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even though their contribution may not be reflected in terms of cost and quantity. Also seam strength is dependent upon seam direction. These are welcome features. as seam durability and flexibility can therefore be expected to increase during garment use.Ramachandaran* and Dr.Ramesh Babu. three types of commercially available sewing thread were chosen to stitch warpway and weftway seams in denim fabric. This research work has been carried out in to two stages. Sona College of Technology. the mechanical properties (breaking load. while the modulus shows a fall. ABSTRACT The quality of apparel products depends mainly upon fabric quality. Dr. PSG College of Technology. seam slippage and seam efficiency) of the denim fabric. the weftway seam being stronger than the warpway seam. This project focuses on the effect of type of sewing thread and stitch density on seam properties of denim fabric and the mechanical properties of sewing thread. Salem 05 *Department of Textile Technology. ••• .V. M. there is an increase in the strength of the thread unravelled from the seams in the denim fabric.T. in general. Coimbatore 04. breaking extension and breaking energy) of the sewing thread unravelled from the seams in the various denim fabric samples were compared with those of the parent sewing thread.Senthilkumar Department of Apparel and Fashion Technology. The seamed denim fabric was subjected to a standard industrial enzyme wash as is practised commercially for denim jeans.Seams and Sewing Thread Characteristics in Denim Fabric V. C. The type of thread used and the selection of seams also play a major role in garment durability. The results show that. In the first stage. especially for the fashionable denim garments. The object was to study the effect of type of sewing thread and stitch density on warpway and weftway seam properties (seam strength. using three different values of stitch density or the SPI (Stitches per inch).Koushik. but this alone may not be the criterion when we deal with quality in terms of garment durability and comfort. In the second stage.
This project mainly deals with a study of seam properties and sewing thread properties on denim fabric after the post-garment standard industrial enzyme wash. Consumers’ needs and wants are fine-tuned towards the latest developments and new styles. they are also aware of special finishes and process treatments given to the garment to make them eco-friendly and user friendly.5 % 2 / 1. MATERIALS AND METHODS Sewing thread details The following three commercial sewing threads were used to produce seams in denim fabric.4 % 10. So it is of great interest to study the relationship between the major components that go to make up denim garments. Core-spun thread Core-spun thread 100% polyester thread PET core – Cotton wrap PET core – PET staple fibre wrap PET Staple Spun White coloured thread Grey coloured thread Blue coloured thread 60 Tex (2 ply) 60 Tex (3 ply) 60 Tex (2 ply) Denim fabric construction details Yarn Count: Warp Weft Ends per inch Picks per inch Crimp Percentage Warp Weft Weave Fabric tensile strength: Warp Weft Weight (oz / yd ) 2 8 Ne 14 Ne 62 44 11. So it is essential to select the appropriate sewing thread and seam in order to maintain fabric durability. quality and also to resist wear and tear. Three types of threads and three different stitch densities were used in the study.INTRODUCTION The scope for denim wear is increasing tremendously every year and its worldwide market share has increased unpredictably in the last few decades. While undergoing special finishes and chemical treatments. namely denim fabric and the sewing thread that bonds the components together.3 kgf 23.5 . there is a considerable loss in the strength and physical dimensions of the fabric. Right-hand twill 67.9 kgf 6.
6.grab test ASTM D 5034 8-inch × 4-inch 14-inch × 4-inch ASTM D .8. Stitch Type Class-500 was used to produce the seams in the denim fabric.polyester filament core with polyester spun wrapped yarn (3 ply) .polyester core spun cotton wrapped yarn (2 ply) .225602 200 mm Test Standard Specimen Size 5 litres 30 min Drum wash 40 min 80° C 6 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The results of the mechanical properties of the parent threads and the threads unravelled from the warpway and weftway seams of the washed denim fabric are shown in Tables 1 and 2. viz. Individual thread results are also compared in the bar charts shown in Figures 1 to 3. Enzyme Tinozyme 150 ml Water Time Machine Dryer Temp pH The Standard Tests Used Tests Thread tests Thread Strength (Instron Tensile Tester) Fabric tests Fabric tensile strength Seam Strength ASTM D 5034 . The following recipe was used. The fabric samples were cut to convenient sizes and warpway and weftway seams (Superimposed Seam Type SSa-1) were produced at a machine speed of 2860 rpm using three different stitch densities.100% staple spun polyester yarn (2 ply) .11 SPI.Production of seams in the fabric A Brother-make five-thread overlock machine. Identical settings of foot pressure and thread tension were maintained for all the seams produced. Blue Thread White Thread Grey Thread . Model FBN 310. Enzyme wash Treatment The seamed samples were washed with commercial enzymes using industrial standards.
