credited to respective account on the last working day of each month.50 12.12 7. 500m On daily actual deposits of Rs.75 13. 1B On daily actual deposits of of Rs.00 6.84 9.6 7 8 DMA Daily Munafa Account On daily actual deposits less than Rs. HBL Advantage Account 3 Months Quarterly 6 Months Six Monthly One Year Monthly Quarterly Six Monthly On Maturity Monthly Quarterly Six Monthly On Maturity Monthly Quarterly Six Monthly On Maturity Monthly Quarterly Six Monthly On Maturity 5.17 6.25 12. 100m but less than Rs.00 8.23 7.92 10.00 6. 50m On daily actual deposits less than Rs.81 0.89 11.50 12.24 13. 100m On daily actual deposits less than Rs. 5m but less than Rs. 50m but less than Rs.000 FC SB US $ 50.13 12. DPA Daily Progressive Account On daily actual deposits less than Rs.00 8. 25m but less than Rs.00 12.82 12.10 0.000 & Above FC SB Less than EURO 1000 FC SB EURO 1000 & Above FC SB Less than UK £ 1000 FC SB UK £ 1000& Above . 25m On daily actual deposits of Rs.00 12.50 12.00 7. 1m but less than Rs.84 13.02 11.10 12.00 8.30 8. 1m On daily actual deposits of Rs.50 5.83 12.57 12. 50m but less than Rs.84 0.12 6.68 12. 100m On daily actual deposits of Rs.40 12. 500m but less than Rs.00 11.85 12. 500m On daily actual deposits less than Rs. 250m but less than Rs.84 5.15 0.50 10.50 15.25 11.10 1.00 0.76 8.20 0.47 11.00 11.C Saving Deposits FC SB Less than US $ 1000 FC SB US $ 1000 to Less than US $ 50.37 13.20 0.10 0.00 11.75 11.68 8.50 8.00 18.00 11.42 10. 50m On daily actual deposits of Rs.00 7.50 11.23 8. 5m On daily actual deposits of Rs.

Credit Application is prepared by Relationship Manager for approval of Credit Committee/Board Credit Committee according to exposure of the customer. Documentation. It is considered as back bone of bank. Finances/Credit: HBL provides loan facility for the following purposes:         Agricultural Loans Commercial Loans Dairy Farming Loans Poultry Farming Loans Crop Inputs Fish Farming Livestock Tractors/Agricultural Vehicles After marketing a customer. Credit Administration is done to ensure securities perfection and risk review of the exposure. Daily reconciliation of HBL accounts with SBP. main office entries and daily activity reports.Credit Applications . It involves various tasks like:        Account Opening Compliance of Anti Money Laundering (AML) Know Your Customer KYC Cheque Book Issuance Information Verification Management of all other departments etc.The interest is payable on quarterly basis and calculated on monthly minimum balance between first day and last day of the month. To coordinate with managers in key accounting tasks. Recording and checking of all manual vouchers. The interest will be credited to respective account at quarter end. Operations & Accounts: Operations Department is one of the most important departments in the banking institution.

    Insurance Securities and Facility Documentation Legal Counselling Issuance of . Processing.Credit Applications              Proposal Form Agriculture Pass Book Sanction Advice Top Sheet IB7 Stamp Paper Spot Verification CIB Report Crop Plan Khasra Gardawary Fard Jamabandi List of Legal hears of Grower/Borrower Undertaking regarding utilization of funds for Agri purpose only Management Information System:      To Seek Search Report Bank Checking CIB Report Market Checking/ Local credit Report Adjustment of Mark-Ups in timely manner .Disbursement Authorization Certificate Credit Operations From CAD after issuance of DAC. where customers account is opened and amount is credited (limit feed). The CA is forwarded to Credit Operation Head. All operations in customer account are routed through this department.

AGA KHAN Research Laboratories. It actual attracts existing HBL customers and . Nadra Kiosk etc. internal transfer. Telephone Gas) Cash Management (National Companies like BATA. Daily balancing of cash is compulsory task. bonds or other inter branch debit/credit vouchers is supervised.Remittances: Remittances Includes the following operations:       Inward Clearing Outward Clearing Within City & Inter city Funds Transfers Banker’s Cheques (Demand Drafts) Inter-Branch Transaction System – IBTS (Real Time Online . (a sister-concern company of HBL). Consumer Banking:     Debit/ATM Cards Credit Catds Auto Loans Personal Loans (Flexi Loans) Bancassurance: Bancassurance Department is launched as a joint venture of HBL and New Jublee Life Insurance Company Ltd. Bills & Cash Management:   Utility Bills (Electricity. ATMs. NTS. When a cheque received from a customer it is settled through. managed and arranged. ATCO. PSO.Both Inter/Intra city) Collection of cheques is another important function. Warid. Service. Shell. clearing through NIFT or through mail arrangements. IBL. Tahir Umer Industries. FAST) Daily demand (withdraw) and supply (deposit) of cash through bank counters.)    House Building Finance Corporation University Fees (Punjab University. transfer delivery.

in this way. Specially in the banking institution. With my efforts. I was trained about the techniques of how the deposit is collected and how the liabilities are recovered from the market. Information Systems play an important role for the successful running of some business or an customers as well to invest in Bancassurance and offers handsome profits with extra free of cost insurance benefits like death cover. Financing is difficult task as well as it involved many critical techniques.2Details of tasks Assigned In all Departments: Liabilities and Deposits During my training in the Liabilities department. I refer accounts of about 2 million to the Habib Bank. 11. giving knowledge to the customers about all the products of the Habib Bank. I was given only the knowledge about the documentation involved and requirements for availing an agricultural or commercial loan. I was trained about the account opening and all the operations involved in account opening like address and CNIC verification. I also opened the accounts myself of the customers whom I convinced during my training in liabilities and deposit departments. importance of information . monthly income benefits and marriage grant for nominated daughter having age less than 18 years. Whatever banks collect from deposit. banks work like an intermediaries or channel to distribute the funds from depositors to the lenders. So. Operations and Accounts In the Operations in accounts department. During my training. During my visits in the market. I visited the customers with Manager Credit who availed the loans from the Habib Bank. I convince about 20 customers from the market who promised me for opening their accounts in HBL. they lent it to the customers looking for funds. Management Information System In the present global era. Finances & Credit Finances or Credit facilities are the major sources of income for a banking institution.

system has increased because banks are now connected with each other with the help of latest technologies. Customer of one bank can access to his account from any place any time. Management Information System of the Habib Bank is placed at the Head Office of the Habib Bank in Karachi. Working of all the branches is controlled from there. I was given opportunity to operate sub-systems placed in the branches and I was given knowledge about the working of the system. I was assigned task for the receiving of all the mails coming fom head office whole duration of my internship there. After my training, I fulfill my task successfully and received the mails from head office and distributed to concern person after taking prints. Remittances A remittance is another important source of income for the banking institution. Working in the remittance department is quite responsible because little mistake can create big problem especially when working is perform on the real time system. I enjoyed much during my training in this department because remittance is considered to be matured and attention demanding task. During my training in this department, I learned about Inward and outward clearing, funds transfers, demand drafts, pay orders etc. After my training I helped the branch much by making many demand drafts and by helping people came for funds transfer.

Bills and Cash Management Companies operating nationwide, operating their funds through banks are placed in cash management. Accounts of such companies are opened as general account at bank’s head office as a general account. In this way, funds can be deposited in any branch nationwide through their general account. Bank credits company’s account directly. During my training in the bills and cash management department, I was trained about the feeding of all such cash management accounts in the system of HBL. After my training, I successfully completed my task and input the data in the system many times with out any mistake. Similarly, I input all the utility bills in the system

Consumer Banking During my training in the consumer department, I was trained about the debit cards, auto loans, and personal loans. I was assigned the task to convince the customers about the Debit/ATM card, fill the application of debit card and complete all its processing before sending that application to the head office. I was also responsible to train the customer about the operation of Debit/ATM card in the ATM machine. I completed my assigned task successfully. With my efforts, many customers applied for the debit card. Due to my cooperation with the customers, Branch Manager appreciated my efforts in front of whole staff. Bancassurance HBL launched this product first time during my internship. But no staff person was posted in the branch yet. In this situation, I get information from some other branch about this product and started its operation with the manager’s approval. With my efforts, HBL gained many new account holders. In appreciation of my efforts, Manager promised me for the job in HBL in case if no staff person posted there.

