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- VCP 4.0 How to read / use
Written by Matthijs van den Berg Monday, 26 October 2009 14:59
I have written this study guide based upon the VCP 4.0 blueprint released by VMware. This blueprint outlines the study objectives to master before going for the VCP exam. In the blueprint consists of bullets with objectives. I have used those bullets and placed my answer directly below the objective. You will find that some fat text and colors are used: • • Fat test after a bullet – This is a objective / question from the blueprint Orange text – this is a hyperlink to a site with more information about the subject
All other text is (supposed) to be written by me or in some cases (minimized) copy / passed from a VMware whitepaper or Internet site. If another source then mentioned under “Tools” at the bottom of the objective is used, this is mentioned. Hope you learn some. Regards,
VMware Certified Professional on vSphere 4 – Learning guide
Written by Matthijs van den Berg Tuesday, 06 October 2009 10:12
Hi All! I haven’teven finished my Design Expert certification yet but couldn’t wait to start with my VCP 4.0 any longer. I have to finish the exam before the end of the year, otherwise I have to go through the training again; costing money and, even more important, precious time! So I dough up the blue print for the VCP 4.0 exam and started searching the VMware site and the rest of the internet again. And while I am at it I will post it on this site again, so perhaps some of you can benefit. If you have any comments, feel like helping me out of are just in the mood of dropping me a line, please feel free to do so. Enjoy reading and I hope this helps you guys out there! Regards,
PS Use the menu in the upper right of the page to navigate through the items of the learning guide!
Objective 1.1 - Install VMware ESX/ESXi on local storage
Written by Matthijs van den Berg Tuesday, 06 October 2009 09:31
Identify minimum hardware requirements The minimum hardware requirements are stated in the Installation Guide or the Best Practice Guide. In short these are for: ESX 2 x 64 bit processor
2 GB RAM For vCenter Server the specs are: Processor – 2 CPUs 2.0GHz or higher Intel or AMD x86 processors. Processor may be higher if the database runs on the same machine. Memory – 3GB RAM. RAM requirements may be higher if your database runs on the same machine. Disk storage – 2GB. Disk requirements may be higher if your database runs on the same machine. Microsoft SQL Server 2005 Express disk requirements. The bundled database requires up to 2GB free disk space to decompress the installation archive. Networking – 1Gbit recommended. Download, prepare and validate installation media You can download the ISO files from the VMware website if you have a valid login ID and are authorized to download vSphere ISO files. To check you can use the MD5 checksum and during installation the verification step in the wizard. The ISO files can be mounted using tools like iLO, Daemon tools of the VI Client. When physical installation media is required the ISO file needs to be burned to a CD / DVD. Native support is available in Windows 7 and Mac OSX. Other OSes require a third party tool. Determine appropriate ESX/ESXi configuration in a given situation Obtain required information for environment Obtain information on the following aspects about your environment: System compatibility I/O compatibility (Network and HBA cards) Storage compatibility Backup software compatibility Verify hardware against the VMware Hardware Compatibility Guide Before purchasing hardware it is best to validate against the VMware Hardware Compatibility Guide (HCL). This ensures the correct function of the ESX OS on the hardware and ensures VMware support. You can find the HCL here. Perform a custom installation Customize storage layout for given situations ESX hosts have required and optional partitions. /boot and vmkcore are physical partitions. /, swap, /var/log, and all the optional partitions are stored on a virtual disk called esxconsole-<systemuuid>/esxconsole.vmdk. The virtual disk is stored in a VMFS volume. You can read all about the required partitions here. And all about the optional partitions here. Configure ESXi from the direct console You can log on to the console the manage the system (if that is what they mean here…). Configure ESX/ESXi NTP Both ESX and ESXi can use an NTP (Time Server) for the time sync. This ensures that the ESX clock is always up to date. GUI The configure a time server change this in “Time Configuration” in the tab Configuration when a ESX server is selected CLI Edit:
and add the time servers you deem necessary. For example:
Manage ESX/ESXi licensing Compare/Contrast VMware vSphere editions VMware has two lines of editions. One for Small Business and one for mid-size and Enterprise. Both lines combined this leads to 7 version of the product, 3 aimed at small businesses and 4 aimed at medium and enterprise corporations. These versions differ on the amount of resources supported and the supported functionality. You can find a schematic overview here. Manage license keys License reporting and management are centralized. If you upgrade all your hosts, you no longer need a license server or host-based license files. All product licenses are encapsulated in 25-character license keys that you can manage and monitor from vCenter Server. Each host requires a license, and each vCenter Server instance requires a license. You cannot assign multiple license keys to a host or to a vCenter Server system. You can license multiple hosts with one license key if the key has enough capacity for more than one host. Likewise, you can license multiple vCenter Server instances with one license key if the key has a capacity greater than one. When you apply a minor upgrade or patch the ESX/ESXi or vCenter Server software, you do not need to replace the existing license key with a new one. If you upgrade the edition of the license (for example, from standard to enterprise), you must replace the existing license key in the inventory with a new upgraded license key.
VMware Hardware Compatibility Guid VMware ESX/ESXi and vCenter Server Installation Guide Configuration Maximums Guide Product Documentation VMware Virtualization Toolkit
Objective 1.2 - Upgrade VMware ESX/ESXi
Written by Matthijs van den Berg Tuesday, 06 October 2009 13:26
Plan a VMware vSphere upgrade Backup/Restore ESX/ESXi host configuration Back Up ESX Procedure Back up the files in the /etc/passwd, /etc/groups, /etc/shadow, and /etc/gshadow directories. The /etc/shadow and /etc/gshadow files might not be present on all installations. Back up any custom scripts. Back up your .vmx files. Back up local images, such as templates, exported virtual machines, and .iso files. Back Up ESXi procedure Install the vSphere CLI. In the vSphere CLI, run the vicfg-cfgbackup command with the -s flag to save the host configuration to a specified backup filename. Example:
vicfg-cfgbackup --server <ESXi-host-ip> --portnumber <port_number> --protocol <protocol_type> --username username --password <password> -s <backup-filename>
Understand Virtual Machine backup options You can find more info here. There are several options to back-up your virtual machines. While migrating the underlaying ESX hypervisor backing up you VMs is essential. If for any reason your ESX hosts dies, cannot access the VM’s any more of cannot use them any more you need a valid roll-back scenario. Having a decent backup is an essential step here. Some back-up options are: Use VCB to back-up your VMs in combination with you back-up tools for File level backup Image level backups Use back-up agents in you Virtual Machines Shutdown the VM and copy the files Determine if existing hardware meets upgrade requirements Verify hardware against the VMware Hardware Compatibility Guide Before upgrading ESX it is essential to validate you hardware against the VMware Hardware Compatibility List (HCL). This ensures the correct function of the ESX OS on the hardware and ensures VMware support. You can find the HCL here: http://www.vmware.com/resources/compatibility/search.php. Understand VMware ESX/ESXi upgrade scenarios More info here. There are several way’s to upgrade you existing ESX infrastructure the vSphere / ESX 4. Besides wiping the system and starting over again with a fresh installation (what I think is not meant here) VMware provides several in place upgrade options. These options depend on the current version of ESX / vCenter you are running. When you upgrade from ESX 3.x/ESXi 3.5 to ESX 4.0/ESXi 4.0, you can use either the vSphere Host Update Utility or vCenter Update Manager. Host Update Utility This utility is intended for small deployments with fewer than 10 ESX/ESXi hosts and without vCenter Server or vCenter Update Manager. The utility includes a wizard that guides you through upgrades. While an upgrade is in progress, the utility provides visual status. Update Manager With Update Manager 4.0 you can perform orchestrated upgrades of hosts and virtual machines. Orchestrated upgrades allow you to upgrade all hosts in the inventory using host upgrade baselines. Orchestrated upgrades can be used to upgrade the virtual machine hardware and VMware Tools of virtual machines in the inventory at once, using baseline groups containing the VM hardware and / or VMware tools that match. Direct, in-place upgrade from ESX 2.5.5 to ESX 4.0 is not supported, even if you upgrade to ESX 3.x as an intermediary step. The default ESX 2.5.5 installation creates a /boot partition that is too small to enable upgrades to ESX 4.0. As an exception, if you have a non-default ESX 2.5.5 installation on which at least 100MB of space is available on the /boot partition, you can upgrade ESX 2.5.5 to ESX 3.x and then to ESX 4.0. The upgrade of ESX 2.5.5 to ESX 3.x requires the use of one of the following methods: Graphical upgrade from CD Text-mode upgrade from CD Tarball upgrade using the service console Scripted upgrade from CD or PXE server using esxupdate Scripted upgrade from CD or PXE server using kickstart commands Perform upgrade to ESX 4.0 Upgrade VMware ESX/ESXi Described at the previous bullet, use the tools provided to upgrade ESX, perform a fresh install, user the CD or a scripted install from a PXE server. Upgrade virtual machine hardware After you have upgraded the ESX server you VM’s are (probably) not automatically updates. You can update the VM’s by hand (right click the VM and select Upgrade Hardware) of use the update manager to automate this process. Remember that before upgrading the virtual hardware you MUST UPGRADE VMWARE TOOLS FIRST. The new VMware tools version holds new drivers for the upgraded hardware that are essential. I you fail to upgrade the VMware Tools you might loose network connectivity. Upgrading hardware requires the VM to be down / reboot. Upgrade VMware Tools Upgrading VMware Tools can be done by hand (use the VI-Client of from within the VM using the existing VMware tools) or automated using the Update Manager. Updating the VMware tools requires a restart of the server. This restart can be combined with the reboot / shutdown needed for the hardware update, however you cannot validate if the VMware tools install was successful before upgrading the Virtual Hardware.
however you cannot validate if the VMware tools install was successful before upgrading the Virtual Hardware. Verify success of upgrade Follow best practices when you install updates on hosts. To ensure that each update is successful, use the following strategy: After each update, test the system to ensure that the update was completed successfully. If the installation was unsuccessful, revert to the last good known image. See“RollBackanESXiUpdate, Patch, or Upgrade,” on page 83 and “Uninstall a Bundle from a Host,” on page 106. Understand upgrade roll back options When an upgrade fails there are roughly two way to go back to the previous situation: Rollback the upgrade using the provided tools (rollback-to-esx3 command of shift-r during boot for ESXi). Read the upgrade guide for detailed instructions. Remember that if you already upgraded your VMs this upgrade is not automatically rolled back, you need a pre-upgrade snapshop. All changes to the VM are also not rolled back. Perform a fresh install of the ESX operating system and restore a backup you created before. You can restore this backup using this procedure for ESX (http://www.vmware.com/pdf/esx3_backup_wp.pdf) and the procedure described in the upgrade guide for ESXi (vSphere CLI: vicfg-cfgbackup)
vSphere Host Update Utility vCenter Update Manager esxupdate
Objective 1.3 – Secure VMware ESX/ESXi
Written by Matthijs van den Berg Tuesday, 06 October 2009 15:07
Identify default security principles When installing ESX use security=high (default) Do not allow root level access over SSH and use secure commands Disable all unnecessary services in COS Use VCenter to help you manage granular security access Stay current with patches Control User Level access using VCenter Understand Service Console firewall operation By default all incoming connections to the service console port of an ESX server are blocked. A firewall on the ESX Server checks all incoming traffic and allows only traffic explicitly allowed in the firewall configuration. The firewall can be configured in two way’s, from the command line and from the vCenter GUI. Service Console Security Level The VMware firewall protecting the Service Console has three default security levels. The default in a standard install is high resulting in a fully firewalled (incoming and outgoing) environment. High Incoming ports blocked by default. Outgoing ports blocked by default. Medium Incoming ports blocked by default. Outgoing ports not blocked by default. Low Incoming ports not blocked by default. Low Outgoing ports not blocked by default. More info can be found here. Opening/Closing ports in the firewall using the vSphere Client The vSphere client can be used to open and close ports on a ESX host. To do so: Select you ESX host Go to the configuration tab Click “Properties” in the upper right corner of the screen. In the screen that opens you can select the ports to open. To open additional, non listed, ports you need to use the commandline.
