Introduction to prakruti Prakruti is exclusive concept from Ayurveda science.

It dictates the resultant output of morphological appearance of the body, its functional output and mental set up or behavioral pattern. It means mind contributes one third of the total characteristics of prakruti. Chief directives of prakruti are dosha. Type of prakruti is decided at the time of union of sperm and ovum with jeevatma. It evolves and gets expressed on body as differentiation of zygote takes place and becomes a decisive factor of individuals phenotype. Introduction to mind Mind, in Ayurvedic view point is one of nive dravya. Dravya is matter. In Charaka-Samhita Sutrasthana the list to elementary nine matters is given in verse 1.48. Matter is an entity bearing qualities and doing functions. Mind has to, and does satisfy this definition. It does bear qualities and is bestowed with very important functions. He who knows the receptacle (Ayatana) verily becomes the receptacle of his people. Mind is verily the receptacle (of all our knowledge).. (Chhandogya Upanishad, V-i-5) That which separates you from God is mind. The wall that stands between you and God is mind. Pull the wall down through Om-Chintana or devotion and you will come face to face with God. Concept of mind do vary in western thoughts and eastern belief. Veda knowledge defines mind as instrument to handle bi-way communication between dnyanendriya (sense organs) and karmendriya (organ for action/function). Intellect or buddhi is defined as entity that takes final decision . Whereas western scholars think about mind as:

Mind is the aspect of intellect and consciousness experienced as combinations of thought, perception, memory, emotion, will, and imagination, including all unconscious cognitive processes. The term is often used to refer, by implication, to the thought processes of reason. Mind manifests itself subjectively as a stream of consciousness. They bring mind and intellect together in a merged state in contrast to the vedic proposal of mind. Ayurveda adopted Samkhya philosophy for evolution of mind in living body. In Sankhya philosophy, Mahat is the term used to denote .cosmic mind. or .universal mind. It is the first principle that is derived from Avyakta. It is the first principle that is manifested out of the unmanifested Avyakta. The wheel of the bullock-cart rests on the spokes. The spokes rest on the nave. Even so, the mind rests on Prakriti and Prakriti rests on Brahman. From Mahat comes Ahankara. From Sattvic Ahankara comes mind; from Rajasic Ahankara comes Prana; from Tamasic Ahankara, Tanmatras; from Tanmatras, gross elements; from gross elements, the gross universe. Mind is no other than Ahankara, the idea of .I.. It is, indeed, difficult to eschew this idea of .I.. Mind always attaches itself to something objective (Sthula). It cannot stand by itself.

It is only this mind that asserts itself as .I. in this body. The idea of .I. is the seed of the tree of mind. The sprout which first springs up from this seed of Ahankara is Buddhi. From this sprout, the ramifying branches called Sankalpas have their origin. Ayurvedic concept of mind y y y Entity, which makes a person knowledgeable, is Mann or mind. It originates in intra-uterine month, in 3rd month. Mind is tool for sense organs to perceive; hence it is called ateendriya . It is called satva also. Cheta is one of the synonyms of mind. Mechanisms of sense organs are complete with mind correlating soul and perception of sense organs. Even if every individual lodges only one mind, it takes up all colors and shades of work and emotions. It is wondered therefore, whether there is more that one mind. Verses in Ayurveda compendia strongly postulate theory of only one mind with various kinds of presentations. It is tool for both, sense organs as well as organs of functions It is considered as both; sense organ as well as organ of function. Hence it is eleventh indriya. Mind is not visible. Then how to perceive it? Any kind of perception and functioning of sensory or motor organs is indicative of presence of mind. Without mind executing as a mediator between external as well as internal environment, soul does not acquire any perception. Ayurved science strongly proposes mind as chief convener of all external and internal stimuli to body and a mediator for motor reactions to all these stimuli. If mann is not doing its duty, nothing is perceived. Ayurveda forwards a tool to recognize presence or absence of mind by ability to know things. If you are able to grasp things, gain knowledge of any kind, your mind is working. it s working status indicates its presence. Let us take example of student reading this book. Knowledge offered in this book is subject for the student. He is going to read it with his eyes hence his eyes are his sense organs . If his mind is roaming somewhere away from book, keeping his eyes on book, he may see the lines on the book, yet he may not understand what he is reading. This means sense organs are functioning all right, path to brain centers is all right but due to deviation of mind he is unable to understand what he is reading. This understanding and not-understanding is characteristic for presence or absence of mind.


y y y

and will be at stake health wise. If right and wrong is not thought of. Its objects are: y y To think practically as well as impractically To consider right or wrong with previous experience y To take judgment about near future that certain thing may happen y To keep an objective y To be consistent about certain things It is needed for day-to-day routine that mind should be able to remain in body. Mano-Vritti is the Vishayakara Vritti of worldlings. Both types of mind together make one third of expressions of prakruti Such is the case of prakruti a constant range of core characteristics with flexible features responding the environment. Nos. think appropriately. When you identify yourself with the Sakshi Vritti. (1) Mano-Vritti belongs to the instinctive mind. Entire information catered above offers clue to remain healthy and enjoy the status of well being. satva. this configuration somewhat moulds and final phynotype is decided. and satmya. Ayurvedic genetics proposes that six factors are responsible for making genetic configuration of an individual. Following passage will add to the direction for retaining this status: Vritti of mind is status in which it remains. Failure of this sequence anywhere is responsible for generation of mental an physical diseases. 3. which is unaltered through out the life and remains constant till death. y y Being incredibly instable. following statements can be forwarded in context to relation between genetics. Satva is synonym for mann or mind. remain anyhow. you can witness the modifications of the mind. Buddhi Vritti belongs to Vivekins. pita. When exposed to environmental factors in intra-uterine life. . 2. atma. person may eat anything. prakruti and mind: y y A core mind (factor satvaja) is born by an individual. They are mata. Vrittis have been classified into five kinds: (1) Mano-Vritti. 4 and 5 belong to the Sattvic mind. rasa. A circumstancial mind is evolved after the conception takes place and this remains flexible. (3) Sakshi Vritti.Genetic effect is observed in intra-uterine life as well as extra-uterine life. Considering all above references. mind is needed to pin down to body and soul. behave in any fashion. convey proper knowledge to soul and buddhi should reciprocate properly. When you try to feel that you are the Infinite Self. (2) Buddhi Vritti. alters and changes its reciprocation as per the situations and state of affairs. (4) Akhandakara Vritti and (5) Akhanda Ekarasa Vritti. It moulds.

