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Transactions on Power Delivery, Vol. 7 No.1, January 1992

I M A I L S G IMPEIANCE OF RETANGIJLAK GRGUNDING GRIDS

B.R. a p t a , S e n i e r Merrber V.K. Singh


Punjab Engineering C o l l e g e
Chandigarh, I n d i a

Abstract - I n an e a r l i e r paper' t h e a u t h o r
had presented t h e r e s u l t s of i n v e s t i g a t i a n s
have been developed. The a u t h e n t i c i t y of t h e
t h e o r e t i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i s n s h a s been verif led
and e m p i r i c a l f e r m l a e t o e v a l u a t e t h e impulse by experimental i n v e s t i g a t i s n s am m d e l s u s i n g
impedance of square grounding o r i d s . T h i s paper t h e e l e c t r o l y t i c tank.
-tends t h e s e i n v e s t i g a t i o n s t o t h e r e c t a n g u l a r
greundinq g r i d s . Empirical f o r m l a e f e n h e BASIC CONSUIJiATIONS
e f f e c t i v e a r e a and impulse c o e f f i c i e n t for
c e n t r e fed an3 c o r n e r f e d r e c t a n g u l a r g r i d s a r t A grounding system c a n b e r e p r e s e n t e d b y t h e
presented. The v a l i d i t y of t h e a n a l y t i c a l u s u a l t r a n s m i s s i o n l i n e c i r c u i t af d i s t r i b u t e d
method h a s been v e r i f l e d experimentallywith leakacde conductance, i n d u c t a n c e ,capac i t a n c eand
model tests. Compariscn ef s q u a r e and r e c t a n g - r e s i s t a n c e 2 . E'er grounding systems i n l e w and
u l a r g r i % s is presented. The e f f e c t o f l e n g t h medium r e s i s t i v i t y seils, t h e e f f e c t ef series
t e b r e a d t h r a t i e ef t h e Grid on t h e impulse r e s i s t a n c e and c a p a c i t a n c e c a n b e n e y l e ~ t e d l r ~ .
impedance is d i s c u s s d . If a u n i t s t e p c u r r e n t i s a p p l i e d t e this
c i r c u i t , t h e veltaye a t t h e input p i n t is
given by :
SYMBOLS
G = T e t a l d i s t r i b u t e d ground l e a k a g e conduct-
ance of t h e grounding q r i 3 , siemens
L = Tetal distributed electr.de inductance The impulse current was represented by
of t h e grounding grl;l,IcH a wave having a c c s i n e f r o n t and a n e x p o n e n t i a l
R = P w e r f requency grounding r e s i s t a n c e ef t a i l . The t r a n s i e n t r e s p o n s e af t h e d i s t r i b u t e d
t h e g r i d , whms parameter c i r c u i t s u b j e c t & tQt h i s wave was
P' SeI1 r e s i s t i v i t y , ahm-meter s
T S Wave f r e n t time,,u-secs
determined
superpcsitien.
by applying t h e p r i n c i p l e
Cemputations were dene onDEC-
of
A = impllse c e e f f i c i e n t 20 ComlAter a t R q i o n a l Computer C e n t r e , Ch-
r = Radius of a c i r c u l a r p l a t e having the andiqarh.
same a r e a a s t h a t occupied b y t h e g r i d , m
r Radius of a c i r c u l a r p l a t e having the The power frequency qroundinc r e s i s t a n c e o f
