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Vice Admiral Rajeshwer Nath, PVSM, AVSM, VSM (retd) Introduction The commencement of construction of the Air Defence Ship on 11 April 2005 at the Cochin Shipyard Limited, Kochi marks the beginning of a new era of ship design and shipbuilding technology in India . We had to our credit the successful design and building of destroyers, frigates, corvettes, fast attack crafts and auxiliary vessels e.g. LST(L)s, survey vessels, fleet tankers etc. The building of an air defence ship brings India into the elite club of those very few nations in the world that can design and build all types of warships up to aircraft carriers. This paper reviews the developments in this field of ship design and shipbuilding and the future prospects in India . Abstract Ship design and shipbuilding in India mainly pertains to warships. We are one of the very few proud nations in the world who design and build warships for their Navies. The Navy¶s in-house design organisation has gradually grown into a fully computerised unit having the necessary special techniques for stealth, hydrodynamic, ship motion, structural and dynamic predictions. We need to continue to move forward and update the design tools e.g. modern 3D computer software with allied application software to automate the design process with necessary checks and balances and transfer data and drawings securely to shipyards not only on magnetic media but also on-line without the need for duplication effort by the shipyard. The infrastructure available in our shipyards is ancient and not suited to modern shipbuilding at optimum cost, quality and time frames. Nevertheless, we have built warships at defence shipyards. These shipyards have delivered warships to the design specifications given by the Navy and met their specifications. However, we are not happy because the manhours taken by our shipyards to build a frigate / destroyer is more than 10 times that taken by modern shipyards abroad. Also, the calendar months taken by our shipyards to build a frigate / destroyer have been three times those taken by foreign / modern shipyards. The excess calendar months can to some extent be attributed to delays in decision-making, indigenisation and delays in the availability of payload and other nominated equipment, which are beyond the shipyard¶s control. However the very excess manhours taken do account for the lack of productivity, which can be attributed to not so modern facilities available in our shipyards and also to room for improvement in ship production, management, working environment of Indian worker and lack of multi skilled work force concept. In spite of this not so encouraging scenario, we still produce warships that are cheaper than those manufactured anywhere else in the world. This is because of the relatively lower labour rates and also due to prices of equipment purchased from the former Soviet Union and Russia have been highly competitive and economical to us. On an average, the shipyard effort in a shipbuilding programme is about 40 per cent of the total cost. If this 40 per cent component (having taken 10 times more man-hours) is still cheaper in India , we can foresee the enormous advantage in improving productivity to match the man-hours to international standards. We can then produce warships at costs that are most economical and even foreign shipyards will not be able to compete. This is possible because the shipbuilding labour rates in India are about one fifteenth of those in Europe , one tenth of those in Japan / USA and one fifth of those in Korea . Therefore, what are we to do? Firstly, within the existing infrastructure, improve management of shipbuilding, provide the right environment, introduce multi skilled trade and improve worker
which are not technical. The remarks made for improving warship building in previous paragraphs are also applicable here. We have to seriously work hard to aim for achieving such standards. will improve efficiency by at least 20 per cent and even with existing facilities. larger block construction.productivity as defined in section 15 to 26 of this paper. Our commercial shipyards have not kept pace with the technological developments in optimum production of ships. We built two submarines during the 1980s and suddenly the programme has halted for the last 15 years for reasons. We need to provide incremental modernisation to these shipyards to make new merchant ship building economically viable in the country. Government can assist in providing income tax incentives. Therefore. These will improve productivity by another 30 per cent. there is a good case for reviving merchant shipbuilding within the country. We are also among the very few nations in the world which could design and build submarines. A few nations like Japan and Korea have virtually captured the entire market because of the excellence achieved by them in designing and building of ships (e. Moreover. The special features of submarine building are briefly covered in section 6 of this paper. in the long run setting up new modern shipyards with latest up to date facilities and layout will reduce man-hours by 70 to 80 per cent and will eventually catch up with man-hours as per international practice. reducing cost and improving quality in shipbuilding. tax incentives for money spent on training and facility improvement and free export or trade zone incentives (shipyards could import supplies free of duty for ships). The internal market need for producing 10 ships (seagoing) and 21 coastal ships every year should provide the necessary incentives. The capability to design and build submarines indigenously exists in the country and needs to be utilised and nurtured. Secondly. In addition. We need to revive submarine building at the earliest and also open a second line of submarine construction to catch up on lost time. Thirdly. cheaper labour rates and Government incentives or support and prospects of producing ships cheaper than anywhere else in the world should encourage private industries to get collaboration or joint ventures with leading shipbuilders in the world and start a new shipbuilding wave in our country. provide incremental modernisation of existing shipyards to enable high crane capacities. Taking a 20-year perspective. wet basins and dry docks independent of too much dependence on dredging. module workshops for advanced fitting out. With modernised facilities and modern ways of working. the man-hours taken will be 80 per cent of those taken now. we must continue to improve warship building and achieve self-reliance.g. our shipyards and the industry are urged to develop competence to provide comprehensive Integrated Logistic Support and performance warranty for warships as brought out in para 5 of the paper. The latest . The quest and zest for increasing productivity. These suggestions. The Indian merchant fleet consists of about 200 ships (overseas going). export incentive credits. bulk carriers in 6 months and containerships in 12 months). This modernisation of infrastructure will of course have to be supplemented by modern concepts of lean manufacturing and total CAD/CAM. The capital expenditure involved in these recommendations will be more than outweighed by the reduction in the cost of the warships. when implemented. As far as merchant ships are concerned. our country has lagged behind. the man-hours taken will be 50 per cent of those taken now with existing facilities. Therefore. warship building and submarine building continues in the world. The assured internal market. we shall need 10 ships every year for our own market. we have 425 coastal ships and about 21 of these need replacement every year.
