You are on page 1of 8

BANGLADESH UNIVERSITY OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY

Course No.: ME 402


Course Title: INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES SESSIONAL

Experiment No.: 4
Name of the Experiment:
PERFORMANCE TEST OF A PETROL ENGINE AT WIDE
OPEN THROTTLE (WOT) CONDITION

Date of Performance Name: Aashique Alam Rezwan


2/05/2011 Student No.: 06 10 012
Date of Submission Section: “A” Group: A12
16/05/2011 Dept: Mechanical Engineering

1
Experiment No.: 4
Name of the Experiment:
Performance Test of a Petrol Engine at Wide Open Throttle (WOT) Condition

Objectives:
The objectives of this experiment are as follows –
 To test the performance of a Petrol Engine at WOT condition
 To plot the performance curve of the Petrol Engine at WOT condition
o Bsfc vs. Bhp
o Exhaust Gas Temperature vs. Bhp
o Lubricating Oil Temperature vs. Bhp

Equipment/Apparatus:
The followings are used in this experiment:
1. Petrol Engine [Specifications are followed to next page]
2. Dynamometer
Type: Hydraulic
Torque Arm Length: 0.2386 m
3. Hydrometer
4. Wet Bulb Thermometer
5. Thermometer
6. Barometer [mbar]
7. Psychometric Chart
8. Petrol [Fuel]
9. Volume Meter
10. Stop Watch
11. Thermocouple [T-type]
12. Electric Battery [12V Top Terminal Battery]
13. Fuel & Water Tank
14. Tachometer [Type: Magnetic Induction]
15. Pressure Transducer [Wheatstone Bridge Resistance Transducer]

2
Engine Specifications & Ambient Data:
Combine (Forced &
Brand Name NISSAN Lubrication
Splashed)
Model A12-A5M Cooling Water Cooled Date 2/5/2011
Engine No. S03789 Exhaust Flexible SS Tube Room Temp 30.5°C
Country of Hydraulic
JAPAN Lub Oil Filter Present Dynamometer
Make Type
NISSAN
Manufacturer Fuel Filter Present Dynamometer HP 120 HP
Co.
Rated Output 20 HP Air Cleaner Present BSFC (gm/bhp-hr)
Oil Pressure
Rated RPM 2400 Present Dry Bulb Temp 30.5°C
Indicator
No. of
4 In-line Coupling Universal Atm. Pressure 991 mbar
Cylinders
Lub Oil Used SAE 30 Starting 12V Electric Battery Relative Humidity 0.73
Fuel Used Petrol Rotation CCW Correction Factors α=0.957
Sp Gr 0.74 (as per BS 5514) β=1.0065

Engine Loading Plan:


Rated Power = 20 hp Rated Speed = 2400 rpm Rated Load = 20 kg

Engine Performance Data:


Model: NISSAN A12-A5M No. S03789 hp: 20 RPM Control: Dynamometer

Dynamometer Shaft Fuel Consumption Lab Condition BS Condition Temperature Torque


Revolution
Load Amount Time of Bhp Bsfc Bhp Bsfc Lub Oil Exhaust
Indicator N Collected Collection To
Reading W P F Ps Fs T1 Gas T2
(rpm) V t
(gm/bhp- (gm/bhp-
(kg-m)
(kg) (ml) (s) (hp) (hp) (°C) (°C)
hr) hr)
128 15.36 3068 50 30.1 15.71 281.72 16.41 279.90 82 481 35.95
130 16.42 2902 50 31.2 15.88 268.78 16.60 267.05 88 473 38.43
133 18.03 2708 50 32.4 16.28 252.60 17.01 250.97 92 461 42.20
136 19.63 2515 50 33.6 16.46 240.90 17.20 239.34 93 446 45.95
137 20.16 2406 50 35 16.17 235.38 16.89 233.86 94 436 47.19
134 18.56 2190 50 37 13.55 265.71 14.16 263.99 95 416 43.44
131 16.96 1890 50 41 10.68 304.06 11.16 302.09 97 385 39.70

3
Graph:

Bsfc vs Bhp (BS CONDITION)


320

300

280
(gm/bhp-hr)
Bsfc

260

240

220

200
10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
Bhp
(hp)

Exhaust Gas Temperature Vs Bhp


(BS Condition)
490

470
Exhaust Gas Temperature

450

430
(°C)

410

390

370

350
10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
Bhp
(hp)

4
Lubricating Oil Temperature Vs Bhp
(BS Condition)
100
98
Lubricating Oil Temperature

96
94
92
(°C)

90
88
86
84
82
80
10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
Bhp
(hp)

Performance Curve of the Engine


Torque Shaft Output Poly. (Torque) Poly. (Shaft Output)
100.00 18

90.00
17
80.00
16
70.00
15
Shaft Output

60.00
Torque
(kg-m)

(hp)