12-Structure of Finance Department
12.1Departmental Hierarchy:

12.2No. of Employees working in Finance department: There are 2 employees working in ofline (batch) branches whereas 3 employees working in online (misys) branches. 12.3Finance & Accounting Operations:  Accepting of deposits of money on current account, saving, term deposit and other profit and loss sharing accounts.    Borrowing money and arranging finance from other banks. Advancing and lending money to its clients. Financing of projects including technical assistance, project appraisal through long term/short term loans.    Financing of seasonal crops like cotton, wheat, rice, Receiving of bonds, scripts, valuable etc. for safe custody. Carrying on agency business of any description other than managing agent on behalf of clients, including government and local authorities.     Generating, undertaking, promoting etc. of issue of shares, bonds. Transacting guarantees and indemnity business. Undertaking and executing trusts. Making investments in other banking companies.

It is very important component of corporate finance. acquiring the customer (loanees) by business manager for business growth. Record keeping of each loan applicant (companies) in electronic system of bank.       13-Functions of the Finance Department 13. In cash finance. Much of the approval of loan depends on it. Fulfilling the documenting formalities of each consumer finance product for customers by respective heads of consumer products.1- . Risk management by critically analyzing of each loan applicant. In Consumer Finance. Complete and comprehensive analysis of loan applicant of each consumer finance product by their respective heads of consumer product. Record keeping of each loan applicant of every consumer product. Each file contains hundreds and sometimes thousands of pages. Fulfilling the documenting formalities of large corporate loan.  Participating World Bank and Asian Development bank's lines of credit.

DEBIT VOUCHERS ARE USED IN TWO CASES: 1. Transaction Code Amount and other details (Narration) .e. 2. At the end of the day. which takes place during the business hours. The account of the customer is debited with the amount and debit voucher is prepared. One debit and credit voucher is prepared. VOUCHER SYSTEM: Voucher is a written authorization used in approving a transaction for recording and payment. Voucher is system. which are authorized by the head office. Account No. Whenever any expense is incurred. When a depositor withdraws some amount from his account. Whenever a transaction takes place in any department of the bank. So I am going to discuss these functions in three steps:    General Ledger Voucher System Types of voucher used GENERAL LEDGER: It is the prime record of the branch reflecting its assets and liabilities and serves as the master control accounting system of the branch. It consists of only those accounts. these vouchers are collected i.Accounting System: There are many other important functions performed by accounts department of HBL. The format of the debit voucher includes:       Name of branch Data Branch No. which is generally designed to provide strong internal control over the transaction.

Preparation daily activity report at the end of each day.CREDIT VOUCHER: There are two types of transaction in which credit vouchers are used. All expenses vouchers are routed ask through Accounts Department. .Different types credit voucher are used. Now in second set these three important functions of Account department of HBL are described briefly. Preparation of various statements. 2. d) Sort vouchers into general ledger a/c order debit separately from debit for each account. 1. These expenses include: a) Salaries given to all employees of the bank b) Wages c) Rent d) Lease installments e) Insurance – vehicle f) Insurance-cash g) Utility Bills h) Medical allowances (reimbursed) i) Cash carrying charges etc ACCOUNTING PROCEDURE IN HBL: a) Various departments use debit and credit voucher for recording the transaction. b) Accounting department receives the departmental journal from the departments together with all the vouchers.g. bank draft . 3. When a depositor deposits any amount in his account because the liability of bank. EXPENSE VOUCHER: All the expense voucher passed by each department are routed through accounts department. 1. 2. Any income received by the bank e. c) Variety correction of total of all into departmental entries in departmental journals.

. head takes the final decision.e) From departmental journals add all debits and all credits for each general ledger accounts and write total for each account in relative accounts and extended new balances. Business growth is achieved by it because depositors invest the money into the bank which bank uses for making the loan and then earn the interest on the loan amount.” But if the regional officer does not have the authority of sanctioning the loan then matter goes to head officer. Business Section b.2Finance System of Organization: There two basic heads in finance department a. This head deals with sophisticated analysis of loan applicant. It ensures the minimum probability of risk for making the loan the customers. Write total obtained from machines list for each contingent accident in general ledger and up data balances. There are lots of subordinates which help in risk management. It is task of lower level managers. f) Prove debit and credit totals to department journal total. 13. This manager acquires customer who invest the money into the bank and customers who take loan from bank. g) Date and sign general ledger includes leaf binder in chronological order. This situation occurs when loan amount significantly large and there is lots of risk involved in making the loan. It is the task of higher level managers. Risk Management Section Business Section: Business head includes manager of the bank which is responsible for business growth. Risk Management Section: It is responsible for managing the risk. Finance system does not end at these two heads rather the final decision of sanctioning out or not sanctioning out is in the hands of “Regional Office. At that time. There are significant amount of interest in case of corporate loan.

13. This thing will help them in controlling their financial costs. Etc. He plays the role of budget and budgetary control. He also visits the corporate clients periodically to further negotiate business terms with them. Financial manager has the authority of issuing of bonds. Financial manager role is to make sure that sufficient funds are available for the branch at the best rates. like sales of securities. ICIL (International Credit Information Limited) report. cash management and credit management ets. Financial manager plays the role to access the bank books and take decisions with respect to banks funds and finances. and he can take decision to increase sources.3Role of Financial Manager The role of financial manager in establishing and maintaining relationship with other financial institutions and customers in terms of accounts.13. 13. In short he has to ensure that maximum profit is being paid on their deposits and least period funds are available to the bank in case of need. At HBL the Branch Manager plays all the said roles. In HBL every branch manager plays the role of financial manager. HBL need to keep up with these changes if they are to stay competitive with this in mind they accelerated their plans to update their technology. and he is also tried to increase funds. sub ordinated loans. .5INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY The way people do their banking is changing.4Use of Electronic Data in Decision Making: NBP uses lots of electronic data in making the decisions specially finance related decisions like NADRA verification Report. Finalacial manager takes decision on the basis of Financial Ratios that what step next. He has to develop the relationship with various corpoprate clients in order to ensure that they should give maximum deposits at cheaper rates. Financial manager is the person to arrange funds in time. short terms borrowing. He has to ensure that bank’s debt to equity remains the required SBP parameters.

This will help them make processing compliance.s HBL fully recognize the need for an efficient IT. Implementation of the state-of-the art technology banking software MISYS is well underway throughout the branch network. • 24 HOURS ACCESS: Customers can access their accounts at any time throughout the day or night. Their products HBL e-Bank which incorporates safe. With the completion of its deployment. audit and financial reporting much faster and easier. however remote their location maybe. • FRIENDLY: System is self-explanatory and extensive on-screen help is available besides formal documentation and training is also provided by the bank at the time of instillation. It will also mean HBL will actively pursue exciting products like internet banking. sound PC and Internet Banking facilities and real time online branch links. transactions or balances. • SECURITY: Customer decides who has access to his account through carefully controlled set of passwords. overrides the time zones and geographical distance for our clients who have 24/7 access to their accounts.Consolidating their customer database will enable different departments to share information more freely. • ECONOMICAL: All it takes to dial-up to the bank. No more going to bank for checking your account. . Cutting-edge technology enables HBL to provide a full array of services to their corporate clients. • CONFIDENTIALITY: Data transmission to and from the customers to the bank is encrypted which ensures full data integrity giving the customer complete peace of mind. hblEbank services hblEbank will provide the following facilities to the customers of offline MOBS and batch branches: • CONVENIENCE access to their CA/SB accounts both in rupees and FCY from their desktop in office or home which will save them both time and money required for travelling and waiting at branches. debit cards and interbank transfers via ATM. all 1437 branches will be able to offer a wider range of modern banking facilities. system and believe in deploying capital and human resources to achieve the highest standards.

