What is a cursor ?

( Basic) - Name or handle to a private SQL area where Oracle parses and fetches query results. How to control how many cursors are open ?(Intermediate) - Set OPEN_CURSORS parameter in initialization parameters. What is shared SQL ? (Intermediate) -Oracle recognizes similar statements. The SQL area is used many times for similar statements. What is Parsing ? (Intermediate) - Syntax checking, privileges checking, allocating Private SQL Area. What is the difference between anonymous blocks and stored procedures ? ( Basic) - Anonymous block is compiled only when called. - Stored procedure is compiled and stored in database with the dependency information as well. - Former is PL/SQL code directly called from an application. Latter is stored in database. - Former has declare statement.Latter doesnt. What are the advantages of procedures ? ( Basic) - Loaded once and used many times - Performance better coz all SQL stmts are sent in one go from the application to the database - Security ( no object privileges are given directly ) - Invoker's rights possible - Data integrity, productivity What are standalone procedures ? (Basic) - Those that are not part of package How is a PL/SQL program stored in database ? (Advanced) - Parsed code is stored. It's called P-code How is a PL/SQL program executed ?(Advanced) - Prior to Oracle 9i, we have only bytecode and a virtual machine in the database runs it. Later versions have faster native code execution. - PL/SQL engine is the main component that executes procedural stmt and passes the SQL to the SQL statement executor. What are the advantages and disadvantages of DBMS_SQL ? (Intermediate) - It has all the advantages of dynamic sql .. like runtime construction of sql, DDL

statements can be executed. - Its advantage over EXECUTE IMMEDIATE is it can Describe objects - It's kind of bulky and difficult compared to EXECUTE IMMEDIATE. What is a package spec and package body ? Why the separation ? ( Basic) - Spec declares public constructs. Body defines public constructs, additionally declares and defines Private constructs - Separation helps make development easier - Dependency is simplified. You can modify body without invalidating dependent objects. What are the advantages of Packages ? ( Basic) - Encapsulation of code logic - Privileges to objects can be controlled - Loaded once into memory , used subsequently. - Dependency simplified - Public/private procs, functions, variables How do you handle exceptions for bulk operations ? (Intermediate) - Use the SAVE EXCEPTIONS clause ( FORALL index IN bound_clause SAVE EXCEPTIONS LOOP ... END LOOP ) - Use 'Exceptions When Others' to handle the exceptions - SQL%BULK_EXCEPTIONS(i).ERROR_CODE, SQL%BULK_EXCEPTIONS(i).ERROR_INDEX SQL%BULK_EXCEPTIONS.COUNT Tell some tips to avoid performance problems in PL/SQL. (Intermediate to Advanced) - Use FORALL instead of FOR, and use BULK COLLECT to avoid looping many times - Tune SQL statements to avoid CPU overhead - Use NOCOPY for OUT and IN OUT if the original value need not be retained. Overhead of keeping a copy of OUT is avoided. - Reorder conditional tests to put least expensive ones first - Minimize datatype conversions => Assign data to exact same type variables - Use PLS_INTEGER for computation intensive code. NUMBER, INTEGER maintain precision and scale but not optimized for performance as additional checks are made to maintain precision and scale. - Do not use subtypes like POSITIVE, NATURAL, INTEGER as they have additional checks - Use BINARY_FLOAT, BINARY_DOUBLE - EXECUTE IMMEDIATE is faster than DBMS_SQL How to know PL/SQL compile parameters ?(Advanced) - SHOW PARAMETERS PLSQL

REGEXP_INSTR.com/hub/oracle_sql_plsql What does Opening a cursor do ? .Global optimization enabled . .A database object that offers high-speed access to an integer value . They point to any SQL area dynamically. SCN_TO_TIMESTAMP.Advantage is : You can declare variables at Client side and open them Server side.BINARY_INTEGER made similar to PLS_INTEGER . You can thus centralize data retrieval.ALL_PLSQL_OBJECT_SETTINGS What is MERGE ?( Basic) .Quoting mechanism .Regular expression functions REGEXP_LIKE .They are not tied to a single SQL.Implicit conversion between CLOB and NCLOB . VALUES OF in FORALL lets you work on non-consecutive indices .Improvement to native compilation .Improved Overloading . -Used commonly to generate Primary key values http://hubpages.Compile time warnings .New datatypes BINARY_FLOAT. What are Cursor Variables ? ..PLS_INTEGER range increased to 32bit . .Combination of INSERT and UPDATE Tell some new features in PL/SQL in 10g (Intermediate to Advanced) .!' .Guaranteed to be unique (within that sequence).Conditional compilation .Also called REF CURSORS. . Instead of quoting single quotes twice everytime.It reads the Result Set row by row. BINARY_DOUBLE . you're a string. TIMESTAMP_TO_SCN . REGEXP_REPLACE.It clears the private SQL area and de-allocates the memory.INDICES OF . Ex: q'!I'm a string. What does Closing a cursor do ? . give your own delimiter to go on using single quotes.Flashback Query functions. and REGEXP_SUBSTR .DYNAMIC WRAP using DBMS_DDL What is a sequence ? (Basic) .It executes the query and identifies the Result set What does Fetching a cursor do ? .