Blue Thread – 100% Polyester (PET) Spun Yarn i) With a breaking load of 1733 gf. 3. the number of filaments it contains. The energy to rupture this thread is higher than the 100% spun yarn polyester thread. ii) iii) 2. Though of the same linear density as the other two types of thread. Cotton (C) Wrap i) The parent yarn is strong. it is the strongest of the three types of thread in this study. ii) iii) The breaking elongation at 15. White Thread – Polyester filament yarn (PFY) Core.19 J).1.5 % is intermediate between the other two threads and is due to the polyester fibre present. The low breaking load and the moderate breaking extension result in the low value of energy of rupture (0. the energy required to rupture it is also correspondingly high. The wrapping fibres can be expected to straighten under the tensile load and break even before the polyester core has completely elongated. the level of twist in the wrapping fibres. Grey Thread – Polyester filament yarn PFY Core. this is the weakest of the three yarns under study.59% is higher than the other two yarns mainly because the polyester fibre has an inherently higher extension characteristic. The energy to rupture this 100% spun polyester thread is half that required to rupture the polyester core-cotton wrapping thread.83 per cent. other aspects like the linear density of the core continuous polyester filament yarn. Polyester staple fibre (PSF) Wrap i) This yarn has an intermediate breaking load at 2028 gf. etc would also influence the mechanical behaviour of the threads. the inadequate grip between the constituent polyester fibres lowers their cohesion and hence the overall yarn strength. Its breaking elongation is the lowest at 9. The inter-fibre grip provided by the smooth polyester sheath fibres cannot be expected to be as strong as that of the cotton fibres in the White Thread and thus the breaking strength is lower. the denier per filament. which has a characteristically low extension. Showing an average breaking load of 2235 grams. . The combination of a strong polyester yarn core and the cohesive inter-fibre grip between the cotton wrapping fibres provides good resistance to tensile loads. The fairly high breaking load and the high breaking extension contribute to this value (0. the number of plies the thread is composed of. The presence of cotton. Besides the above points.38 J. The energy required to rupture it is 0. As this yarn has a high breaking load. lowers the overall extension of the yarn at break. This is an important characteristic required of a sewing thread.25 J). ii) iii) The breaking elongation at 19.
1 128.WARP WHITE 0.34 WHITE 0.75 17.5 16.56 20.4 328.18 0. Table 2: The Tensile Elastic Moduli of the parent and unravelled threads MOD1 (G / TEX) 274 177.7 141 124.83 18.WARP 11 .2 MOD2 (G / TEX) 305.7 2236 2113 BLUE 1733 1747 1867 1974 GREY 2028 2153 2206 2319 WHITE 2235 2005 1726 2129 BLUE 1733 2013 1972 1728 GREY 2028 2318 2180 2146 Effects of the stitching action and the washing treatment on the threads Effect on tensile modulus The results of the tensile moduli.2 107.11 WHITE 2235 2127.7 106.7 143.WARP 8 .59 20.6 126.8 190. the breaking loads and extensions of the threads unravelled from the seams of the denim samples after the standard industrial wash present some interesting information on the expected behaviour of the threads in the seams.2 140.9 128.93 21 21.9 116 121.18 GREY 0.4 133.25 0.PARENT