Set up user/group accounts Because the chapter is about ESX / ESXi I presume setting up users and groups on the local ESX host is meant. Another way to authenticate user locally on a ESX host is to enable the AD authentication for local users. Read more here to add local users and groups Determine applications needed for accessing the service console in a given scenario To access the service console the are roughly two option, from the local terminal (monitor, Keyboard) or remote using a SSH (Secure Shell) Client. Linux and Mac OSX have a SSH client by default, for Windows Putty is a favored client for accessing SSH Servers. Before you can access a VMware ESX server with a remote client you need to explicitly allow access. Also an account to login needs to be created. Remote root access is disabled by default, but can be enabled. This however is not a best practice!!! The most secure way is to log in as a regular user and use sudo to execute priviledged commands.
vSphere Client ESX/ESXi Configuration Guides Product Documentation
Objective 1.4 – Install VMware ESX/ESXi on SAN Storage
Written by Matthijs van den Berg Wednesday, 07 October 2009 21:04
Configure LUN Masking LUN Masking is used to hide certain LUNs for the ESX hypervisor. All LUNs presented to the OS are under normal circumstances visible (assuming the LUNs are presented on the storage array). When installing ESX on a LUN you want to be sure you only see the partition you want to install ESX on, otherwise you risk overwriting valuable VMFS partition with VM’s. Hiding LUNs during installation is typically done on you storage array. To hide LUNs on ESX (not applicable during install): LUN masking has been changed since the ESX 3.x version. A new command is used:
esxcli corestorage claimrules convert
This new command allows you to (un)hide luns and the convert the previous LUN maksing used in pre ESX 4 servers to the new format. To add a new LUN masking to need to hide the LUN on every available path to the storage controller! This means that the underlaying command line needs to be executed for every path. The command to add a LUN is:
esxcli corestorage claimrule add -r <claimrule_ID> -t <type> <required_option> -P <MASK_PATH>
This and more examples can be found here. More information on how to migrate you existing pre ESX 4 LUN masking configuration to the new format can be found here on page 94. Prepare SAN To prepare the FC SAN: Connect the FC and Ethernet cables, referring to any cabling guide that applies to your setup. Check the FC switch wiring, if there is any. Configure the storage array. From the SAN storage array, make the ESX host visible to the SAN. (This is often referred to as creating an object.) From the SAN storage array, set up the ESX host to have the WWPNs of the host’s FC adapters as port names or node names. Create LUNs. Assign LUNs. Record the IP addresses of the FC switches and storage arrays. Record the WWPN for each SP and host adapter involved. Caution! If you use scripted installation to install ESX in boot from SAN mode, you need to take special steps to avoid unintended data loss. See the Hide
Boot your ESX system from the ESX installation CD. Use the cursor keys to select the chosen SP and press Enter. Depending on the vendor of the card they function of the BIOS may vary. Best practice is to set the /var/log to a separate partition. During the installation of ESX this LUN is visible to install ESX onto. Install VMware ESX/ESXi A detailed installation procedure can be found here. referring to any cabling guide that applies to your setup. the volumes are always presented as LUN 0. Record the iSCSI name and IP addresses of the targets assigned to the ESX host. Press Enter to open the Select Fibre Channel Device page. More info on the best practices: http://kb. If the SP has only one LUN attached. On some storage systems. Enable BIOS Instructions on how to enable the BIOS for Qlogic and Bootbios: Select Boot LUN If you are using an active/passive storage array. When you presented a LUN you need to enter the BIOS of the adaptor during boot time of the server and configure the LUN you wish to boot from. See VMware knowledge base article 1540. Configure the storage system. Tools FC SAN Configuration Guide iSCSI SAN Configuration Guide Product Documentation Objective 1. Use the cursor keys to select the first entry in the list of storage processors. and the CHAP authentication parameter you use on the ESX system. If you are not sure which SP is on the active path. Create a volume (or LUN) on the storage system for ESX to boot from. Press Esc twice to exit. This could involve updating ACLs with the IP addresses.5 – Identify vSphere Architecture and Solutions Written by Matthijs van den Berg Wednesday. in addition to providing access information for the ESX host.com/selfservice/microsites/search. Use the arrow keys to position to the selected LUN and press Enter. the Select LUN page opens. If the SP has more than one LUN attached. Configure FC or iSCSI HBA BIOS To boot from SAN you need fibre channel adaptors that support this option. use your storage array management software to find out. Specific instructions for a qLogic adaptor can be found here. it is selected as the boot LUN. iSCSI names. Determine boot LUN size in a given situation VMware recommends a partition of minimal 8 GB in size for the optional partitions. Configure the storage system so that the ESX system has access to the assigned LUN. Ensure IP connectivity between your storage system and server. The target IDs are created by the BIOS and might change with each reboot. Storage systems must be able to ping the iSCSI HBAs in your ESX hosts. you must also explicitly associate the assigned LUN with the host. More info in the VMware Storage guide. you must take special steps to avoid unintended data loss. To prepare the iSCSI SAN: Caution If you use scripted installation to install ESX when booting from a SAN. Ensure that no other system has access to the configured LUN. the selected SP must be on the preferred (active) path to the boot LUN.do?language=en_US&cmd=displayKC&externalId=1009080 FC or iSCSI HBA BIOS On dedicated Fibre channel and iSCSI cards a BIOS is available. Ensure that the LUN is presented to the ESX system as LUN 0. Connect network cables. In a hierarchy this looks like: Datacenter products VMware Infrastructure 3 VMware vSphere 4 . Press Enter to save the setting. On storage systems that present volumes as multiple targets rather than multiple LUNs. You must have this information to configure your iSCSI HBA. but mostly this BIOS is used to allow a server to boot from a SAN / NAS. Instruction for the Emulex adaptor can be found here. 07 October 2009 22:28 Knowledge Differentiate VMware platform products and editions VMware differentiated it’s product in roughly two categories with per category several area’s of attention and products. This includes proper configuration of any routers or switches on your storage network. position to those entries and press C to clear the data. you need to take special steps to avoid unintended data loss.vmware. The host can also boot from LUN 255. If any remaining storage processors show in the list. See the Hide LUN section above! Configure the HBA BIOS for boot from SAN.Caution! If you use scripted installation to install ESX in boot from SAN mode.
Life Cycle Manager This product allows you to deploy VM’s based upon a catalog to ensure consistency in VM deployment. please use the comment system and let’s get talking! Tools Introduction to VMware vSphere Guide Product Documentation VMware vSphere Editions Comparison Chart . VMware Lab Manager This product allows administrators in you organization to rapidly deploy test environments. Compare and contrast bare metal vs. Remember a lot is said about virtualization. and is no longer available as a separate product. This combination gives us the best performance (native) but when the OS has nothing to do. You can provide users with a per user virtual machine that they can work in. SRM. hosted architecture Virtualization allows you to run more operating systems on the same physical hardware resulting in a better utilized system. Your infrastructure has to be separated over two sites with a network and SAN replication in place. My estimation is that if you understand the basics of virtualization and can point out the differences between bare metal and virtualization this will do for the VCP exam. the server is not utilized. the classic method. View allows for easy management. The products make a fully redundant setup including the database. VMware View Not quite sure wheter this belongs into this list as VMware officially stated it as a Desktop product. Resources are managed by the hypervisor and divided over the guest. This hypervisor allows the installation of multiple OS’s on the same hardware platform. mainly targeted at large infrastructures that demand high availability. A predefined set of VM’s can be cloned to make a dedicated and clean environment used for development.VMware vSphere 4 VMware Server VMware ESXi (Free) Management products in the vCenter lineup VMware vCenter Server (formerly VMware VirtualCenter) VMware vCenter Server Heartbeat VMware vCenter Site Recovery Manager VMware vCenter Lab Manager VMware vCenter Chargeback VMware Data Recovery VMware vCenter Lifecycle Manager VMware vCenter Converter VMware vCenter AppSpeed (formerly B-hive Conductor) Desktop products Enterprise Desktop VMware View VMware ThinApp VMware MVP VMware ACE Consumer Desktop VMware Workstation VMware Fusion VMware Player (free) Understand the various datacenter solutions (View. When using bare metal. Again. less rackspace needed = lower costs). Google on internet to find out so much more you never thought it would fit on the net. The product can import a OS on a physical host to a VM including the installation of VMware Tools.) making this part redundant can be beneficial in certain environment. testing etc. Remember this product is for large implementations only and requires selected hardware and a carefully planned failover script. These additional software product can help you solve complex business cases. Since Lab Manager 4 Stage Manager is fully integrated. You can find more info here. Also VM’s from consumer products or from products of other vendors can be migrated to work on you infrastructure. etc. This product allows you to use you virtual infrastructure to host desktops: Virtual Desktop Infrastructure or VDI. Lab Manager. For some of these additional products I have written a short description: Site Recovery Manager This products helps you to get your virtual machines up and running really fast after a site failure. VMware Server Heartbeat The VMware server heartbeat product helps you to make your vCenter Server implementation completely redundant. You can make sure these VMs are compliant with your IT policy and reture VMs when necessary. VMware Converter VMware Converter allows you to migrate virtual and / or physical machines to you virtual infrastructure. licences etc. one OS is installed on one hardware platform. In most cases when the servers is under load the hardware is still not being utilized over 10%. These VMs can be based upon the production Virtual Machines. downsides etc. Virtualisation places multiple OSes on the virtualized hardware resulting in better utilized hardware and thus resulting in less hardware needed (lower power consumption. When your production site fails this product can start a script to mount the replicated SAN volumes. Because the Vmware vCenter Server is an important part of the vSphere infrastructure (takes care of DRS. manages the VM’s. If you disagree. Explain ESX/ESXi architecture VMware ESX(i) is based upon the virtualization concept of separating the operating system (OS) and the underlying hardware by placing a hypervisor in between. thin provisioning etc. add functionality of ensure your business is always on. etc. the benfits.) VMware has developed more and more products that add functionality or help providing more up-time to you infrastructure. change network addresses if needed and start the VMs in a predefined order.
Objective 2. This guide holds much more information in regards to the CLI. the others do not require switch configuration)) all traffic is distributed across the uploads resulting in more usable bandwidth. This Virtual switch is connected to the physical network as well as to other Virtual Switches via physical ethernet connections. Port groups are the virtual extension of VLANs. Whitin a vSwitch you can create a portgroup with a VLAN ID allowing only the traffic between that portgroup and the “physical” VLAN. Determine the appropriate vSwitch security policies in a given situation For the VCDX exam I have written some security riscs and defined how to combat those. When a NIC or uplink fails in a load balanced setup the remaining NIC handles all the traffic (after some detection and MAC address learning downtime) Failover Used with multiple NICs where only one NIC is active at a given time. There are several ways to configure multiple NIC’s. Create/Delete Virtual Switches A virtual switch can be added using the vCenter Client. This is used when there I no need for large bandwidth or the underlying network is not redundant or capable to support redundant uplinks. Please read here (second half). Virtual Switch Maximums Total virtual network switch ports per host (vDS and vSS ports): 4096 Virtual network switch ports per standard switch: 4088 Port groups per standard switch: 512 Standard switches per host: 248 More information about the networking introduction can be found here. The next screen shows: . MAC based or IP based (the last one requires a port channel on a physical switch. In the following bullets is described per teaming configuration in what situation it can be used: Load Balancing In a load balanced configuration multiple NICs are used to handle the traffic from a vSwitch. In regards to the vSwitch there are some configuration maximums: Physical hardware The maximum number of physical adaptors depends on the brand / model of adaptor you use. Determine the vSwitch NIC teaming policy in a given situation NIC teaming sets the NIC teaming policies for a vSwitch or an individual port group to share traffic load or provide failover in case of hardware failure. The best configuration depends on the situation you are in. Please see the configuration maximums guide on page 5 for more information. Knowledge Understand Virtual Switch and ESX/ESXi NIC and port maximums A Virtual Switch (vSwitch) is a switch that lives on a single ESX host. When a network error occurs on the active NIC the secondary NIC can take over. Based upon a distribution logic (like port based. All configuration maximums can be found here. If you need CLI command to perform you configuration please take a look at the Enterprise Administrator exam prep I have written. Login and follow the next steps: Select a ESX host Select the tab “Configuration” Select “networking” under hardware Click “Add Networking” in the upper right corner of the screen. 08 October 2009 23:06 Note: Though all / most of the commands in this section can be performed by as well the Grafical User Interface as the Command Line I will only work out the GUI part unless especially stated. and basic understanding (really helpful if you are a newbie) can be found here.1 – Configure Virtual Switches Written by Matthijs van den Berg Thursday. A vSwitch allows for many servers (via port groups) and uplinks to be connected. This is based upon the “Tools” section below every Objective stating the GUI much more often than the CLI.
Create Ports/Port Groups Besides adding Port Groups during the creation of a new vSwitch (like above) you can add them later. but there should be) you would like to use and click next. and click finish. Add a name and VLAN for a portgroup (or no VLAN of non are configured on you physical network).Select “Virtual Machine” and click next Select the NIC (non available in the example. check the config. (Normally you would still see the physical NICs on the right side in the preview pane) Click Next. To do so: Select a ESX host Select the tab “Configuration” Select “networking” under hardware Click “Properties” next to an existing vSwitch .
The new port group is now added. next Name the new port group. Assign Physical Adapters Select a ESX host Select the tab “Configuration Select “networking” under hardware Click “Properties” next to an existing vSwitch Select the tab “Network Adaptors” . next and Finish.Click on the “Add” button to add a portgroup Select “Virtial Machine” to add a portgroup for VMs. optionally set the VLAN ID.
Modify vSwitch security policy and VLAN settings Select a ESX host Select the tab “Configuration” Select “networking” under hardware Click “Properties” next to an existing vSwitch Select the “vSwitch” Click “Edit” Goto the tab “Security” .Click “Add” Follow the wizard to add a NIC to a vSwitch (you need a available NIC. a NIC currently not in use by another vSwitch) Modify vSwitch NIC Teaming and failover policies Select a ESX host Select the tab “Configuration” Select “networking” under hardware Click “Properties” next to an existing vSwitch Select the “vSwitch” Click “Edit” Goto the tab “NIC Teaming” Adjust the load balancing and / or failover setting to your needs.
To add a “VMkernel Port” you can use the Add a Port Group wizard described earlier. Tools ESX/ESXi Configuration Guides Product Documentation VMware vSphere Client Objective 2. Configure VMotion To configure VMotion you need to add a “VMkerel Portgroup” to one of you vSwitches (a dedicated vSwitch of a vSwitch with VLANs in where you VMotion network has it’s own VLAN). Knowledge . 09 October 2009 23:45 Note: I do not have a dvSwitch environment to make screenshots / test what I am writing here.Set the security policies to your needs. So what you read is from the manuals or from my brain….2 – Configure vNetwork Distributed Switches Written by Matthijs van den Berg Friday. When a manual is used you will find a link to it. When you already add a portgroup you may need to enable VMotion support on the portgroup. To do so: Select a ESX host Select the tab “Configuration” Select “networking” under hardware Click “Properties” next to an existing vSwitch Select your VMotion Port Group and click “Edit” Make sure the the “VMotion” checkbox is checked.