com. i-e https:/www. For internal banking clients provide passwords and user guide 13.hblebank. . EBU'S RESPONSIBILITIES: These mainly are: Registering customers identified by branches on hblEbank. Unlocking of customers.g.Habib Bank Plaza. MOBS and BATCH braches as corporate clients generally don’t maintain accounts with or by clicking on an icon the bank's main website i-e www. Here they will be able to access the bank database internet service provider (ISP) by dialing into the bank's website.TWO VERSIONS OF hblEbank: • PC Ebank • Internet Ebank • PC Ebank: This service is mainly for large corporate and commercial customers where they will be able to dial directly into the bank data base using specific telephone numbers. Allocate password to clients. When customers deposit their money into the bank. Bank use this money for various purposes e.habibbankltd. However. Through their PC modem it will provide quicker access and although the services being offered at present will be similar to the internet version. It has been decided that option will not be made available to customers of offline. salaries and lots of other expenses to run the business effectively and for making profit. Head Office Karachi to manage the services that will provided under hblEbank.6Mobilization of Funds: In banking. funds are always moving from savers to borrowers. INTERNET Ebank: This will be all customer both companies and individuals. for making loan. Install software for the clients and PC customers. ELECTRONIC BALANCING UNIT (EBU): EBU has been set up on the 6th floor. investments. Providing training to PC module clients and give user guide. Going forward more services can be added. this is very simple explanation of mobilization funds. SERVICES: Balance/statements for up to 180days starting from the date of sign up for hblEbank for all rupee /FCY current and saving accounts.

Thirdly. interest on deposit is moved from bank to depositors. There are lots of fee and charges that banks earn.9 Allocation of Funds:   Making loans. However. advances and salaries. Banks use deposits to make loans and then earn interest on that loan. agriculture loans. processing charges) 13. 13. funds are also move from the bank in the form of investments in securities. ATM charges. house building loans. and income from other sources. On the other hand. Secondly. working capital loans. DD charges. (E.First funds move to the HBL in form of deposits then it uses these funds for making different categories of loan like consumer loans. funds are move to the bank in the form of different types of fee or bank charges. bank also pay interest to savers (depositors) but the rate of interest is smaller than that of interest on loans and this makes profit for the bank. interest on loan move to the bank of the borrowers.g.8Sources of Funds:        Deposits (Debt) Government (Equity) Private Sector (Equity) Different Fees Interest earned Sub-Ordinate loans Income from Other Sources. corporate loans.7Generation of Funds: Banks generate funds by earning interest on loans and by making short-term as well as long-term investments. 13. Moreover. Banks do not only make profit or generate fund only through interest rather they make investment and then earn return on investment. Advances .

   Investments Salaries Interest paid 14-Critical Analysis .

horizontal analysis and vertical analysis of the financial statements of the bank for last five years. 14. Comparative Analysis of Domestic Banking Industry of Pakistan There were 17 listed banks in Pakistan 2004. Four banks are still not listed. National Bank of Pakistan is providing every possible facility to nation’s socio-economic development. regularize the inflows of foreign money and control the undesirable blackmailing of private foreign exchange companies in the country. both in terms of deposits and advances. All the foreign banks of the country are busy to invest heavily in the field technology and ecommerce in order to overcome branch limitation. including collection of taxes and deliveries of salaries. It has lowest rates on exports and other borrowings. which has been awarded “The Best Domestic Bank” consecutively in 2001. National Bank of Pakistan was established under the National Bank of Pakistan Ordinance 1949 in Pakistan. and 2002 by the renowned journal “The Banker UK”. United Bank. It is the only domestic bank of the country. It is the largest contributory agent of Government and Semi-Government requirements. It is the largest commercial bank in the country and an agent of GOP.1Financial Analysis: In the domestic banking industry of Pakistan National Bank of Pakistan possesses a unique position. Dawood Bank. which clearly show the actual picture of the bank operations about his financial strength. Deutsche Bank and ABN AMRO Bank are main foreign banks in the country. NBP provides a wide range of services. All the foreign banks have been busy to . It also undertakes Government Treasury operations. It is also the only domestic bank of the country which had has been compared and included by prestigious Journal “The Asia Week” with other banks in the region. It acts as an agent of the Central Bank wherever the State Bank does not have its own branch. which are Habib Bank.Under the above said heading I critically analyzer the financial strengths and weakness of HBL by using different financial analysis tools like: ratios analysis. pensions to public sector employees. The National Bank of Pakistan is also the first bank which has started a “Foreign Exchange Company” in order to facilitate the general masses. Standard Chartered Bank. Allied Bank of Pakistan. NBP occupies a unique position in the financial sector of Pakistan. Citibank. These four banks continue to enjoy a significant share in the market.

and 4 specialized banks. Scheduled Banks and their branches in Pakistan . 15 private sector banks. The commercial banks comprise of 3 nationalized banks.introduce new products and idea to grab larger proportion of the local markets. consumer finances and housing finance. and 2 MFBs operating in Pakistan whose activities are regulated and supervised by State Bank of Pakistan. 3 privatized banks. 14 foreign banks. 2 provincial scheduled banks. Foreign banks are carrying major proportion of local business in credit cards. 6 DFIs. At present there are 41 scheduled banks.

ordinated loans Liabilities against assets subject to financial lease Other liabilities Deferred tax liabilities net 2005 5776325 34904352 432545165 15180213 - 2006 5737457 56392270 459140198 15578177 - 2007 15418230 58994609 531298127 3100000 19943126 - 2008 9944257 46844990 597090545 3954925 24913236 - 2009 10041542 52542978 682750079 4212080 29862144 - .14.2 HABIB BANK LIMITED CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEET ASSETS Cash & balance with Treasury Bank Balance with other banks Lending to financial institution Investments Advances Other assets Operating fixed assets Deferred tax asset 2005 33051049 31813513 12272248 107384470 316881635 14481818 11166195 1842977 528893905 2006 46310478 35965048 6550128 119587476 349432685 17765291 11954876 2725486 590291468 2007 55487664 27020704 1628130 177942251 382172734 27346111 13780555 6613372 691991521 2008 56533134 39307321 6193787 138145692 456355507 35419252 14751252 11222444 757928389 2009 79839836 40366687 5352873 216467532 454662499 41116582 16766668 9205944 863778621 LIABILITIES Bills payable Borrowings from financial institutions Deposits of other accounts Sub.

3 HABIB BANK LIMITED CONSOLIDATED PROFIT AND LOSS ACCOUNT Mark-up / return / interest earned Mark-up / return / interest expensed Net mark-up / interest income Provision against non-performing loans and advances – net (Reversal) / provision against off-balance sheet obligations Reversal of provision against diminution in value of investments Bad debts written off directly Net mark-up / interest income after provisions 21994655 Non mark-up / interest income Fee. commission and brokerage income Income / gain on investments Income from dealing in foreign currencies Other income Total non-mark-up / interest income Non mark-up / interest expense Administrative expenses Other provisions / write offs – net Other charges Workers welfare fund Total non mark-up / interest expenses Staff retrenchment cost Profit before taxation 14095063 249033 68483 14412579 15436376 1602401 13833975 15425461 122510 54898 15602869 20564258 1723771 18840487 18297279 276111 85152 18106320 15144617 21348016 200163 64751 323575 323575 2193505 22034379 22745955 210190 3540 399166 23358851 21381636 2938000 1726336 1402521 1787443 7854300 29848955 3931710 1219623 1102358 2235805 8489496 36167127 3420051 2472663 1487374 2643076 10023164 33250937 4518408 2369233 2374318 311522 16378811 43970884 5316479 598018 19133115 3333000 11159612 44740487 27677631 23227773 27592073 33580875 2005 32343206 7327306 25015603 2974665 128851 82568 3020948 2006 43685740 13204037 30481703 2863207 45438 13697 2804072 2007 50481021 19153957 31327064 8238227 54626 84310 8099291 2008 63305033 26525556 36779477 6904919 372598 1909887 9187404 2009 76076347 33405813 42670534 8794560 51396 346495 9089659 Taxation .488406055 536848102 53443366 628754092 63237429 682747953 75180436 779408823 84369798 NET ASSETS Shareholders’ Equity Share capital Capital reserves Unappropriated profit Total equity attributed to the equityholders Minority interest Surplus on revaluation of of tax 40487850 2005 6900000 2051371 23079826 32031197 846801 7609852 40487850 2006 6900000 17802584 20475080 45177664 913317 7352385 53443366 2007 6900000 19821455 28341670 55063125 965642 7208662 63237429 2008 7590000 24243254 39447648 71280902 890099 3009435 75180436 2009 9108000 27527380 38498335 75133715 1143241 8092842 84369798 14.