Concurrently. we do need to have a new modern shipyard to build warships in cost. The officers were trained in UK . gas turbine generators. This will improve collaboration / integration between design and manufacturing. Joint ventures with sharing of initial investment. Enovia and Delmia. USSR and also the training programmes that had been established in India at IIT Delhi and with Naval training establishments. and our policy of complex multi-agency (directly and indirectly involved) participative management have prevented us from having clear-cut and firm cost and time programmes for shipbuilding. The next generation digital shipbuilding system will simulate and optimise the entire shipbuilding life cycle process in a virtual environment from the initial development stage to launch. we are yet to become self reliant on weapon systems. and shipbuilding practices in a most cost effective manner. But on the other hand. process re-engineering and as a component of an integrated Product Life Management (PLM) solution. Our existing shipyards can be modernised only within constraints of geographical locations and space limitations and water depths available. which can improve our ship design. In the long run. The in-house design organisation of the Navy has been updating its resources and these are now almost fully computerised. this has helped us to keep an edge in the overall performance and operational capabilities of our warships. This will depend upon disciplined decision making at all levels and strict adherence to time schedules. in the meantime. postgraduate dagger courses were introduced for the . The Indian Navy provided the trained specialist officers to manage these shipyards. Warship Design & Building We are one of the few proud nations in the world. LPD 17 USS San Antonio is the first surface ship ever designed in virtual reality. Although total self-reliance exists in design and building of warships. our ambition to have the latest and up-to-date equipment. workload. Returns in the range of 10 to 1 are realistic with digital mock up. This paper reviews the gradual evolution of this capability for the indigenous design and building of warships. Our dependence upon foreign sources for major weapon systems. and profits to mutual benefit of both sides will yield quicker results. we can analyse and focus on areas. Credit goes to the Indian Navy who nurtured its in-house design organisation and credit also goes to the Ministry of Defence which motivated and encouraged our defence shipyards to take on the challenge of warship building. Indeed. The reasons as to why we have not been able to adhere to such disciplined action also need to be analysed. It is reasonable to expect substantial quantitative and qualitative benefits from investment in digital manufacturing. Warship Design: Warship designs are specific to the Navy and this fact was realised by the leaders in the Indian Navy in the 1950s and progressive steps were initiated to have the capability of warship design within the Navy. IBM and Dassault Systems are offering such solutions using software Catia. control systems and allied special machinery and equipment. The indigenisation organisations set up by the Ministry of Defence provided the opportunities for indigenous development of equipment. the Corps of Naval Constructors was set up to have specialisation in Naval Design and Construction. time and quality competitive with international practice. In 1957. We must take cognisance of these futuristic developments and take them into account in our modernisation plans for ship design and shipbuilding both in military and commercial sectors as discussed earlier. which designs and builds warships for tits Navy. The US Navy Office of Naval Research and Samsung Heavy Industries Co Ltd (SHI) are very actively pursuing the digital shipyard concept with virtual reality. which is fitted in warships.trends are digital shipbuilding innovation brought about by software solutions for Product Life Cycle Management (PLM). Thus Indian industry participated in the Defence Sector by helping the Navy to gradually move from a buyer¶s Navy to a builder¶s Navy. The shipyards need urgent modernisation to apply the latest techniques of large pre-outfitting and block construction. USA .
Lack of multi skilled tradesman. The Navy¶s design organisation is fully computerised and has the necessary techniques for stealth (RCS. Naval Constructors. noise) prediction. The Navy¶s design organisation has to its credit the design of many types and classes of warships. are our shipyards efficient? The answer is no. Kora class Corvettes. These shipyards have delivered warships to the design specifications given by the Navy. quality and time frames. Shipyards have to depend on other organisations for dry-docking. Marine Engineers. Nevertheless. Too much dependence on tide and dredging for moving ships in and out from shipyard basins. - - - - . we have built warships at defence shipyards.e. We are unable to produce ships in quality and quantity in time even commensurate with existing facilities. This. We need to move forward and continuously update the design tools of 3-D type comprehensive computer software with allied application software to automate the design process with necessary checks and balances and transfer data and drawings securely to shipyards on both magnetic medium and online without any need for duplication of effort by the shipyard. gas turbines generators. Worker environment leaves much room for improvement. Of course. structural. Telescopic concept for design and production hampered by delays in decisionmaking. if we have to have complete self-reliance. Geographical location of shipyards poses problems of dependence on tide and heavy dredging before movement of ships in and out of the shipyards. then Indian industry must come forth to design and manufacture state-of-the-art weapon systems. The modernisation of shipyards with better and augmented facilities will be limited to availability of space and other constraints. the design interface of FSU and Russian weapon systems on indigenous designs strengthened our capabilities. Sandhayak class survey vessels and seaward defence boats etc. Within the constraints of existing facilities. powerful and dynamic predictions. Warship building: The infrastructure available in our shipyards is ancient and not suited to modern shipbuilding within optimum cost. Subsequently. hydrodynamics. Brahmaputra class frigates. Too many workers and too many trades in shipyards. These include the Delhi class destroyers. ship motion. The idea was to have a composite design organisation with all disciplines i. Godavari class frigates. and Electrical / Weapon Engineers qualified for the design of state of the art warships. Khukri class corvettes. control systems and other allied special systems for warships. not so happy state of affairs is the cumulative effect of factors such as: - Order for series production of ships is not given and as such production lines are seldom fully loaded. IR. The capability to design warships came about not only through trained manpower but also through collaboration with UK for building Leander class frigates during the 1960s and 1970s.marine engineering and electrical engineering branches. Magar class LSTLs. Administrative and bureaucratic hurdles and delays in sanctions for the ships. delays in sanction for model testing and delays in sanction for special design inputs.