WH-6-WARP WH-8-WARP WH-11-WARP BLUE-6-WARP BLUE-8-WARP BLUE-11-WARP GREY-6-WARP GREY-8-WARP GREY-11-WARP WEFT WHITE .99 GREY 19.5 146.PARENT GREY .WARP EXTENSION [%] PARENT 6 .34 0.03 19.31 0.3 126.76 21.9 19. Extension and Energy-to-break of the different threads WARP DIRECTION WEFT DIRECTION LOAD [grams] PARENT 6 .WARP 8 .7 126.31 0.59 21.5 MOD2 (G / TEX) 305.5 110.38 0.Table 1: Load.5 329.2 108.19 0.3 0.9 141.WARP ENERGY ( J) PARENT 6 .32 BLUE 0.02 17.PARENT BLUE .325 BLUE 0.8 125.335 0.PARENT GREY .38 0.6 125.6 WARP WHITE .2 0.5 107.5 123.5 108.5 16.39 17.7 134.19 0.7 265.55 16.22 0.23 GREY 19.7 265.6 142.38 0.8 190.57 BLUE 15.PARENT WH-6-WEFT WH-8-WEFT WH-11-WEFT BLUE-6-WEFT BLUE-8-WEFT BLUE-11-WEFT GREY-6-WEFT GREY-8-WEFT GREY-11-WEFT .PARENT BLUE .25 0.4 138.4 137.WARP 11 .4 321.22 0.26 BLUE 15.2529 0.09 WHITE 9.WARP 8 .7 127.373 0.83 21.2 MOD1 (G / TEX) 274 177.4 292.22 GREY 0.9 108.11 22.5 121.6 138.WARP 11 .89 15.4 292.6 138.3 WHITE 9.3 152.
Effect on other mechanical properties Breaking Strength The PFY Core-C Wrap White Thread shows a drop in breaking load. This effect may be due to particular specimen effects and cannot be representative of the sample as a whole. the moduli of the 100% PSF Blue Thread and the PFY Core-PSF Wrap Grey Thread are respectively 31% and 27% of the modulus of original parent yarn values at 100-g load. The moduli at the 250-g load are still lower in all the three cases. Ignoring these three cases. In any case. the average modulus of the PFY Core-C Wrap White Thread after stitching and washing is 47% of that of the parent yarn at 100-g load. on the other hand. The advantage of the combined effect is that the flexibility of the seam and hence its contribution to the drape of the garment will be improved. it is not likely that the 100-g load would be equalled or exceeded in the strains of normal garment use. There is little effect of the stitch density on the strength results. Similarly. The disadvantage is that the thread is susceptible to strains in regular garment use to a greater extent. warpway or weftway. Of course. There is no discernable effect of the direction of the seam. The blue and grey threads. There is also no particular trend by which the stitch density influences the thread moduli.5% for the thread from the warpway seam and nearly 13% for that unravelled from the weftway seam. The speed at which the thread is stitched (2860 stitches /min) and the bending and twisting strains imposed as a result of thread formation cause the threads to be in a state of mechanical stress. the extent of such increased strains would depend on the type of denim garment and its tightness of fit on the users.The general observation is that there is a fall in the tensile modulus at loads of 100 g (MOD 1) and 250 g (MOD 2) for all the three types of thread. the 6-spi seam in the warpway and weftway directions and the warpway 8-spi seam. Only for the PFY Core-C Wrap White Thread is there an apparent and inexplicable increase in the moduli at 100 g load. about 3. on the modulus values. show a fairly uniform increase of about 10% for both the warpway and weftway seams. whereby it suffers a lowering of its tensile modulus. in three cases. Added to the effect of washing. . It may be thus concluded that the effect of the standard enzyme wash is to lower the moduli of the threads in the seams. is the effect of the mechanical action of stitching and stitch formation.