and evaluating the performance of managers. but I will use one of the most valuable tool that is “financial ratios“.86 12630259 70056 12700315 18.e. profitability and operational efficiency of the undertaking. For internal purposes: ratios can be useful in planning for the future.47 13389452 90230 13479682 14.49 15525011 7900 15614020 20.. External analysts use ratios to decide whether to grant credit. Basic and diluted earnings per share Processing and Analysis: We can use several tools to evaluate a company. Financial ratios can be used to analyze trends and to compare the firm's financials to those of other firms. 14. and to decide whether to invest in the company.deferred Profit after taxation Attributable to: Equity holders of the Bank Minority interest 4076848 39397 149975 4187426 9646549 7144846 39067 965607 6140172 12700315 7220717 1668562 3828699 5060580 10084037 8661150 233100 2471891 6420359 15614020 8095642 1095355 980600 7980887 13400749 9563303 83246 9563303 13. With the help of ratio analysis conclusion can be drawn regarding several aspects such as financial health. Ratios are useful both to internal and external analysts of the firm. to . It is defined as the systematic use of ratio to interpret the financial statements so that the strength and weaknesses of a firm as well as its historical performance and current financial condition can be determined. to monitor financial performance. they allow us get a better view of the firm’s financial health than just looking at the raw financial statements. Ratio analysis is a widely used tool of financial analysis. Financial ratios are usually expressed as a percent or as times per period. setting goals.4 RATIO ANALYSIS: Financial ratios are useful indicators of a firm's performance and financial situation. Ratios are an analyst’s microscope. The term ratio refers to the numerical or quantitative relationship between two variables.30 1000023 83806 10084037 14. whether the management has utilized the firm’s assets correctly. Ratio analysis is the calculation and comparison of ratios which are derived from the information in a company's financial statements. Ratio points out the operating efficiency of the firm i. I will use Microsoft Word and Microsoft Excel work sheets to compute the different ratios and analysis.current .prior years . to forecast financial performance.

Liquidity Ratios 3. These ratios. Special Bank Ratio Profitability Ratios Profitability is the net result of a number of policies and decisions. the possible reasons of variations may be identified and if results are negative. It is these ratios that can give insight into the all important "profit". . An inter firm comparison indicates relative position. Leverage Ratios 4.increase the investor’s wealth. If comparison shows a variance. It provides the relevant data for the comparison of the performance of different departments. Yet another dimension of usefulness or ratio analysis. asset management and debt on operating results. the action may be initiated immediately to bring them in line. These ratios examine the profit made by the firm and compare these figures with the size of the firm. Profitability ratios show the combined effects of liquidity. Profitability Ratios 2. The long-term profitability of a company is vital for both the survivability of the company as well as the benefit received by shareholders. much like the operational performance ratios. There are four important profitability ratios that I am going to analyze: Net Profit Margin: Net Profit margin = Net Profit / Sales x 100 Net Profit Margin gives us the net profit that the business is earning per dollar of sales. the assets employed by the firm or its level of sales. give users a good understanding of how well the company utilized its resources in generating profit and shareholder value. 1. Ratio analysis helps in inter-firm comparison by providing necessary data. It ensures a fair return to its owners and secures optimum utilization of firm’s assets. Activity Ratios 5. This section of the discusses the different measures of corporate profitability and financial performance. relevant from the View point of management is that it throws light on the degree efficiency in the various activity ratios measures this kind of operational efficiency.

This ratio indicates how profitable a company is by comparing its net income to its average shareholders' equity. Year Net Profit Sales Net Profit Margin 2005 9646549 32343206 2006 12700315 43685740 29.12% 2007 15144617 50481021 30. An increase in the ratios indicates that a firm is producing higher net profit of sales than before.61% Profit Before Tax Ratio (PBTR) Profit before tax x 100 Gross Markup Income Year Profit before Tax Gross Markup PBTR 2005 13833975 32343206 2006 18840487 43685740 43.This margin indicates the profit after all the costs have been incurred it shows that what % of turnover is represented by the net profit.82 17. .97% 2008 15614020 63305033 24.07% 2007 10084037 50481021 19.77% Return on Equity (ROE): Return on Total Equity = Profit after taxation x 100 Total Equity Return on Equity measures the amount of Net Income earned by utilizing each dollar of Total common equity. By this.10% 42.80% 2009 21381636 76076347 28.00% 2008 22034379 63305033 34. It is the most important of the “Bottom line” ratio. we can find out how much the shareholders are going to get for their shares. The higher the ratio percentage. The return on equity ratio (ROE) measures how much the shareholders earned for their investment in the company. the more efficient management is in utilizing its equity base and the better return is to investors.66% 2009 13400749 76076347 29.

17% 2008 15614020 14751252 105.83% Return on Total Assets Ratio Net profit after tax x 100 Total Assets Year Net profit Total Assets ROA 2005 9646549 2006 12700315 590291468 2.Year Net income Total Equity ROE 2005 9646549 32343206 2006 12700315 45177664 28.15% 2007 10084037 691991521 1.06% 2009 13400749 863778621 1.23% 2007 10084037 13780555 73.11% 2007 10084037 55063125 18.82% 17.92% 11166195 86.31% 2008 15614020 71280902 21.82% Return on Fixed Assets Ratio Net profit after tax x 100 Fixed Assets Year Net profit Fixed Assets ROFA 2005 9646549 2006 12700315 11954876 106.84% 2009 13400749 16766668 79.9% 2009 13400749 75133715 29.45% 2008 15614020 757928389 2.39% Operating Expense Ratio Non-Markup Exp x 100 Gross Income Gross income = Net interest income + Non-markup income .55% 528893905 1.

Year Current Assets Current Liabilities Current ratio Working Capital: Working Capital = Current Assets – Current Liabilities A measure of both a company's efficiency and its short-term financial health. accounts receivables.26% 2009 23358851 53830146 43. and other accrued expenses. 2005 515884733 452811703 1. Current assets normally include cash. marketable securities.Year Non Markup Exp Gross Income OEP 2005 14412579 2006 15602869 2007 18106320 41350228 43. or the "working capital ratio". Current assets are important to businesses because they are the assets that are used to fund day-to-day operations and pay ongoing expenses.152 .78% 2008 21936505 53158288 41. Positive working capital means that the company is able to pay off its short-term liabilities. current maturities of long-term debt. Negative working capital means that a company currently is unable to meet its short-term liabilities with its current assets (cash. and inventories. short-term notes payable.07% 38971199 40.20 2007 671597594 566659483 1.16 2009 837806009 726865845 1. Current liabilities consist of accounts payable. These include: Current Ratio: Current Ratio = Current Assets / Current Liabilities This ratio indicates the extent to which current liabilities are covered by those assets expected to be converted to cash in the near future. accounts receivable and inventory).139 2006 575611106 480455832 1. accrued taxes.03% Liquidity Ratios Liquidity ratios measure a firm’s ability to meet its current obligations. Also known as "net working capital".39% 32869903 37.19 2008 731954693 631948038 1.