They have only heard of a mind. that condition is Antarmukha Vritti. ANTARMUKHA VRITTI AND BAHIRMUKHA VRITTI When the outgoing tendencies of the mind are arrested. The Antarmukha Vritti is the indrawing energy of the mind owing to increase in Sattva. When the vision is turned outward. when the mind is retained within the heart. Mano-Vrittis are conquered. From Viveka Vritti. you must jump to Akhandakara Vritti.the Akhandakara Vritti is generated. Vairagya and introspection help a lot in the attainment of this mental state. you must jump to Akhanda Ekarasa which is Brahma Svarupa.A MYSTERY The vast majority of men know not the existence of the mind and its operations. Mano-Vritti concerns Manomaya Kosha. It is also known as Brahmakara Vritti. the rush of fleeting events engages the mind. Objects and desire are externalising forces. The Sadhaka can do a lot of Sadhana when he has this inward Vritti. There is no Vritti in Brahman. This is Kaivalya or final goal of life. the ears and eyes at once run towards sound and sight. From Sakshi Vritti. . A Rajasic man full of desires can never dream of an inner spiritual life with Antarmukha Vritti. He is absolutely unfit for the practice of introspection. Viveka Vritti belongs to Vijnanamaya Kosha. you must jump to Sakshi Vritti. You must starve the mind by Vairagya and Tyaga (renunciation of desires. when all its attention is turned on itself alone. From Akhandakara Vritti. on account of force of habit. The Bahirmukha Vritti is the outgoing tendency of the mind due to Rajas. you must jump to Viveka Vritti. Further. The outgoing energies of the mind begin to play. By developing the Vijnanamaya Kosha. Even the so-called educated persons know very little of the mind subjectively or of its nature and operations. From Mano-Vritti. objects and THE MIND. You will get Antarmukha Vritti (inward-moving mind) only after you have destroyed all the externalising powers of the mind.

such as hyge "mind. and should therefore be considered all part of what we call the mind. Pre-scientific theories grounded in theology concentrated on the supposed relationship between the mind and the soul. Theories of mind and its function are numerous. . volition. that they are of the same nature and origin. the Buddha. Indian and. keep in mind. joy²are more primitive or subjective in nature and should be seen as different from the mind as such. to the thought processes of reason. remember". Earliest recorded speculations are from the likes of Zoroaster. Aristotle. to have mind of. come to mind. No one else can "know our mind. Which attributes make up the mind is much debated. feeling and memory. courage. whence also Latin mens "mind". fear. hate. In this view the emotions²love. spirit". The original meaning of Old English gemynd was the faculty of memory. later. which has munr. Adi Shankara and other ancient Greek. Old English had other words to express "mind". perception. will. thought. gradually develops over the 14th and 15th centuries. memory. Sanskrit manas "mind" and Greek "mind. meaning "to think. Islamic philosophers. One of the key attributes of the mind in this sense is that it is a private sphere to which no one but the owner has access. Physical and mental wellness offer health. a human's supernatural. particularly reason and memory.[1] The meaning of "memory" is shared with Old Norse." Thus we "make up our minds. Others argue that various rational and emotional states cannot be so separated. The word is originally from a PIE verbal root *men-." "change our minds" or are "of two minds" about something. anger". giving pleasure and contented sensation to individual. Some psychologists argue that only the higher intellectual functions constitute mind. Mind is the aspect of intellect and consciousness experienced as combinations of thought. by implication. Mind manifests itself subjectively as a stream of consciousness. and imagination.Ayurvedic view point of mind differs a lot from modern Wellness of mind What is wellness and what is mind? Well ness is feeling of being well. The generalization of mind to include all mental faculties. emotion. not of thought in general. etc. Hence call to mind. Plato. In popular usage mind is frequently synonymous with thought: the private conversation with ourselves that we carry on "inside our heads." They can only interpret what we consciously or unconsciously communicate. The term is often used to refer. divine or godgiven essence. including all unconscious cognitive processes.

Although traditional studies of memory began in the realms of philosophy. Consciousness in mammals (this includes humans) is an aspect of the mind generally thought to comprise qualities such as subjectivity. most invertebrates have either a centralized brain or collections of individual ganglia. plans. Phenomenal consciousness is usually consciousness of something or about something. Memory is an organism's ability to store. Imagined images are seen with the "mind's eye". a marriage between cognitive psychology and neuroscience.000 others[citation needed]. Brains can be extremely complex. In most animals. and subsequently recall information.[2] Phenomenal consciousness has many different experienced qualities. which refers to the global availability of information to processing systems in the brain. as when we form concepts. and imagination. it has become one of the principal pillars of a new branch of science called cognitive neuroscience. some psychologists have preferred to describe this process as "imaging" or "imagery" or to speak of it as "reproductive" as opposed to "productive" or "constructive" imagination. psychology. and the ability to perceive the relationship between oneself and one's environment. Thinking involves the cerebral manipulation of information. the late nineteenth and early twentieth century put memory within the paradigms of cognitive psychology. Words referring to similar concepts and processes include cognition. Some philosophers divide consciousness into phenomenal consciousness. Primitive animals such as sponges do not have a brain at all. and access consciousness. or encephalon (Greek for "in the head"). the brain. which is subjective experience itself. the brain is located in the head. [edit] Brain and mind See also: Cognitive science In animals. and make decisions that maximize imagined future benefits. neuroscience. and cognitive science. often referred to as qualia. retain. reasoning and making decisions. responsible for thought. sentience. Since this use of the term conflicts with that of ordinary language. While all vertebrates have a brain. Among the many useful applications of imagination is the ability to simulate possible futures. protected by the skull and close to the primary sensory apparatus of vision. and so to deal with it effectively according to their goals. In recent decades. It is a subject of much research in philosophy of mind. each linked to as many as 10. hearing. a property known as intentionality in philosophy of mind. engage in problem solving. For example. equilibrioception. ends and desires. is the control center of the central nervous system.Thought is a mental process which allows individuals to model the world. Imagination is the ability to generate mental representations of objects or experiences. The term is technically used in psychology for the process of reviving in the mind percepts of objects formerly given in sense perception. taste and olfaction. idea. Thinking is a higher cognitive function and the analysis of thinking processes is part of cognitive psychology. and is based on internal goals or processes rather than perceptual stimulation by the current environment. the human brain contains more than 100 billion neurons. .