Add/Delete a VMkernel dvPort To configure read here on page 18. but is a longer process. However. just like the old fashioned per ESX host vSwitches a vNetwork Distributed Switch has it’s limits. Lets see: Total virtual network switch ports per host (vDS and vSS ports): 4096 Distributed virtual network switch ports per vCenter: 6000 Distributed port groups per vCenter: 512 Distributed switches per vCenter: 16 Hosts per distributed switch: 64 Take a good look at these figures. You need to link physical NICs to a dvSwitch on each ESX server that is using this dvSwitch. I think it is possible to mix vNetwork Distributed Switches with regular vSwitches. so any configuration change to a DV Port Group is reflected on all hosts covered by that vDS. a to an ESX host local switch. Hosts do not need to be in maintenance mode so VMs can be powered up during migration.html Create/Modify a vNetwork Distributed Switch Please read here on page 16.e. DV Port Groups span all the hosts covered by a vDS.2-install-and-configure-a-virtual-networking-infrastructure-to-meet-set-security-designrequirements. Read more here (second half). You need to have an Enterprise Plus license to be able to use the dvSwitch (the most expensive and feature rich version of ESX). I think that the NIC teaming and failover policy is done just like when handling a vSwitch. Determine the appropriate virtual port group security policies in a given situation This is about promiscuous mode. http://vmware. On the host you can specify on a per Distributed Port Group basis what port group uses what NIC.nl/vcdx/section-2-networking/objective-2. Forged Transmits. Host Profiles requires the target hosts to be in maintenance mode (i. but when implementing this for example for a hosting provider you need to take this into account. this dvSwitch has one configuration for all ESX hosts and allows for new features like network statistics that VMotion along with the host. You link the NIC’s to a vSwitch.Understand ESX Host and port maximums for dvSwitches A vNetwork Distributed Switch (further dvSwitch) is a virtual switch that spans multiple ESX hosts. so this one is done by head. These techniques allow you to make your infrastructure more secure.-) ) to create a virtual ESX environment for this with temporary keys. please fill me in! Determine the virtual port group NIC teaming and fail-over policy in a given situation Can’t seem to find what I need on the net.pdf Create/Modify Uplink Group settings DV Port Groups on vDS are configuration templates for a group of ports and have a similar function and purpose to Port Groups on a vSS. To configure read here on page 17. Create/Modify dvPort Group settings To configure read here on page 18. Tools ESX/ESXi Configuration Guides . Add an ESX/ESXi Host to a vNetwork Distributed Switch To configure read here on page 11. This means that PER vCenter there can be no more than 16 switches and no more than 512 port groups! If we compare this to the regular vSwitch we see that this allows for 248 switches PER HOST and 512 port groups PER SWITCH! Thus allowing for many more networks than a standard switch. If someone know this / is able to test this. A dvSwitch allows for a more granular loadbalancing policy allowing you to team all physical adaptors into one big trunk to the ESX host. For example you can assign a dedicated NIC for the Service Console needing only one NIC. and on the vSwitch you configure the failover policy. VMs powered down). because on a failure of the network connection a different NIC temporary will be used (take the performance penealty into account!). MAC address changes. but I was unable to test this due to the lack of the right license and the fact that I think it is too much work (sorry . http://b3rg.com/files/pdf/vsphere-vnetwork-ds-migration-configuration-wp. vDS UI and Host Profiles This uses a reference host template and is the recommended method for bulk vDS migration and deployment on hosts with inactive VMs. Unlike the previously covered vSwitch. When being realistic no “normal” implementation will exceed 512 portgroups per virtual Center. Migrate Virtual Machines to a vNetwork Distributed Switch The dvNetwork Migration and Configuration manual describes two separate methods of migrating to a dvSwitch vDS UI only This offers more per host control over migration.
When installing the ESX host you need to configure a SC with IP addresses. and later on you can add additional SCs. 12 October 2009 23:04 Knowledge Modify Service Console IP Settings The Service Console (SC) is a essential part of an ESX host to manage the system. A Service Console usually is a port group within a vSwitch.HyperVizor Objective 2.255. To add a Service Console Interface To change the IP settings of an existing Service Console You can change the addres and subnet of an existing service console.0 For ESXi you best use the GUI: Select a ESX host Select the tab “Configuration” Select “networking” under hardware Click “Properties” next to an existing vSwitch Select your VMotion Port Group and click “Edit” Select “Continue modifying this connection…” Select the tab “IP Settings” .3 – Configure VMware ESX/ESXi Management Network Written by Matthijs van den Berg Monday. For ESX you can type the command: esxcfg-vswif vswif0 -i 192.168. change a SC or delete an SC. but best is to limit the amount of traffic that this vSwitch has to handle.Product Documentation VMware vSphere Client Additional Links bij Matthijs vNetwork Distributed Switch Migration and Configuration The Greath vSwitch debate vSwitch architecture Disagram . This same vSwitch can be used for other networking issues as well.2 -n 255.255.1. Remember that when doing so you network connection will be terminated! Best is to do so from the console. for example no IP storage traffic if possible.
A correct IP routing / IP gateway is needed for you SC to be reachable from other IP subnets.com/thread/227140 This will protect you againt all the failures a second NIC will. Example: nameserver 192. and also helps to combat configuration issues you might have on the service console / service console IP settings. DNS – GUI To configure DNS settings via the GUI: Select a ESX host Select the tab “Configuration” Select “DNS and Routing” under “Software” Select “Properties” in the upper right corner Adjust the DNS servers and domain name(s) to your needs. Configure Service Console availability Service Console Availability can be configured in two way’s: You can assign multiple NIC’s to the vSwitch where the Service Console is running on. and Is required for a decent operation of techniques as HA and DRS. Both those settings can be configured from the GUI and the CLI. is essential.1 nameserver 195. The DNS will be used for resolving hostname. When wired adequately to different switches this will provide a level of high availability to you Service Console.Change the IP settings to you needs. preferable on virtual and physical different network segments. http://communities. including DNS resolvers and IP gateway. There are many good walkthroughs out there who can help you to configure this.conf This file holds the DNS servers for name resolution and the local domain name. Configure DNS and Routing settings for an ESX Host To make you Service Console work adequately and reachable setting up you IP settings.241. Read more here. DNS – Command line To change the DNS settings from the commandline: Edit the file /etc/resolv.77.55 search b3rg. wire and switch failure. This option has some more configuration as for the second SC a gateway has to be configured via the advanced network settings.local . It will protect you agains NIC. Remember network connectivity will probably be lost.1. The Second option is to create a second Service Console.168.vmware.
This of course depends on you SAN vendor. Adjust to your needs. Tools ESX/ESXi Configuration Guides Product Documentation VMware vSphere Client Objective 3. Apparently it is not possible to have a separate gateway for you Service Console and for IP based storage on ESXi (ESX should work). SAN Switches The SAN controller and the ESX hosts are connected by means of SAN switches. SAN switches only switch the FC protocol.1 – Configure FC SAN Storage Written by Matthijs van den Berg Wednesday. This means that if you would like to use IP based storage on ESXi you need an interface in the same subnet as you SC is. Zoning creates separate segments (like VLANs when compared to Ethernet switches) the separate the devices in the fabric (a fabric is a collection of a SAN controller. Read more here.More info and advance settings can be found here under “Configure Hostname Resolution”. 14 October 2009 23:56 Knowledge Identify FC SAN hardware components When you decide to use a SAN with you VMware environment first make sure that this particular SAN is on the Hardware Compatibility List (HCL). Routing – CLI VMware allows a default gateway for iSCSI. You can think of SAN switches like Ethernet switches. A SAN is build up out of several components: SAN Controller This is the controller that controls disk. Usually zoning is in place a SAN switch. You can set the VMkernel default gateway / gateway of last resort with the command: esxcfg-route <DefaultGatewayIP> You can add additional or specific routes with the following command: esxcfg-route -a default <Subnet> <GatewayIP> During some surfing on the web I found this forum posting on the VMware website. VMkernel and VMotion (when separated on different networks) but does not require one. Routing – GUI To configure DNS settings via the GUI: Select a ESX host Select the tab “Configuration” Select “DNS and Routing” under “Software” Select “Properties” in the upper right corner Select the tab “Routing” The SC default gateway is used for your service console. When using a redundant setup you usually have two fabrics. the VMkernel default gateway is used for you storage IP settings. creates LUN and presents these LUNs to your ESX hosts. The controller is managed from a web based console or by using a software suite. . but they cannot be mixed. read more here. SAN Switch and HBA on a single path.
More information on how to migrate you existing pre ESX 4 LUN masking configuration to the new format can be found here on page 94. When a LUN is presented to an ESX host it will be given a unique identifier existing of 4 digits separated by :. A storage array usually can present up to 256 LUNs per storage controller. Example. In the other editions you can do this manually. In vSphere enterprise plus you can use storage plugins from you vendor that will optimize multipathing for you. also the HBA has to be supported by VMware and be listed on the HCL. Channel. A new command is used: “esxcli corestorage claimrules convert”. Configuration of SAN LUNS is done from the Virtual Center or from the command line of the ESX host. This technique allows LUNs to be hided fromthe ESX host. Zoning is quite straight forward and allows a host based segmentation. Scan for new LUNs When new LUNs are presented from the storage controller to ESX hosts the ESX host needs to scan for LUNs before they are visible on the system. The command to add a LUN is: esxcli corestorage claimrule add -r <claimrule_ID> -t <type> <required_option> -P <MASK_PATH> This and more examples can be found here. LUN. When installing ESX on a LUN you want to be sure you only see the partition you want to install ESX on. To find this GUI Select a ESX host Select the tab “Configuration” Select “Storage Adaptors” Select you HBA Look at the “Runtime Name” CLI Open a Command line to you ESX server Type: esxcfg-mpath –l A large list of LUN details appear. In order these digits represent: Adapter. Hiding LUNs during installation is typically done on you storage array. To hide LUNs on ESX (not applicable during install): LUN masking has been changed since the ESX 3. Using multipathing can improve you SAN bandwidth with factor 4 (or more / less depending on the number of path to a storage array you have).x version. This new command allows you to (un)hide luns and the convert the previous LUN maksing used in pre ESX 4 servers to the new format. Do to so we use the GUI: Select a ESX host Select the tab “Configuration” Select “Storage Adaptors” Select the HBA to where the new LUNs are presented Click “Rescan” in the upper right corner . When a host can see a storage controller it can see all LUNs presented on that storage controller to the host. No LUN based granularity is possible. Again. To add a new LUN masking to need to hide the LUN on every available path to the storage controller! This means that the underlaying command line needs to be executed for every path. To combine those four to one usable path you need Multi Pathing (standard installed on ESX). 1:0:0:2. All LUNs presented to the OS are under normal circumstances visible (assuming the LUNs are presented on the storage array). Zoning makes segments on SAN switch that separate traffic and allows only hosts configured in that zone to see each other. LUN Masking LUN Masking u typically implemented on the ESX server. Describe ESX Server FC SAN storage addressing Storage on a FC SAN is presented to a ESX host as a LUN (Logical Unit Number). zoning and LUN Masking Zoning Zoning is a technique typically implemented on your SAN switches. This is default behaviour of many SANs including most HP EVA storage arrays. Target. Configure LUN masking LUN Masking is used to hide certain LUNs for the ESX hypervisor. otherwise you risk overwriting valuable VMFS partition with VM’s. Look at: Adapter: vmhba1 Channel: 0 Target: 0 LUN: 2 Describe the concepts of zoning and LUN masking To hide certain LUNs from the ESX hypervisor you can use two techniques.Host Bus Adaptor Within the ESX host a Host Bus Adaptor (HBA) is used to connect to the SAN switch. Identify how ESX Server connections are made to FC SAN storage When you have a SAN connection over two fabric and you SAN controller has two active controllers you have four paths to your storage.
Pluggable Storage Architecture (PSA). Fixed (Fixed) Uses the designated preferred path. A MPP is provided especially for one type of storage array by you vendor and can contain specific multipathing configurations the further improve performance. such as abort or reset of logical devices. If this path becomes unavailable. if it has been configured. Tools FC SAN Configuration Guide Product Documentation VMware vSphere Client Objective 3. Determine and configure the appropriate multi-pathing policy Multipathing is a technique to optimize the usage of all paths to a storage controller. registration. On ESXi. all paths will used in the round robin. VMware does not recommend changing the LUN policy from Fixed to MRU as this policy is based on the array that has been detected by the NMP PSP. If the ESX host cannot use the preferred path. Differentiate between NMP and third-party MPP The VMkernel multipathing plugin that ESX provides by default is the VMware Native Multipathing Plugin (NMP). This process van take a few minutes depending on you configuration. For Active/Active arrays. it uses the first working path discovered at system boot time. ESX uses a special VMkernel layer. This is the default policy for LUNs presented from an Active/Passive array. perform specific actions necessary to handle path failures and I/O command retries. For Active/Passive arrays. or use a vendor procides policy. SATPs and PSPs can be built-in and provided by VMware. Support management tasks. the default NMP. You can choose to use the default build in Native Multipathing Plugin. If you rescan a single adapter. Depending on a storage device.2 – Configure iSCSI SAN Storage Written by Matthijs van den Berg Wednesday. Process I/O requests to logical devices: Select an optimal physical path for the request. The multipathing modules perform the following operations: Manage physical path claiming and unclaiming. This is the default policy for LUNs presented from an Active/Active array. 14 October 2009 22:28 Knowledge Identify iSCSI SAN hardware components Like a Fibre channel SAN a iSCSI SAN is build up out of three components (normal setup). Associate physical paths with logical devices. or can be provided by a third party. and deregistration of logical devices. To manage storage multipathing. These only apply to VMware's Native Multipathing (NMP) Path Selection Plugins (PSP). Switching to Round Robin is safe and supported for all arrays. it is not possible to rescan a single storage adapter.Optionally adjust where to scan for Click OK to start scanning. Round Robin (RR) Uses an automatic path selection rotating through all available paths and enabling the distribution of the load across the paths. We find: . The native pathing policies that can be used with ESX 4 are: Most Recently Used (MRU) Selects the first working path discovered at system boot time. only the paths to the active controller will used in the round robin. a third party can also provide an Mulitple Multipathing Plugin (MPP) to run in addition to. The ESX host automatically reverts back to the preferred path as soon as the path becomes available. The PSA is an open modular framework that coordinates the simultaneous operation of multiple multipathing plugins (MPPs). This policy is not currently supported for LUNs that are part of a Microsoft Cluster Service (MSCS) virtual machine. the ESX host switches to an alternative path and continues to use the new path while it is available. Manage creation. If more multipathing functionality is required. or as a replacement for. There are two types of NMP subplugins Storage Array Type Plugins (SATPs) Selection Plugins (PSPs). Third party PSPs have their own restrictions. Otherwise. all adapters are rescanned. it selects a random alternative available path. The NMP is an extensible module that manages subplugins.