s a n e a r e a as t h e e f f e c t i v e a r e a of the t h e g r i d s was assumed t o b e equal to t h e
grid, m grounding r e s i s t a n c e of a plate.The i n d u c t a n c e
s = Spacing between t h e c o n d u c t o r s af the of g r i d s p a s c a l c u l a t e d b y t h e method p r e s e n t -
grid, m earlier3.
t =T i m e , A - s e c s
x - Lensth t o b r e a d t h r a t i o sf t h e Grid The v e l t a ~ i edeveleped a t t h e i n p u t p c i n t a n 3
hence t h e impulse impedance were d e t e r m i n d
INTRODUCTION f e r t h e f e l l w i n g ranc,e of v a r i a b l e s :
R e s i s t i v i t y of s o i l 50, 100, 500, 1000,A-m
The impulse impedance ef a greundingsystem C u r r e n t wave shapes 1/40, 3/40, 4/10, 4/40,
I s d e f i n d as the r a t i e ef t h e peak v a l u e ef 5/40, 7/40, 9/40 A - s ~ c .
t h e v o l t a g e developed a t t h e f e e d i n g p s i n t t o G r i d s fed a t t h e c e n t r e : Nunlser ai meshes 4 ~ 2
t h e peak v a l u e of t h e impulse c u r r e n t . The 6 Y 4 r 8x4, l(bt6, 12x6.
r a t i o Of impulse impedance t e t h e pewer S i z e of each mesh of t h e
frequency greunding r e s i s t a n c e is r e f e r r e d g r i d 2x2111, 4x41~1, 6~6m.
t o as impulse c o e f f i c i e n t . Grids f ed a t t h e c o r n e r : Nurrbcx af meshes 4x2
6 r 4 , 8x4, l b 6 , 12x6.
l n an e a r l i e r paper' t h e a u t h o r s had p r e s - S i z e sf each mesh of t h e
e n t e d t h e results of a n a l y t i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n s g r i d 2r2m, 4x4m, 6r6m.
and e m p i r i c a l formlae t@ e v a l u a t e t h e impulse
impedance bf square grounding grids.This paper GMYIRICAL FORMJUd I'OH PFr'FCTlVE
e x t ends t h e s e i n v e s t l ga t i o n s t o t h e r ec tangu 1ar RAD11 &JD IMHTLSE COEPFICIEWTS
greunding g r i d s . When a yreundin9 g r i d is 31s-
s l p a t i n g impulse c u r r e n t , o n l y a p a r t of t h e The r e s u l t s epf t h e s e i n v e s t i q a t i e n s a r e t e
g r i 3 is e f f e c t i v e i n d i s s i p a t i n g t h e c u r r e n t . a large e x t e n t , s i m i l a r ts t h e s e fer t h e s q u a r e
The a r e a of t h i s e f f e c t i v e p a r t of t h e grid cjrids1.A~ t h e s i z e ef t h e < r i d i n c r e a s e s , the
is tcrmd a s t h e e f f e c t i v e area. on t h e b a s i s impulse impedance decreases and then beccsmes
of a n a l y t i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i c n s , e m p i r i c a l f erm- almost c o n s t m t . T h e e f f w t i v e a r e a is a e f i n e d
u l a e f a r e f f e c t i v e a r e a and impulse impedance i n a way sjmilsr t e t h a t fer s q u a r e g - i d s i The
e f f r c t i v e a r e a can b e r e p r e s e n t & by an
e q u i v a l e n t circle which h a s an a r e a equal t e
t h e e f f e c t i v e area. The r a d i u s of t h e equiva-
l e n t c i r c l e is termed as e f f e c t i v e r a d i u s .