".[9] [edit] Philosophy of mind See also: Philosophy of mind Philosophy of mind is the branch of philosophy that studies the nature of the mind.Understanding the relationship between the brain and the mind ² mind-body problem is one of the central issues in the history of philosophy ² is a challenging problem both philosophically and scientifically. mental functions. found it possible to explain reflexes and other simple behaviors in mechanistic terms. materialism. mental events.[6] In addition to the philosophical questions.[4] materialism holds that mental phenomena are identical to neuronal phenomena.[16] but it was most precisely formulated by René Descartes in the 17th century.[8] Descartes. Dualism holds that the mind exists independently of the brain.Jose M.e. mental properties. although he did not believe that complex thought. consciousness and their relationship to the physical body. and the neural correlates of consciousness. although there are other issues concerning the nature of the mind that do not involve its relation to the physical body. and rational is still useful.[10] "Aristotelian thought has permeated most Occidental philosophical system until modern times. could be explained by reference to the physical brain alone. In present popular usage. more or less consciously. soul and mind are not clearly differentiated and some people. Delgado [11] Dualism and monism are the two major schools of thought that attempt to resolve the mind-body problem. is commonly seen as the central issue in philosophy of mind. i. Dualism is the position that mind and body are in some way separate from each other. and perhaps the mind. who thought extensively about mind-brain relationships. still feel that the soul.[7] Philosophers such as Patricia Churchland posit that the drug-mind interaction is indicative of an intimate connection between the brain and the mind. still feel that the soul. Through most of history many philosophers found it inconceivable that cognition could be implemented by a physical substance such as brain tissue (that is neurons and synapses). whereas Property .R. the relationship of the mind to the body. and language in particular. and perhaps the mind are not clearly differentiated and some people.[17] Substance dualists argue that the mind is an independently existing substance. may enter or leave the body as independent entities. sensitive. including understanding the relationship between mental activity and brain activity. not that the two are the same entity. and idealism. It can be traced back to Plato. such as with traumatic brain injury and psychoactive drug use. and the classification of man's function as vegetative.[5] The most straightforward scientific evidence that there is a strong relationship between the physical brain matter and the mind is the impact physical alterations to the brain have on the mind.[3] There are three major philoosphical schools of thought concerning the answer: dualism.[12] Aristotle[13][14][15] and the Samkhya and Yoga schools of Hindu philosophy. more or less consciously. the relationship between mind and brain involves a high number of scientific questions.[5] and idealism holds that only mental phenomena exist. the exact mechanisms by which drugs influence cognition. The mind-body problem.

[19] According to Spinoza's dual-aspect theory. noology.[18] Monism is the position that mind and body are not physiologically and ontologically distinct kinds of entities.[25][26][27] Non-reductive physicalists argue that although the brain is all there is to the mind. but it is mental in so far as its perceived redness depends on the workings of the visual system. these positions include behaviorism. As both an academic and applied discipline. particularly in the fields of sociobiology. but that it is not a distinct substance. they are far from having been resolved. Idealists maintain that the mind is all that exists and that the external world is either mental itself. However. and experience.[21][22][23][24] Other philosophers. Carl Jung. and modern philosophers of mind continue to ask how the subjective qualities and the intentionality (aboutness) of mental states and properties can be explained in naturalistic terms. adopt a non-physicalist position which challenges the notion that the mind is a purely physical construct. however. Unlike dual-aspect theory. and Unconscious mind Psychology is the scientific study of human behaviour. anomalous monism and functionalism. the type identity theory. and that the mind will eventually be explained in terms of these entities as physical theory continues to evolve. Psychology involves . a red spot on a wall is physical in its dependence on the wall and the pigment of which it is made. The most common monisms in the 20th and 21st centuries have all been variations of physicalism.[30][31] [edit] Science of mind [edit] Psychology See also: Sigmund Freud. This view was first advocated in Western Philosophy by Parmenides in the 5th Century BC and was later espoused by the 17th Century rationalist Baruch Spinoza. For example. neutral monism does not posit a more fundamental substance of which mind and body are aspects. computer science. mind and body are two aspects of an underlying reality which he variously described as "Nature" or "God".[20] Many modern philosophers of mind adopt either a reductive or non-reductive physicalist position. the predicates and vocabulary used in mental descriptions and explanations are indispensable.dualists maintain that the mind is a group of independent properties that emerge from and cannot be reduced to the brain. Reductive physicalists assert that all mental states and properties will eventually be explained by scientific accounts of physiological processes and states. Neutral monists adhere to the position that perceived things in the world can be regarded as either physical or mental depending on whether one is interested in their relationship to other things in the world or their relationship to the perceiver.[20] These approaches have been particularly influential in the sciences. evolutionary psychology and the various neurosciences. maintaining in their different ways that the mind is not something separate from the body. and cannot be reduced to the language and lower-level explanations of physical science. Physicalists argue that only the entities postulated by physical theory exist. the study of thought. mental functioning. or an illusion created by the mind.[28][29] Continued neuroscientific progress has helped to clarify some of these issues.