The greatest increase is shown by the PFY CoreC Wrap White Thread and this is observed for both the warpway and weftway seams. The PET sf in the blue thread and the PET yarn and wrapping PET sf in the case of the grey thread are bound to relax and shrink due to the washing treatment.WEFT 8 . EXTENSION [%] 25 20 PARENT 15 10 5 0 WHITE BLUE GREY 6 . but could be ascribed to the 2/1-twill structure of the denim fabric.WARP 8 . Breaking extension and energy of rupture: The extensions-at-break of the three types of thread are all greater than the breaking extensions of the respective parent threads. The other two types of thread show a uniform 9-10% increase in extension. It is likely that the blue and grey threads have suffered a greater degree of shrinkage than the white thread. the restraining effect of the relatively rough-surfaced cotton wrapping fibres has probably given rise to a negative effect and hence the strength has dropped.WARP 11 . The different behaviour of the warpway and weftway seams is not clear at the moment.WEFT Figure 2: Breaking extensions of the different sewing threads .WARP 8 . In the case of the white thread.WEFT 8 .WARP 11 .WARP Extension % 25 20 15 10 5 0 WHITE BLUE GREY PARENT 6 .WEFT Figure 1: Breaking loads of the different sewing threads The change in strength values after washing could reflect a differential change in the linear density of the three types of threads.WEFT 11 . Such shrinkage would cause an increase in the linear density of the threads and this in turn would result in a corresponding increase in the thread strength.WARP LOAD [gram s] 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0 WHITE BLUE GREY PARENT 6 .LOAD [grams] 2500 2000 PARENT 1500 1000 500 0 WHITE BLUE GREY 6 .WEFT 11 .
3 0. TPO – Thread Pullout. Effects on Seam Properties on denim fabric The results of tests on the seams are shown in Table 2 below.1 (STB) 41.1 0.WARP 11 .15 0.4 (STB) 43.35 0.WEFT 11 .4 0.35 0. STB – Sewing Thread Breaks.8 (STB) *Sbf – Seam Breaking Force.4 (STB) 44. FTS – Fabric Tear at Seam .05 0 WHITE BLUE GREY PARENT 6 .9 (TPO) 9. the weftway thread showing a 20% fall.4 (TPO) Warpway Seam (sbf) kgf 15.WEFT Figure 3: Breaking energies of the different sewing threads The PFY Core-C Wrap White Thread shows a fall in the energy to rupture the threads.6 (TPO*) 8.WARP PARENT 6 .4 (TPO) 12. Table 3: Seam strengths at varying stitch densities THREAD PFY Core / Cotton wrap White Thread .7 (TPO) Warpway Seam (sbf) kgf 11.15 0.25 0.3 (STB) 40.2 (STB) Weftway Seam (sbf) kgf 33.2 0.05 0 WHITE BLUE GREY Energy [Joules] 0.2 0. The other threads show increases in the energy of rupture that correspond with the changes in the breaking load and extension values.1 0.2 (FTS*) Weftway Seam (sbf) kgf 27.ENERGY [J] 0.2 (STB) 32.4 (STB*) 11.2 (STB) 37.WARP 8 .25 0.3 0.WEFT 8 .6 (TPO) 9.2 ply 6 SPI 8 SPI 11 SPI PFY Core / PSF wrap Grey Thread – 3 ply 6 SPI 8 SPI 11 SPI 100% PET Spun Yarn Blue Thread – 2 ply 6 SPI 8 SPI 11 SPI SEAM STRENGTH Warpway Seam (sbf*) kgf 14.4 0.7 (TPO) 10.0 (TPO) Weftway Seam (sbf) kgf 28. The above changes in the mechanical properties are welcome changes that would contribute to better sewing thread and seam performance in garments.