Fig.1 shews t h e v a r i a t i o n of i m r u l s c imped-


ance w i t h t h e r a d i u s of a r e c t a n g u l a r q r i d f e d
a t t h e centre.Fig.2 shews t h i s v a r i a t l e n fer a
rectangular g r i d fed a t t h e cecner,

The r e s u l t s d t h e s e i n v e s t i g a t i o n s shm
t h a t t h e e f f f c t i v e r a 9 i u s af a g r i d Bepenis on
(1) r e s j s t i v i t y sf t h e S O i l ( 2 ) wave f r o n t t i m e
0885-8977/91/$3.00@1992I E a
215

( 3 ) p o i n t ef f e e d i n g ( 4 ) l e n g t h t o b r e a d t h for t h e s e i n v e s t i g a t i o n s w a s t h e same a s i n
r a t i o @f t h e gri5.The e f f e c t i v e r a d i i and impu- t h e c a s e of s q u a r e ?rids1 an3 s i n y l e h o r i z e n t a l
l s e impedance can b e c a l c u l a t e d by u s i n g the e l e c t r d o s 2 . The t h e o r e t i c a l Vilues of i q u l s e
f o l l m i n g e v i r i c a l formulae: impedance and impulse eoef f i c i e n t were also
computed. The experimental and a n a l y t i c a l
r e s u l t s are s h w n i n T a b l e l.A p e r u s a l o f t h e s e
r e s u l t s shows t h a t t h e s p e r i m e n t a l and anal-
y t i c a l r e s u l t s are q u i t e c l o s e t o each otheZ

--
T h i s v e r i f i e s t h e a u t h e n t i c i t y sf t h e methodof
where K = (1.45
= (0.6
0.055) f o r c e n t r e f e d c,rids
0.0256) f Q r c o r n e r f e d S r i f i s t h e o r e t i c a 1 compu t 4 t i o n s.
c = 0.029 fQT c e n t r e f e d clrids 6 $' = 1 0 0 ohm-m
= 0.08 fmr c Q r n e r f e d g r i d s
\ T=l
5
Impulse impedance = A x R
For r > r , Impulse impedance i s t h e same as 2
t h a t f o r e r a 3 j u s re.
The &eve fermulae a r e s i m i l a r t o t h o s e
s 4 I
prepesed by t h e a u t h o r s f o r t h e s q u a r e g r i d s T= 3
e r c e p t t h a t an a d d i t i o n a l f a c t o r (X)c, t o aCC-
a u n t fer t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e lenwth t o br-
eadth r a t i o of t h e r e c t a n g u l a r g r i d s , h a s been T- 5
incorporated.The impulse impedance of a c o r n e r
f e ? g r i d i s much h i g h e r than t h a t of a c e n t r e T=9
fed grid.
I
I n t h e c a s e ef s q u a r e g r i d s it w a s conclud
ed t h a t t h e e f ' e c t i v e a r e a j s reached when t h e
f a c t o r RT/L r e a c h e s a v a l u e e+ 0.65.1t hasbeen
found t h a t i n t h e r e c t a n g u l a r q r i d s a l s o t h e
ef Eective a r e a i s r r a c h e d when t h e f a c t o r KT/L
r e a c h e s a value of 0.65. S i n c e t h i s f a c t e r i s 0 10 20 30
t h e same f e r s q u a r e and r e c t a n g u l a r c r i d s it -r
i s expected t h a t t h i s f a c t o r should remain t h e
same for a l l g r i d s which a r e n o t e r a c t l y s w a r e Eig.2 Impulse Impedance of kectangular
or r e c t a n g u l a r . Grsundiny Grid, E'& a t Corner

l t was concluded i n t h e e a r l i e r paper' t h a t COMPARISON Oh' IMHJLSE IMPEDANCE


i n square grids t h e e f f e c t of s o i l i o n i s a t i o n OF SWAIcE AtG KECTANGULAR t i R S D S
i s almost n e g l i g i b l e . T h i s conclusion i s aprllic-
able t o r e c t a n g u l a r g r i d s a l s o . T a compare t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s of s q u a r e and
r e c t a n g u l a r g r i d s t h e impulse impedance of a
n u d e r of l a r g e g r i d s ef t h e same a r e a b u t
U" 20

+
c,

a
5 16

C
rl

3
20 30 a,
0 1°-r U

-
3
I r O
Fig.1 Impulse Impedance of Kectancjular
Grounding Grid, Fed a t C e n t r e 1 3 5 7
Length t o b r e a d t h r a t i o
EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATIONS
A model t e s t s t u d y was conducted i n 6m d i a Fig.3 E f f e c t of length t o BreaAth R a t i o
meter hemi-spherical e l e c t r o l y t i c t a n k t o
v e r i f y experimentally t h e a u t h e n t i c i t y of t h e
m e t h d of a n a l y t i c a l computations .Theprocedure
of rtectangular %ourding Grids on
I n c r e a s e i n Impulse Impedance .
216