perception. political science. and interpersonal relationships. theory of mind. cognition. including problems of individuals' daily lives and the treatment of mental health problems. or language ² from a Darwinian evolutionary perspective. such as the heart. such as empathy. in order to devise theories of human behaviour. Adaptationist thinking about physiological mechanisms. Evolutionary psychology applies the same thinking to psychology. E O Wilson. behaviour.. the first 3 million years concern Sahelanthropus. mourning. Of this timeline. or individuals in small groups as opposed to large groups. anthropology. Evolutionary psychologists argue that much of human behavior is originates as psychological adaptations that evolved to solve recurrent problems in human ancestral environments. lungs. It seeks to explain how many human psychological traits are evolved adaptations. Historically. from the separation of the Pan genus until the emergence of behavioral modernity by 50. . Psychology differs from the other social sciences (e. Psychology also refers to the application of such knowledge to various spheres of human activity. and sociology) due to its focus on experimentation at the scale of the individual. is common in evolutionary biology.the scientific study of mental processes such as perception. personality. Many traits of human intelligence. as well as environmental influences.g. and immune system. the following 2 million concern Australopithecus. Konrad Lorentz. and Steven Pinker [edit] Evolutionary history of the human mind The evolution of human intelligence refers to a set of theories that attempt to explain how human intelligence has evolved. such as social and cultural influences.[32] Further information: Evolutionary neuroscience.000 years ago. The Adapted Mind. psychology differed from biology and neuroscience in that it was primarily concerned with mind rather than brain. and the use of symbols and tools. ritual. the functional products of natural selection or sexual selection. or "Great leap forward" and those of a gradual or continuum hypothesis. that is. There is a debate between supporters of the idea of a sudden emergence of intelligence. while the final 2 million span the history of actual human species (the Paleolithic). The timeline of human evolution spans some 7 million years. and mental disorders. cognition. institutions or societies. Modern psychological science incorporates physiological and neurological processes into its conceptions of perception. emotion. are already apparent in great apes although in lesser sophistication than in humans. [edit] Evolutionary psychology Evolutionary psychology (EP) is an approach within psychology that examines psychological traits ² such as memory. and to the emergence of human language. The question is closely tied to the evolution of the human brain. economics.

In general. One way to think about mental health is by looking at how effectively and successfully a person functions. Merriam-Webster defines mental health as "A state of emotional and psychological well-being in which an individual is able to use his or her cognitive and emotional capabilities. drama. and meet the ordinary demands of everyday life. Flinn. since then. or therapeutic touch. or mental health. and vice versa. there is no one "official" definition of mental health. the absence of a recognized mental disorder is not necessarily an indicator of mental health. relational intervention used by trained psychotherapists to aid clients in problems of living. Most forms of psychotherapy use only spoken conversation.Theories of the evolution of intelligence include: y y y y y y Robin Dunbar's social brain hypothesis[33] Geoffrey Miller's sexual selection hypothesis[34] The ecological dominance-social competition (EDSC) [35] explained by Mark V. function in society. art. . and leading an independent life. Ward based mainly on work by Richard D. Cultural differences. The idea Intelligence as a signal opf good health and resistance to disease. communication and behavior change and that are designed to improve the mental health of a client or patient. and being able to "bounce back. and competing professional theories all affect how "mental health" is defined. In other words. though some also use various other forms of communication such as the written word. Psychotherapy is an interpersonal. This usually includes increasing individual sense of well-being and reducing subjective discomforting experience. Feeling capable and competent. Alexander. Psychotherapy occurs within a structured encounter between a trained therapist and client(s). dialogue. or larger population) can evolve despite individual disadvantages such as those cited above. The Group selection theory contends that organism characteristics that provide benefits to a group (clan. are all signs of mental health." or recover from difficult situations. David C. subjective assessments. Geary and Carol V. [edit] Mental health Main article: Mental health By analogy with the health of the body. being able to handle normal levels of stress. The idea that intelligence is connected with nutrition. scores of other approaches have been developed and continue to be created. narrative story. Psychotherapists employ a range of techniques based on experiential relationship building. tribe. or to improve group relationships (such as in a family)." According to the World Health Organization (WHO). one can speak metaphorically of a state of health of the mind. maintaining satisfying relationships. Purposeful. and thereby with status[36] A higher IQ could be a signal that an individual comes from and lives in a physical and social environment where nutrition levels are high. most experts agree that "mental health" and "mental illness" are not opposites. theoretically based psychotherapy began in the 19th century with psychoanalysis.

speech and facial recognition. or cognitive ethology. focused on providing solutions to real life problems. then it will be possible to create a machine with a recognisable mind (though possibly only with computers much different from today's). learning and adaptation and usually developed using customized machines or computers. The term Artificial Intelligence (AI) was first used by John McCarthy who considers it to mean "the science and engineering of making intelligent machines". the study of AI has also become an engineering discipline. knowledge mining. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. in which he proposed that machines could be tested for intelligence using questions and answers. If the mind is indeed a thing separate from or higher than the functioning of the brain. planning and scheduling. but has also been strongly influenced by the approach of ethology. dealing with intelligent behavior. if it were possible at all. is the title given to a modern approach to the mental capacities of animals.[37] It can also refer to intelligence as exhibited by an artificial (man-made. natural language. by simple virtue of the fact that such a machine already exists in the form of the human brain. handwriting. The debate about the nature of the mind is relevant to the development of artificial intelligence. attempting to discern or understand the degree to which animal cognition can be revealed by linguistics-related study. neuroscience and engineering. behavioral ecology. [edit] Religious perspectives . Please help improve this article by adding reliable references. Examples include control. the ability to answer diagnostic and consumer questions. Animal language acquisition. but critics of AI claim that no actual comprehension by the AI machine has taken place. the mind is no more than the aggregated functions of the brain. One of the biggest difficulties with AI is that of comprehension. If. Many devices have been created that can do amazing things.[edit] Animal intelligence Animal cognition. strategy games like computer chess and other video games. manufactured) entity. Turing published "Computing machinery and intelligence" in Mind. psychology. This process is now named the Turing Test. AI is studied in overlapping fields of computer science. and evolutionary psychology. on the other hand. It has developed out of comparative psychology. software applications. has been controversial among cognitive linguists. [edit] Artificial intelligence This section needs additional citations for verification. Research in AI is concerned with producing machines to automate tasks requiring intelligent behavior. As such. then hypothetically it would be much more difficult to recreate within a machine. nonnatural. Much of what used to be considered under the title of animal intelligence is now thought of under this heading. (September 2007) Main article: Philosophy of artificial intelligence In 1950 Alan M.