They are like Functions without arguments.Shows you the physical arrangement of rows in the table. NEXTVAL. .If this subquery refers to any column in the parent statement.It's not a schema object . What are SQLCODE and SQLERRM ? .They typically give a different value for each row.They are not actual columns.row. it becomes a . VERSION_STARTTIME Why use Truncate over Delete while deleting all rows ? .ROW_NUMBER is an analytic function which does something similar. What is the use of a ROWID ? .They are actually functions with no arguments.ROWNUM is a pseudocolumn which is the number assigned to each row retrieved.Examples: ROWNUM. What is a ROWID composed of ? .The subquery used in WHERE clause is a nested subquery. . Can rows from two different tables have the same ROWID? .It's a hexadecimal string representing the address of a row..Retrieve data faster with ROWID.It deallocates space (Unless REUSE STORAGE is given). that can be used only in procedural statements ( not SQL) What are Pseudocolumns ? . Prior to Oracle 8. but has all the capabilities of PARTITION BY and ORDER BY clauses. What are Nested and Correlated subqueries ? .It's a subquery in the FROM clause with an alias that can be used as a view within the SQL statement. Triggers are not fired. Extended rowid ( the default on higher releases) comprises data object number as well ( comprising the segment number ).Why use Cursor Variables? .Truncate is efficient. .file. . What is an inline view? . .Possible. .Oracle Error code and detailed error message . ROWID.Also unique identifier for each row.You can pass cursor RESULT SETS between PL/SQL stored programs and clients. it's a restricted rowid comprising block. . if they are in a Cluster What is ROWNUM and ROW_NUMBER ? .

PL/SQL Server Pages. %BULK_ROWCOUNT.Set 1 1. A cold backup is taking a backup of the database while it is shut down and does not require being in archive log mode.FLASHBACK table to BEFORE DROP What are PSPs? . %NOTFOUND.Oracle opens an implicit cursor to process each SQL statement not associated with an explicit cursor. a table stored like an index itself.%FOUND. 3. %BULK_EXCEPTIONS Oracle Interview Questions with Answers . A hot backup is basically taking a backup of the database while it is still up and running and it must be in archive log mode. The benefit of taking a cold backup is that it is typically easier to administer the backup and recovery process. How do you switch from an init. What is an implicit cursor? .correlated subquery. . How would you go about bringing up this database? I would create a text based backup control file. since you are taking cold backups the database does not require being in archive log mode and thus there will be a slight performance gain as the database is not cutting archive logs to disk.ora file to a spfile? . stipulating where on disk all the data files where and then issue the recover command with the using backup control file clause. %ROWCOUNT.The physical arrangement of rows of this table changes with the indexed column. in-short. %ISOPEN. The benefit of taking a hot backup is that the database is still available for use while the backup is occurring and you can recover the database to any ball in time.It's. You have just had to restore from backup and do not have any control files. How do you retrieve a dropped table in 10g? . Explain the difference between a hot backup and a cold backup and the benefits associated with each. 2. Web pages developed in PL/SQL What is an index-organized table? . Name a few implicit cursor attributes. In addition. .

get_ddl package. Give the reasoning behind using an index. All the extents that an object takes when grouped together are considered the segment of the database object. Faster access to data blocks in a table. Compare and contrast TRUNCATE and DELETE for a table. Give two examples of referential integrity constraints. Give two examples of how you might determine the structure of the table DEPT. Fact tables and dimension tables. Both the truncate and delete command have the desired outcome of getting rid of all the rows in a table. 6. which will produce a rollback and thus take longer to complete.Issue the create spfile from pfile command. As objects grow they take chunks of additional storage that are composed of contiguous data blocks. an extent and a segment. Oracle Interview Questions with Answers . A data block is the smallest unit of logical storage for a database object. These groupings of contiguous data blocks are called extents. What type of index should you use on a fact table? A Bitmap index. The delete command. is a DML operation. Explain the difference between a data block. 9.Set 2 1. 10. A fact table contains measurements while dimension tables will contain data that will help describe the fact tables. The difference between the two is that the truncate command is a DDL operation and just moves the high water mark and produces a now rollback. 8. 5. 4. on the other hand. Give the two types of tables involved in producing a star schema and the type of data they hold. . Where would you look for errors from the database engine? In the alert log. 7. Use the describe command or use the dbms_metadata.

2. Give the stages of instance startup to a usable state where normal users may access it. How would you go about increasing the buffer cache hit ratio? . 3. Use the explain plan set statement_id = 'tst1' into plan_table for a SQL statement Look at the explain plan with utlxplp.sql. ARCHIVELOG mode is a mode that you can put the database in for creating a backup of all transactions that have occurred in the database so that you can recover to any ball in time. re-create the table.Instance startup STARTUP MOUNT . How would you go about generating an EXPLAIN plan? Create a plan table with utlxplan. Explain the difference between ARCHIVELOG mode and NOARCHIVELOG mode and the benefits and disadvantages to each.The database is opened 6. 7.The database is mounted STARTUP OPEN . 4. NOARCHIVELOG mode is basically the absence of ARCHIVELOG mode and has the disadvantage of not being able to recover to any ball in time. A table is classified as a parent table and you want to drop and re-create it. drop the table. enable the foreign key constraint. NOARCHIVELOG mode does have the advantage of not having to write transactions to an archive log and thus increases the performance of the database slightly. STARTUP NOMOUNT . How would you do this without affecting the children tables? Disable the foreign key constraint to the parent.sql 8. What column differentiates the V$ views to the GV$ views and how? The INST_ID column which indicates the instance in a RAC environment the information came from.A primary key and a foreign key. What command would you use to create a backup control file? Alter database backup control file to trace. 5.sql or utlxpls.