planning.000.000 man-hours man-hours man-hours man-hours Such figures for Indian design costs are not readily available. This results in long cables.e. The shipyards should take on the responsibilities for detailed design and marry CAD/CAM fully in their shipbuilding process. Ship construction should only start when all inputs are nearly complete i. delays in finalisation of contracts with other countries for supply of weapon systems. Delays in availability of systems and need for accelerating indigenisation process. design is complete.000 3. dry docks not equipped with adequate and systematic services and welding points. Unique Nature of Global Warship Building All nations in the world have endeavoured that their Navies have a technological edge to face any threat. performance factors have hitherto always had precedence over cost factors. Less use of composite drawings for piping services. in recent years.000 5. However. Room for improving co-ordination in design. power points etc. Decision-making can be improved by having more indigenous systems and having disciplined action plans with suppliers that match the construction schedule.200.000. the Navies are interested in reducing costs by adopting more efficient practices in the acquisition. hoses etc all over the place leading to unhygienic shipbuilding conditions. The introduction of multiple trade system will reduce man-hours and save time by reducing man-days.000. systems have been selected. The design cost of US warships have been reported to be as below: DD651 DD173 DD963 D647 in in in in US Japan US US 6. design and construction processes. - - - We need to improve warship building systems and processes in India . The time taken by our shipyards to build warships should have been commensurate with the infrastructure and facilities available in the shipyards. gas outlets.- Crane capacities are small and no arrangements for advance fitting-out. Berths. cost has become increasingly important. materials. shipyards commence work without waiting for all inputs to come. Improving infrastructure to enable pre outfitting and manufacture of larger blocks and larger cranes to shift them to the slipway can of course. Rather than reducing the performance capabilities of their ships. jetties. However. reduce shipbuilding time. Since shipyard slipways are free and workshops are idle. We should continue to seek means for productivity improvement. . there is always room for reducing design costs by adopting integrated CAD/CAM solutions.000 1. No facility for shot blasting and primer coating of weldment blocks. The delays have also been due to delays in decisionmaking. Too much dependence on measurements at site to manufacture items. As such. and production management in the shipyard.
000 2. These new contracts also include setting up of ship support centre to support the development and integration testing of both the platform control and monitoring system and the combat systems and to train the Navy personnel. Our shipyards and industry should develop such competence and provide such services to the Navy.000 2.200.000 2.000 The Indian shipyards take about 10 times the man-hours taken by Japanese shipyards and 3 times the calendar months.800.100. built two SSK submarines in the late 1980s.The construction hours of some warships have been reported as follows: Country US US Japan Japan Italy Germany Canada Canada UK India India Ship type keel DD651 FFG-7 DD173 DD158 D-560 F-215 FFH300 DD6280 F230 Godavari Class Delhi class Displacement Tonnes 8315 3500 9485 4500 5400 4490 5235 5100 4200 3600 6500 Time 30 30 34 29 42 38 51 42 54 72 100 Man-hours to Commissioning 5. MDL Mumbai. facilities.000 2. manpower. The elements of the ILS package include maintenance planning.000 1. storage and transportation of support and test equipment and computing support. technical documentation.300.000 18. There is a lot of room for improvement in modernising Indian shipyards and reducing build periods.000. which include ILS performance warranty. Such efforts are continuing for . training. Submarine Design and Building Although the Indian Navy has been operating submarines since 1960s. the premier shipyard in the country. supply support documentation.500.000 10. necessary to ensure that the ships are effectively operated. We were among the very few nations in the world who could build submarines.036.000. Integrated Logistic Support (ILS) and performance warranty for warship The prime contracts for the recent warships in the world include a comprehensive requirement for ILS. the indigenous design and building of submarines was realised with the designing and building of SSK submarines of Type 1500 in collaboration with Germany . The recent contracts for warships. The programme for continuation of submarine building in India came to a sudden halt due to non-technical reasons and the infrastructure developed at MDL Mumbai has been idle and unutilised for the last almost 12 years. the prime contractor has guaranteed an operational availability of 80 per cent for a period of 10 ship years. maintained and supported throughout the life of the warship. This will be more economical and efficient and will increase teeth to tail ratio and enable the emerging lean Navy to perform better and achieve excellence in mission operations. Efforts have been made to revive submarine building with more emphasis on indigenous development of systems in the Indian industry.