the higher the ratio. It is also called Times Interest Earned.5 times 2006 43685740 95155274 0.68 times Interest Coverage Ratio: Coverage Ratios are designed to relate the financial charges of a firm to its ability to serve. the greater the likelihood that the company could cover its interest payments without difficulty . them. It indicates a firm’s ability to cover interest charges. This ratio serves as one measure of the firm’s ability to meet its interest payments and thus avoid bankruptcy. Interest Coverage Ratio: Earning before interest and tax Interest Charges Earning before interest and taxes divided by Interest Charges.6 times 2009 76076347 110940164 0. This ratio is simply the ratio of earnings before interest and taxes for a particular reporting period to the amount of interest charges for the period.5 times 2007 43685740 104938111 0. times interest earned. or cover. In general. Year Sales Working Capital Sales to Working Capital 2005 32343206 63073030 0.5 times 2008 63305033 100006655 0. One of the most traditional of the coverage ratios is the Interest Coverage Ratio.Year Current Assets Current Liabilities Working Capital 2005 515884733 452811703 63073030 2006 575611106 480455832 95155274 2007 671597594 566659483 104938111 2008 731954693 631948038 100006655 2009 837806009 726865845 110940164 It is very clear from the above calculations that the working capital of the bank is gradually increasing over the years. which shows good short term liquidity efficiency Sales to Working Capital: Sales to Working Capital = Sales / Working Capital Sales to working capital give an indication of the turnover in working capital per year. A low working capital indicates an unprofitable use of working capital.

42 2007 15144617 19153957 0.79 2008 22034379 26525556 0. The proportion of a firm's total assets that are being financed with borrowed funds.12 2009 120206523 863778621 0.64 Liquid Asset To Total Asset Ratio: Liquid Assets Total Assets Year Liquid Assets Total Assets LATAR 2005 64864562 528893905 0. charts and explanations of each ratio Debt Ratio: Debt Ratio = Total Debt / Total Assets The ratio of total debt to total assets. The financial leverage ratio is included in the financial statement ratio analysis spreadsheets highlighted in the left column. the more leverage the company is using and the more risk it is assuming.Year EBIT Interest / Markup Expense Interest coverage RSR 2005 13833975 7327603 1.13 2007 82508368 691991521 0. definitions. measures the percentage of funds provided by the creditors. generally called the debt ratio.12 2006 82275526 590291468 0.83 2009 21381636 33405813 0. calculation. which provide formulas.11 2008 95840455 757928389 0.88 2006 18840487 13204037 1. . with no more than one-third of debt in long term. Assets and liabilities are found on a company's balance sheet. The debt ratio is calculated by dividing total long-term and short-term liabilities by total assets. A high financial leverage ratio indicates possible difficulty in paying interest and principal while obtaining more funding.13 Financial Leverage Ratio The financial leverage ratio indicates the extent to which the business relies on debt financing. The higher the ratio. Upper acceptable limit of the financial leverage ratio is usually 2:1.

92 2006 536848102 590291468 0.90 2006 536848102 45177664 11.91 2008 682747953 757928.90 Calculating the debt ratio. debt to equity calculations often only includes longterm debt rather than a company's total liabilities.42 2008 682747953 71280902 9.37 We can see from the above calculations that this ratios continuously decreasing in the last three years.Year Total debt Total Assets Debt Ratio 2005 487716055 528893905 0.91 2007 628754092 691991521 0. we came to see that this company is highly leveraged one Calculating the debt ratio. or its ability to cover its expenses.88 2007 628754092 55063125 11. A high debt to equity ratio implies that the company has been aggressively financing its activities through debt and therefore must pay interest on this financing. Activity Ratios .58 2009 779408823 75133715 10. It is a common measure of the long-term viability of a company's business and. a measure of its liquidity. As a result. along with current ratio. Year Total debt Total Equity Debt To Equity Ratio 2005 487716055 32721197 14. As you can see through the formula below. we came to see that this company is highly leveraged one. the lower the number. the less leverage that a company is using. Debt to Equity Ratio: Debt to Equity Ratio = Total debt / Total Equity The debt to equity ratio is the most popular leverage ratio and it provides detail around the amount of leverage (liabilities assumed) that a company has in relation to the monies provided by shareholders. The debt to equity ratio gives the proportion of a company (or person's) assets that are financed by debt versus equity.89 0.9 2009 779408823 863778621 0.

06 2006 43685740 590291468 0.08 Fixed Asset To Total Asset ratio: Financial ratio of markup/interest earned to fixed assets.specifically property.the higher the number the better. Activity ratios are concerned with how efficiency the assets of the firm are managed. receivables. It also indicates pricing strategy: companies with low profit margins tend to have high asset turnover. These ratios express relationship between level of sales and the investment in various assets inventories. Asset turnover measures a firm's efficiency at using its assets in generating sales or revenue .net of depreciation.Activity ratio are sometimes are called efficiency ratios. Turnover 2005 32343206 528893905 0. Fixed Asset To Total Asset ratio: Interest/markup . fixed assets etc. while those with high profit margins have low asset turnover.07 2008 63305033 757928389 0. It is calculated by dividing sales in dollars by assets in dollars. Year Total Sales Total Assets Total Asset .08 2009 76076347 863778621 0. plant and equipment (PP&E) . The fixed-asset turnover ratio measures a company's ability to generate interest from fixed-asset investments .07 2007 50481021 691991521 0. A higher fixed-asset turnover ratio shows that the company has been more effective in using the investment in fixed assets to generate revenues. Total Asset Turnover: Total Asset Turnover = Total Sales / Total Assets The amount of sales generated for every dollar's worth of assets.

19% 2007 382172734 691991521 55.89 2006 43685740 11954876 3.65 2007 50481021 13780555 3. Fixed Assets x 100 Total Assets .91% 2006 349432685 590291468 59.21% 2009 454662499 863778621 52.63% Fixed Assets To Total Asset ratio: A measure of the extent to which fixed assets are financed with owners equity (capital) (Fixed Assets / Total Assets).Fixed Assets Year Interest Fixed Assets 2005 32343206 11166195 2. indicates an inefficient use of working capital which reduces the enterprise's ability to carry accounts receivable and maintain inventory and usually means a low cash reserve. . A high ratio.66 2008 63305033 14751252 4.22% 2008 456355507 757928389 60.53 FATR Special Bank Ratio Fixed Advances To Total Asset ratio: Total advances x 100 Total Assets Year Advance Total Assets TATAR 2005 316881635 528893905 59.5 or higher. This will often limit your ability to respond to increased demand for your products or services.29 2009 76076347 16766668 4.

the term "trend analysis" has more formally-defined meanings. Although trend analysis is often used to predict future events. however. The horizontal analysis compares specific items over a number of accounting periods. Several methods of performing financial statement analysis exist.Year Fixed Assets Total Assets FATAR 2005 11166195 528893905 2. it could be used to estimate uncertain events in the past. These users must analyze the information in order to make business decisions. For example. 14.99% 2008 14751252 757928389 1. The analyst will use his or her discretion when choosing a particular timeline. I will discuss two of these methods: horizontal analysis and vertical analysis. Common Size Analysis (Horizontal and Vertical): The term "trend analysis" refers to the concept of collecting information and attempting to spot a pattern. including investors. accounts payable may be compared over a period of months within a fiscal year.5 a) Horizontal Analysis Methods of financial statement analysis generally involve comparing certain information. or trend.02% 2007 13780555 691991521 1. Financial statement information is used by both external and internal users. or revenue may be compared over a period of several years. In some fields of study.94% 2009 16766668 863778621 1. in the information. so understanding financial statements is of great importance.11% 2006 11954876 590291468 2. It is a procedure in fundamental analysis in which an analyst compares ratios or line items in a company's financial statements over a certain period of time. the decision is often based on the investing time horizon under consideration. managers. and executives. creditors.94% 2. .