Because the handling of IP packets is not done on the system processor. but on the iSCSI hardware initiator. Determine use cases for hardware vs. Switch The iSCSI target is connected to the network. it sends the Send Targets request to the server. but using a VLAN is possible as well. In this case. This can only be done from the Command Line. a dedicated switch with jumbo frame support is recommended. that the initiator and target share. To check if the VMkernel interface is jumbo frames enabled: esxcfg-vmknic -l Configure Dynamic/Static Discovery Dynamic Discovery With Dynamic Discovery. The verification is based on a predefined private value. enable Jumbo Frames Jumbo Frames must be enabled for each vSwitch through the vSphere CLI. Configure CHAP Authentication CHAP uses a three-way handshake algorithm to verify the identity of your host and. Static Discevery With iSCSI initiators. You can find all about multipathing here op page 33. For software . Best is to use a dedicated NIC. properties Click the tab “Dynamic Discovery” or “Static Discovery” and add a server or target. Both will do the job.iSCSI Target This is the controller of the disk and the device that converts the undelaying disk technology (for example SCSI) to iSCSI traffic on a network. Minimum speed must be gigabit. if applicable. Hardware iSCSI initiator The hardware initiator allows for some extra functionality and less of a performance penalty on the system processor than the software initiator. To set-up the discovery: Select a ESX host Select the tab “Configuration” Select “Storage Adaptors” Select the iSCSI Initiator. Also hardware initiators allow a boot from iSCSI SAN setup. in addition to the dynamic discovery method. A regular ethenet switch can be used. If needed. of the iSCSI target when the host and target establish a connection. you can use static discovery and manually enter information for the targets. activate multipathing on your host using the port binding technique. On this host a software of hardware iSCSI initiator can be installed. Generally only the most demanding setups require a hardware initiator but in those environments a fibre channel SAN is another way to go. or CHAP secret. ESX/ESXi supports CHAP authentication at the adapter level. Also. you must create a VMkernel network interface enabled with Jumbo Frames. but a dedicated VLAN. software iSCSI initiators You can use both a hardware as well as a software iSCSI initiator within VMware. but there are some differences: Software iSCSI initiator The software iSCSI initiator uses code from the vmkernel and requires only regular NIC’s in you ESX host. if you use an ESX host. all targets receive the same CHAP name and secret from the iSCSI initiator. The main benefits of an iSCSI software initiator is the low cost (regular NIC of VLAN) that provides most of the functionality needed for most of the environments. or even better. iSCSI initiator The iSCSI initiator is the ESX host. The iSCSI initiators talk to the iSCSI target over this network layer. The server responds by supplying a list of available targets to the initiator. each time the initiator contacts a specified iSCSI server. To set the MTU size for the vSwitch vicfg-vswitch -m <MTU> <vSwitch> To check if the creation succeded successfully you can use the command: vicfg-vswitch -l To create a Jumbo frames enabled VMkernel interface: esxcfg-vmknic -a -I <ip address> -n <netmask> -m <MTU> <port group name> Make sure that you use the Jumbo frames enable vSwitch to create the VMkernel interface in. Read further down for a comparison between the softand hardware initiators. Configure the iSCSI Software Initiator When you need a iSCSI software initiator you need to: Create a VMkernel port for physical network adapters Select a ESX host Select the tab “Configuration” Select “Networking” Select “Add Networking” Select “VMkernel” Select “Create a virtual switch” Select “Select the NICs Go to “Port Group Properties” and enter a friendly name under Network label Enter the IP settings Finish Enable the software iSCSI initiator Select a ESX host Select the tab “Configuration” Select “Storage Adaptors” Select the iSCSI Initiator Select properties Click “Enabled” If you use multiple network adapters.
naming-authority:unique name yyyy-mm is the year and month when the naming authority was established. Identify iSCSI addressing in the context of the host Not really sure if they mean IP addressing or iSCSI naming here.3 – Configure NFS Datastores Written by Matthijs van den Berg Thursday. maintained by vmware.vmware. a . Configure VMkernel port binding for iSCSI Software multi-pathing When there are two or more NICs available for iSCSI you can configure multipathing for redundancy and performance purposes. which allows you to configure different credentials for each target to achieve greater level of security. unique name is any name you want to use. because without it. For example. The naming authority must make sure that any names assigned following the colon are unique. and iscsi is a subdomain.com.vmware.iscsi. naming-authority is usually reverse syntax of the Internet domain name of the naming authority.vmware. In one-way CHAP. the iscsi. I have found this on ESX Configurate Guide . the target authenticates the initiator. In mutual CHAP. both the target and initiator authenticate each other. 15 October 2009 15:41 Knowledge Identify the NFS hardware components To be able to add NFS datastores to your configuration you need an infrastructure that supports NFS. IN regards to IP addressing. The name indicates that the vmware.com domain name was registered in January of 1998.com. for example. Discover LUNs When you have added the iSCSI initiator and added an iSCSI target you can start discovering targets: Select a ESX host Select the tab “Configuration” Select “Storage Adaptors” Click “Rescan” in the upprt right corner of the screen. all targets receive the same CHAP name and secret from the iSCSI initiator. ESX/ESXi also supports per-target CHAP authentication.ESX/ESXi supports CHAP authentication at the adapter level. For software iSCSI. The following componets must be in place: NFS Share / server Switch VMkernel interface for NFS support Explain ESX exclusivity for NFS mounts Added via commend system by Carole (THNX!): Concerning "Explain ESX exclusivity for NFS mounts".com. determine whether to configure one-way or mutual CHAP.99 : CAUTION When your host accesses a virtual machine disk file on an NFS-based datastore. To do so please read here on page 32 and 33. Before setting up CHAP parameters for software iSCSI. Do not remove the . the name of your host.vmware. such as: iqn.yyyy-mm.com.com. Configure ESX/ESXi network connectivity to the NAS device For the connectivity to a NFS device you need the same network configuration as you would for iSCSI. 1998-01. In this case. the running virtual machine cannot access its virtual disk file.1998-01.iscsi:name999 Tools iSCSI SAN Configuration Guide Product Documentation VMware vSphere Client esxcli Objective 3.iscsi:name2 iqn. To do so: Create a VMkernel port for physical network adapters Select a ESX host Select the tab “Configuration” Select “Networking” Select “Add Networking” Select “VMkernel” Select “Create a virtual switch” Select “Select the NICs .vmware.1998-01.lck-XXX lock file is generated in the same directory where the disk file resides to prevent other hosts from accessing this virtual disk file. Important: when you would like to configure multipathing for iSCSI you must connect the iSCSI software initiator to the VMkernel ports.iscsi:name1 iqn. make sure that the iSCSI initiator can reach the iSCSI target. Make sure to use different secrets for CHAP and mutual CHAP.com naming authority could have the iSCSI qualified name form of iqn. a VMkernel interface. This can be done only by hand via the ESXCLI.1998-01. Hardware iSCSI does not support mutual CHAP. For iSCSI naming iSCSI qualified names take the form iqn.p.lck-XXX lock file.
4 – Configure and Manage VMFS Datastores Written by Matthijs van den Berg Thursday.Go to “Port Group Properties” and enter a friendly name under Network label Enter the IP settings Finish Create an NFS Datastore Select a ESX host Select the tab “Configuration” Select “Storage” Click “Add storage” in the upper right corner Select the bullet “Network File System”. 15 October 2009 15:43 Knowledge Identify VMFS file system attributes You can lookup the VMFS file system attributes from the command line. In no particular order: . Objective 3.4 GB available. 359.33 file system spanning 1 partitions.vmdk and a example output: VMFS-3. vmkfstools -P -h <VMDK FILE NAME> for example: vmkfstools -P -h /vmfs/volumes/AOPSY001/TST001/TST001. next Fill in the required fields and finish the wizard. this needs an block I/O device (iSCSI / FC) Tools ESX/ESXi Configuration Guides Product Documentation VMware vSphere Client Matthijs' Links Some people are very enthusiastic about running VMs on NFS. Some more by Matthijs You cannot run MSCS on NFS.600508b300906430a44f208f2ba60007:1 Determine the appropriate Datastore location/configuration for given virtual machines When you create a Virtual machine there are a couple of consideration to make when creating the vDisk.2 GB. file block size 4 MB UUID: 4a6f26bb-33aca892-7b43-0024817ebe6b Partitions spanned (on "lvm"): naa. File system label (if any): AOPSY001 Mode: public Capacity 931.
just told you guys. In vSphere there are four types of controllers you can choose from: BUSLogic Parallel LSI Logic Parallel LSI Logic SAS VMware Paravirtual What controller you choose depends on you OS and performance needs. But because Copy Past is really fast….) is present and visible to the ESX host you can add it to the “Storage” view by: Select a ESX host Select the tab “Configuration” Select “Storage” Click “Refresh” in the upper right corner After de refresh the disk should appear. accessed over different paths to the storage controller (or even on different storage controllers!) this can improve the performance of a VM. Especially when these volumes are separate RAID sets and even better. Create/Configure VMFS Datastores Before you try to add storage according to the following procedure. Manage VMFS Datastores Group/Unmount/Delete Datastores When a datastore is decommissioned you can delete a datastore from the storage view.: If you have a VM with multiple disks you can spread those disk over multiple VMFS volumes. but also the controller that has the least number of operating systems that it is supported on. In general the VMware Paravirtual is the fastesed controller you can choose. Thin will use only the size that is actually use within the Virtual Machine. first check: Are the LUNs / targets presented on the storage controller? Is the zoning / LUN Masking configured correctly Are the HBA’s / VMkernel interfaces configured correctly Did you scan for new LUNs / targets after they where presented? To create a VMFS Datastore using the vSphere client: Select a ESX host Select the tab “Configuration” Select “Storage” Click “Add storage” in the upper right corner Follow the wizard for your type of storage Attach existing Datastore to new ESX host If an existing datastore (formatted etc. Select a ESX host Select the tab “Configuration” Select “Storage” . accessed over different paths to the storage controller (or even on different storage controllers!) this can improve the performance of a VM. Spread the disks If you have a VM with multiple disks you can spread those disk over multiple VMFS volumes.Thick or thin When you create a disk or clone a VM from template you can choose if you would like the disk you will be creating to be thick or thin provisioned. Think means that the complete size of the disk will be reserved on the storage array. SCSI Controller Type You can change the SCSI controller type in the properties of the VM. Especially when these volumes are separate RAID sets and even better. SCSI Bus Sharing This defines if is disk can be used by one VM or by more than one VM the options are: None Disk is for one VM only Virtual Disk can be shared by VMs on the same ESX host Physical Disk can be shared by VMs on different ESX hosts Determine use cases for multiple VMFS Datastores Oops.
however a 64 bit server is always recommended. VMware stated those maximums in a document that you can find here. Because the is the vCenter chapter I have summarized some of the vCenter maximums: Item Max. This document states all the configuration maximums in regards to ESX hosts. but there are maximums. Grow VMFS volumes To increase the size of a VMFS datastore: Select a ESX host Select the tab “Configuration” Select “Storage” Right click the datastore that you need to encrease Click on the “Increase” button and follow the wizard.Right Click the datastore you would like to delete and confirm. 15 October 2009 22:13 Knowledge Identify hardware requirements The hardware requirements for a vCenter Server depend on the number of ESX hosts and Virtual Machines you plan to deploy in that environment. VMware has made some estimation on the hardware requirements based on the number of VMs and ESX host: Up to 200 ESX hosts a 32 bit can be sufficient. Tools ESX/ESXi Configuration Guides Product Documentation VMware vSphere Client Objective 4.1 – Install vCenter Server Written by Matthijs van den Berg Thursday. resource pools. ESX hosts on 32 bit vSphere 200 . Above 200 ESX hosts a 64 bit server is required. VMs. Up to 50 ESX hosts and 250 VMs 2 CPUs 4 GB RAM 3GB Disk Space Up to 200 hosts and 2000 VMs 4 CPUs 4 GB RAM 3GB Disk Space Up to 300 hosts and 3000 VMs 4 CPUs 8 GB RAM 3GB Disk Space Understand configuration maximums As most of you know the vSphere environment can handle a lot. etc.