Describe the use of %ROWTYPE and %TYPE in PL/SQL Expected answer: %ROWTYPE allows you to associate a variable with an entire table row. function and anonymous pl/sql block. You should also look at the logic involved in the application getting the error message. 2. The usual fix involves either use of views or temporary tables so the database is selecting from one while updating the other. The %TYPE associates a variable with a single column type. or RECORD. 4. great. 4What packages (if any) has Oracle provided for use by developers? Expected answer: Oracle provides the DBMS_ series of packages. Explain an ORA-01555 You get this error when you get a snapshot too old within rollback. 3. In Oracle 8 they will be able to be of the %ROWTYPE designation. DBMS_UTILITY. Oracle Interview Questions with Answers . If a change was necessary then I would use the alter system set db_cache_size command. If they include the SQL routines provided by Oracle.Use the buffer cache advisory over a given workload and then query the v$db_cache_advice table. a function must return a value while a procedure doesn?t have to. ORACLE_BASE is the root directory for oracle. 9. ORACLE_HOME located beneath ORACLE_BASE is where the oracle products reside. 5. Describe the difference between a procedure. There are many which developers should be aware of such as DBMS_SQL. but not really what was asked. DBMS_OUTPUT. UTL_FILE.Set 3 1. . If they can mention a few of these and describe how they used them. DBMS_JOB. DBMS_DDL. What is a mutating table error and how can you get around it? This happens with triggers. DBMS_LOCK. It occurs because the trigger is trying to update a row it is currently using. even better. DBMS_ALERT. It can usually be solved by increasing the undo retention or increasing the size of rollbacks. DBMS_PIPE. Describe the use of PL/SQL tables Expected answer: PL/SQL tables are scalar arrays that can be referenced by a binary integer. 10. Candidate should mention use of DECLARE statement. DBMS_TRANSACTION. Explain the difference between $ORACLE_HOME and $ORACLE_BASE. They can be used to hold values for use in later queries or calculations.

How can you generate debugging output from PL/SQL? Expected answer: Use the DBMS_OUTPUT package. If not specified in this order will result in the final return being done twice because of the way the %NOTFOUND is handled by PL/SQL. DELETE and ALL key words: BEFORE ALL ROW INSERT AFTER ALL ROW INSERT BEFORE INSERT AFTER INSERT etc. but this only shows errors. store in an error log table.Set 4 1. 8. In what order should a open/fetch/loop set of commands in a PL/SQL block be implemented if you use the %NOTFOUND cursor variable in the exit when statement? Why? Expected answer: OPEN then FETCH then LOOP followed by the exit when.6. Another possible method is to just use the SHOW ERROR command. What are SQLCODE and SQLERRM and why are they important for PL/SQL developers? Expected answer: SQLCODE returns the value of the error number for the last error encountered. They can be used in exception handling to report. A tablespace has a table with 30 extents in it. 9. non-stored PL/SQL procedures. . How can you find within a PL/SQL block. 11. When is a declare statement needed ? The DECLARE statement is used in PL/SQL anonymous blocks such as with stand alone. ROW. 7. TABLE. INSERT. It must come first in a PL/SQL stand alone file if it is used. The SQLERRM returns the actual error message for the last error encountered. The DBMS_OUTPUT package can be used to show intermediate results from loops and the status of variables as the procedure is executed. Oracle Interview Questions with Answers . AFTER. 10. the error that occurred in the code. UPDATE. These are especially useful for the WHEN OTHERS exception. or. if a cursor is open? Expected answer: Use the %ISOPEN cursor status variable. What are the types of triggers? Expected Answer: There are 12 types of triggers in PL/SQL that consist of combinations of the BEFORE. Is this bad? Why or why not. The new package UTL_FILE can also be used.

ROLLBACK. Explain the use of TKPROF? What initialization parameter should be turned on to get full TKPROF output? The tkprof tool is a tuning tool used to determine cpu and execution times for SQL statements.Multiple extents in and of themselves aren?t bad. The two should have a product equal to 64 or a multiple of 64. What is the general guideline for sizing db_block_size and db_multi_block_read for an application that does many full table scans? Oracle almost always reads in 64k chunks. 5. REDO LOG. TEMPORARY and INDEX segments. 2. what should you check first? Ensure that users don?t have the SYSTEM tablespace as their TEMPORARY or DEFAULT tablespace assignment by checking the DBA_USERS view. You use it by first setting timed_statistics to true in the initialization file and then turning on tracing for either the entire database via the sql_trace . What are some indications that you need to increase the SHARED_POOL_SIZE parameter? Poor data dictionary or library cache hit ratios. 6. 3. Another indication is steadily decreasing performance with all other tuning parameters the same. What is the fastest query method for a table Fetch by rowid 7. You see multiple fragments in the SYSTEM tablespace. DATA. How do you set up tablespaces during an Oracle installation? You should always attempt to use the Oracle Flexible Architecture standard or another partitioning scheme to ensure proper separation of SYSTEM. getting error ORA-04031. 4. However if you also have chained rows this can hurt performance.