instrumentation. 1/5th scale three-dimensional models of each compartment are made with all relevant structure. weapon and life support systems. equipment. mock up. modelling etc. ARM Technique Availability. Thicker and heavier plates are needed for the pressure hull requiring special fabrication and welding techniques. shipbuilder and supplier of specialised equipment and materials are key factors in the technical success of a submarine programme. The design organisation is well equipped to undertake design and design-production interaction for submarines. greatly increased electrical demand for DC and AC systems in a variety of voltages and frequencies to suit control. Special features of submarine building There are many changes necessary to adopt traditional shipbuilding methods to modern submarine construction technology. The strong links forged between the designer. piping and cabling represented. The results are applied to ship availability date for various mission profiles.000 man-years over a 7-year period. Design decisions affect through-life cost and ARM techniques coupled with systematic design reviews offer a means of achieving an acceptable balance between procurement and upkeep costs and operational targets. The steel for building submarines is to be high yield. submarine builder as well as those responsible for the design of machinery and equipment and the selection of materials. The electrical outfit for an advanced submarine has to service the complexities of the propulsion systems. ventilation and air-conditioning. Each element is then examined to determine its likely failure rate. and consequences (Failure Mode and Effect Analysis). configured within very restrictive space envelopes and in the quantities necessary. The assessment begins by producing a ship dependency diagram showing the relationship between the operational characteristics and the systems / equipment. The ship availability modelling is a powerful tool used to assess the probability of a warship / submarine achieving given mission profile. Nearly 80 per cent outfitting is completed prior to the launch of the submarine. quenched and tempered. is one of the demanding parameters of a submarine programme. reliability and maintainability are essential factors in the design of any modern warship and more so for submarines. The ability of the shipbuilder to produce pipe works to exacting service standards.the last 12 years and persistence will bring success one day. fully killed. This approach is most useful in comparing the reliability of varying system proposals in the design stage. fine grain. By the use of models and mock-ups. This will open up new avenues of co-operation and work for the Indian industry. which support them. Submarine design and building requires special efforts in weight control. checked and then verified finally at ship. The cost of a full range of design and support to build tasks is equal to about one third of the construction costs of the first of the class. from concept. The hull outfit in a submarine requires stricter standards. development and up to generation of working drawings is approximately 1. The modern trend is to complete more outfitting in workshop rather than in the cramped confine of the submarines. navigation. low alloy. causes. Merchant Ship Design and Building . communication. equipment maintenance envelopes and removal routes are carefully designed. The complexity of modern submarines requires a high level of discipline from the submarine designer. These must be considered at the earliest possible stage of design and modelling to assure optimum safety and service performance. as well as. Production information is also obtained from computer models. The total effort involved in modern submarine design.
we need 20 such ships every year. We need to provide incremental modernisation to these shipyards to make new merchant shipbuilding economically viable in the country.g. In 1973. ship owners and shipbuilders freely cross national borders to obtain a price. The shipbuilding industries of nations with comparative advantage. The national policy of most trading nations reflects the primary requirement to maintain some degree of control over the resources needed to move their products to foreign markets. We need to take major initiatives to improve productivity through technological automation. After the Arab oil embargo in 1973. or superior technology would be expected to prosper. This is due to their excellence in design. The World Shipbuilding Market The international market for merchant ships has historically been cyclical with nine major cycles. With the closing of the Suez Canal in 1959 and the oil embargo in 1973. Between 1970 and 1975. The first half of the 1970s was a boom period for the world¶s shipbuilders. Taking into account 20 years life. Worldwide Shipbuilding Industry The market for ships is a global market. 425 coastal ships i. we shall need 10 ships every year for our own market. tax incentives for money spent on training and facility improvement and free export on trade zone incentives and shipyards could be allowed to import supplies free of duty. Other nations have supported the shipbuilding industry as a µhub¶ industry for economic development. Ship operations. The worldwide order book declined from a peak of 242. quality and minimal shipbuilding times for delivery e. Indian shipyards have not been able to compete in the design and building of merchant ships.3 m deadweight tonnage (dwt) in 1979 . There are. 6 months for bulk carriers and 12 months for containerships. There is a strong case for reviving shipbuilding within the country. The internal market of 10 seagoing ships and 20 coastal ships every year should provide the necessary incentive. Government can encourage. standardisation and rationalisation of design. Much of this tonnage comprised supertankers built to carry crude oil from the Middle East to Europe and Japan . cheap labour. support and assist in providing income tax incentives. the entire world shipbuilding market contracted dramatically. in addition.e. export incentive credit. the world fleet deadweight tonnage increased by 70 per cent.The Indian Scenario: The majority of the merchant ships owned by Indian companies have been designed and built abroad. engineering and production activities and reduction in work force. Some of these nations have supported their shipbuilding industries in order to provide the means of replacing the national fleet should it be threatened militarily or economically. based on responsive markets. time and technological advantage. The Indian shipyards have not kept pace with the technological developments in optimum production of ships. This simple logic / model does not fit the realities of world shipbuilding. the cyclical curve had peaks and troughs with new extremes. The economics of nations that lack such an advantage would be expected to allocate resources to other activities. therefore. industrial policies aimed at assuring the existence of a nationally controlled fleet. the world order book was equivalent in deadweight tonnage to 50 per cent of the world fleet. The prospects of producing ships cheaper than anywhere else in the world should encourage private industry to get into collaborations with leading shipbuilders in the world and create a new wave of ship building in India . A few countries like Japan and Korea have virtually captured the world merchant ship market. They have. Many nations also view their national shipbuilding industry as essential for defence purposes. This is so because most trading nations perceive the shipbuilding industrial base to be a vital national resource on other than strictly economic grounds. The Indian merchant ship fleet consists of about 200 ships (overseas going).