Confucianism sees the mind. or of phenomena which appear to be paranormal. which was originated by Richard Dawkins and Douglas Hofstadter in the 1980s.[41][42][43][44][45] The status of parapsychology as a science has also been disputed. with many scientists believing that psychic abilities have not been demonstrated to exist. telekinesis and telepathy.[40] Parapsychology is controversial. the mind rules the heart. The term is based on the Greek para (beside/beyond). who merely consists of five aggregates. especially mystical traditions. and use that deep logical understanding to elicit and guide emotional arousal during prayer. or identical to. B. or skandhas. psyche (soul/mind).Various religious traditions have contributed unique perspectives on the nature of mind. and logos (account/explanation) and was coined by psychologist Max Dessoir in or before 1889.[40] J.[38] The Indian philosopher-sage Sri Aurobindo attempted to unite the Eastern and Western psychological traditions with his integral psychology. Taoism sees the human being as contiguous with natural forces. as inherently perfectible. Christianity has tended to see the mind as distinct from the soul (Greek nous) and sometimes further distinguished from the spirit. during a shift in methodologies which brought experimental methods to the study of psychic phenomena.[46] with many scientists regarding the discipline as pseudoscience. and the mind as not separate from the body. It purports to be an . Western esoteric traditions sometimes refer to a mental body that exists on a plane other than the physical. the divine reality. mind is defined as "that which is clarity and cognizes"²where 'clarity' refers to the formless nature of the mind and 'cognizes' to the function of mind. Humans can approach the Divine intellectually. overcoming the ego is considered a worthy spiritual goal. Brahman. In many traditions. Hinduism's various philosophical schools have debated whether the human soul (Sanskrit atman) is distinct from. as have many philosophers and New religious movements. through learning and behaving according to the Divine Will as enclothed in the Torah. Judaism teaches that "moach shalit al halev".[39] for instance precognition.. Rhine later popularized "parapsychology" as a replacement for the earlier term "psychical research". like the body. Buddhism posits that there is actually no distinct thing as a human being. According to Buddhist philosopher Dharmakirti. namely that every mind must cognize an object.[47][48][49] [edit] Memetics Memetics is a theory of mental content based on an analogy with Darwinian evolution. See also: Buddhism and psychology [edit] Other perspectives [edit] Parapsychology Parapsychology is the scientific study of certain types of paranormal phenomena.

a the meme is a useful. particularly under Dawkins's interpretation. to the thought processes of reason. "She takes care of all the necessary arrangements" thinker: an important intellectual. pattern of behaviour (etc. "he has a keen intellect" wordnetweb. will and imagination. A meme. Definitions of mind on the Web: y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y that which is responsible for one's thoughts and feelings. "the idea of the game is to capture all the pieces" keep in mind knowledge and intellectual MIND (Moving In New Directions) (est. take offense with. created by the mind. "he was reluctant to make his judgment known". give heed to. The term is often used to refer. the seat of the faculty of reason.e. be alert to.approach to evolutionary models of cultural information transfer. what you intend to do. or may be "selfish". including all unconscious cognitive processes. "the great minds of the 17th century" heed: pay close attention to. "he reads to improve his mind"..wikipedia. . "Beware of telephone salesmen" your intention. analogous to a Mind is the aspect of intellect and consciousness experienced as combinations of thought. led by the mind. Quebec. Canada. memory. and which can reproduce itself from mind to mind. be cautious or wary about. as the first verse of the Dhammapada (quotations from the Buddha) states: "All things are preceded by the mind.. 1975) is an alternative education high school in Montreal. "she changed her mind" take care: be in charge of or deal with.) which is "hosted" in one or more individual minds.. emotion.princeton. perception. by implication. Thus what would otherwise be regarded as one individual influencing another to adopt a belief is seen memetically as a meme reproducing itself. "don't pay him any mind" beware: be on one's INTRODUCTION Understanding the functioning of our mind forms the basis of Buddhist philosophy and practice. "his mind wandered".. "I couldn't get his words out of my head" be offended or bothered by. "he had in mind to see his old teacher".wikipedia. en. As with genetics. en. be bothered by. beneficial idea). "it came to mind" be concerned with or about something or somebody judgment: an opinion formed by judging something." . . "Heed the advice of the old men" attention.. belief. in which case it could be considered a "virus of the mind". a meme's success may be due its contribution to the effectiveness of its host (i. is an idea. "I don't mind your behavior" recall or remembrance.