VMs on 32 bit vSphere (powered on / registered) 2000 / 3000 ESX hosts on 64 bit vSphere 300 VMs on 64 bit vSphere (powered on / registered) 3000 / 4500 Linked vCenters 10 Concurrent vSphere Clients (32 / 64 bit) 15 / 30 ESX hosts / datacenter 100 Concurrent (storage) VMotions (Host / Datastore) 2/4 Concurrent operations per vCenter Read more about the configuration maximums of vCenter here on page 6. There are four levels in where level 1 is the lowest level and leven 4 is the highest level loggin nearly anything on the system. Determine database size requirements The size of the vCenter database is mainly determined by the amount of performance statistics collected. This is a settings that you can set. . This ensures not only that the service is running on two sites but also that the configuration is replicated. Provides powerful management tools for smaller environments (up to three vSphere hosts) looking to rapidly provision. To change this setting and see the DB size estimate: Goto the menu item “Administration”. VMware vCenter Server Foundation. Provides large scale management of vSphere deployments for rapid provisioning. I have thought about this for a number of scenario’s: One site. 96 Determine availability requirements for a vCenter server in a given situation VMware vCenter is the hard of the Virtual infrastructure. orchestration and control of virtual machines. Despite the fact that you infrastructure can run without a VC for a while it is best for management and features like DRS to have a vCenter. In the past VMware delivered a excel sheet to calculate the estimated MS SQL Server database size but in the new vSphere version this is being calculated in realtime in the GUI. Determine appropriate vCenter Server edition vCenter comes in different flavors. Enabling HA on you cluster will increase the availability of the vCenter Server in case of a ESX host crash. monitoring. monitor and control virtual machines. “vCenter Server Settings” Click “Statistics” Choose a interval duration and click “Edit” When the interval in selected the DB size is shown. Integrated into the vSphere Essentials and Essentials Plus editions for small office deployments. more host and high available demands When the demands for availability are higher of DRS must almost always work you can increase the availability of a vCenter by running it: In a MSCS environment (not officially supported?) In vCenter Linked mode By enabling “Fault Tolerance” for the VM vCenter on more than one site When you have more than one site you best run vCenter in linked mode. VMware vCenter Server for Essentials. VMware vCenter Server Standard. When is change the five minute interval from log level 1 to four the DB size estimate goes from 15 GB to roughly 44 GB! Wow! And I did not even change the save period from the default of one day. One site. limited number of hosts When you run vCenter on one host with a limited number of ESX hosts and limited uptime demands you can install the vCenter Server in a VM. When you click edit you can change the level.
for example on site A. Each vCenter Server must have it own database. Read more here on page 103. Ensure permissions to install plug-ins This was a really pain in the ass. VMware recommends a separate database for the vCenter Server and for the vCenter Update Manager. The installer is in the Virtual Center installation media and you can select this during the installation wizard. It allows you to select physical servers and convert them using a wizard to a virtual machine. So I think the best way to deny access is not to install the plug-in on the host system. you can connect to the linked server on site B to continue working. the EXE file can run directly on a OS but has to be copied there. It is not an option in de roles menu. vCenter Update Manager The Update Manager allows you to update you infrastructure. Read more here on page 83. To install plug-ins: Select “Plug-ins”. however those database can be on the same SQL Server (if that is the best approach…I don’t know. the plug in menu etc.” from the vCenter client menu Install plug-ins to your needs vCenter Guided Consolidation The Guided Consolidation plug-in is the P2V plug-in.-) ). When one server fails. These are both VMware as third party supplied and add extra functionality. The plug-in is available if the Update Manager is installed. To do so: open the Plug-in Manager Right click a installed plug-in . Install vCenter Server using downloaded installer VMware allows you to download the vCenter installation media as a EXE file of as an ISO file. If anybody knows a better way. Tools ESX/ESXi and vCenter Server Installation Guides Product Documentation Database Sizing Tool/Calculators Objective 4. to see what database you would like to use etc. To disable this I think the best way is to use Windows user permissions. Read here. vCenter Converter The Converter allows you to convert existing VM Backups.Prepare/Configure vCenter Server database How to prepare your database highly depends on your installation. When running into those limits adding additional vCenter servers can increase those configuration maximums. The number of ESX hosts can grow up to a 1000 and the number of powered on VM can be 10. I think it is quite obvious that when you install the Update Manager that that Update Manager plug-in is the associated plug-in to install. “Manage Plug-ins. This plug-ins has to be installed explicitly. including updates to third party guest operating systems. The ISO file can be mounted or burned to DVD. chapter 10. Reasons to do so can be: Availability When you link vCenter servers those servers can manage the entire infrastructure. VMs and physical machines to a virtual server. Configuration maximums The number of ESX hosts.. I cannot find any User Access Control method of denying users access to plug-ins.2 – Manage vSphere Client plug-ins Written by Matthijs van den Berg Friday. During the initial release the plug-ins worth mentioning are: vCenter Guided Consolidation vCenter Update Manager vCenter Converter vCenter Storage Monitor (default) vCenter Hardware status (default) vCenter Service Status (default) Determine required plug-ins for a given application Not really quite sure what is meant here (again . 16 October 2009 12:25 Knowledge Identify available plug-ins The number of plug-ins can very with the exact release of vSphere.000! You can link a maximum of 10 vCenter servers. You have to download and install the converter. Determine use case for vCenter Linked Mode Groups VMware vCenter linked mode allows you to link vCenter installations. Install additional modules VMware allows fro plug-ins into the vCenter client. VMs and users per vCenter server is limited. please contact me or leave a message in the commend system! Enable plug-ins after installation When I plug-in is installed you need to enable it. but don’t think so).
To do so: Go to the vSphere client and right click on your cluster .3 – Configure vCenter Server Written by Matthijs van den Berg Sunday.Click “Enable” to enable the plug-in. Join ESX/ESXi Hosts to vCenter Server When you have installed an ESX host you can add this to the vSphere environment by adding it to the vCenter Server. ESX hosts on 32 bit vSphere 200 VMs on 32 bit vSphere (powered on / registered) 2000 / 3000 ESX hosts on 64 bit vSphere 300 VMs on 64 bit vSphere (powered on / registered) 3000 / 4500 Linked vCenters 10 Concurrent vSphere Clients (32 / 64 bit) 15 / 30 ESX hosts / datacenter 100 Concurrent (storage) VMotions (Host / Datastore) 2/4 Concurrent operations per vCenter 96 Read more about the configuration maximums of vCenter here on page 6. Item Max. another list of figures that made the VCP 3 exam so famous. 18 October 2009 21:43 Knowledge Identify the vCenter Server managed ESX Hosts and Virtual Machine maximums Here we go again. Tools ESX/ESXi and vCenter Server Installation Guides Product Documentation vSphere Client Objective 4.
Configure Guest OS Customization When deploying OSes from a template you can use a Customization file to quickly deploy VMs in the same way. To open the Customization Specifications Manager select the menu as displayed below. and create complete new ones. In general there are two ways to start the wizard: Deploy from template When you right click a template en choose “Deploy Virtual Machine from this template…” you automatically start a wizard to deploy a VM from template. Customization Specifications Manager After you have created a VM specification and saved this you can view and edit those. Remenber that you need the MS sysprep files for Windows Server 2003 / XP /2000 customization. A part of this wizard is a separate wizard to start the customization of the OS. Here you can create new specifications. using the Customization Specifications Manager.In the menu that pop’s up click “Add Cluster” Follow the wizard to add a ESX host. manage existing ones and import specifications. .
Folders are visible only in the “VMs and Templates” view. Configure/Use Resource Maps A resource map shows how different resources are connected to each other. For both folders and datacenters it is possible to set user rights to allow of disallow certain users certain actions. Configure/Use Scheduled Tasks You can create scheduled tasks to automate certain tasks in you vSphere environment. To open the events: “Management” “Events” Configure vCenter Server settings vCenter Server settings can be viewed and edited via the vSphere client. VM and storage goto the tab datastores to see the datastores on the ESX hosts and the amount of storage that is used. Goto: “Administration” in the menu bar Select “vCenter Server Settings…” . Please note that you cannot use VMotion to live migrate VMs from onw DC to another You must use Clusters or a smaller instance to separate VMs if you need VMotion.Use datacenters and folders to organize the environment In vCenter there are quite some possibilities to organize your environment. “Scheduled Tasks” to open the Scheduled tasks Right click “New” in the upper left corner of the window Choose a task that fits your needs. To open Maps choose: “Management” “Maps” Example output: Use Storage Reports/Storage Maps To open storage information including Maps choose: “Inventory” “Datastores” goto the tab Maps to see the connections between ESX hosts. Follow the per task wizard that pops up. In the “Hosts and Clusters” and the “VMs and Templates” view you can create datacenters. View/Manage Events In the eventlog all events are logged including the person who initiated the event (another reason for decent delagation of conrol!). Folders are created within Datacenters. To do so: Goto “Management”. You can create nested folder structures you separate VMs. These can represent physical datacenters in your IT environment.
only the privileges and roles assigned through the vCenter Server system are available. If you connect directly to the host using the vSphere Client. 21 October 2009 00:32 Knowledge Create/Modify user permissions in vCenter VMware vCenter has quite a advanced Delegation of Control system.Configure vSphere Client settings vCenter Client settings can be viewed and edited via the vSphere client. It allows for users to be created and a per user or per group delegation of access rights. Goto: “Edit” in the menu bar Select “Client Settings…” Tools vSphere Basic System Administration Guide Product Documentation vSphere Client Objective 4. only the privileges and roles assigned directly on the host are available. Also you can use your active directory users in VC. To create / .4 – Configure Access Control Written by Matthijs van den Berg Wednesday. When you manage a host using vCenter Server.
If you connect directly to the host using the vSphere Client. You can edit the user permissions to your needs. Create/Modify user permissions in ESX Server The privileges and roles assigned on an ESX/ESXi host are separate from the privileges and roles assigned on a vCenter Server system. To edit local users and groups on a ESX host connect you vCenter client directly to the ESX host instead of connecting to the vCenter server (type the ESX hostname in the vCenter client connection box and use root or a later created user to log-in). you can: Open the vCenter client In the navigation bar choose “Administration”. only the privileges and roles assigned directly on the host are available. called Roles in vCenter. To create / modify user permissions. Then: Select the ESX host Select the tab “Users and Groups” Right click to add or edit users Read more here on page 213. only the privileges and roles assigned through the vCenter Server system are available. only the privileges and roles assigned directly on the host are available. . Read more here on page 213.using the vSphere Client. Also you can use your active directory users in VC. When you manage a host using vCenter Server. and “Roles” Right Click in the left “Name” pane and select “Add” or “Edit” to add or edit user roles.
Read more here on page 213. groups. If you would like to add users with certain permission to the whole infrastructure select the highest level in the vCenter hierarchie. preferably groups that also exist in the Active Directory (if one is present). By applying a Role for the users you can control what users are allow to do within that folder. roles and rights policy in vCenter is quite advanced. To add users and roles: Select the tab “Permission” Right click and select “Add Permission…” Add a user of group and select the appropriate Role. Understand permissions as applied to user and group combinations You can assign the same permissions to groups and individual users. When you create a privilege all those VMs and resource pools inherit the same policy. Within this resource pool multiple VMs and other resource pools are present. Restrict access to vCenter inventory objects The users. Create/Clone Edit roles The roles we have been talking about earlier can be modified and new roles can be added. This allows for a granular user and object access. add a user group to this role and connect that user group to an inventory object in vCenter. Example. Those users and groups can have different roles on different objects within you vSphere environment. you have a resource pool. deselect the “Propagate to Child Objects” check box if you need user rights only on the object and not on underlying objects. 26 October 2009 14:22 . “Roles” Right click a role to edit or add Assign roles to users and groups To assign users to a role an object where the users and roles are assigned to is needed. To attach a Define vCenter predefined roles and their privileges vSphere comes standard with a number of preconfigured security roles.1 – Create and Deploy Virtual Machines Written by Matthijs van den Berg Monday. Describe how privileges propagate When a Role and user are assigned to an object these Users and Roles propagate to underlying objects. Tools vSphere Basic System Administration Guide Product Documentation vSphere Client Objective 5. Users can be added to these standard roles to quickly give them predefined privileges. To do so: Use the navigation bar to go to “Administration”. Personally I never assign individual users rights. This can make the permissions part VERY COMPLEX! So be conservative with user rights. but always use groups. You can create a role that specifies what users / groups in that role are allowed to do. To disable this propagation disable the checkbox “Propagate to Child Objects” in the assign permissions screen. For example if you would like your R&D department to access only VMs in the Folder R&D you attach the R&D user group (that can be the same user group that you use in your active directory!) to that folder. The standard roles within vCenter are: Select the object you would like to apply the user rights on Goto the tab Permissions Right click and select “Add” Select the role you would like to assign in the right pane Select the local or AD user / user group you would like to assign Optionally. This is default behavior. So one user can sometimes be part of a group and sometimes have permission assigned to the individual user.