9 115.66 82.56 11.8 109.8 75.4 2009 141.8 111.86 148.36 110. 2006.42 156.13 24.29 94.06 147.1 113.69 86.67 107.69 99.96 .6 199.08 113.27 122.04 53.37 123.62 116.HORIZONTAL ANALYSIS HABIB BANK BALANCE SHEET AS ON DEC 31 2005. 2009 HORIZONTAL ANALYSIS ASSETS Cash & balance with Treasury Bank Balance with other banks Lending to financial institution Investments Advances Other assets Operating fixed assets Deferred tax asset TOTAL ASSETS 2005 33051049 31813513 12272248 107384470 316881635 14481818 11166195 1842977 528893905 2006 46310478 35965048 6550128 119587476 349432685 17765291 11954876 2725486 590291468 2007 55487664 27020704 1628130 177942251 382172734 27346111 13780555 6613372 691991521 2008 56533134 39307321 6193787 138145692 456355507 35419252 14751252 11222444 757928389 2009 79839836 40366687 5352873 21646753 2 45466249 9 41116582 16766668 9205944 86377862 1 2005 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 2006 140.6 2007 119.03 113.6 117.552 130.3 242. 2008.07 109.76 128.2 2008 122.4 153.22 102.37 111.39 411. 2007.

95 0 107.957 31.50 - 2007 268.16 114.6 144.LIABILITIES Bills payable Borrowings from financial institutions Deposits of other accounts Sub.87 206.74 0 13.17 19.8 200.204.91 2005 Mark-up / return / interest earned Mark-up / return / interest expensed Net mark-up / 3234320 6 7327306 2006 43.481.07 130.1 118.931 140.59 105.66 125.22 128 117.327.89 120.05 0 159.15 112.34 106.153.holders’ Equity 2005 Share capital Capital reserves Unappropriated profit Total equity attributed to the equityholders Minority interest Surplus on revaluation of assets.305.78 NET ASSETS S.064 26.7 98.458 40.78 97.92 127.50 119.18 140.56 126.86 114.67 2009 120 113.03 7 30.22 HORIZONTAL ANALYSIS HABIB BANK CONSOLIDATED PROFIT & LOSS ACCOUNT AS ON DEC 31 2005.3 2008 110 136.ordinated loans Liabilities against assets subject to financial lease Other liabilities Deferred tax liabilities net TOTAL LIBILITIES 2005 5776325 34904352 43254516 5 15180213 48840605 5 40487850 2006 5737457 56392270 45914019 8 15578177 53684810 2 53443366 2007 15418230 58994609 53129812 7 3100000 19943126 62875409 2 63237429 2008 9944257 46844990 59709054 5 3954925 24913236 68274795 3 75180436 2009 10041542 52542978 68275007 9 4212080 29862144 77940882 3 84369798 2005 100 100 100 0 100 2006 99.32 161.32 83.033 2009 76076347 2009 120.3 100 100 110.477 33405813 100 100 180.70 2007 50.05 118.43 268.06 115.07 129. 2008.556 36.85 96.7 104.40 128.525.19 145.87 138.3 128 121.481.97 112.6 115.93 .54 97.1 102.67 2009 100.7 0 2008 173.9 105.685.18 159. 2006 & 2007.61 129.021 2008 63.779.06 107. 2009 HORIZONTAL ANALYSIS 2005 2006 2007 2008 100 135.92 of tax TOTAL EQUITY 6900000 2051371 23079826 32031197 846801 7609852 40487850 2006 6900000 1780258 4 2047508 0 4517766 4 913317 7352385 5344336 6 2007 6900000 1982145 5 2834167 0 5506312 5 965642 7208662 6323742 9 200 7590000 2424325 4 3944764 8 7128090 2 890099 3009435 7518043 6 2009 9108000 2752738 0 3849833 5 7513371 5 1143241 8092842 8436979 8 2005 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 2006 100 111.91 112.78 2007 100 111.

33 1.773 27.374 2.16 118.92 110.369.79 82568 (13.83 23.159.25 287.92 99.472.116.099.919 8794560 100 96.14 ------------------------------------ 3020948 Net mark-up / interest income after provisions Fee.000.598 (51396) 100 35.623 2.64 78.7 241.378.238. commission and brokerage income Income / gain on investments Income from dealing in foreign currencies Gain on investments in associate Other income 1787443 Total non-markup / interest income 2984895 5 Non mark-up / interest expense 7854300 1402521 1726336 2199465 5 2938000 2.13 8.804.310) 1.207 8.909.227.58 .12 7 33.233 597018 100 70.677.164 16.496 10.1 192.5 -13944 18.36 128851 (45.235.863.7 194.612 100 125.93 101.805 2.318 1913115 100 134.710 3.58 615.19 80.970.487.374.072 27.70 3.39 0 ------- 4.358 1.076 3.937 43.63 1 8.330 0 0 0 0 2.051 4.626) 372.487 100 91.227 6.82 86.59 202.187.691 121.073 100 83.663 2.01 2.420.9 215.592.2 -820.904.167.2 Charge / (reversal) against off-balance sheet obligations Charge / (reversal) of provision against diminution in the value of investments Bad debts written off directly 2501560 3 2974665 3 42670534 121.08 118.887 346495 100 16.16 127.interest income Provision against non-performing loans and advances .522 3.697) (84.85 116.404 9089659 33580875 125.94 68.489.023.884 44.000 11.39 106.01 13.99 114.931.219.08 108.518.94 121.408 5316479 100 133.57 1.643.740.250.26 25.438) (54.75 36.102.26 120.811 100 121.291 9.

806 79.16 -4271 -596.617 Other charges 68483 Workers welfare fund Total non markup / interest expenses Profit before taxation Taxation 1441257 9 1383397 5 249033 1409506 3 15.452 100 132.887 100 131.19 225.540 100 80.700.056 83.505 23.851 100 108.936.144.20 .63 (39.111 200.661.602.020 13400749 100 132.095.Deferred 149975 (965.359 7.00 54.553 124.535.846 7.355) 100 99.510 276.94 85.4 122.78 114.16 155.106.18 80.1 0 93.700.034.95 97.699) (2.48 7 18.016 22.230 100 84.751 3.668.379 21.03 .15 8.009 90.18 70.36 15.25 9 10.084.6 138.562 233.07 79.600 100 643.037 15.190 100 49.39 122.614.32 21.Prior years 39397 .31 5 10.18 123 86.6 112.717 8.425.980.86 9 18.67 7.84 396.95 5.90 4187426 Profit after taxation Attributable to: 9646549 12.163 210.Administrative expenses Other provisions / write offs .297.46 1 106.2 39.54 18.636 100 136.955 100 109.25 0 140.011 13.642 100 175.15 119.Current 4076848 .348.898 85.840.59 106.65 79.279 21.037 6.473.166 123.07 79.745.575 399.358.231 15.1 117.220.5 256.39 105.46 323.891) 980.067) 1.095.4 50.084.389.48 15.607) (3.144.4 163.152 64.25 101.31 5 12.43 118.000.38 116.420.47 469.82 Equity holders of the Bank Minority interest 83246 9563303 12.828.381.30 10.100 (1.

06 .037 15.86 12.4589 5.019 3.94 86. Common-size balance sheets and income statements can be more easily compared.4 122.67 6.18 20.03 72.31 5 10.65 79. 2007. The total used by the analyst on the income statement is net sales revenue. 2009 ASSETS Cash & balance with Treasury Bank Balance with other banks Lending to financial institution Investments 2005 33051049 31813513 12272248 10738447 0 2006 46310478 35965048 6550128 11958747 6 2007 55487664 27020704 1628130 17794225 1 2008 56533134 39307321 6193787 13814569 2 2009 79839836 40366687 5352873 21646753 2 VERTICAL ANALYSIS 2005 2006 2007 2008 6. produces common-size financial statements.24 4. also known as component percentages.235 25.33 18.905 0.71 7.86 71.8172 1. whether across the years for a single company or across different companies.6 b) Vertical Analysis It is a method of financial statement analysis in which each entry for each of the three major categories of accounts (assets.1096 20. VERTICAL ANALYSIS HABIB BANK BALANCE SHEET AS ON DEC 31 2005.0928 1. It also makes it easy to see relative annual changes in one business.16 25.8227 2009 9. The main advantages of analyzing a balance sheet in this manner are that the balance sheets of businesses of all sizes can easily be compared.47 14.24 6.70 100 132.9563303 Basic and diluted earnings per share 13. This approach to financial statement analysis.020 1347968 2 100 131. the analyst calculates each item on a single financial statement as a percentage of a total.30 13. When using vertical analysis. 2008.30 7. 2006.700.1862 0.81 14. The term vertical analysis applies because each year's figures are listed vertically on a financial statement. liabilities and equities) in a balance sheet is represented as a proportion of the total account.32 20. while on the balance sheet it is total assets.01 2.614.259 8.02 111.084.8454 6.