some are getting highly specialised and others diversify. Even Japan suffered many bankruptcies and a reduction in shipbuilding capacity of 35 per cent. There has been a dramatic reduction in European shipbuilding from a position in 1960 controlling two-thirds of world shipbuilding output to a . Taiwan and Brazil emerged as strongly contending shipbuilding nations in the 1970s. However.4 per cent 2. During the 1990s.9 per cent 2. and over 70 per cent in Japanese shipyards.7 per cent 2. the shipbuilding industry has undergone dramatic changes regarding the countries and regions that dominate the industry.0 m in 1979. In the early 1980s. There were dramatic increase in Japanese production from 1960 to 1975. crowding out the European manufacturers. Since World War II. the percentage share in tonnage on order with the world¶s leading shipbuilding nations are reported as follows: Japan South Korea Denmark China Taiwan Romania Brazil Germany Great Britain Poland Spain Croatia All others 39 per cent 21. Yards come and go. Spain . Japan became the world leader in commercial shipbuilding in 1956 and has continued to maintain that position. there were modest increases in the 1990s.1 per cent 9 per cent Total tonnage on order approximately 70 million dwt To maintain their market share. the demand is almost twice the installed capacity. The new shipbuilding requirements for the current period 1975-2010 have been projected to be of the order of 50 million dwt per year. South Korea . These reductions have been possible by increasing the amount of automation.3 per cent 2.3 per cent 2.3 per cent 2.to 32. There was a similar growth of Korean shipbuilding from 1980 to 1985. the People¶s Republic of China also began a serious entry into the world shipbuilding market. Therefore. the nations have followed a variety of marketing strategies. its condition throughout the 1980s can be described as depressed.1 per cent 3. Since 1979. the work forces have been reduced over 60 per cent in West Europe . standardisation and rationalisation of design.4 per cent 5. The highly automated yards in Europe were either nationalised or restructured. which have included subsidy schemes and major initiatives to improve productivity.4 per cent 2. Many of the marginal shipbuilders who were able to penetrate the market during the boom years went bankrupt or were nationalised. The estimated installed yard capacity for shipbuilding worldwide is about 18 million compensated gross tonne (27 million dwt) of new tonnage per year. engineering and production activities. there will be pressure to expand world shipbuilding capacity during the early 21st century. As such.1 per cent 5. Although some recovery occurred in the world shipbuilding market. Dynamics of World Shipbuilding The international shipbuilding scene is very dynamic.
making labour cost more of a variable cost element. Performance indicator A shipyard may have a highly productive shop floor workforce. administration and supply chain management are also key factors. The unit of output most commonly used for comparisons between shipyards is the compensated gross tone (CGT). Japan has been controlling around half of world output for almost 30 years. In addition. Canada Japan Italy European 2 Relative labour rates 1 0. shipyards will have to make alliances with the suppliers and sub-contractors. We believe that in order to remain competitive in the future. U.S. but is now challenged by the growth of Korea . the suppliers often act as flexible sub-contractors.level of one-sixth today. adjusting to changes in the market. This enables yards to adopt efficient just-in-time practices and reduce inventory costs.A. One main reason that Japanese shipbuilding has been able to remain competitive for over 30 years is the ability of the industry to constantly upgrade productivity. Korea and Japan together now control over 60 per cent of world output. CGT is effectively a measure of work content. The high staffing inherent in naval work must be separated from commercial work to avoid an unsustainable level of economic inefficacy. one finds production of marine equipment located close to the shipyards. In Japan .5 3 3 5 6 10 10 11 12 13 US 4 India 10 .5 to 1. This is done partially through investments in modern production technology though use of latest materials. Productivity Cost = Man years/Unit output (CGT) = Total cost/Man years Productivity x Cost = Total cost/Unit output (CGT) Cost Competitiveness = Comparison Of Shipbuilding Productivity (Relative man-hours / compensated gross tonnes) Japan 1 Country India China Singapore Hongkong Taiwan Korea U. and find ever-new ways of cutting costs.K. but be disadvantaged by heavy overhead staffing. This reflects a problem that is likely to be met by shipyards attempting to combine naval and commercial work.
the differences in labour productivity are absorbed by the differences in shipyard labour costs. there is a good case to take bold initiatives to modernise our merchant ship building as stated earlier. the labour percentage is significantly lower at 20-35 per cent only. in many cases. submarines. This is bound to bring about industrial participation in a big way. Hourly Relative Labour Rates For Shipyard Workers Worldwide Therefore.France Denmark Norway Sweden Finland Germany 13 13 14 14 15 15 Shipbuilding In some countries. Soon submarine building too will be revived. There is also a proposal to open a second line of submarine construction in India . We need to come up to the expectations of the merchant marine to design and build merchant ships to international competitive standards. Importance Of Comprehensive Build Strategy Towards Economic & Efficient Shipbuilding . and merchant ships can bring about an industrial revolution in the country for the manufacture of marine systems and equipment. In view of the large domestic market for merchant ships and the relatively low labour rate. In countries advanced in shipbuilding. The indigenous building of warships. the labour costs associated with building a ship vary between 35 and 60 per cent. Industrial Revolution In The Availability Of Marine Systems & Equipment We are building warships for the Navy indigenously.
