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Addressing the

Network – IPv4

Network Fundamentals – Chapter 6

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Objectives
ƒ Explain
p the structure IP addressing
g and demonstrate the ability
y
to convert between 8-bit binary and decimal numbers.
ƒ Given an IPv4 address, classify by type and describe how it is
used in the network
ƒ Explain how addresses are assigned to networks by ISPs and
within networks by
y administrators
ƒ Determine the network portion of the host address and explain
the role of the subnet mask in dividing networks.
ƒ Given IPv4 addressing information and design criteria, calculate
the appropriate addressing components.
ƒ Use common testing
U i utilities
ili i to verify
if andd test networkk
connectivity and operational status of the IP protocol stack on a
host.

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IP Addressing Structure
ƒ Describe the dotted decimal structure of a binary IP
address and label its parts

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IP Addressing Structure
ƒ Describe the general role of 8-bit binary in network
addressing and convert 8-bit binary to decimal

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IP Addressing Structure
ƒ Practice converting 8-bit binary to decimal

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IP Addressing Structure

ƒ Keep these steps in


mind:
Divide the 32 bits into
4 octets.
Convert each octet to
decimal.
Add a "dot" between
each decimal
decimal.
ƒ Practice binary to
decimal conversion
using Interactive
Activity 6.1.3

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IP Addressing Structure
ƒ Co
Convert
e dec
decimal
a to
o88-bit
b b binary
ay

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IP Addressing Structure
ƒ Practice decimal to binary conversion using
I
Interactive
i A Activity
i i 6 6.1.5
1

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Classify and Define IPv4 Addresses
ƒ Name the three types of addresses in the network and
describe the purpose of each type

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T
Types off Addresses
Add in
i an IPv4
IP 4 Network
N t k

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Types of Addresses in an IPv4 Network

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Classify and Define IPv4 Addresses
ƒ Determine the network, broadcast and host addresses
for a given address and prefix combination
Use the Interactive Activity 6.2.2 to calculate the network
address, host addresses, and broadcast address for giveng
networks

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Classify and Define IPv4 Addresses
ƒ Name the three types of communication in the Network
Layer and describe the characteristics of each type

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Classify and Define IPv4 Addresses
ƒ Identify
de y thee add
address
ess ranges
a ges reserved
ese ed for
o these
ese spec
special
a
purposes in the IPv4 protocol

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Classify and Define IPv4 Addresses
ƒ Define public address and private address
ƒ The private address blocks are:
10.0.0.0 to 10.255.255.255 (10.0.0.0 /8)
172.16.0.0 to 172.31.255.255 (172.16.0.0 /12)
192.168.0.0 to 192.168.255.255 (192.168.0.0 /16)
ƒ Use Interactive
Activity 6.2.5 to
correctly identify IP
addresses

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Classify and Define IPv4 Addresses
ƒ Describe the purpose of several special addresses

Also referred to as
Set aside for teaching
APIPA
and learning purposes.
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Classify
y and Define IPv4 Addresses

ƒ Identify
de y the e historic
s o c method
e od for
o ass
assigning
g g add
addresses
esses
and the issues associated with the method
Classful allocation of address space often wasted many
addresses, which exhausted the availability off IPv4 addresses
With the classless
system, address
blocks
appropriate to the
number of hosts
are assigned to
companies or
organizations
without regard to
the unicast class

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Planning to Address the Network
ƒ The allocation of these addresses inside the networks
should
h ld bbe planned
l d and
dddocumented
t d ffor th
the purpose of:
f
Preventing duplication of addresses
P idi and
Providing d controlling
t lli access
Monitoring security and performance

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Assigning Addresses
ƒ Explain the implications for choosing private vs. public
addresses
dd

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Assigning Addresses
ƒ Explain how end user devices can obtain addresses
either statically through an administrator or dynamically
through DHCP

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Assigning Addresses
ƒ Explain which types of addresses should be assigned
to devices other than end user devices

Routers and firewall devices have an IPv4 address assigned to each interface. Each interface
is in a different network and serves as the gateway for the hosts in that network.

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Assigning Addresses
ƒ Describe the process for requesting IPv4 public
addresses the role ISPs play in the process
addresses, process, and the
role of the regional agencies that manage IP address
registries
g

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Assigning Addresses
ƒ Identify different types of ISPs and their roles in
providing Internet connectivity

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Assigning Addresses
ƒ Identify several changes made to the IP protocol in
IPv6 and describe the motivation for migrating from
IPv4 to IPv6
New protocol suite!

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Determine the network portion of the host
address and the role of the subnet mask
ƒ Describe how the subnet mask is used to create and
specify the network and host portions of an IP address

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Determine the network portion of the host
address and the role of the subnet mask
ƒ Use the
e sub
subnet
e mask
as aand
d ANDing gpprocess
ocess to
oeextract
ac
the network address from the IP address

1 AND 1 = 1

1 AND 0 = 0

0 AND 1 = 0

0 AND 0 = 0

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Determine the network portion of the host
address and the role of the subnet mask
ƒ Observe the steps in the ANDing of an IPv4 host
address
dd and
d subnet
b t mask k

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Calculating Addresses
ƒ Use the subnet mask to divide a network into smaller
networks

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Chapter 1 Issued: 14/02/2011 © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 28
Calculating Addresses
ƒ Extract network addresses from host addresses using
the subnet mask

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Chapter 1 Issued: 14/02/2011 © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 29
Calculating Addresses
ƒ Calculate the number of hosts in a network range given
an address and subnet mask

VLSM Subnet
C l l t
Calculator

VLSM
Subnetting
Ch t iis
Chart
available in
the
Resources
Folder

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Calculating Addresses
ƒ Interactive Activity: 6.5.4
Given
Gi en a subnet
s bnet address and subnet
s bnet mask,
mask calculate
calc late the
network address, host addresses and broadcast address

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Calculating Addresses
ƒ Interactive Activity: 6.5.5
Given a pool of addresses and masks, assign a host parameter
with address, mask and gateway

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Calculating Addresses
ƒ Interactive Activity: 6.5.6
Given a subnet mask and network address, you will be required
to determine the hosts, network, and broadcast addresses.

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Testing the Network Layer
ƒ Describe the general purpose of the ping command,
trace the steps of its operation in a network, and use
the ping command to determine if the IP protocol is
operational on a local host

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Testing the Network Layer
ƒ Use ping to verify that a local host can communicate
with a gateway across a local area network

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Testing the Network Layer
ƒ Use ping to verify that a local host can communicate via
a gateway to a device in remote network

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Testing the Network Layer
ƒ Use tracert/traceroute to observe the path between two
devices as they communicate and trace the steps of
tracert/traceroute's operation

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Testing the Network Layer
ƒ Describe the role of ICMP in the TCP/IP suite and its
impact on the IP protocol

ƒ ICMP messages
g
that may be sent
include:
Host confirmation
Unreachable
Destination or
S i
Service
Time exceeded
Route redirection
Source quench

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Addressing the
Network - IPv4

ƒ Also available in the media library


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Summary

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