5218 3.08 79.93 9.73 2.228 8.972 9.287 90.94 1.4617 100 55.48 3.5533 77.23 9.91 2.05 3.76 1.882 90.132 0.312 6.782 - 2007 2.4807 100 52.59 81.38 4.199 5.0096 2.211 4.919 2009 1.054 NET ASSET S.96 0.14 1.081 9.35 100 59.9463 1.69 0.16 6.holders’ Equity 2005 Share capital Capital reserves Unappropriated profit Total equity attributed to the equityholders Minority interest Surplus on revaluation of assets.04 0.87 92.30 0.956 100 60.ordinated loans Liabilities against assets subject to financial lease Other liabilities Deferred tax liabilities net TOTAL LIBILITIES 2005 5776325 34904352 43254516 5 15180213 48840605 5 40487850 2006 5737457 56392270 45914019 8 15578177 53684810 2 53443366 2007 15418230 58994609 53129812 7 3100000 19943126 62875409 2 63237429 2008 9944257 46844990 59709054 5 3954925 24913236 68274795 3 75180436 2009 10041542 52542978 68275007 9 4212080 29862144 77940882 3 84369798 2005 1.78 - 2006 0.155 1.14 2008 1.653 0.092 6.197 3.43 7.117 0.160 1.63 4.6391 90.45 8.054 2007 1 2.Advances Other assets Operating fixed assets Deferred tax asset TOTAL ASSETS 31688163 5 14481818 11166195 1842977 52889390 5 34943268 5 17765291 11954876 2725486 59029146 8 38217273 4 27346111 13780555 6613372 69199152 1 45635550 7 35419252 14751252 11222444 75792838 9 45466249 9 41116582 16766668 9205944 86377862 1 59.056 0.448 2.04 9.525 76. 2008.779 0.016 3. 2006 & 2007.23 3.991 0.946 9.397 9.919 2009 1.36 6.246 9.405 0.001 3.86 9.06 100 LIABILITIES Bills payable Borrowings from financial institutions Deposits of other accounts Sub.287 7. 2009 .net of tax TOTAL EQUITY 6900000 2051371 23079826 32031197 846801 7609852 40487850 2006 6900000 1780258 4 2047508 0 4517766 4 913317 7352385 5344336 6 2007 6900000 1982145 5 2834167 0 5506312 5 965642 7208662 6323742 9 2008 7590000 2424325 4 3944764 8 7128090 2 890099 3009435 7518043 6 2009 9108000 2752738 0 3849833 5 7513371 5 1143241 8092842 8436979 8 2005 1.205 9.6732 1.952 1.78 0.45 90.14 2008 1.169 3.86 4.34 7.1806 78.11 0.65 2006 1.0252 0.1 7.76 2.86 4.76 VERTICAL ANALYSIS HABIB BANK CONSOLIDATED PROFIT & LOSS ACCOUNT AS ON DEC 31 2005.65 2.

405.207 8.369.227.018 5.327.909.7918 4.455 128851 (45.919 3234320 6 7327306 2006 43.677.56 1.108 0.225 37.076.VERTICAL ANALYSIS 2005 Mark-up / return / interest earned Mark-up / return / interest expensed Net mark-up / interest income Provision against nonperforming loans and advances .356 46.794.187.904.5541 16.91 30.813 19.518.560 9.104 -0.316.0 0 63.623 2.481.404 9.32 10.534 77.09 9 56.204.06 58.94 ----------------------------------------0 0 0 0 0 82568 (13.556 22.219.08 9 6.94 41.773 27.598 (51.663 2.710 3.08 8.033 100 13.072 8.25 -0.03 7 33.63 1 33.592.39 -0.775 62.697) (84.898 .089.310) 1.6 5 30.98 2199465 5 27.525.3 4 69.481.420.153.775 7.74 0 2007 2008 2009 76.670.073 68.19 6.4187 16. commission and brokerage income Income / gain on 1726336 2938000 5.78 6.588 6 0.017 0.233 597.51 3 11.33 2.347 200 5 100 200 6 100 200 7 100 2008 2009 100 50.626) 372.957 Charge / (reversal) against offbalance sheet obligations Charge / (reversal) of provision against diminution in the value of investments Bad debts written off directly 3020948 Net markup / interest income after provisions Fee.021 63.291 9.58 6 44.887 346.137 5 3.167 3.472.70 3 31.438) (54.804.396) 0.01 43.14 2.064 36.479 3.580.031 -0.477 42.931.051 4.90 7 11.659 9.408 9.67 2501560 3 2974665 2.34 6.863.495 0.227 6.90 1 43.875 23.04 14.238.779.305.742 6 0.685.099.

152 Other charges 68483 Workers welfare fund Total non mark-up / interest expenses Profit before taxation Taxation 1383397 5 1441257 9 15.32 21.358.642 12.64 .250.374.540 249033 122.70 ---323.86 9 23.955 43.511 1 29.2 8 19.64 0.115 1.38 15.433 19.12 7 33.7 2 35.Current 4076848 7.159.66 2.076 3.190 1409506 3 36.510 276.348.235.381.86 25.330 -----0 0 5.355 14.095.21 Income from dealing in foreign currencies Gain on investments in associate Other income 1787443 Total nonmark-up / interest income 2984895 5 Non mark-up / interest expense Administrative expenses Other provisions / write offs .127 30 34.717 8.617 22.87 69.65 2 30.487.27 0.811 24.023.505 47.48 7 15.25 33.716 0 34.936.166 0 0 0 54.163 210.87 3 14.487 92.970. 0 16.80 7854300 11.489.167.547 0.33 2.575 399.602.297.937 43.72 2 0.750 6 2.5 7 0.496 10.913.52 18.102.7 7 43.923 -----4.884 44.236 1402521 1.358 -----------------4.522 3.946 3.169 4.636 42.51 ------ 6.10 .111 200.52 5.661.319 1 4.751 3.851 18.898 85.740.1257 0.102 3 0.220.316 2 0.2804 0.425.5234 2.15 8.000.89 0.318 4.789 65.31 36.745.000 5.279 21.846 7.643.164 16.374 2.46 1 18.840.3 0 10.016 22.379 21.45 9 58.80 7 28.2 8 82.805 2.333.76 2 35.612 8.

020 1347968 2 29.31 5 10.66 17.084.806 79.355) 0. The bank is expanding its ATM network and connectivity to further expand our reach to the customers.912 19.535.072 19. The said technology will not only increase our distribution capabilities by many folds but will also simplify our internal procedures thereby reducing the transactional cost and lead time for service.668.16 0. At HBL board of directors have elaborated plans for transformation of the entire I.8 2 29.12 -0.31 5 12. This year HBL completed his automation of the government’s tax collection services thereby .100 (1.020 13.Deferred 149975 (965..23 1.400.31 5 10.231 15.14 2 24.009 90.887 12.70 18.125 0.47 4.359 7.891 ) 980.49 10.037 6.037 15.9 4 29.600 0.084.473.98 10.46 -2.699 ) (2.980.368 2 1.072 19.630.700.095.614.93 Information Technology Today banking is becoming more and more mechanized and it is the I.420.54 17.011 13.189 2.614.037 15.749 29.5 6 28. HBL has started a number of projects in relation to I.28 4187426 Profit after taxation Attributable to: Equity holders of the Bank Minority interest 83246 9563303 9646549 12.21 -7.61 12.084.562 233.828.30 13.17 0.056 83.908 1.305 0.700.61 14.43 (3.11 9563303 Basic and diluted earnings per share 13. architecture of the bank by implementing core banking solutions.86 12.25 9 10.452 29. support that can improve the customer service and reduce cost at the same time.81 24.18 20.25 0.230 0.584 -3.28 4.700.000.067) 1.61 3.98 17.T.60 70.8 2 29. structure up-gradation.T.66 5 10.607) (39.07 20 24.T.Prior years 39397 .089 3.389.

