Revision questions set 1

1.2

2.4

1. The graph shows the speed of a driver driving up a hill (positive = uphill, negative = downhill). The driver is initially waiting at a red traffic light. At t = 0, the light turns green, and he continues driving up the hill until he encounters yet another red traffic light and stops.

(a) At roughly what time did the man step on the accelerator pedal? (b) The man’s car briefly rolls down the hill before it starts moving forward again. How can you tell from the graph? (c) As the man is passing the first green light, what is his acceleration? (d) What is the distance between the two traffic lights? (Assume that, at both red lights, the distance between the man’s car and the traffic light is negligible.) 2. A car is traveling at 60km/h when the driver is forced to brake suddenly, bringing the car to a complete halt in 1 second. (a) Assuming that the car has a total mass of 500kg and decelerates uniformly, what is the total force exerted on the car? (b) A wise passenger in the back seat has her safety belt on, keeping her in her seat as the car brakes. If her mass is 45kg, show that the minimum force that the safety belt exerts on her is about 750N. 3. A typical cumulonimbus cloud might contain 1.25 x 108 kilograms of water, with a center of mass at 2.0km above the ground. (a) When all the water in the cloud has fallen to the ground, how much gravitational potential energy is lost? (b) A typical raindrop has a speed of about 10m/s just before hitting the ground. If all the water in the cloud falls as rain, how much kinetic energy will it have? 4. You have just had a plate of nasi lemak for breakfast when, realizing that it contains 400 calories, you feel guilty and decide to work it off by walking on a treadmill. (A calorie, equivalent to 4.184 kilojoules, is the amount of energy needed to heat up 1kg of water by 10C.) (a) A typical treadmill setting is “20 minutes per mile”, or 1.3m/s, and you require 0.160 kilowatts of power to maintain that speed. If this is entirely due to frictional forces acting on you, what is their magnitude? How long will you take to work off your nasi lemak? (b) You have too much physics homework and can’t spend that much time on the treadmill. Explain physically how you can burn calories faster by:

.e.(i) increasing the treadmill speed (ii) setting an incline (i. making the treadmill slope upwards as you are walking) Use diagrams as needed.

Up to that point the acceleration has been constant denoting no new forces. but incorrect. then her acceleration must be the same as that of the car. In an exam.9 hours b) (i) Since P = F x v. But since the car rolled backwards 3m from the first traffic light. increasing the treadmill speed v will increase the power it takes to maintain the speed on the treadmill. that 3m has to be subtracted! 2.7ms-2 = 750N. In fact.7 ms-2 = 8300N (+/. d) If you diagram the total sequence of events.000m = 2.7)ms-1 / 1s = 16.Answers 1. answers: a. a) a = (v-u)/t = (0-16. either explicitly or implicitly (by substituting 16.2s both velocity and displacement are still both negative!! c) (30-0)ms-1/(2. you will see that the question is simply asking for the total displacement from 0 to 10 s.50N would be acceptable due to rounding errors) b) If she is still in the car. This is the key conceptual step.2s.4-8s: Car rolling upwards with constant upwards speed • 8-10s: Car rolling upwards with decreasing upwards speed a) 1s – that is when the acceleration changes. 216m: this is the distance between the car’s minimum height and the car’s maximum height.45 x 1012 J b) KE = ½mv2 = ½ x 1. (Also note that it would increase the drag slightly!) .25 x 108 kg x (10ms-1)2 = 6.4-1)s = 25 ms-2. It is very.25 x 109 J 4.2-2. Note that between 1s and 1.2s: Car rolling downwards with decreasing downwards speed • 1.7 ms-2 into the formula F = ma). Straightforward use of formulas: a) ΔEgrav = mgΔh = 1.4-1.7 ms-2 F = ma = 500kg x 16.8 N/kg x 2. But this double-counts the 3m which the car rolled back. But no explanation was asked for so “1s” gets full marks. 3. a) P = F x v v = P/F = 0.30 m/s = 123 N Also P = E/t t = E/P = (400 cal x 4184 J/cal) / 160 W = 10460 s = 2. 219m: this is the total distance which the car traveled. Students gave the following related. b.2)s = 25ms-2 or (30 – (-5))ms-1 / (2. this distance is 3m too much. Then F = ma = 45kg x 16. very helpful to diagram the question before answering! Here is a step-by-step description of what is happening: • 0-1s: Car rolling downwards with increasing downwards speed • 1-1.160kW / 1. and a changing acceleration denotes a novel force.4s: Car rolling upwards with increasing upwards speed • 2. This is simply the area of the trapezium (216m) minus the area of the triangle (3m) to give 213m. b) The velocity is negative OR the displacement is negative from 0s to 1. a mark would be awarded for stating this.25 x 108 kg x 9.

where F is the force parallel to the velocity. . When the treadmill is slightly inclined. which means that the power you expend is again increased.(ii) Again P = F x v. there is a component of your weight acting parallel to the velocity of you walking on the treadmill.

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