8. Describe hit ratio as it pertains to the database buffers.ora file for an indication of manually set parameters. 9. If you simply take the ratio of existing parameters this will be a cumulative value since the database started. their value and whether or not the current value is the default value. What is the difference between instantaneous and cumulative hit ratio and which should be used for tuning The hit ratio is a measure of how many times the database was able to read a value from the buffers verses how many times it had to re-read a data value from the disks. When should you increase copy latches? What parameters control copy latches When you get excessive contention for the copy latches as shown by the "redo copy" latch hit ratio. Once the trace file is generated you run the tkprof tool against the trace file and then look at the output from the tkprof tool. Is this bad or good? If bad -How do you correct it? If you get excessive disk sorts this is bad. how does it happen? How can you reduce it? How do you correct it . this is the instantaneous ratio for that time span. 12. This can also be used to generate explain plan output. You can increase copy latches via the initialization parameter LOG_SIMULTANEOUS_COPIES to twice the number of CPUs on your system. Where can you get a list of all initialization parameters for your instance? How about an indication if they are default settings or have been changed You can look in the init. For all parameters. Discuss row chaining. look in the v$parameter view. less could indicate problems. Generally speaking an instantaneous reading gives more valuable data since it will tell you what your instance is doing for the time it was generated over. The major sort are parameter is the SORT_AREA_SIZe parameter. If you do a comparison between pairs of readings based on some arbitrary time span. When looking at v$sysstat you see that sorts (disk) is high. This indicates you need to tune the sort area parameters in the initialization files. 10. 11. A value greater than 80-90% is good.parameter or for the session using the ALTER SESSION command.

If the DEFAULT and TEMPORARY tablespace clauses are left out of a CREATE USER command what happens? Is this bad or good? Why The user is assigned the SYSTEM tablespace as a default and temporary tablespace. how can it be restored to optimal Use the ALTER TABLESPACE . What is the purpose of the IMPORT option IGNORE? What is it?s default setting The IMPORT IGNORE option tells import to ignore "already exists" errors. They may also try to answer with the UTL*. It can be corrected by export and import of the effected table. Give one method for transferring a table from one schema to another: There are several possible methods. 2. CREATE TABLE. 3. This results in the row chaining to another block.Set 5 1. The packages used by DBAs may include: DBMS_SHARED_POOL. 4.. If it is not specified the tables that already exist will be skipped.. export-import. You have a rollback segment in a version 7. If it is specified. SHRINK command... DBMS_SESSION. DBMS_UTILITY. It can be reduced by setting the storage parameters on the table to appropriate values. DBMS_DDL. DBMS_SQL.SQL or CAT*. This is bad because it causes user objects and temporary segments to be placed into the SYSTEM tablespace resulting in fragmentation and improper table placement (only data dictionary objects and the system rollback segment should be in SYSTEM). or COPY. the error is ignored and the tables data will be inserted. 5. AS SELECT.Row chaining occurs when a VARCHAR2 value is updated and the length of the new value is longer than the old value and won?t fit in the remaining block space...SQL . Oracle Interview Questions with Answers . What are some of the Oracle provided packages that DBAs should be aware of Oracle provides a number of packages in the form of the DBMS_ packages owned by the SYS user. The default value is N. DBMS_OUTPUT and DBMS_SNAPSHOT.2 database that has expanded beyond optimal.

series of SQL procedures. What happens if a primary key constraint is disabled and then enabled without fully specifying the index clause The index is created in the user?s default tablespace and all sizing information is lost. What is the proper method for disabling and re-enabling a primary key constraint You use the ALTER TABLE command for both. How can variables be passed to a SQL routine . Oracle Interview Questions with Answers . but only as part of the index definition. this can cause serious performance problems. This is bad since it makes tracking which table the constraint belongs to or what the constraint does harder. However. 9. for the enable clause you must specify the USING INDEX and TABLESPACE clause for primary keys. if the system is not capable of asynchronous IO then up to twice the number of disks used by Oracle number of DB writers should be specified by use of the db_writers initialization parameter. (On UNIX) When should more than one DB writer process be used? How many should be used If the UNIX system being used is capable of asynchronous IO then only one is required. 7. What happens if a tablespace clause is left off of a primary key constraint clause This results in the index that is automatically generated being placed in then users default tablespace. Since this will usually be the same tablespace as the table is being created in. 10. 8. 6.Set 6 1. What happens if the constraint name is left out of a constraint clause The Oracle system will use the default name of SYS_Cxxxx where xxxx is a system generated number. Oracle doesn?t store this information as a part of the constraint definition. when the constraint was disabled the index was dropped and the information is gone. These can be viewed as extra credit but aren?t part of the answer.