Study and training the mind in wisdom uses the conceptual mind. An over 1800 year old 'one-liner' by Nagarjuna: "Without the discipline of guarding the mind. The emotional aspect of ourselves is of such great importance that its purification is the basis for a harmonious and peaceful life. fundamental pure nature of mind which realises emptiness (see the page on Wisdom). rigpa (Tib. formless and allows for objects to arise in it." . we will find that we are leading our lives according to our feelings and that our thinking is dependent upon our feelings. The non-conceptual type of mind is also called the Buddha nature. not substantial. meaning that the mind is clear. experiences and reacts to the environment. If we examine this more closely. but in English we have to differentiate between the two to make the meaning clear. In Buddhist psychology. and with our ability to retain knowledge and make use of it. recognises. When we attend to the mind. but. much emphasis is given to the so-called delusions. which we need to diminish and ultimately even eliminate for spiritual progress. has no form. and also for good meditation. like a mirror. The conceptual is the "normal" mind aspect we use to survive in daily life. thinks. but is ultimately mistaken about the way in which reality exists. When we speak of "heart" we think of feelings and emotions. an awareness. no shape. our ability to respond with our fundamental being. heart and mind are one word (citta).Similarly. Although we may believe that we are leading our lives according to our thinking process.). The mind is described as having two main aspects: clarity and knowing. and that the mind is knowing. we are concerned with the thinking process and the intellectual understanding that derives from knowledge. that is not the case. a consciousness which can engage with objects." Lama Zopa Rinpoche The two main types of mind are explained as the conceptual and the non-conceptual. Mind is defined in Buddhism as a non-physical phenomenon which perceives. the world is regarded as a phenomena originating in the mind. in the Abidharma (the earliest attempt at a systematic representation of Buddhist philosophy and psychology). like preparing the mind before the underlying non-conceptual Buddha-nature of the mind can appear. can clearly reflect objects. "What is the mind? It is a phenonmenon that is not body. what use are any other disciplines?" Ayya Khema: "In Pali. no color.

"From contact comes feeling. THE AGGREGATES A 'person' can be described as a number of phenomena into a single working unit. this is actually called the Contact (see below as the 5th. see the pages on delusions. the distinctions in Buddhist psychology are made from the point of view of how to obtain liberation and buddhahood. 4. Compositional Factors. in Buddhism.Next. the Five Aggregates (Skandhas in Skt." Ayya Khema To use a simple example of how this works. let's say: something touches our hand: . Simply said. Form (rupa Skt. and translate it into energy (more subtle part of the Body). and they do not directly correspond to the divisions made in Western psychology at all.) . This is what keeps us in the cycle of birth and death. taste. the mental process of Feeling evaluates the Perception and decides it to be pleasant. in general "thoughts". Volition (samskara Skt. . In Western philosophy. it is interesting to see that four out of five aggregates are concerning the mind.) .) . and certainly not to figure out how 'the brain works'.) . touch.these are all other remaining mental processes. thoughts are purely a function of the non-physical mind. which is an aspect of the mind. it is not regarded as the 'factory of thoughts'. From feeling comes reaction. Perception also refers to the activity of recognition.the body 2. the brain is considered a part of the body where many of the instructions of the mind are led to the other parts of the body.) are used to analyse a person. such as attaching a name to an object of experience. direct perception.Awareness. It includes the formulation of a concept about a particular object. To begin with. Furthermore. and (as we know from Western science) our nerve cells pick up the movement of the skin. 3. Perception (samjna Skt.the five sense consciousnesses (smell.this refers only to the mental separation of perceptions into pleasant.This energy is then picked up by Primary Consciousness. one usually refers to Body.) . In Buddhism. in other words. the term 'Feeling' refers to something very specific here: : 1. Primary Consciousness (vijnana in Skt. as e. experience. the contact between the physical and the mental aspects. Feeling (vedana in Skt. . Please note that the terminology can be confusing. unpleasant or neutral. or identification. in the sense that the presence of consciousness together with the sense organ and the object of the sense organ produces a sense experience or awareness. in Buddhism. Our reactions to our feelings are our passport to rebirth. seeing and hearing) and mental consciousness. Omnipresent Mental Factor). like anger and attachment. 5.For more information on counteracting these delusions.This is physical contact. .g. unpleasant and neutral (nothing more). Mind and (sometimes) Soul or Spirit.

the more intelligent and wise we will be. possibly projections/thoughts like 'it must be this bothersome fly again' or 'I am touching the table I am walking past' etc. how fast it is. a video camera.. our bodily senses cannot really be objective: people's ears are different. microphone or modem we connect it to. Similarly. the hardware (body) is just a 'dead thing'. However good the hardware is. Buddhism encourages us to . Buddhism teaches that there is no real limit to the development of our mind. recognises. not unlike computer software. just like the mind needs the senses the receive the 'input' of the outside world. the body is the hardware and the mind is the software. providing we are not hampered by serious physical problems. but there are physical limits which the developers encounter. With the software. all our normal values and concepts dissolve as limited and non-objective. the first types of computers behaved with the intelligence of an on/off switch. Similarly.Based on the Feeling and Discrimination. it can ultimately only perform what the program 'knows'. which are for example. in itself. Perception (Recognition/Discrimination) gets to work in finding out what the thing is that touches my hand.. and in fact omniscience is possible. let us compare our body and mind to a computer. and the software can be moved onto another set of hardware. the mind creates the Compositional Factors/Volition. an instruction to the eyes to check what is touching the hand. the more 'intelligent' it will be able to read the world and determine what is the best thing to do. Without software (mind). so how can someone ever claim to be an 'objective observer'? Above and beyond that lies the software. but already they can beat a grandmaster at chess and nobody can say where it will end. . As the software actually determines what the hardware does.Simultaneously. the amount of electrical circuits on chips is getting larger and larger. thinks. Although software needs to be imprinted or registered in something like the hard-drive before it can do anything. maybe I see a table near my hand and consider it likely that my hand must be touching the table. which programs can be run. the mind is defined as a non-physical phenomena which perceives. the eyes are different etc. Similarly. The hardware (body) is of course important in what the computer can do. a modem etc. like the keyboard. As mentioned above. the input will be different. and is it related to other information. etc. and how the computer can interact with the world. But the Buddha made it clear that a human body is the best type of available hardware! There are limits to the development of the hardware. so is the mind the master of the body . the limit appears to be much less clear. not unlike rebirth! The software needs to use the 'senses' of the hardware. a program represents a lot of thinking by the software manufacturer. for example. the reaction to the hand to withdraw if it is unpleasant. the mousea. the more advanced our mind is. At that stage.within the physical limitations of the body. or even 'die'. is it pressure or heat. to receive 'input'. The hardware can get damaged. depending on what kind of video camera. ^Top of Page THE MIND AS OUR SOFTWARE To illustrate the Buddhist approach to the mind. In this simile. the more advanced this is. This leads to an important observation: it is easy to recognise that a computer is not 'objective' about the world. experiences and reacts to the environment.