T a b l e 1 C m p a r i s o n of A n a l y t i c a l and Experimental R e s u l t s o f R e c t a n a l o r Grid MoJels


-
Model
size
Number
of
Resistivity
of
Feeding
point
Power
frequency zs%=%&P R 's
meshes Electrolyte resistance Impedance Coef fi-
cient
Inpadance Coeifl-
cient .
ohma OhRS ohms &rPS

1~0.511 4x2 19.5 Corner 12.22 12.41 1.915 12.92 1.057


1xO.Sm 4x2 13.2 Corner 6.302 6.82 1.067 7.30 1.14

4x2 7 95 Corner 4 -7 5.61 1.19

4x2 19.5 C orne r 6.11 8 .l 1 e32

10.2 Corner 3.196 5.60 1.75


4x2
C orne r 2 935 48 0 2.Q
4x2 7.5
Centre 3.196 3 *50 1 .os5
4x2 10.2
Corner 7.055 8.1 1-15
6x4 19.5
3 069 5.1 1.38
6x4 10.2 Corner
4 -3 i .58
6x4 7.5 Corner 2.713
2 e85 1.4
6x4 7 -5 Centre 2-713

d i f f e r e n t l e n g t h t o b r e a d t h r a t i o were comnut-
e4 and t h e ratie of impulse impedance of r e c t -

T
a n g u l a r g r i d t o t h e i m m l s e impedance of t h e
c orresponding square g r i d was determine&.The
i n c r e a s e i n imoulse Imoeaance with t he change
i n l e n g t h t o breadth r a t i o is p l o t t e d i n Fig.3.
It is s e e n t h a t t h e i n c r e a s e I n impulse imped-
a w e i s small when .the l e n g t h t o b r e a d t h r a t l o 21 m
is less t h a n 2 but c a n b s c a e a p p r e c i a b l e if
t h i s r a t i o is l a r g e . Woreover t h e e f f e c t of
l e n g t h t o breadth r a t i o is more pronounce& i n
t h e c a s 0 of g r i d s fed a t c o r n e r . T o a c h i e v e 5-25
m i n i m u m impulse impedance the l e n g t h t o bread-
t h r a t i o should be kept as c l o s e t o 1 a s Possi
lale and t h e feeding p o i n t should be as c l o s e
t o t h e c e n t r e of the g r i d as Dossible.
- 4 FiC.4 Grounding Grid f o r a 220 kV system
FIg.4 shows t h e configuration of a ground-
i n g g r l d for a 220 kV s u b s t a t i o n . The. data The e f f e c t i v e radius I s more t h a n the a c t u a l
and d e s i g n parameters f o r t h i s g r i d are. r a d i u s . Therefore t h e whole of t h e grlB is
Maximum ground f a u l t c u r r e n t 5000 A e f t a c t i v e i n dissi.mting t h e Impulse c u r r e n t
t o ground.
SO11 F2Si8tiVity
H e s i s t i v t y of s o i l n e a r t h e
55ohmm
t
s u r f a c e crushed rock)
T o t a l ground area covered
3000ohm-m A = , 0.333(16.75/17.26)2'3 = 1.365
by t h e g r i d 882 sqm Impulse ImDedance = 1.365~0.82 = 1.119'0hm
Radius of circle having r-r'
a n area e q u a l t o ground a r e a 16.75 m K = 0.6- 0.025 x 5.25 = 0.46875
T o t a l l e n g t h of' bufied conductor 444 m
Grid conductor diameter 0.01m
Power frequency grounding r e s i s t a n c e 0.82 -R
Maximum s t e p v o l t a g e
T o l e r a b l e step r o l age
tl
Maximum mesh(touch v o l t a g e
T o l e r a b l e mesh(touch) v o l t a g e
1127 v
The e f f e c t i v e r a d i u s is much less t h a n t h e
a c t u a l radius of' t h e g r i d . T h e r e f o r e only a
The impulse irn dance o f t h i s grid f o r a wave
1300 v p o r t of t h e grid is e f f e c t i v e i n d l s s i m t i n g
f r o n t t+e of c a y ) 4 f i - s e c s can be evaluated t h e impulse c u r r e n t t o ground.
as u n d e r -
Feeding Point Centre
A = :0333 = 1.395
K = 1.45 -
0 . q x 5.25 = 1.1875
Power frequency grounding r e s i s t a n c e of a
g r i d h a v i n g a n a r e a e q u a l t o e f f e c t i v e a r e a is
2.09 ohm.
re = 3 .m& & & j o o 5 = 17.26m Impulse Impedance= 1.395 x 2.09 = 2 ~ 9 2 t h ~
2 .
217