LSI Logic SAS LSI Logic SAS is available only for virtual machines with hardware version 7. LSI Logic Parallel This is the default adaptor when a VM is created (for most OSes). 512 bytes IDE Controller / Devices 1/4 Virtual NICs 10 Parallel ports 3 Serial Ports 4 VMDirectPath PCI / PCIe Devices 2 VMDirectPath SCSI targets 60 Number of remote console connections 40 Create a virtual machine Determine appropriate SCSI adapter When creating or edititng a VM you can choose from several types of SCSI adaptors. Paravirtual SCSI adapters are best suited for high performance storage environments. These tools provide you with the optimal driver set for the virtualized hardware. Paravirtual SCSI adapters are not suited for DAS environments. Item Max. Paravirtual SCSI adaptor Paravirtual SCSI (PVSCSI) adapters are high-performance storage adapters that can result in greater throughput and lower CPU utilization. Create a RAW Device Mapping This allows you to directly connect to a SAN / NAS LUN. The format of the disk in not VMFS but OS specific and allows for clustering across boxes (both a physical and virtual node participate in a OS level cluster). Max. Those are: Buslogic Parallel Older guest operating systems default to the BusLogic adapter. CPUs 8 Max. When you have created Use an existing Virtual Disk This option allows you to attach a previously created virtual disk to the VM. The most recent virtual hardware.Knowledge Understand virtual machine hardware maximums A virtual machines can handle the values as described in the following table. Disks with snapshots might not experience performance gains when used on LSI Logic SAS and LSI Logic Parallel adapters. Determine Virtual Disk type When creating a Virtual Machine there are the following options in regard to disk types: Create a Virual Disk The standard option is to create a new vDisk that you can use in the VM. VMware recommends that you create a primary adapter (LSI Logic by default) for use with a disk that will host the system software (boot disk) and a separate PVSCSI adapter for the disk that will store user data. Please note that these maximums can depend on the VMware version you are using. RAM 255 GB SCSI adaptors 4 SCSI Targets per adaptor / VM 15 / 60 Disk Size / VM 2 TB min. To create a template: Create a VM like you normally would but use general settings (no specific hardware etc. Do not create a disk Install/Upgrade/Configure VMware Tools When you have a running VM best practice is to install the VMware tools. Those templates can be used to VMs from. “Install/Upgrade VMware Tools” Another option is to use the Update Manager to upgrade VMware tools Create/Convert templates It is possible to create template from VMs. such as a database. for example the VMXnet 3 adaptor needs those tools to be installed before it is usable in the OS (driver).) When you have installed the OS and the VMware tools and other general software shutdown the VM . To install VMware tools: Right click a VM in the vCenter client Choose “Guest”.
Deploy a virtual machine using VMware vCenter Converter Enterprise VMware Converter is available in two editions. and create complete new ones. the intergrated version is free only when you have valid vSphere licences. Customize Windows/Linux virtual machines When using supported MS Windows or Linux guest OSes you can use a wizard to create a VM from a template. Deploy a virtual machine from a template Explained two bullits above. To open the Customization Specifications Manager select the menu as displayed below. “Clone to Template” (can be done when VM is powered on. changing the name of the VM. The Standalone version is free.Right click the VM and choose “Template”. performance analysis. source VM stays as a VM) or “Convert to Template” (only available when VM is off. conversion and intelligent placement on the right host Perform Discovery Analyze discovered virtual machines Consolidate selected virtual machines Clone a virtual machine To clone a VM: Right click a VM in the vSphere client Select “Clone” ::::Desktop:CloneVM. VM will be converted to template.). Perform a Hot Clone Perform a Cold Clone Perform System Reconfiguration Deploy a virtual machine using Guided Consolidation a module within vCenter Server. This wizard assists you in some basic configuration steps like assigning a IP. walks you step by step through the consolidation process including automatic discovery of up to 500 servers. etc. VMware Converter Standalone and VMware Converter Integrated (I could not find a “Enterprise” version for vSphere… So let’s presume that the Integrated version is meant here). using the Customization Specifications Manager.png Follow the wizard to create a clone of the selected VM Import a virtual machine from a file/folder You can import VMs that all ready exist on a datastore: Select an ESX host Select the tab “Configuration” Select the Hardware option “Storage” Right click a datastore and select “Browse Datastore…” Select a VMX file to import a VM Follow the wizard Tools . ::::Desktop:CustMan. Manage Customization Specifications After you have created a VM specification and saved this you can view and edit those. manage existing ones and import specifications. To start the customization wizard: Right click a template and select “Deploy a Virtual Machine from the template” Follow the wizard that appears. Before you can use those tools some OSes (like 2003) need the sysprep tools installed on the vCenter server. ::::Desktop:DeployTemplate.png One of the last steps of the wizard allows you to save the customization specification you have just created. changing the SID. Those saved specifications allow you to reuse those settings when deploying other VMs later on.png Here you can create new specifications.
vSphere Basic System Administration Guide Product Documentation vSphere Client Objective 5. The downside is that you can overcommit you VMFS volumes with the danger of quickly filling the volumes when many VM start to allocate space at the same time (virus. The “Recent Tasks” screen show a progress indicator that the disk is being increased. To grow a virtual disk: Right click a VM is the vSphere Client Click “Edit Settings…” Select the disk you would like to grow and click increase the size of the disk on the right side of the screen Click OK to apply and close the screen. We will be discussing the GUI only here. Determine appropriate disk format The are some options to choose when creating a Virtual Disk. etc. Depending of the state of the VM (on or off) you can add certain hardware.vmdk file using the GUI and choose to inflate the disk.x) Hard Drive SCSI Controller Grow virtual machine disks You can grow a virtual disk both when a server is turned on and off. Because many VMs will never fully use the assigned disk space this can potentionally save much space. Also you can browse to the . but way more inefficient use of disk space. This might depend of the type of guest OS you are using. 25 October 2009 01:23 Knowledge Configure/Modify virtual machines Add/Hot Add virtual machine hardware You can add and remove hardware for Virtual Machines via the GUI and the CLI. A Thin provisioned disk is a disk that is assigned a predefined amount of disk space. I think that the difference between thin and thick provisioned disk is meant here. . This is a little bit more save. A Thick Provisioned file system is a filesystem that works a little bit more the old fashioned way. large updates. This is called “Hot Add”.). but the disk space is not being used on the VMFS volume until the VM actually needs the space. You can choose this during the creation of a Disk and during a VMotion of a VM. When you assign a VM a 20 GB partition a 20 GB file is created on the VMFS file system wheter the VM uses it or not.2 – Manage Virtual Machines Written by Matthijs van den Berg Sunday. To edit the hardware properties of a VM: Right click a VM is the vSphere Client Click “Edit Settings…” Click the Add button to add additional hardware Select existing hardware to modify or delete Follow the instructions ons screen to execute your selected operation It is possible to add / modify certain aspects / remove some types of hardware while the VM is running. You can Hot Add the following types of hardware: USB Controller (new device type in wizard) Ethernet Adaptor (Hot Add / Remove new in ESX 4. When a VM is off all types of hardware can be added / modified / deleted.
The PCI Device has to be on the HCL.-). This allows a VM to directly access this device for optimal performance and compatibility. So dual of quad port card has to be either one.Connect virtual machines to devices I Presume PCI devices are meant here. Read more here and here about restrictions and how to configure. vSphere allows you to connect a physical device derictly to a VM. . As stated on the Advaced windows you can leave those to the default most of the time. but not both. Consider this a warning from VMware . You can assign a PCI Device to either the VMkernel or as a pass through device. I won’t go through all the option but you can enable mem and CPU hot plug and NPIV (SAN WWN to a VM) here. Configure virtual machine options General Options To open the general options of a VM: Right click a VM in the vSphere client Select “Edit Settings…” Select the tab “Options” in the new window In the left pane “General Options” is selected by default Edit the VM Name of Guest OS type here Advanced Options Right click a VM in the vSphere client Select “Edit Settings…” Select the tab “Options” in the new window In the left pane select “Advanced” There are several field you can change.
Power Management Options Can oly be changed when the VM is off Right click a VM in the vSphere client Select “Edit Settings…” Select the tab “Options” in the new window In the left pane select “Power Management” Change the way how a VM responds to the standby mode here. To go to the panal: Right click a VM in the vSphere client Select “Edit Settings…” Select the tab “Options” in the new window In the left pane select “VMware Tools” Configure appropriate virtual machine resource settings You can change the reservation. shares and limit of VM resources on a per VM level. You can control the VM with the play. VMware Tools Options When the VMware tools are installed in the guest OS this allows for a more controller Guest OS. pause and stop buttons. and allow “Wake on LAN” (WOL) Support here. You can change these settings here. Also the way the VM handles hyper threating can be configured. Those buttons. perform a soft pause of shutdown (guest shutdown) of the OS by default.5. To do so: Right click a VM in the vSphere client . unlike in VMware ESX 3.
You can use the OVF tool to import / export VMs from and to the OVF format. This makes using vApps really powerfull.3 – Deploy vApps Written by Matthijs van den Berg Sunday. Define Open Virtual Machine Format (OVF) The Open Virtual Machine Format (OVF) is a format the allows for VMs to be migrated between different platforms of virtualisation. In the “File” menu you can choose to deploy or export OVF templates. ) and define groups of VMs to start / stop when a criteria is met. A vApp allows you to: Determine a start-up oder including dependancies (start only when. http://www.com/go/ovf_guide Import/Export a Virtual Appliance You can import a Virtual Appliance by using the VA Martketplace. You can manage a vApp within a vApp as a single server. This is exactly what a vApp automates for you in combination with a Resource Pool. or see the CTRL-ALT-DEL screen) and then start the next server. This is a part of the VMware website where VMs are offered by vendors of software that you can use for preview of production purposes depending on the typ of software offered. Another benefit of the OVF is that the VMs are compressed by default make to size of the file smaller.vmware. Read more here.Select “Edit Settings…” Select the tab “Resources” Tools vSphere Basic System Administration Guide Product Documentation vSphere Client Objective 5. To access the VA Martketplace choose: File “VA Martketplace…” . (assuming those support the OVF as well). When the fist VM is started (let’s say a domain controller) you need to check is it is up (Tools report back. In short you can migrate a OVF VM easily between VMware ESX and Hyper-V / Xen.. When you are not using a vApp starting or stopping an application that exists out of multiple VMs means you need to start / stop the VMs in a particular order by hand. 25 October 2009 01:29 Knowledge Determine whether a vApp is appropriate for a given situation A vApp is a logical group of VMs that have a dependency on each other. Configures resources like you would using a reource pool Configure vApp properties and version numbers Configure vApp IP allocation Nest other vApps within a vApp.
1 – Install.-). Configure and Manage VMware vCenter Update Manager Written by Matthijs van den Berg Monday. The size that the update store and database needs can be calculated with the Sizing Estimator VMware distributes here. “Export OVF Template” Clone a vApp To clone a vApp: Right click the vApp (the vApp has to be shut down for this option to be selectable) Choose “Clone” from the menu (the vApp has to be shut down for this option to be selectable) Tools vSphere Basic System Administration Guide Product Documentation vSphere Client OVF Tool Objective 6.Select a VM in the screen that pop’s up to download and follow the wizard to install this in you VI. The installation requirements are: Hardware . The VUM supports the ESX Operating Systems as wel as some maintream guest OSes. To distribute these updates VUM downloads and stores the updates locally and the signatures are stored in a Database that can be local or on a central Database server. The update manager allows you to centrally download. Edit vApp Properties To edit a vApp: Right click a vApp Select “Edit Settings” Adjust the settings as needed. distribute and install updates in a controlled way. To add a VM to a vApp drag and drop the VM on to the vApp. The settings that can be edited are explained earlier in this chapter. Export vApps To export a vApp: Click “File” in the vCente client Choose “Export”. Build a vApp To build a new vApp: Right click you cluster and select “New vApp…” Follow the wizard that appears To add VM to the vApp drag and drop the VM into the vApp Create/Add virtual machines to a vApp Oops. 02 November 2009 01:03 Knowledge Determine installation requirements and database sizing When installting vCenter you can choose to install the Vmware Update Manager (VUM). just told you… .
Remediate ESX hosts and virtual machines When the scan completed successfully you can choose to apply those updates to the OS / Applications. Configure patch download options Under the tab “Configuration” you can select the “Patch Download Settings” and the “Patch Download Schedule”. Proferrable a Gigabit connection. To start the install run the wizard from the vCenter Server install CD.pdf Configure update manager settings To be able to manage the VUM settings you first need to download. http://www. Go to the “Hosts and Clusters” view Select an ESX host Select the tab “Update Manager” Select the button “Remediate” in the lower right corner . Make sure you have sufficient disk space and a database (or no DB if you choose to install the MS SQL Server locally). Sever 2003 or Server 2008 (dedicated DB recommended) MS SQL serve or Oracle as a local or remote database. A base line can be static. Here you can configure the settings like: for wat OS to download patches. install and enable the VUM plugin. Create baselines A baseline holds specific updates or update groups / criteria for OS’s. see events and create baselines to attach to ESX hosts for scanning etc. Recommendations for large environments are to use a separate Update Manager Server and a separate database server.com/pdf/vsp_vum_40_admin_guide. Read more here on page 27. of dynamic. When VUM is installer on the same server as vCente Server (fully supported) a minumum of 4 GB of RAM is needed. but 10/100 can suffy Software Windows XP SP2. This can be done on the vCenter Server or on a separate machine. Read more here on how to. Attach baselines to vCenter inventory objects When you have created a baseline you need to attach this baseline to objects in the vSphere environment. use a proxy server and create download schedules for updates. containing all available updates with certain urgency for a specific OS. This allows you to select single or multiple entities in one baseline to create a granular update policy. From this view you can select and configure multiple option from the VUM like when and how to download what patches. When you have the plug-in enabled in the vSphere Client select “Home” from the navigation pane and then click “Update Manager” from the “Solutions and Applications” section. containing only specific updates.2 Ghz processor 2 GB RAM. When scanning for updates a host will be checked whether those updates defeined in the baseline are installerd. A baseline can be applied to: vCEnter Server environment (the top level) Datacenters Clusters Hosts vApps ESX hosts VMs Scan ESX hosts and virtual machines To scan ESX hosts you need to: Go to the “Hosts and Clusters” view Select an ESX host Select the tab “Update Manager” Click “Scan” in the upper right corner Click OK on the pop-up screen that appears. You can create a baseline for example to hold all ESX(i) updates.vmware. use a shared repository. Install Update Manager Server and Client components To install the update manager.