It appears to the very advanced meditator and during the death process. Sense impressions come and trick it into happiness. CLEAR-LIGHT MIND In Tibetan Buddhism. This is why psychology and meditation are so important. It is also possible to understand the usage of the term clear light in terms of the nature of mind itself. Sort of a light. Clear light is the most subtle level of mind. Therefore it is called clear light. These refer to the earlier three stages of dissolution which are technically called. gladness and sorrow. we need to understand how the programs of our mind work and how they can be improved. This is the most subtle level of mind (see also death & rebirth). It is a non-conceptual. 11-14. In truth there is nothing really wrong with it. That the mind is not peaceful these days is because it follows moods. Oct. therefore it is called clear light. often the so-called 'clear-light mind' is mentioned. Buddha's wisdom might come about. suffering and problems. So it is from that point of view that the choice of the term light is used. 'primordial' state of mind. all consciousness or all cognitive mental events are said to be in the nature of clarity and luminosity. moonlike and darkness. At the final stage of dissolution the mind is totally free of all these factors of obscuration. which are again metaphorically described in terms of sun-like. which can be seen as the basis or the source from which eventual experience or realisation of Buddhahood.. According to Buddhism. so are computer manuals. including the clear light stage. 1991 New York City. also only advanced meditators will be able to notice it. What has this got to do with light as we know it? Dalai Lama: "I don't think that in the term clear light. It becomes peaceful or agitated because moods deceive it. It is non-obstructed. Mind or consciousness is a phenomena which lacks any obstructive quality. it is simply (an aspect of) Nature. From a talk given by HH Dalai Lama.. the four empties. The method to develop our mind is summarised as study and meditation. but the mind's true nature is none of those . This could have its roots in our terminology of mental will. where the mind becomes devoid of certain types of obscurations. but remember. suffering. which we are normally not even aware of. and then do the reprogramming in meditation. Below listing of aspects of the mind may appear very dry and boring...develop the software of our mind to enter into a different state which is beyond limitations. The real mind doesn't have anything to it. light should be taken literally. Path of Compassion teaching preliminary to Kalachakra: Question: When people hear of luminosity of clear light that dawns at the moment of death they ask why it is called clear light. but in this case. The untrained mind is stupid. Clear light is a state of mind which becomes fully manifest only as a consequence of certain sequences or stages of dissolution. It is intrinsically pure. It is sort of metaphoric. Initially." A teaching from Venerable Ajahn Chah (Pra Bhodinyana Thera): "About this mind. Within itself it's already peaceful.

a careful study of it can explain much of the Buddhist attitude towards the mind. 51 types of mind states or mental factors are distinguished. Contact .one-pointed focus on an object. Intention / mental impulse . not allowing distraction 8. The untrained mind gets lost and follows these things. Note that the English terms used often have different connotations than the actual definitions in Buddhism.repeatedly bringing objects back to mind. That gladness or sadness is not the mind. painful or neutral as experienced by the aggregate of Feeling. THE 5 OMNIPRESENT (EVER-RECURRING) MENTAL FACTORS 1. basis for increasing intelligence 10.' If we know fully the true nature of sense impressions we will be unmoved. it doesn't 'flutter. but describes merely the most important ones in relation to spiritual practice.directing effort to fulfil desired intention. examines characteristics of objects. (see below) and their relevance to mind training. .I will .. stops doubt.. maintains root of all wholesome qualities. and not get lost in them. Recognition / discrimination / distinguishing awareness (the second aggregate) 3."common-sense intelligence". So we must train the mind to know those sense impressions.. They are mainly categorised by the way they are related to the main delusions of attachment.the connection of an object with the mind. the mind follows them. Mindfulness / Recollection . really peaceful! Just like a leaf which is still as long as no wind blows." ^Top of Page 51 MENTAL FACTORS In the Abhidharmakosha of Vasubandu. If it doesn't follow them.focused grasping of an object of awareness 5. 4. fine discrimination. anger and ignorance. Although below list may appear a dull list of definitions.holding on to a particular thing. Concentration / attention / mental application . The list does not have the intention to be complete in describing all possible mental states. it forgets itself.. To make it peaceful. Concentration / Samadhi . Our practice is simply to see the Original Mind. Just this is the aim of all this difficult practice we put ourselves through. Interest / appreciation . THE 5 DETERMINATIVE MENTAL FACTORS 6. If a wind comes up the leaf flutters. Then we think that it is we who are upset or at ease or whatever.things. basis for diligence and enthusiasm. this may be pleasurable. Intelligence / Wisdom .the 'fluttering' is due to those sense impressions. but only a mood coming to deceive us. 7. But really this mind of ours is already unmoving and peaceful. not forgetting 9. Resolution / aspiration . The fluttering is due to the wind -. Feeling (the first aggregate) 2.