Improving Shipbuilding Efficiency Through Lean Manufacturing The purpose of lean manufacturing is to improve product cycle time. design and engineering. An efficient shipyard would use relatively standardised. The build strategy document should define relationships with yard¶s business plan. The idea is to give to the customer what he wants with minimal lead-time by eliminating waste / wait. Lean thinking focuses on value-added flow and the efficiency of the overall system. staged materials. inventories. extra processing. ship description. motivated and highly capable professionals. planning and production. flat blocks and curved blocks. There is need to develop people to be flexible. The five Ss for a well-organised work force for Lean Manufacturing for eliminating waste have been identified as Sort (what is needed and what is seldom used). material management. to amounts of inventory. cost competitiveness. Standardise (create rules). by eliminating any waste / wait in the manufacturing process through continuous improvement by a motivated work force. which touches every part of the yard from markings on steel to equipment gauges. All these need to be prepared before work starts with the aim of identifying and integrating all necessary processes.e. dedicated process lanes for major processes. and to the appropriate thing to work on next. such as built-up profiles. modular designs to create what some call ship factories / workshops i. motion. production tests and a trials plan. To meet the targets set in the build strategy a set of decisions are required on facilities development. multiskilled workers and multiple machine / task assignment. our shipyards need to prepare a comprehensive document on µBuild Strategy¶ which should encompass approved and agreed designs. and quality. policy. productivity targets. In lean manufacturing. Before commencement of production. make or buy or subcontract and technical and production organisation. the people systems such as continuous improvement.production. A component sitting in a pile of inventory is a waste and the goal is to keep products flowing and add value as much as possible. lean flow using takt (meter) time (targeted pace of production). flow smoothing. Sustain (self discipline). The focus is on the overall system and synchronising operations so that they are aligned and producing at a steady pace.There is room for substantially improving the build strategy document to be prepared by our shipyards. built-in quality. The build strategy serves as an effective tool by giving participants the opportunity to work out all their needs together. Just-In-Time deliveries. focus on . procurement of long lead items and other items. personnel. sub-assemblies. visual control. The lean principles used in shipyards include. weight control and quality assurance. Stabilise (orderliness). transportation and waiting. introduction. in advance of taking up the task. The seven wastes that need to be avoided in Lean Manufacturing include over. one piece flow. procurement. waste is anything that adds to the time and cost of making a product but does not add to the product from the customer¶s point of view. Shine (cleanliness). The build strategy is used to facilitate and strengthen the communication links. It preaches the importance of creating continuous material flow. engineering. accuracy control. The ship build strategy should emerge from the shipyards¶ business plan. built in most cases on moving lines and material is carefully sequenced and shifted through the yard in a carefully orchestrated flowing patterns ± just-in-time (JIT). shipyards shipbuilding policy and ship definition policy. contractual matters. standardising processes and eliminating waste. factories / workshop in which there is a constant flow of basic and intermediate products. tests and trials. The purpose of the 5 Ss is visual management. Other important factors in the lean manufacturing principles include standardisation. producing defective products.
the suppliers of those blocks must fit into the precise timetable of the shipbuilder ± just-in-time. . Labour Productivity Shipyard workers need to be competent. In most cases. It is often cost effective to purchase whole blocks from outside. The same is also true for personnel. Competitive Shipbuilding Every shipbuilding firm needs to pursue ship design excellence. There are many things that could and should be done. To explore the benefits of lean manufacturing in ship construction. it is essential to apply lean concepts throughout the programme of design construction enterprises. Ship Production Management Ship production management includes planning. bills and manufacturing aids. This information includes drawings. group technology (structured block construction with advanced and zone outfitting) and part families. The principal factors influencing shipyard worker performance are discussed below. The age of the workers also contributes to productivity. material-lists. is to adopt lean manufacturing principles. quick delivery and cost effectiveness. Lean manufacturing leads to Just-In-Time shipbuilding. Individual blocks are scheduled so that they will be complete Just-In-Time to construct grand blocks. Lean production also leads to cost reductions via eliminations of unnecessary operations. dedicated interim product lines. creative and hard working. We cannot expect such workers¶ productivity to be competitive with those who spend less time (less than 1 hour) of commuting. high build quality. in which case. they also need the correct information just-in-time. the material and production process flows are not effectively coordinated. but one way that could significantly help. equipment and system will arrive in shipyard just-in-time for fitment. inspection and facilities. equipment and material (raw material and material in process) are not delivered just in time to locations where they are required. the problem of low productivity is not with the worker. Indian shipyards take at least three times more time to build ships. In order to build each compartment of a ship correctly the first time and on time.elimination of waste. the efficient and timely information flow in a shipyard is essential. The machinery. supervision. Indian Shipyards need to resolve and reconcile these issues for improving labour productivity. it is with the environment in which the worker performs. With incompetent and inexperienced management. It is anticipated that implementing lean manufacturing principles in shipbuilding could improve productivity by at least 50 per cent and shorten build times by at least that amount. For lean manufacturing. which will complete Just-In-Time for final ship construction in dry dock. Yards must become innovative not just in product and process technology but also in management and operation. There are problems with workers who live very far from the work place and spend 4 to 5 hours commuting for an 8-hour work shift. Such improvements would certainly assist Indian shipyards to improve their prospects for the future. and multi task assignment for employees. the craftspeople not only require the right material and tools at the right time. Productivity in Indian shipyards is one tenth of that in modern shipyards abroad. Tools. waiting times and inventories. inspection and physical facility / equipment provision. We need to improve ship production management with lean and just-in-time principles. Moreover.