&8) to pass the values after the command into the SQLPLUS session. a single ampersand will cause a reprompt for the value unless an ACCEPT statement is used to get the value from the user. &2.. spool off Essentially you are looking to see that they know to include a command (in this case DROP USER.. Use of double ampersands tells SQLPLUS to resubstitute the value for each subsequent use of the variable. How can you call a PL/SQL procedure from SQL By use of the EXECUTE (short form EXEC) command." . You want to include a carriage return/linefeed in your output from a SQL script.CASCADE. How do you execute a host operating system command from within SQL By use of the exclamation ball "!" (in UNIX and some other OS) or the HOST (HO) command. You want to use SQL to build SQL.) and that you need to concatenate using the ?||? the values selected from the database. 6.. 2. what is this called and give an example This is called dynamic SQL. An example would be: set lines 90 pages 0 termout off feedback off verify off spool drop_all.. For passing in variables the numbers 1-8 can be used (&1. 4. 3. 5. What SQLPlus command is used to format output from a select . place the ampersanded variable in the code itself: "select * from dba_tables where owner=&owner_name. To be prompted for a specific variable.. Another method. although it is hard to document and isn?t always portable is to use the return/linefeed as a part of a quoted string..By use of the & symbol.sql select ?drop user ?||username||? cascade.? from dba_users where username not in ("SYS?. how can you do this The best method is to use the CHR() function (CHR(10) is a return/linefeed) and the concatenation function "||".?SYSTEM?).

count(item_no). what can you group on Max(sum_of_cost). What is a Cartesian product A Cartesian product is the result of an unrestricted join of two or more tables. If they can give some example hints such as FIRST ROWS. Oracle Interview Questions with Answers . 9. The result set of a three table Cartesian product will have x * y * z number of rows where x. You want to group the following set of select returns. What is a CO-RELATED SUBQUERY A CO-RELATED SUBQUERY is one that has a correlation name as table or view . ALL ROWS. they must all be used in the where clause. STAR.rowid > (select min(x. USING INDEX.Set 7 1. 7. the rowid column.This is best done with the COLUMN command. min(sum_of_cost). What special Oracle feature allows you to specify how the cost based system treats a SQL statement The COST based system allows the use of HINTs to control the optimizer path selection. even better. z correspond to the number of rows in each table involved in the join. how can this be done Oracle tables always have one guaranteed unique column. the rest have aggregate functions associated with them. 10. item_no The only column that can be grouped on is the "item_no" column. You want to determine the location of identical rows in a table before attempting to place a unique index on the table. 8.emp_no = e.emp_no). For example: select rowid from emp e where e. y.rowid) from emp x where x. If you use a min/max function against your rowid and then select against the proposed primary key you can squeeze out the rowids of the duplicate rows pretty quick. In the situation where multiple columns make up the proposed key.

What are various constraints used in SQL NULL NOT NULL CHECK DEFAULT 4. Equi-join--Its a join condition that retrieves rows from one or more tables in which one or more columns in one table are equal to one or more columns in the second table. . 3. What are different Oracle database objects TABLES VIEWS INDEXES SYNONYMS SEQUENCES TABLESPACES etc 5. What is difference between Rename and Alias Rename is a permanent name given to a table or column whereas Alias is a temporary name given to a table or column which do not exist once the SQL statement is executed.field1). Outer Join--Its a join condition used where One can query all the rows of one of the tables in the join condition even though they don't satisfy the join condition.designator in the FROM clause of the outer query and the same correlation name as a qualifier of a search condition in the WHERE clause of the subquery. What are various joins used while writing SUBQUERIES Self join-Its a join foreign key of a table references the same table. eg SELECT field1 from table1 X WHERE field2>(select avg(field2) from table1 Y where field1=X.) 2. (The subquery in a correlated subquery is revaluated for every row of the table or view named in the outer query.

7. What is a view A view is stored procedure based on one or more tables. The columns that compose PK are automatically define NOT NULL. 13. How you will avoid duplicating records in a query By using DISTINCT Oracle Interview Questions with Answers . Set options. 9. . Which datatype is used for storing graphics and images LONG RAW data type is used for storing BLOB's (binary large objects). What are various privileges that a user can grant to another user SELECT CONNECT RESOURCE 8. SQL*PLUS commands are used to format query result.6. Can a primary key contain more than one columns Yes 10.table_no). What is difference between SQL and SQL*PLUS SQL*PLUS is a command line tool where as SQL and PL/SQL language interface and reporting tool. Its a command line tool that allows user to type SQL commands to be executed directly against an Oracle database. whereas a column that compose a UNIQUE is not automatically defined to be mandatory must also specify the column is NOT NULL.DCL.Set 8 11. its a virtual table. 12. Edit SQL commands and PL/SQL.DDL). How will you delete duplicating rows from a base table DELETE FROM table_name A WHERE rowid>(SELECT min(rowid) from table_name B where B. What is difference between UNIQUE and PRIMARY KEY constraints A table can have only one PRIMARY KEY whereas there can be any number of UNIQUE keys.table_no=A. SQL is a language used to query the relational database(DML.