at 11 SPI. Though there are fewer ends to share the load per stitch as the SPI increases. the longer floats of the twill weave offer greater collective resistance to the applied load. This is also the reason for the increase in seam strength with increase in stitch density. so there are fewer threads to break as every stitch of the sewing thread takes on the applied load. Effect of Sewing Threads Type on Seam Strength The warpway seam strengths are more or less in conformation with the breaking loads of the respective parent threads. the warpway seams decrease in strength as the stitch density increases. When the threads form the weftway seams the behaviour shows a dramatic change. When a warpway seam is tested for its strength. The net result is that the sewing thread breaks. a greater number of warp ends are available to take the load with every stitch and this results in higher seam strength in this case. This is why the seam strength decreases with increase in stitch density. The PFY Core-PSF Wrap Grey Thread appears to be the weakest of the three types of thread. shows an increasing trend with increase in the SPI of the seams. the warpway seam strengths are lower than those of the weftway seams. fewer weft threads are included inside a single stitch. The behaviour of the sewing thread in the majority of the cases here is to break due to the applied tensile forces. The stronger and greater number of warp ends that it has to pass through during the test offers too much of a resistance and hardly any chance of slipping through.White Thread and the 100% PET Spun Yarn . Weftway Seams: Due to the twill weave structure of the fabric. As the stitch density increases. However. The strength of the weftway seams.Blue Thread show a roughly 10 % difference in strength for all the SPI values. It is hoped that this subsequent work will throw more light on the behaviour of threads and seams. The weft yarn in a fabric is also generally not as strong as the warp yarn. . The grey thread is the strongest. does the fabric itself tear. Only in the case of the PFY CorePSF Wrap Blue Thread. In most of the cases. Further studies with different kinds of fabric are underway and the findings will be reported in due course. on the other hand. Though the weft yarn in the denim fabric under test is coarser than the warp yarn.Effect of Seam Direction and SPI on Seam Strength The first observation is that in the case of all of the threads. The PFY Core-Cotton Wrap . the picks per inch are much lower than the ends per inch. the effect of sewing thread pullout is more pronounced as there are fewer picks per inch that offer greater space for the sewing thread to slip through. it is the weft threads in the fabric that are loaded along with the sewing thread composing the seam. the blue thread appears to be the stronger in the seam than the white thread. Warpway Seams: In all of the types of thread investigated. next comes the white thread and the weakest is the blue thread! The reason for this turn of events is not clear at the present moment.
3. 1. K. 654-662 (1990) 3) Annual Book of ASTM Standards. Salem and SITRA. The tensile modulus. Madura Coats Ltd. This is attributed to a change in the linear density that can be expected from the elaborate industrial wash given to the test fabric after seaming. Some Aspects of the Mechanism of Seam Slippage in Woven Fabrics. Coimbatore are gratefully acknowledged. H. ASTM D 1683-81: Failure in Sewn Seams of Woven Fabrics. pp. John Wiley & Sons. The relationship between sewing thread strength and seam strength seems to be complex. PA. American Society for Textile and Materials. J. Reference 1) Morris. The Clothing Institute. The breaking extension of the unravelled also increases in the case of two of the threads studied. 225-231 .Conclusions The following points on the behaviour of sewing threads and seams emerge as a result of this study. J... ASTM D 6193-97: Standard Practice for Stitches and Seams. and Brain. Clothing Res.. S. ASTM D 1682-64: Breaking Load and Elongation of Textile Fabrics. March 2005. Salem. H. M. M. pp. 3. C. 1962 5) Galuszynski. London.. The modulus is not affected by the direction of the seam nor its stitch density. Technical Report 11. Sona College of Technology. There is little influence of the stitch density on the breaking strength. Volume 17. Lockstitch Seams in Knitted Fabrics. Thanks are also due to the sponsorship given by KG Denim Ltd. D. D. 6. 909-1049. 347-354. W. 2. Methods of Correlation Analysis. Tirupur and Sundarsons (India) Exports. The testing services provided by M/s TexanLab. The threads unravelled from the seams show a general increase in breaking load. N. The weftway seam is appreciably stronger than the warpway seam in all of the cases. and Lloyd. and Chamberlain. Also. 60. the weftway seam strength increases with stitches per inch while the warpway seam strength decreases with increase in the stitch density. C. The threads and therefore the seams they constitute can be expected to be more flexible and add to fabric drape. The PFY Core-Cotton Wrap White Thread alone shows a fall in this parameter. 355-361. Numbers 3-4. NY. Salem. pp. Seam Slippage. Textile Res. The work of rupture of the unravelled threads shows changes that are in keeping with the changes in the thread breaking strengths and extensions. 1985 4) Dorkin. 135-144 (1975) 2) Shimazaki. Opening Behavior of Lockstitch Seams in Woven Fabrics Under Cyclic Loading Conditions. J. but more elaborate studies would have to be done to get a clearer picture. pp. Easton. Seam strength is dependent upon the direction of the seam. A. 425-433 (1985) 6) Ezekiel. Coimbatore. the AFT department students and faculty. P. 4. 76. Acknowledgement Our sincere thanks are due to our management.. 1953 7) International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology. of threads unravelled from the denim fabric seams after the standard industrial wash shows a fall for all the three types of thread investigated. Textile Inst. 5. at loads of 100 g and 250 g.
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