542 13.opening new opportunities for such services on behalf of other organizations. HBL is also looking into other I. evaluate and manage risk.714 10.823 Profit After Tax in 2009 4.345 7149 15.421.408.778.205 863. Credit and risk management HBL is continuously upgrading its risk management process to identify.400. Risk management in terms of adoption of Basel II guidelines is on time and is advancing smoothly with completion of internal gap analysis.621 Total Liabilities in 2009 731.393.727 728.501 388.749 . 14. products for salary and pension disbursements and E.572 779. During the year the bank established an Operational Risk Management Unit to supplement its already established Credit and Market risk units for comprehensive risk management.764.7 Competitors Bank NBP ABL MCB UBL HBL Bank NBP ABL MCB UBL HBL Bank NBP ABL MCB UBL HBL Total Assets in 2009 841.T.483.058 439.banking for better services.994 418.214.340.568.852 509.495.223.297 2.

 HBL is providing more profit on its accounts as compared to any other bank in the market with extra benefits. employees from other companies but they are maintaining their accounts with HBL.15-SWOT Analysis Based on the above designed questionnaire and responses from the respondents.  HBL is providing state of the art services but also charging much as compared to other banks in the market. They want to remain with HBL even for next 10 to 20 years till their retirement. compared to foreign banks operating in the same markets.  Branch locations are good but branch environment is not up to the standards. Flow of information is quite fast and efficient but staff is not well educated to handle the system. I want to mention some aspects that I assessed by using this questionnaire.  .  Employees are loyal with HBL. Respondents were bank employees.  Correspondence is done through ordinary mail (courier services) as well as through email using LAN and dialup.

most of the staff members are computer illiterate.Problems or Drawbacks existing currently or might face in future Weaknesses:   Insufficient technical capacity to handle the customer load but improving now The individual efficiency of worthy employees. Credit card access ability is not easy.   Branches have less decision making power and authority Mostly staff members are not highly educated.    Bank not takes aggressive steps for its promotion and advertisement of services. Loyalty of employees One-window operation based system. Some other banks offering credit card facility free of cost with relaxed policies and with attractive features. Working environment of branch is good. HBL is offering the credit card now when the credit card industry is on its decline stage. Threats:  All branches not beautify by providing appropriate furniture and interior decoration internally and externally. Suggestions to overcome these problems Strengths:      Overall relationship among the employees of HBL is friendly. . Charges on online funds transfer are more than any other bank in the market.  Other banks are providing online fund transfer facility free of cost to their customers. rewarded in the form of proper increments and promotion in grades is required. Customer will go to one slot only and get his/her payment from there within 1 to 2 minutes. Due to this flaw. they are unable to understand the communication system fully. Nation-wide network.    In the present era of latest technology.

Opportunities: Consumer Banking The basis need of the consumer such as housing. HBL can introduce a comprehensive range of bonds. Due to first bank in the Pakistan. transportation and other durable goods are not adequately financed by the banks. Night Banking . So by initiating these services. Issuance of Bonds To enjoy with large amount. the bank can enjoy with more funds. Investment Banking Until recently the bank perceived as purely commercial banking entity so in order to expand its business the bank may start investment banking by investing in the portfolio of handsome return.  Above mentioned are the strengths of HBL. Investing in the Foreign Capital Market HBL can enjoy handsome return its funding base by investing in capital markets in the foreign countries. New Branches HBL by establishing new branches in foreign countries can expand its business and can enjoy with the profit. No service down as compared to other banks in the market. Extra services must be provided free of cost to the existing bank customers. They feel proud on having their accounts with HBL. people have feeling of security for HBL. HBL ATM is available all the time. HBL must adopt these strengths in the affective way to attract the maximum market share.

16-Conclusion & Recommendations Conclusions After analyzing the HBL during my internship there. given below: HBL’s plans for the year 2008 include opening of Faisalabad and Rawalpindi branches with the focus on growing organically by opening more standalone Islamic banking branches. Its objective is to become an employer of choice and to maintain complete industrial harmony within the institution. HBL has been investing in developing this valuable HR through need base training and career growth development. HBL dedicated staff is a key strength. I have observed the following results. HBL fully recognizes its responsibility towards society in general and towards promotion of sports in the country in particular. people still come to HBL because of its Govt. Advisory Services It can establish advisory services in order to facilitate the customers in investing in the securities. HBL has the second largest treasury in terms of size. ownership as they feel it secure therefore bank improve its deposit by giving facility of night banking and also can compete its competitors with positive steps. It is major player in the foreign exchange and money markets and is a primary dealer of government securities. Its focus is towards the promotion of sporting activities in the country and giving our patronage for the promotion of . The organization has always contributed towards worthy causes and has donated generously in case of natural calamities.Despite of poor customer service of HBL. utilizing HBL’s existing branch network of 1436 plus conventional branches and looking into strategic acquisitions for expansion in this field.

By the use of computer properly these branches can increase there working efficiency.national game of hockey.  Keeping in view the hard work by the staff members at all levels of management.  The bank should finance its loans in those projects that are meeting the required standard and should avoid the political pressure.  Separate desk or counter should be established in every branch to provide the information as required by the clients. The privatization drive has emerged as a strong tool of transformation. These points are as under:  This is a computer era. Now a day there is a competition between the banks. Banks are playing very important role in the economic growth of the countries.  There is needed to make the outlook situations of branches in those manners that can compete the other modern banks in the banking market. Now there is a greater awareness that in an interdependent world all countries gain individually if these countries become positive contributor to world economic growth as whole. Recommendations The global economic environment has changed. With the use of computer we can increase our efficiency. HBL should computerize all its branches. Being of the countries themselves and for the rest of the world. HBL no doubt a positive contributor in this respect but I think there are certain points by adopting which can serve more effectively and efficiently.  The interference of union in banking business should be minimized as it decreases the working efficiency of the employee as well as the bank.  HBL as public service oriented institution has to create business opportunities for themselves. staff should be given bonus and increment every year. creating challenges and opportunities for the world’s policy makers. To promote healthy sports activity in the country. which is being recognized as an essential ingredient for the economic well.  The environment of the offices should be comfortable so that the client and staff must feel comfort during business in bank. HBL have built a state of the art sports complex at Karachi. .  The bank should bring forward the new talent as fresh knowledge and education is considered very important to increase the efficiency and production.

lethargic staff should be warned and punished. which are not good for reputation of bank. All the employees should be well trained. self-spoken and well-dressed staff should be rewarded and appreciated and lazy. There is too much dependence on handwork and they are not getting at with computer programmed. People have to wait for re-cashing their cheques and for paying their utility bills. In my opinion each employee should have regular job change. Means achieve. All the branches of HBL should be computerized. There are some clients having sound and successful plan but without financially sound and providing securities bank should firms such policies that may solve this problem. it should be improved. Most of the bank employees are sticking to one seat only. In commercial institutions like banks. companies or firms. educated. with the result that they become master of one particular job and loose their grip on other banking operation. There are some employees untrained which decreases the efficiency of the bank branch. Promotion should be given to competent persons on merit basis.          . Refreshes courses for staff are most important in my international organization. their families. smart. Every year some of the employees should be sent for training to other countries and employees from other countries should be brought here. All the employees should have their courses according to their requirement. skilled. Unsecured loan are not to be provided in case of banks directions. reward and punishment system should be introduced.

pk/ 4. Annual Report of HBL . http://www. http://www.nbp. 8.corporateinformation.17-References & Sources 7.

18-Annexes .





..GOOD LUCK……………………………. .……………………….

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