IN or EXISTS EXISTS is more faster than IN because EXISTS returns a Boolean value whereas IN returns a value. What is a OUTER JOIN Outer Join--Its a join condition used where you can query all the rows of one of the tables in the join condition even though they dont satisfy the join condition.4) output BCDE INSTR provides character position in which a pattern is found in a string. When you use WHERE clause and when you use HAVING clause HAVING clause is used when you want to specify a condition for a group function and it is written after GROUP BY clause The WHERE clause is used when you want to specify a condition for columns. How you will avoid your query from using indexes SELECT * FROM emp Where emp_no+' '=12345. Which is more faster . What will be the query to find it. '\' Should be used before '%'.2) output 7 (2nd occurence of '-') 15.'-'.125'. 19. eg INSTR('ABC-DC-F'. What is difference between SUBSTR and INSTR SUBSTR returns a specified portion of a string eg SUBSTR('BCDEF'.CREATE TABLE new_table AS SELECT DISTINCT * FROM old_table.') output 13 16. 18. 17.'. 20. There is a '%' sign in one field of a column. .how you will find the position of the decimal place INSTR('120000 12 0 . There is a string '120000 12 0 . DROP old_table RENAME new_table TO old_table DELETE FROM table_name A WHERE rowid NOT IN (SELECT MAX(ROWID) FROM table_name GROUP BY column_name) 14. single row functions except group functions and it is written before GROUP BY clause if it is used.1.125' .

emp_no from emp where emp_no=1234. SELECT /*+ FULL(a) */ ename. PL/SQL declares a cursor implicitly for all SQL data manipulation statements. SYSDATE. However. Difference between an implicit & an explicit cursor. Give some examples It is a column that is not an actual column in the table.payment) 2.i. 4. SELECT customer_no. payments from customer C1 WHERE 3<=(SELECT COUNT(*) from customer C2 WHERE C1. ROWNUM.e using HINTS Oracle Interview Questions with Answers . since that is a part of the function of the RDBMS. AND LEVEL. 3.What will be the query to select top three max payments. Suppose customer table is there having different columns like customer no. for the purpose of increasing performance. eg USER. A CLUSTER provides a means for storing data from different tables together for faster retrieval than if the table placement were left to the RDBMS. oracle allows a developer to create a CLUSTER. UID. What is a pseudo column. i. However. including quries that return only one row.payment <= C2. NULL. ROWID.e you have to concatenate the column name with space within codes in the where condition. Explicit cursor is a cursor in which the cursor name is explicitly assigned to a . Oracle uses work area to execute SQL statements and store processing information PL/SQL construct called a cursor lets you name a work area and access its stored information A cursor is a mechanism used to fetch more than one row in a Pl/SQl block. What is the purpose of a cluster.queries that return more than one row you must declare an explicit cursor or use a cursor FOR loop. What is a cursor.Set 9 1. payments. Oracle does not allow a user to specifically locate tables.

Close. Fetch.. Cursor For Loop is a loop where oracle implicitly declares a loop variable. A convenient way of modifying the rows is done by a method with two parts: the FOR UPDATE clause in the cursor declaration. 7.INTO statements.. DELETE and single row SELECT.. UPDATE students SET current_credits=current_credits+v_numcredits WHERE CURRENT OF X. An explicit cursors are used to process multirow SELECT statements An implicit cursor is used to process INSERT. Difference between NO DATA FOUND and %NOTFOUND NO DATA FOUND is an exception raised only for the SELECT.. ... What is a cursor for loop... END. An implicit cursor is used for all SQL statements Declare.IS statement........INTO statements when the where clause of the querydoes not match any rows. WHERE CURRENT OF CLAUSE in an UPDATE or declaration statement. What a SELECT FOR UPDATE cursor represent. UPDATE..UPDATE[OF column-reference][NOWAIT] The processing done in a fetch loop modifies the rows that have been retrieved by the cursor. ..FROM. the loop index that of the same record type as the cursor's record..SELECT statement via the CURSOR. SELECT. 9. What are cursor attributes %ROWCOUNT %NOTFOUND %FOUND %ISOPEN 6. LOOP SELECT num_credits INTO v_numcredits FROM classes WHERE dept=123 and course=101. 8.FOR... When the where clause of the explicit cursor does not match any rows the %NOTFOUND attribute is set to TRUE instead. 5. END LOOP COMMIT. Open. What 'WHERE CURRENT OF ' clause does in a cursor.