Multi-Tiered Hierarchical Line Organisation We need to avoid too many levels between workers and yard manager. lunch.5 per cent of revenues on training. year-end bonuses and general recognition of contributions made by individuals should be introduced. This will improve worker morale. learn about the expected use of the vessel and the conditions under which the ship is expected to be used. Workers-Personal recognition Workers should also be given an opportunity to relate to the customers. Workers must not only feel financial satisfaction but also pride of ownership. Basic needs of clean changing rooms. Shipyards must provide white or other colour overalls to their work force. TQM requirements of training need to be fulfilled fully. where worker and managers regularly undergo training to update their skills. work safety and self esteem. Other Worker Incentives Financial incentives such as profit sharing. Successful yards abroad spend 1 per cent to 1. needs to be carefully examined. The workers and supervisors often dress in inappropriate clothing. and peer acceptance. personal recognition. Multi Skilled Work Force . Casual Labour A casual-labour environment where people are hired and fired all the time. The shipyards need to have flat. free-form. tea snack. instead of being allowed to move from one department or job to another to safeguard the use of their work skills as well as loyalty. This amounts to an average of 8 to 10 days per year as full-time training of everyone. Working Conditions The working conditions in our shipyards and in ships under construction leave much to be desired. must be a continuous process. as in all manufacturing. The latter is more beneficial provided a multi-trade work force concept is accepted in the shipyard. which empower workers at all levels and assume proper feedback and feed forward of information. Workers will treat equipment very much like the way they are themselves treated. Decision functions and responsibilities must be delegated to the lowest competent levels. afternoon tea need to be provided in a dignified manner and in adequate / surplus supply to avoid queuing and thus avoid workers tendency to leave work spots much before scheduled breaks. Indian shipyards need to implement such training schemes to keep up to date with technology and innovative techniques.Worker & Manager Training Training in shipbuilding. The working conditions need to be clean and hygienic. with some matrix characteristics. This assumes not only better and more timely decisions but also assumes proper sharing and transfer of information resulting from and required for such decisions. flexible organisations. lockers.
Clients For Shipbuilding Industry The Indian Navy is a major traditional client of shipyards for building of warships and submarines and the Navy will continue to support indigenous warship and submarine construction. Labour Productivity.We have too many trades in our shipyards and each trade has a mate / helper concept. The combination of software like CATIA and DELMIA would provide unique opportunities to connect their two main domains. and work on joint ventures. The facts and figures given above make a strong case for revival of Indian shipbuilding. Several computer models can be developed to automate essential shipbuilding processes and these can be applied to the modern. modern. the shipbuilding industry can also woo the domestic market of 10 seagoing merchant ships and 20 coastal ships per year. With innovative infrastructures. resulting from greater use of computer based databases and graphic tools. implemented and accepted. . productive and creative ship production industry unhampered by government rules and restrictions. lean. It must reinvent itself to become a mean. ENOVIA and DELMIA software. government can also introduce tax incentives for money spent on training and infrastructure facility improvement etc. The government can assist the shipbuilding industry in improving its productivity in many ways. pipes fitting. Digital shipbuilding innovation can be brought about by software solutions for Product Life Cycle Management (PLM) from world renowned companies like IBM and Dassault System including CATIA. the shipyards may be given export incentive credits. The three important factors of shipbuilding competitiveness i. Futuristic Digital Shipyards and Virtual Reality with Product Life Cycle Management (PLM) in Shipbuilding Future ship design and construction will be influenced by advances in both manufacturing techniques and technologies. Such radical changes will make the industry world market oriented. Digital shipbuilding will improve collaboration / integration between design / engineering and shipbuilding manufacturing. There can be income tax incentives. engine fitting. Revival of Indian Shipbuilding The shipbuilding industry needs a radical structural change. will improve productivity very substantially. update technology. where we learn to better utilise our existing facilities. This will lead to series production of ships with repeat orders and the learning curve effects will benefit the shipyards. create incremental. Such a multi skilled worker should be designated as µship mechanics¶. along with improvements in the ship design environment. etc. This simple factor if introduced. scalable architecture that is the foundation of CATIA. It must be able to work in joint ventures with any one worldwide. DELMIA and ENOVIA. the government can allow free export or trade zone incentives (where shipyards can import supplies free of duty). and operationally independent. marking.e. The aim is to bring about radical changes in the shipbuilding industry. A multi-skilled worker should be able to do all the jobs like plating. welding. Technology and Capacity need to be advanced with innovative and bold solutions.