Follow the wizard that appears on screen. Stage ESX/ESXi Host updates Go to the “Hosts and Clusters” view Select an ESX host Select the tab “Update Manager” Select the button “Stage” in the lower right corner Followw the wizard to upload (stage) the updates for a OS or application. When you select a host and the select the tab “Update Manager” you are in the “Compliance View”. . This Shows how many updates are not installed on a host. When you click on updates the need to be installed (the red figure) you see the Following window that indicated what applicable updates are installed and that are not. Analyze compliance information from a scan When you have perormed a scan of a ESX host or VM you can see whether the host has all the latested updates installed or not.
02 November 2009 23:05 Knowledge Create/Delete Host Profiles Host profiles can be used to capture a configuration of an ESX host.2 – Establish and Apply ESX Host Profiles Written by Matthijs van den Berg Monday. but since I do not have the correct licence I cannot test this. Associate an ESX host with a host profile I think right click a profile and link. Edit Host Profile Policies I think right click a profile and edit. To create a host profile: Select the “Host profiles View” from the menu. Click “Create Profile” in the upper left corner. but since I do not have the correct licence I cannot test this. This configuration can be used to be applied on other ESX hosts or as a baseline to check whether an ESX host complies to the standard defined.Tools VMware vCenter Upgrade Manager Administration Guide Product Documentation Update Manager Database Sizing Tools Objective 6. but since I do not have the correct licence I cannot test this. Check for Compliance To Check for host compliance af an ESX host: Richt click the ESX host Select “Host Profile” Select “Check Compliance…” Apply Host Profiles To apply a host profile to an ESX host: Richt click the ESX host Select “Host Profile” Select “Apply Profile…” Analyze configuration compliance information from a scan I really need another version. Follow the wizard that appears Or right click an ESX host and select “Create Profile” Import/Export Host Profiles To import Host Profiles: Use the same procedure as described above To export I think right click a profile and export.. .
To create a cluster: Open the vCenter client Go to the view “Hosts and Clusters” Right click you Data Center in the left pane.Tools vSphere Basic System Administration Guide Product Documentation vSphere Client Matthijs’ links http://communities. etc.vmware. proc type. or to to counter cluster configuration maximums. Right click on you cluster and select “Add Host…” . 10 November 2009 00:27 Knowledge Create new cluster A cluster is an entitiy that exists within a Datacenter. In the above example we enabled HA and DRS.1 – Create and Configure VMware Clusters Written by Matthijs van den Berg Tuesday. You can create multiple clusters to segment ESX hosts due to version. en select “New Cluster” Follow the wizard that appears to create a new cluster. Add ESX/ESXi hosts to a cluster When you have created a cluster you need to add ESX(i) hosts.com/docs/DOC-10850 Objective 7. Those are only available with the correct licenses.
Be aware that when disabled HA will not work. when you have three VMs you have 300% of resources. Host Monitoring Status This should be enabled for defalt operation of HA. Advanced Settings can only be added manually. To configure this: Edit the settings of you cluster (right click.Fill in the FQDN hostname. It reserved the capacity of the number of resources reserved for HA. Admission Control Policy This controls how many (or what percentage) of host failures capacity is reserved for. Click Advanced to change advanced settings. user name and password of the local ESX host user (password created during setup) Follow the rest of th wizard to add the host to the cluster. This can be due to failures of an ESX host or failures within the VM (VM Tools heartbeat monitoring). Idea. but not officially meant for this purpose: You can increase the number that the cluster tolerates if you have a second site that is being replicated to the first and would like to make sure that you have sufficient capacity for the VMs on the second site. When you specify that HA tolerates 1 host failure (equal to 100%) this means that admission control reserves 100% of 300% (1/3th) of the resources for just in case. For example when set to prevent. Admission Control This controls whether VMs can be powered on when there are not enough resources available. When you try to power on a VM that would take the numer of resources over 200% this VM will fail to power on. Enable/Configure VM Monitoring VM Monitoring allows you to monitor the availability of the VMware Tools within a VM. Configure High Availability basic/advanced settings High Availability is technique that automatically start VMs that crashed. When the VMware Tools heart beat is not received for a certain period of time the VM will be reset. You can specify a default value for the monitoring times of specify this by hand: . “Edit Settings…”) Click “VMware HA”. The following screen appears Edit the settings to your needs. When you expext network downtime you can termporary disable this.
but it most likely will reboot multiple times every timeframe. Miniumum Uptime Number of seconds that a VM is not being monitors after it’s power on. I could not find a complete comprehensive list of all the DRS advanced options on the internet. Configure Enhanced VMotion Compatibility Enhanched VMotion Compatibility allows hosts with CPU’s from different families to be used in the same Cluster for VMotion. To do so you must select an EVC mode that supports the oldest CPU in the cluster. Partially Automated This will start a VM when being powered on the host with the most resources available. To configure DPM: Right Click you cluster Click “Edit Settings…” Click “Power Management” Change the settings to your needs Click “Host Options” to change per ESX host DPM settings when you would like those to be different from the cluster settings. To configure: Right Click you cluster Click “Edit Settings…” Click “VMware EVC” Click the button “Change…” Choose Enable for your CPU vendor Click the “VMware EVC mode” for you servers. A host is than turned on fully automatic by the vCenter Server.Failure Interval This value determines the period of time that no heart beats are received and the VM will be reset. There are three basic levels: Manual VMware DRS make the load level recommendation only. By setting this you can prevent infinite reboots.0 this allows an easier use of ESX hosts: you can mix older and newer CPU families (from one vendor!) with each other. You still need to apply the recommendations to VMotion a VM to level the load manually Fully Automated This will place VMs when being powered on and migrate VMs to level the load fully automated. VMware recommends this only to use in conjunction with their support desk. you need to apply the recommendations manually. Maximun per VM resets The maximun number of times a VM is reset during a certain time frame. All other hosts are being shutdown until their resources are needed within the cluster. Advanced option van be entered manually. You can select how aggressive this is being handled. When creating a cluster this is disables by default and you need the right licenses before you can use this. Configure Distributed Resource Scheduler basic/advanced settings Distributed Resource Scheduler or DRS is the technique VMware uses to level the load of all VMs across the ESX hosts. Configure Distributed Power Management This is where VMware continues on their Green IT promis. From ESX 4. . DPM allows you to consolidate all VMs on the minimum number of hosts required. Pay attention! Maximum resets time windows The time frame to what the “Maximum per VM Resets” setting apply.
When turning on DRS the resources are loadbalanced automatically giving you the best performance. create VMs and add a Core 2 due processor host later on you VMs are using Core i7 functionality. You can account for fragmentaion (the total amount of resources in the cluster can be sufficient for one large VM but it might not fit on any of the hosts) and flexibility. This extra memory commitment is included in the admission control calculation and can provide readings that you might not enticipate. For example. shares and limits) Resource Pool (checks to ensure reservations. Be aware that VMotion uses system resources. Important: In addition to the user-specified memory reservation. To to so: Select an ESX host Select the tab “Configuration” Select “Virtual Machines Swapfile Location” in the menubox “Software” Click “Edit” in the upper right corner Select a local or remote VMFS data store that this ESX host will use as default You can also change this per VM Edit the settings of a VM Select the tab “Options” Select the item “Swapfile Location” Change the settings to your needs. when you build a cluster from ESX hosts with Core i7 processors. limits or shares on a VM. for each virtual machine there is also an amount of overhead memory. You can change this default behavious to another location. Configure swap file location Each VM comes with a default created swap file. Analyze HA host failure capacity requirements You can calculate the amount of CPU and memory resources that are needed for a host failure. And last but not least. If however you expect that VMs need CPU of memory in large amounts faster that you ESX hosts can power on you might diable this. How aggressive you set your DRM depends on the type of VMs. You cannot enable the EVC mode for anything less that Core i7 mode. This is typically used in environments where resources used by VMs vary and can lead to performance bottlenecks or uneven distributed ESX hosts. When doing so you need to take the following into account: Resources in use Total amount of resources available Amount of CPU resources available on the host with the largest amount of Mhz Amount of CPU resources available on the host with the most RAM When you account for 1 host failure this can be the host with the most RAM. shares and limits) VMware HA (checks to ensure VM recovery as specifies in the HA settings) Those settings can prevent a VM from starting up or can prevent settings new reservations. Only HA admission control can be disabled. So you need to make sure that you always have the largest amount of RAM and the largest mount of CPU resources available in the cluster to accommodate for a host failure.Note: to enable none of you VMs must use technology from a newer processor type. you hardware must support the shutting down / powering on of the ESX hosts. When you have VMs that have a very volatile CPU / MEM usage setting it to conservative might prevent many VMotions that need to be undone some minutes later. You can choose your HA admission control policy based on your needs. It can even prevent you from powering on a VM that. for example the local disk of the ESX host. These swapfiles are stored with the VM files on the VMFS data store. Technologies like HP iLO can . when calculated on paper before. should fit! Determine use cases for DRS automation levels and migration thresholds DRS is a very powerfull technology that automatically distributes resources. Read more here on page 19. CPU etc. Analyze HA admission control Admission control checks if there are sufficient resources within: Host (checks to ensure reservations. It consolidates you VMs on the least amount of ESX hosts needed to accommendatte the resouces needed savinf energy. When you need the best performance asap you mijght set this to aggressive. Read more here on page 13 – 19. Determine use cases for DPM policies I my opinion thi should be “allway-on”. This can be calculated bu using the total amount of resources minus the amount of resources in use. Also HA can be a reason the be conservative on those settings. You have to change the VM CPU details to allow this.
especially when multiple FT virtual machines reside on the same host. server. ESX failures like network. FT generates two types of network traffic: Migrationtraffictocreatethesecondaryvirtualmachine FTloggingtraffic Migration traffic happens over the NIC designated for VMotion and it causes network bandwidth usage to spike for a short time. Technologies like HP iLO can help you make sure you can turn your hosts back on. disk I/O etc. then traffic could be distributed with IP-hash based load balancing policy. To calculate the required bandwidth use the formula: FT logging bandwidth ~= [ (Average disk read throughput in Mbytes/sec * 8) + Average network receives (Mbits/sec) ] * 1. VMware vSwitch networking allows you to send VMotion and FT traffic to separate NICs while also using them as redundant links for NIC failover. Remember that IP hashed based load balancing require switch configuration. And it are those applications that are best suited for FT when they do fit between the restrictions FT has. Sharing the same NIC for both FT logging and VMotion can affect the performance of FT virtual machines whenever a secondary is created for another FT pair or a VMotion operation is performed for any other reason.conservative on those settings. Set up an FT network A FT VM uses the vLockstep technique to keep the VMs on both ESX hosts in sync. And last but not least.2 . you hardware must support the shutting down / powering on of the ESX hosts. Tools vSphere Availability Guide vSphere Resource Management Guide Product Documentation vSphere Client Objective 7. If there are multiple FT pairs. Evaluate FT use cases Despite the large number of restrictions FT is a strong feature of ESX / vSphere to protect you VM against unplanned ESX host failure. Separate and dedicated NICs are recommended for FT logging traffic and VMotion traffic. Adding multiple uplinks to the virtual switch does not automatically result in distribution of FT logging traffic.2 – Enable a Fault Tolerant Virtual Machine Written by Matthijs van den Berg Tuesday. Those are for the ESX host system You can only apply it to VMs with one processor You need a working cluster (HA and DRS with shared storage) as a FT VM only resides on 1 datastore You need a HV-Compatible CPU You need exactly the same CPU on both ESX hosts All hosts must use the same version of ESX It does not prevent you from a faulty storage array (or a filled up VMFS) You need a dedicated NIC for FT logging (Gbit or better) Advanced or higher license 5% to 20% overhead! And for the VM you would like to apply FT to: No thin provisioned disk (auto upgraded to thick disk) No Storage VMotion A small performance penalty (keeping the VM in lockstep) See here No non-replayable devices (USB.) No Para Virtualisation enabled No Para Virtualized SCSI (PVSCSI) Will use their full memory reservation! No VMXNET 3 NIC support VM OS must be supported (Operating system support may very based on the processor your ESX host uses ) No support for Snapshots No MSCS support (remove before enabling FT) No support for CPU / Mem hot plug Extended Page Tables (EPT)/Rapid Virtualization Indexing (RVI) is automatically disabled Read these and more limitations in a blog posting here. Physical CD-ROM. and by spreading the secondary virtual machines to different hosts. etc. When the central storage or Guest OS failes FT is not going to help you! A Cluster like MSCS would be a better solution to counter a guest OS failure but is a expensive solution that cannot be used for all applications. But remember that this is the only thing this feature protects you from. 10 November 2009 01:31 Knowledge Identify FT restrictions There are ‘some’ restrictions to the use of VMware Fault Tolorance. Sound.
disable (not turning off. Keep turning on / off to a minimum. keep a ping running and see how fast it fails over… Upgrade ESX hosts containing FT virtual machines This sound easy but must be handled with care! VMware FT requires two ESX hosts to have the exact same patch level! So when updating you need to make sure this is either the case or not necessary. ? – Shutdown a ESX host . Test an FT configuration Help me out. 18 November 2009 23:40 Knowledge . it automatically creates a new secondary virtual machine.. upgrade and enable again. enabling can take several minutes..To setup a network for FT logging Select an ESX host Click tha tab “Configuration” Select “Networking” from the right menu Select an existing vSwitch with sufficient free bandwidth or create a new vSwitch with dedicated NICs Click “Add” on the “Ports” tab Select the VM Kernel Bullet ::::Desktop:FTlogging. A replica is automatically created on the ESX host with the same patch level. When “Turn on FT” operation succeeds for a virtual machine that is already powered on. So it has the same effect as “Enabling FT”. When not enough resources are available to process is terminated.3 – Create and Configure Resource Pools Written by Matthijs van den Berg Wednesday. Disable FT with multiple hosts (shorter downtime) The second scenario requires at least four hosts. Non Supported devices are removed Balooning is being disabled The SWAP file is deleted Hardware MMU is being disabled (shutdown required) “enable FT” operation enables Fault Tolerance by live-migrating the virtual machine to another host to create a secondary virtual machine. and enabling or disabling FT. this takes longer!) FT. VMware recommends the following two update scanario’s: Disable FT (longer downtime) The first scenario is easy. Tools vSphere Availability Guide Product Documentation vSphere Client Matthijs’ Links FT Archtecture and performance VMware Fault Tolerance Recommendations and Considerations Objective 7.?.. Disabling only takes seconds. please use the comment system to improve! . This uses a substancial amount of resources. The performance implications of these operations are as follows: “Turn On FT” prepares the virtual machine for FT. In short: Update the two hosts not in use by FT VMs and check the levels are exactly the same Disable FT (turning off would take longer) VMotion the FT machine to an updates ESX host Enable FT.png Enter a name and optionally a VLAN Check the box “Use this portgroup for Fault Tolorant logging” Finish the network Verify requirements of operating environment There are some requirements and recommendations to the guest OS of a FT VM: The guest OS must be supported by VMware for FT Make sure that the guest OS uses an NTP server for time sync FT does not perform well when used on a VM with a large amount of I/O Enable FT for a virtual machine There are two types of FT operations that can be performed on a virtual machine: Turning FT on or off.