3.If yes how. 4. A cursor variable is reference type(like a pointer in C).10. A procedure all is a PL/SQL statement by itself. Functions are named PL/SQL blocks that return a value and can be called with arguments procedure a named block that can be called with parameter. while a Function call is called as part of an expression. What should be the return type for a cursor variable. What is use of a cursor variable? How it is defined.If not why. In PL/SQL 2. IN OUT INOUT 7.Can we use a scalar data type as return type. eg TYPE t_studentsref IS REF CURSOR RETURN students%ROWTYPE 2. Actual parameters contain the values that are passed to a procedure and receive results. . How you were passing cursor variables in PL/SQL 2. A cursor variable is associated with different statements at run time.. Can the default values be assigned to actual parameters. Can a function take OUT parameters.Set 10 1. OPEN cursor variable FOR SELECT.This is because the storage for a cursor variable has to be allocated using Pro*C or OCI with version 2. The return type for a cursor must be a record type. 6.If not why. a cursor variable points a row which cannot be stored in a two-dimensional PL/SQL table.Why it is required. Yes 9.It can be declared explicitly as a user-defined or %ROWTYPE can be used. Declaring a cursor variable: TYPE type_name IS REF CURSOR RETURN return_type type_name is the name of the reference type. the parameters in the procedure declaration. No.. What are different modes of parameters used in functions and procedures. Formal parameters are the placeholders for the values of actual parameters 8. What is difference between a formal and an actual parameter The variables declared in the procedure and which are passed. Difference between procedure and function.2. Static cursors can only be associated with one run time query. How you open and close a cursor variable.Statement CLOSE cursor variable In order to associate a cursor variable with a particular SELECT statement OPEN syntax is used.return_type is a record type indicating the types of the select list that will eventually be returned by the cursor variable.the only means of passing a cursor variable to a PL/SQL block is via bind variable or a procedure parameter. 5. which can hold different values at run time.In order to free the resources used for the query CLOSE statement is used.2 cursor variables cannot be declared in a package. Can cursor variables be stored in PL/SQL tables.2. • Oracle Interview Questions with Answers . as arguments are called actual.

12.PUT_LINE.PUT.Can cause other database triggers to fire.C++. d) Can be fired from any session executing the triggering DML statements..Set 11 1. What is OCI.. What is syntax for dropping a procedure and a function . The prcompiler translates the embedded SQL and pl/sql ststements into calls to the precompiler runtime library. What are ORACLE PRECOMPILERS.the language in which pl/sql is embedded is known as the host language.A function has to return a value.. Functions associated with it are FOPEN. Uses--No precompiler is required. FCLOSE_ALL and 5 procedures to output data to a file PUT. e) Can cause other database triggers to fire. The Precompilers are known as Pro*C. PUT_LINE.What are different procedures and functions associated with it. Can you use a commit statement within a database trigger.an OUT parameter cannot return a value.PL/1 AND ADA. Using ORACLE PRECOMPILERS . When looking at the estat events report you see that you are getting busy buffer waits. 15.PL/SQL blocks are executed like other DML statements. Difference between database triggers and form triggers.Pro*Cobol.FFLUSH. Is this bad? How can you find what is causing it . No 16. ISOPEN. 10.SQL statements and PL/SQL blocks can be contained inside 3GL programs written in C. FFLUSH. Oracle Call Interface is a method of accesing database from a 3GL program.The output must be compiled and linked with this library to creater an executable.Are these operations possible. This form of PL/SQL is known as embedded pl/sql.ENABLE function? 1. FFLUSH. What is the maximum buffer size that can be specified using the DBMS_OUTPUT. UTL_FILE is a package that adds the ability to read and write to operating system files Procedures associated with it are FCLOSE. Can be fired only from the form that define the trigger.PASCAL.000 Oracle Interview Questions with Answers . c) Can manipulate data stored in Oracle tables via SQL Can manipulate data in Oracle tables as well as variables in forms.000. 14. What is an UTL_FILE. What are its uses. The OCI library provides -functions to parse SQL statemets -bind input variables -bind output variables -execute statements -fetch the results 13. Drop Procedure procedure_name Drop Function function_name 11.NEW_LINE.No. PUTF.Form trigger(FT) Fires when user presses a key or navigates between fields on the screen b) Can be row level or statement level No distinction between row level and statement level. FORTRAN. a) Data base trigger(DBT) fires when a DML operation is performed on a data base table.but not other form triggers.COBOL. NEW_LINE.

2 The use of the 'alter session set events 'immediate trace name coalesce level ts#'. 6. How can you tell if a tablespace has excessive fragmentation If a select against the dba_free_space table shows that the count of a tablespaces extents is greater than the count of its data files. rollback or data blocks. 2.3 only) In Oracle 7.? is best. If the free space isn?t contiguous then export. If a tablespace has a default pctincrease of zero what will this cause (in relationship to the smon process) The SMON process won?t automatically coalesce its free space fragments. then it is fragmented.2 and 7. If you see statistics that deal with "undo" what are they really talking about Rollback segments and associated structures. drop and import of the tablespace contents may be the only way to reclaim non-contiguous free space. 7. the "class" column tells you with what. UNDO is rollback segments. You see the following on a status report: redo log space requests 23 redo log space wait time 0 Is this something to worry about? What if redo log space wait time is high? How can .0 to 7. DATA is data base buffers. The value of the "count" column tells where the problem is. You need to check the v$waitstat view to see what areas are causing the problem.1.Buffer busy waits could indicate contention in redo. 3. The ts# parameter corresponds to the ts# value found in the ts$ SYS table. 4. If you see contention for library caches how can you fix it Increase the size of the shared pool.7. In version 7.3 the ?alter tablespace coalesce.? command is the easiest way to defragment contiguous free space fragmentation. If a tablespace shows excessive fragmentation what are some methods to defragment the tablespace? (7. 5.