Each ship zone is run five or six times to get the errors out and end up with a ship that could be built the way it was planned. These digital shipbuilding systems will simulate and optimise the entire shipbuilding lifecycle process in a virtual environment from the initial development stage to the launch. USS San Antonio is the first surface ship ever designed in virtual reality. This effort involved a new level of visualisation for participants to clearly see the work being done at each stage. which can improve productivity of the shipyard. The ship is assembled on screen. On the LPD 17 Project. Returns in the range of 5 or 10 to 1 are realistic when it is implemented in combination with digital mock up. DELMIA software. together with CATIA and as part of the global Dassault System 3D PLM (Product Lifecycle Management) can be used to model a digital shipyard. IGRIP. a Dassault Systems Company is engaged in a full-scale research project to develop a digital shipbuilding system for the Samsung Heavy Industries Company (SHI). however. This will increase productivity.. The US Navy has reported that the use of DELMIA tools and other processes contributed to savings of over $370m in total cost in the LPD surface ship programme. and then put back together again. Much of the modelling and simulation work was done by Delmia¶s Envision and Envision / Assembly computer-aided part of Delmia¶s process planning and digital manufacturing tools portfolio. to make sure that everything fits and that the subassemblies and components would go together as planned. Shipbuilding involves complex resources and processes. It is reported that the US Navy office of Naval Research has awarded research funding to DELMIA for a digital shipyard. Thus for the efficient modelling of PPR (Product. location and orientation. with simulation keeping track as it was pulled apart. It is reasonable to expect substantial quantitative and qualitative benefits from investment in digital manufacturing. QUEST & ER60. DELMIA¶s IGRIP & QUEST will be implemented to develop the next generation digital shipbuilding systems integrated with industry best practices. Delmia is the leading three-dimensional product life cycle management (3D-PLM) solutions provider for Lean Manufacturing process engineering. with each sub-assembly and component going back in the correct sequence. cut apart and reweld. Process and Resource) data of a shipyard. The focus will be to find ways for reducing the building costs of US Naval warships and commercial ships. UK has undertaken virtual future Aircraft Carrier studies through System Engineering and Assessment Ltd using DELMIA¶s Envision to analyse short take off and vertical landing (STOVL) vs conventional take off and launching (CTOL).Delmia Corp. It is reported that DELMIA provides such fine tools i. reduce costs and improve quality. It is common for a ship design to be only 20-30 per cent complete when production starts. optimise production line layout and evaluate production efficiency in practical details. This was possible through digital manufacturing solutions provided by DELMIA. the design of LPD-D was over 80 per cent complete before any steel was ever cut. 3D digital mock up tools have been used in USS Holland submarines project from 1992 to 2000. and as a component of an integrated PLM solution.e. The aim is to develop an integrated shipbuilding management system with digital simulation. The above integrated product data environments and the reality of digital / µvirtual shipyards¶ have made it possible to produce very good definitions of the intended product . process re-engineering. LPD ± 17. The Royal Navy. no steel was cut or welded until every step had been proven by simulation. Computer software now available is reported to be a good 3D digital representation tool to simulate the whole shipbuilding process. we need very powerful simulation based tools to achieve our goal. Each section is disassembled in the reverse order. block by block. thus avoiding rework.
Implementation of digital shipbuilding and virtual reality has saved $370m for the LPD programme. These innovations will fully integrate the design / engineering and building / manufacture. We need to continue to update our design techniques and modernise our shipyards towards efficient competitive warship building. Conclusions India has made substantial progress in the design and building of warships for the Navy and we are proud of the self-reliance being achieved in this sector. We need to utilise the existing facilities in the shipyards in a better manner and also take initiatives to modernise our yards and be competitive. The need to keep up with the technology. Also. We have to revive submarine building and also open a second line of submarine building to catch up with lost time in this field. should it be threatened militarily or economically. The USS San Antonio LPD 17 has been the first ship designed in virtual reality. We should not allow this situation to continue. Self-reliance in the field of defence is important. These objectives can be rapidly and more economically and optimally met by involving the Private Sector in the development of weapons and sensors. Our shipyards and industry need also to develop competence to provide comprehensive Integrated Logistic Support and Performance Warranty for warships. manufacture and continuously update in consultation with the user. A majority of the merchant ships in the Indian Fleet have been designed and built abroad. both for military and commercial sectors of shipbuilding. The national shipbuilding industry will be an asset for defence purposes. we also need indigenous weapons and sensors. Our national policy should aim at assuring the existence of a nationally controlled fleet for strategic reasons. Our design organisation and shipyards have to take note of digital shipbuilding with virtual reality and take it into account in our modernisation plans. The Private Sector can either be given independent programmes to develop. The technology. or and the private industry can support DRDO or Public Sector in accelerating the rate . We need to bring in digital shipbuilding with virtual reality in our ship design and shipbuilding programme and reap the benefits thereof and thus remain competitive in the world market. The government should support the shipbuilding industry in order to provide the means to replace the national fleet. For warship building. keeping in view that our labour rates are relatively very low. skills and talent available in the private sector can make innovative contribution and can sustain it by updates as newer technologies become available. We should view the shipbuilding industry as a µhub¶ industry for economic development. We have more than enough domestic demand to sustain merchant shipbuilding. The prospects of producing ships cheaper than anywhere else in the world should encourage private industry to set up joint ventures with leading ship builders in the world to the mutual benefit of both sides. expertise. It is reasonable to expect substantial qualitative and quantitative benefits from investments in digital manufacturing. the prime contractor and subsystem producers right down the supply chain to discrete equipment manufacturers. Digital shipbuilding and virtual reality in product life cycle management in shipbuilding are moving in at a fast pace. is even more essential.that can be shared between the customer. It is not very difficult. to have the best and better than your adversary. This will be in the interests of our national pride. this will bring in a new industrial revolution for the manufacture of marine systems and equipment to support shipbuilding.
. the involvement of the Private Sector is a total winwin situation and defence preparedness shall benefit enormously. Jan. Thus.of progress in defence systems.Mar 05 and has been reproduced here with the permission of the editor. This article first appeared in the Indian Defence Review Volume 20-1.
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