18.doing positive acts (specifically mental development and meditation) with delight ^Top of Page THE 26 NON-VIRTUOUS MENTAL FACTORS THE 6 ROOT DELUSIONS (Delusion is defined as any secondary mental factor that.causes avoiding negative acts & doing good.not knowing karma. prevents the mind from being at ease. Non-bewilderment / non ignorance / open-mindedness .avoids evil towards others.) 26. not being overpowered by delusions.usually understanding the meaning of things through clear discrimination. Three types are distinguished.makes mind unclear.depending on intelligence or intention. Non hatred / imperturbability . basis for unspoiled moral attachment to cyclic existence and objects 22. Equanimity / clear-minded tranquility . when animosity to others or conditions. Precise analysis / subtle discernment . Suppleness / thorough training / flexibility . The first 3 are also known as roots of virtue. sense consciousness turns inwards 12. longing faith: motivation is by an emotionally unstable mind c. 19. uncritical faith: motivation is for no apparent reason b. rejoicing 23. lack of wisdom of emptiness. interrupting mental or physical rigidity. Renunciation / detachment . General examination / coarse discernment . searches for rough idea about the object. Conscientiousness / carefulness .gives us positive attitude to virtue and objects that are worthy of respect. pacifist 25. never unwilling to learn 24. Sleep . Ignorance .peaceful mind. examines the object in detail. THE 11 VIRTUOUS MENTAL FACTORS (Note that 18 and 19 are not necessary always virtuous. conviction: motivated by sound reasons 16. includes closedmindedness. 14. 13. Regret . Sense of Propriety / self-respect . Non violence / complete harmlessness .makes mind unhappy when regarding a previously done action as bad. non-ignorance and enthusiasm 21.) 15.THE 4 VARIABLE (POSITIVE OR NEGATIVE) MENTAL FACTORS 11. mind with detachment. . non-hatred. Considerateness / decency .depending on intelligence or intention. brings about suffering and uneasiness to self or others.usually the personal conscience to stop negative actions and perform positive actions 17.enables the mind to engage in positive acts as wished.compassion without any hatred. Enthusiasm / diligence . Faith / confidence / respectful belief . with the last one being the preferred type: a. no mental dullness or agitation 20. meaning and practice of 3 Jewels.

definition: wanting to be separated from someone or something.hiding one's negative qualities when others with good intention refer to them this causes regret 41. Concealment . not understanding the value of the 3 Jewels.based on emotional afflictions. which include disrespect of others 30. Wrong views / speculative delusions . can lead to relentless desire to hurt others. causes unhappiness 29. it forms the basis for laziness (43) 43. Faithlessness . seeking harm to others.being in two minds about reality. wrong conduct (not towards liberation) THE 20 SECONDARY NON-VIRTUOUS MENTAL FACTORS Derived from anger: 32. Greed / avarice / miserliness . it can be the idea that virtue is unnecessary. not wanting to do virtue or only little. Derived from anger and attachment: 36.distraction towards desire objects. Doubt / deluded indecisive wavering .27. being intoxicated with oneself 39. malicious state wishing to cause immediate harm to others 33.caused by fogginess which makes mind dark/heavy .inflated superiority. Envy / jealousy . Laziness . opposite to diligence [25]) .is best). Distinguished in 5 types: belief in the self as permanent or non-existent (as opposite to the view of emptiness). Attachment / desire . Wrath / hatred . obstructs single pointed concentration.internal anger caused by when going to sleep.definition: not wanting to be separated from someone or something. coarse dullness is when the object is unclear. Vengeance / malice / resentment . unbearable to bear good things others have Derived from attachment: 37. usually leads to negative actions 31.being attached to temporary pleasure. or a mistaken view of virtue.intense clinging to possessions and their increase 38. supported by one's worldly views. Vanity / self-satisfaction .seeing one's good fortune giving one a false sense of confidence. and seeking to return harm done to oneself 34. subtle dullness is when the object has no intense clarity 42. Derived from ignorance: 40. not allowing the mind to rest on something increased anger.being devoid of compassion or belief of that which is worthy of respect. Rage / spite / outrage . Dullness / muddle-headedness . when wrath and malice become unbearable 35. denying karma.not forgetting harm done by a person. Pride . Excitement / wildness / mental agitation . Anger .intention to utter harsh speech in reply to unpleasant words. Grasping at aggregates in cyclic existence causes rebirth & suffering of existence 28. closed-mindedness (my view -which is wrong. Cruelty / vindictiveness / mercilessness .

Just for fun: Consciousness: That annoying time between naps. Traleg Kyabgon Rinpoche. The soul willed it wrong. . George Berkeley Who are you going to believe. wanting to act unrestrained 51. ? What is mind? No matter. by Robert Kenny More on the mental delusions in this article by Ven. no regret. Hypocrisy / pretension . careless indifference and moral failings. Distraction / mental wandering . Inattentiveness / lack of conscience . and it wasn't too long. it supports all root and secondary delusions 49.pretend non-existent qualities of oneself 47. Tried every which way. but it had a weak soul as its king. peace and joy it never did bring. Unconscientiousness / carelessness. Forgetfulness . Dishonesty / smugness . snobbery & conceit.3 delusions plus laziness. Its life filled with much lack.not avoiding evil. 'cause it was new and green at this thing. to brighten its day. self-importance and finding faults with others Derived from attachment.consciously not avoiding evil. What is matter? Never mind. 'cause it didn't have the knack. there was a great mind. while our ignorance must necessarily be infinite. giving no clear answers. An interesting page on The Science Of Collective Consciousness. Shamelessness . but peace and joy kept refusing to cling.44. but negative tendency 45.inability to focus on any virtuous object Links Click on the link for a List of Sample Meditations. ingratitude 50."distracted wisdom" after rough or no analysis. inducing distraction to disturbing objects . not fully aware of one's conduct. anger and ignorance 48. being inconsiderate of other's practice. intentional seeking mental distraction like daydreaming Derived from attachment and ignorance: 46.not "just forgetting". Sir Karl Raymund Popper Once upon a time.hiding one's faults.causes to not clearly remember virtuous acts. me or your own eyes? Groucho Marx Our knowledge can only be finite. Inconsiderateness .

But the soul got wise. and its life never had that true ring.You see the soul was blind. and opened its eyes. about the workings of its mind. now sweet songs of peace and joy it can sing. Taught it tricks of all kind. . on how to use its great mind. and a mentor took it under his wing.