Increase the shared pool size. use proper space management techniques (proper storage and sizing) or ensure repeat queries are placed in packages for proper reuse. If you see excessive reloads then increase the size of the shared pool. and or excessive statement re-parses. What can cause a high value for recursive calls? How can this be fixed A high value for recursive calls is cause by improper cursor usage. To fix this just increase the size of the extents and adjust optimal accordingly. you should strive for zero reloads if possible. 12. 11. . Ideally you should have no shrinks or a small number of large shrinks.8 in the estat library cache report is this a problem? If so. is this a problem? How can it be fixed if it is a problem A large number of small shrinks indicates a need to increase the size of the rollback segment extents. 9. If the wait time was high it might indicate a need for more or larger redo logs. how do you fix it This indicate that the shared pool may be too small. You need to determine the cause and correct it By either relinking applications to hold cursors. You can look at the average transaction size in the same view to get the information on transaction size.you fix this Since the wait time is zero. 10. You look at the dba_rollback_segs view and see that there is a large number of shrinks and they are of relatively small size. no. If you see the value for reloads is high in the estat library cache report is this a matter for concern Yes. 8. excessive dynamic space management actions. If you see a pin hit ratio of less than 0. Increase the size of your extents to reduce the number of wraps. You look at the dba_rollback_segs view and see that you have a large number of wraps is this a problem A large number of wraps indicates that your extent size for your rollback segments are probably too small.

6. not just file systems. what should you check for The first thing to check with a large SGA is that it isn?t being swapped out. 2. TEMP and ROLLBACK tablespaces At least 7. USER. Be sure they say on separate disks. How many redo logs should you have and how should they be configured for maximum recoverability You should have at least three groups of two redo logs with the two logs each on a separate disk spindle (mirrored by Oracle). see disk configuration answer above. How many control files should you have? Where should they be located At least 2 on separate disk spindles. How many disks should you have assuming standard layout for SYSTEM.Oracle Interview Questions with Answers . You have just started a new instance with a large SGA on a busy existing server. 7. What OS user should be used for the first part of an Oracle installation (on UNIX) You must use root first. Performance is terrible. uniform IO and access requirements). Describe third normal form Something like: In third normal form all attributes in an entity are related to the primary key and only to the primary key . 5. You have a simple application with no "hot" tables (i. The redo logs should not be on raw devices on UNIX if it can be avoided. 3.Set 12 1. When should the default values for Oracle initialization parameters be used as is Never 4.e.

Is the following statement true or false: "All relational databases must be in third normal form" False. Usually it is used when a concatenated key becomes too cumbersome to use as a foreign key. or the junior janitor because he has no subordinates). will not perform well using full 3NF. It is used to show the entities and relationships for a database logical model. While 3NF is good for logical design most databases. 12. 9. What is an ERD An ERD is an Entity-Relationship-Diagram. How should a many-to-many relationship be handled By adding an intersection entity table 13. Usually some entities will be denormalized in the logical to physical transfer process. 11.e. What is an artificial (derived) primary key? When should an artificial (or derived) primary key be used A derived key comes from a sequence. 14. neither side is a "may" both are "must") as this can result in it not being possible to put in a top or perhaps a bottom of the table (for example in the EMPLOYEE table you couldn?t put in the PRESIDENT of the company because he has no boss.8. 10. if they have more than just a few tables. What is the default ordering of an ORDER BY clause in a SELECT statement . Why are recursive relationships bad? How do you resolve them A recursive relationship (one where a table relates to itself) is bad when it is a hard relationship (i. These type of relationships are usually resolved by adding a small intersection entity. What does a hard one-to-one relationship mean (one where the relationship on both ends is "must") Expected answer: This means the two entities should probably be made into one entity.

This is created using the utlxplan. You use it by first setting timed_statistics to true in the initialization file and then turning on tracing for either the entire database via the sql_trace parameter or for the session using the ALTER SESSION command.Ascending 15. 16. Setting TERMOUT OFF turns off screen output. 17. This option can be shortened to TERM.sql script. This can also be used to generate explain plan output. What is explain plan and how is it used The EXPLAIN PLAN command is a tool to tune SQL statements. The PAGESIZE and LINESIZE options can be shortened to PAGES and LINES. How do you prevent output from coming to the screen The SET option TERMOUT controls output to the screen. What is tkprof and how is it used The tkprof tool is a tuning tool used to determine cpu and execution times for SQL statements. How do you prevent Oracle from giving you informational messages during and after a SQL statement execution The SET options FEEDBACK and VERIFY can be set to OFF. How do you set the number of lines on a page of output? The width The SET command in SQLPLUS is used to control the number of lines generated per page and the width of those lines. Once the trace file is generated you run the tkprof tool against the trace file and then look at the output from the tkprof tool. Once the explain plan table exists you run the explain plan command giving as its argument the SQL statement to be explained. 19. Explain plans can also be run using tkprof. . To use it you must have an explain_table generated in the user you are running the explain plan for. for example SET PAGESIZE 60 LINESIZE 80 will generate reports that are 60 lines long with a line width of 80 characters. The explain_plan table is then queried to see the execution plan of the statement. 18.

.20. How do you generate file output from SQL By use of the SPOOL comm.

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