Set memory resource shares/reservations/limits To set Memory Shares. Reservation The guaranteed CPU or Memory allocation for a resource pool. reservations and / or limits on a existing resource pool: Right click the resource pool Click “Edit Settings…” Adjust the CPU settings to your needs. This shows you the view as shown below including the Resource Pool main items like Reservation. resource compartmentalization. other resource pool or vApp) Right click. and select “Create Resource Pool…” Set CPU resource shares/reservations/limits To set CPU Shares. so a general explanation here. If you power on a virtual machine in this resource pool. Resource pools consist of multiple resources that can be guaranteed or limited. Those resources are extracted from the parent ESX host of resource pool. Evaluate virtual machines for a given Resource Pool When you select a resource pool and go to the tab “Resource Allocation” you can see the VMs in a resource pool. reservations. You can use resource pools to: Segment you organization Isolate VMs from certain users Access control and delegation Separate resources Evaluate appropriate shares. But no situation is given. so a general explanation here. But no situation is given. To specify a limit. Limit and Shares. deselect the Unlimited check box. the main purpose meant to use them for. Those resources are: Shares The number of CPU or Memory shares a VM has in respect to the Resource Pool or ESX hosts total. Default is Unlimited. and the reservations of the virtual machines combined are larger than the reservation of the resource pool. Limit Upper limit for the amount of CPU or memory the host makes available to this resource pool. VMware resource pools can be used for delegation of control and. and limits in a given situation …for a given situation. the resource pool can use resources from its parent or ancestors if this check box is selected (the default). reservations and / or limits on a existing resource pool: Right click the resource pool .Determine Resource Pool requirements for a given situation …for a given situation. Indicates whether expandable reservations are considered during admission control. Create Resource Pools To create a resource pool you can Select the object you would like to create a resource pool in (ESX host.
When you use more than one resource pool on the second level those resource pools together cannot use more resources than the resource pool on the above level. The state information includes the current memory content and all the information that defines and identifies the virtual machine. such as BIOS.4 – Migrate Virtual Machines Written by Matthijs van den Berg Wednesday. “Sleur en Pleur”. Add virtual machines to pool In Dutch we have a nice phrase for this. devices. while the associated virtual disk remains in the same location on storage that is shared between the two hosts. MAC addresses for the Ethernet cards. This means that you can place resource pools within resource pools. When you migrate a virtual machine with VMotion. The memory content includes transaction data and whatever bits of the operating system and applications are in the memory. and so forth. chip set states. You cannot change the virtual machine’s execution host during a migration with Storage VMotion. You cannot move the storage of the VM. the new host for the virtual machine must meet compatibility requirements in order for the migration to proceed. Another option is to select the correct resource pool during a VMotion. and so forth. The entire state of the virtual machine. The state information includes the current memory content and all the information that defines and identifies the virtual machine. is moved to the new host. Almost the same benefits apply here. Understand/Apply Migration with VMotionTM allows virtual machine working processes to continue throughout a migration. if necessary. drag and drop the VMs into the correct resource pool. Those requirements depend on the specific environment you are using. that you need to power down the VM. Tools vSphere Resource Management Guide Product Documentation vSphere Client Objective 7. registers. Some factors are: What type of migration are you performing (cold. The benefits of a cold migration are: You can move the VM files. Those must be of the same proc family for the migration of a suspended VM to work. as well as its configuration file. After the virtual machine state is migrated to the alternate host. and that’s just is. if necessary. The downsides are: Need shared storage Need a (preferably dedicated) Gigabit network connection The ESX hosts need to be configured in exactly the same manner (like network names. hot. I think that VMotion of a suspended VM is also a cold migration.Right click the resource pool Click “Edit Settings…” Adjust the Memory settings to your needs. the virtual machine runs on the new host. CPU. the resource pool can use resources from its parent or ancestors if this check box is selected (the default). MAC addresses for the Ethernet cards. The memory content includes transaction data and whatever bits of the operating system and applications are in the memory. is moved to the new host. chip set states. such as BIOS. the virtual machine runs on the new host. you need …. storage) What type of licenses do you have (need enterprise for VMotion!) Is your hardware suited for VMotion / Storage VMotion Cite the three methods of virtual machine migration Cold Migration a cold migration is a migration of a VM when it is powered off. the new host for the virtual machine must meet compatibility requirements in order for the migration to proceed. also when those are not on shared storage The Host you move the VM to does not need to have the same CPU The downside is. CPU. obvious. VMotion Migration with VMotion allows virtual machine working processes to continue throughout a migration. Storage VMotion Use migration with Storage VMotion to relocate a virtual machine’s configuration file and virtual disks while the virtual machine is powered on.) You need processors from the same family or use Enhanced VMotion to broaden the compatibility of the processors. Define Expandable Reservation Indicates whether expandable reservations are considered during admission control. This means something like drag and drop. devices. The entire state of the virtual machine as well as its configuration file. Describe resource pool hierarchy You can cascade resource pools. and the reservations of the virtual machines combined are larger than the reservation of the resource pool. After the virtual machine state is migrated to the alternate host. The defining and identification information stored in the state includes all the data that maps to the virtual machine hardware elements. Remember that a second level resource pool (pool in pool) cannot have more resources then the resource pool on a higher level. storage etc. The benefits of a VMotion are that there is no host downtime. while the associated virtual disk remains in the same location on storage that is shared between the two hosts. You can use storage VMotion while the VM keeps on running. registers. The defining and identification information stored in the state includes all the data that maps to the virtual machine hardware elements. When you migrate a virtual machine with VMotion. 18 November 2009 23:44 Knowledge Identify compatibility requirements For a VMotion to work some requirements need to be met. This allows you to free up space in storage array’s without downtime. If you power on a virtual machine in this resource pool. with the exception of the host CPU. Migration with VMotion happens in three stages: .
because they allow migration of a virtual machine without powering it off. Some scenarios are: Migrate VMs to perform hard. If those CPU resources cannot be allocated the VMotion will fail! Low Priority migration: Resources are not reserved on the source / destination hosts. VMware converter you can use the VMware converter to migrate VMs of physical machines to a VM. Migrate a virtual machine using VMotion To migrate a VM using the vSphere Client GUI: Right click the VM Select “Migrate…” from the menu The following wizard appears Select “Change host” On the “Select Destination” select the Cluster to migrate to On the “Select Resource Pool” select the resource pool to migrate to On the VMotion priority select with what priority a VM will be Motioned: High Priority migration (the recommended and first option in vSphere called: Reserve CPU …) will VMotion the VM and reserve the resources this VM needs on both the source and destination hosts. Usually this requires downtime and the old machine is not removed (default). Determine migration use cases There can be several reasons why to migrate a VM from one hosts to another. Migration of a suspended virtual machine and migration with VMotion can be referred to as hot migration. Since I have Copy Past: Right click the VM Select “Migrate…” from the menu The following wizard appears . and network connections) is copied to the target host. No downtime for the VM.and or software maintenance of the host or underlying layers as network / storage Migrate VMs for migration purposes Migrate VMs for balancing the use of resources (automated with DRS) Migrate VMs to separate certain servers onto different hosts Migrate VMs to automatically shut down remaining hosts for power savings (DPM) Migrate VMs for disaster recovery reasons Compare and contrast migration technologies You can migrate VMs for several reasons as described above. The migration will take longer and the VM might become unavailable for some time! Finish to start the VMotion (remember that there is a maximum to the number of concurrent VMotion. The virtual machine resumes its activities on the new host. No downtime Storage VMotion With storage VMotion techniques you can migrate the files the VM uses from one VMFS to another storage array. the virtual machines revert to their original states and locations. The virtual machine state information (memory.When the migration with VMotion is requested. vCenter Server verifies that the existing virtual machine is in a stable state with its current host. To be able to know how to migrate you need to now about several migration options: VMotion For the live migration of a VM from one ESX hosts to another. registers. Migrate a virtual machine using Storage VMotion This method used the same start as the normal VMotion but has a few different steps. If any error occurs during migration.
different disks. Here you can change a thin disk to a thick disk or visa versa. Finish to start the VMotion (remember that there is a maximum to the number of concurrent VMotions. Cold migrate a virtual machine And the last option of the Migrate wizard only applies to VMs that are turned off or are in “Suspended” state. Select the format you would like to disk to use.Select “Change datastore” On the “Select Resource Pool” select the resource pool to migrate to On the Select Datastore screen select the data store you would like to move to. etc) you can select the “Advanced” option that allows you to pick a data store from per disk or for the configuration files. . You can perform a migration of the ESX host and the datastore in one migration. If you would like to separate several files of a VM (configuration files.
18 November 2009 23:48 Knowledge Describe different back-up/restore procedures and strategies Wow. There is the Snapshot manager that allows you to revert of delete snapshots and gives an overview of all the snapshot available. Snapshots are differentials between two points in time. In general there are two types of backups with per type several implementations. VMware Consolidated Backup. A few ways to go: Manually using VMware converter or coping the files from the ESX host (downtime!) Automatically using VMware VCB. Tools vSphere Basic System Administration Guide Product Documentation vSphere Client Objective 7. Use a backup proxy to backup you data.Since this option uses a combination of the options you’ll find in the wizards described above I will not go into detail. With backup proxy I usually mean VCB. There are quite a lot way’s to backup VMs.5 – Backup and Restore Virtual Machines Written by Matthijs van den Berg Wednesday. . The only change is the select host you need to specifically select and ESX host to migrate to. Those files can be transferred and restored on other location and ESX hosts. To manually create / delete or restore snapshots you can use the vSphere Client. Some ways to go to achieve this: Install you old-fashioned decent backup agent as an application in you OS. Using the new VMware “Backup and Recovery Appliance” Using several thirty party products that are out there. Let’s sun some of them: File level backup with this I mean backing up and restoring on a file level in a VM. Usually this backup method is used for disaster recovery of VMs. what a question. When right clicking a VM you can use the “Snapshot” menu to create. Using this principle VMware can create easy backups. remove re restore snapshots. Create/Delete/Restore Snapshots The new “Backup and Recovery Appliance” VMware provides as a downloadable appliance from there website uses snapshots to create backups. This agent is not aware of the fact that this OS is virtualized. This allows a file level backup for some supported guest OSes Image Backup an image back up is a copy of the VM files.
Quick navigation - Copyright © 2009 B3RG. To install you can choose: File “Deploy OVF template…”. This will give you a wizard to install a VM into you environment. Please read here on page 11 and further to check. Retention time etc. This plug-in connect to the Backup and Recovery Appliance over port 22024. All Rights Reserved.msi Follow the wizard Enable the plug-in in the vSphere client Create a backup job with vCenter Data Recovery Before you create a back-up job make sure that you have add storage to backup to. Tools VMware Data Recovery Administration Guide Product Documentation vSphere Client Backup and Recovery Appliance To download you need a VMware vSpere Enterprise (plus). Joomla! is Free Software released under the GNU/GPL License. Also you need your business input like frequency. To create a backup job: Open the “VMware Data recovery” option on the vSphere client Click “New Backup Job…” Follow the steps in the wizard. Perform test and actual restores using vCenter Data Recovery Install and play around. The appliance can be downloaded from the VMware site. VCP4 STUDIE GUIDE . . Run the plug-in installer VMwareDataRecoveryPlugin.FAST FIND . advanced or essential plus edition or buy it separately in advance to the standard edition. Follow all the steps in the wizard to get the VM running Install vCenter Data Recovery plug-in To manage the appliance you need to install the Data Recovery Plug-in into you vSphere client. Remember that backups are only performed when the CPU usage of the host is below 90% and that no more that 8 back-up jobs can run at the same time.Install Backup and Recovery Appliance First make sure that you pass all the requirements that this solution requires.
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