50.00 14

40.00
13
30.00
12
20.00
11
10.00

0.00 10
1500 2000 2500 3000 3500
Speed
(rpm)

5
Derating:
Rated (BS) Condition Lab Condition
Pr = 100 kPa Px = 99.1 kPa
Tr = 300 K Tx = 303.5 K
Φr = 0.6 Φx = 0.73
ηm = 0.85

BS 5514 Formula/Relation/Coefficient Value


References
Annex-F φxPsx 3.185
Annex-E (Px – aφxPsx)/(Pr – aφrPsr) 0.98085
Annex-D (Tr/Tx)n, n = 0.75 0.9942
Formula – 3 K = (Px – aφxPsx)/(Pr – aφrPsr) (Tr/Tx)n 0.9742
Annex – C β 1.0065
Annex – B α 0.957

Where,
φxPsx = Water Vapour Pressure (kPa)
φ = Relative Humidity (%)
(Px – aφxPsx)/(Pr – aφrPsr) = Dry Air Pressure Ratio
Px = Barometric Pressure
K = Indicated Power
β = Fuel Consumption Recalculation Factor
α = Power Adjustment Factor
x = Denotes Lab Condition (Subscript)
r = Denotes Rated BS Condition (Subscript)
ηm = Mechanical Efficiency
n = Exponent

6
Sample Calculation:
Sample Calculation for Dynamometer Load = 18 kg
Shaft Revolution Speed, N = 2708 RPM

Power,

Brake Specific Fuel Consumption,

For Standard Condition,

Engine Power,

Brake Specific Fuel Consumption,

Assignments
i) Write short note on WOT.
Ans:
Wide open throttle (WOT) refers to an internal combustion engine's maximum intake of air
and fuel that occurs when the throttle plates inside the carburettor or throttle body are "wide
open", providing the least resistance to the incoming air. In the case of an automobile, WOT
is when the accelerator is depressed fully, sometimes referred to as "flooring it". This
condition occurs when the throttle plate is 50% or more open.
At high load or WOT operation, fuel is injected only during the intake stroke and maximum
thermal efficiency is obtained by operating with a homogeneous stoichiometric air-fuel
mixture. High levels of EGR are used at high load.
At WOT, manifold vacuum decreases. The higher manifold pressures in turn allow more air
molecules to enter the combustion cylinders, and thus additional molecules of fuel are
required to balance the combustion reaction. The additional molecules of air and fuel reacting
together produce more power.

ii) Compare performance under constant speed and WOT condition.


Ans:
At WOT condition, the power output capacity is increases as the speed increase, and become
maximum at maximum speed. The torque increases with the increase in speed and become

7
maximum at the rated speed. After the rated speed, as the speed increases the torque
decreases. At constant speed, only the load controls the output power. In both cases, the Bsfc
is minimum at rated speed and load condition.

Discussion:
In this experiment, we have experimentally tested a petrol engine at wide open throttle
condition. This test is performed under variable load condition. This engine can operate at
variable speed. The power capacity is maximum at maximum speed. In general, the engine
power increase as the amount of air volume sucked in the engine cylinder. This air flow is
controlled by the throttle valve in case of SI engine. The engine is tested under wide open
throttle condition. In WOT the throttle valve is open more than 50%. This ensures the
maximum air volume that can induced in the engine cylinder.
The load in the engine is provided by a hydraulic type dynamometer. The load in the test
setup is measured using a Wheatstone bridge type resistive pressure transducer, attach to the
dynamometer. As the engine load increases the engine speed decreases and reaches it rated
speed at the rated load. The engine speed is measured using a magnetic induction tachometer,
which changes the magnetic pulse each time a cut spot passes the static permanent magnet.
This magnetic pulse is then measured and calibrated for measuring the engine speed.
The performance curve of the engine found in this experiment is typical for an SI engine. The
torque increases as the speed increase and the maximum torque is obtained at the rated speed.
The output shaft power increases as the speed increases.
The cooling of engine is provided using water circulation around the cylinder casing in the
water jacket. The water circulation is in critical condition in the engine. The water leakage
due to the loose connection may cause the short circuit in the alternator used for generating
electrical power to ignite the spark and drive auxiliary equipment. In our case the leakage is
very much serious and no further experiment is possible. Immediate repairing is required for
the engine for further testing.
The exhaust gas temperature increases as the engine speed increased but the lubricating oil
temperature falls with increasing engine speed. As the engine speed increased the power
generated by burning the fuel is also increased. So the heat generated inside the engine
cylinder also increased. Thus the exhaust temperature increased with increasing engine speed.
The lubricating oil circulation increased with increasing speed. Thus the lubricating oil
temperature drops with engine speed.