DISCUSSION OF FtEsuL~s REFERENCES


The c a l c u l a t i o n s shown above d e p i c t t h a t I. B-R.Gu?ta and B.Thapar 'Impulse Irrwdance
t h e impulse hPeaan?e O f a grounding g r i d c a n o f grounding Grills' d E T r a n s . on power
be much more t h a n t h e power frequency ground- Apparatus and S stems, Vol.pAS-99 DD.
i n resistance * F o r e x t e n s i v e g r i d s used i n 2357-2362, Nov&c.,1980.
s u b s t a t i o n s t h e Impulse impedance may be 2. B.R.kpta and B-Thapar 'Impulse I n o e W c e
0s h i & as about 10 times t h e power frequency of Grounding Systems ' b W , PAS paoer
grounding r e s i s t a n c e . A 78563-9 Summer h e r Meeting 1978.
The maximum v o l t a g e a t t h e l i g h t n i n g a r r e - 3. B.R.Gupta and V.X.fin&'InductancePaper N0.83 WM
of
s t e r i n a s u b s t a t i o n depends on t h e a r r e s t e r R e c t a n g u l a r Grids
c h a m c t e r i s t i c s , lead Inductance and s t a t i o n 701-3.
grounding r e s i s t a n c e . To e n s u r e p r o p e r p r o t e -
c t i o n t h e ImPulse lmPedonce(anQ not t h e power &. S.R.Gur, (M'80-SM181 1 r e c e i v e d t h e degrees
frequency grounding r e s i s t a n c e ) should be on B.Sc .iSngz w i t h Hons M.Sc.Engg. w i t h d i s t -
used t o d e t e r n i n e t h e a r r e s t e r voltage.1n t h e i n c t i o n and RI .D. from :injab University(1nrlb)
above grounding grid t h e power frequency grou- i n 1961, 1367, 1973 r e s Q e c t i v e l y .
nding r e s i s t a n c e , s t e p v o l t a e and mesh v o l t a g e He h a s been on t h e t e a c h i n g f a c u l t y of
are w i t h i n t h e s a f e Units. h a t e v e r i t s i n p u l s e Punjab Engineering College, Chandigarh I n d i a
impedance is h i g h e r t h a n t h e paver frequency s i n c e 1961 and is c u r r e n t l y A s s o c i a t e hrof.of
grounding r e s i s t a n c e and i t may n o t give satis- E l e c t r i c a l Engineering. He has broad teaching,
factory protection against d i r e c t lightning r e s e a r c h and c o n s u l t a n c y experience i n tke
strokes. a r e a s of h i g h v o l t a g e e n g i n e e r i n g , Dower s y s t -
The p r e s e n t p r a c t i c e is t o d e s i g n t h e grou- em t r a n s i e n t s , p r o t e c t i o n , e a r t h i n g and r e l i a -
nding systems f o r safe Dower frequency grourdi- b i l i t y . He h a s r e c e i v e d many medals and
ng r e s i s t a n c e , s t e p and touch p o t e n t i a l s . I t is awards for h i s r e s e a r c h work. He i s t h e author
n o t necessary t o change t h i s d e s i g n procedure. or co-author of over t h i r t y r e s e a r c h Dp3ers
However i t - I s e s s e n t l a l t h a t a f t e r a grounding and r e p o r t s .
system h a s been designed i t s Impulse Impedance H e is a senior member I E U and member
I n s t i t u t i o n of Engineers ( I n d i a )
is e v a l u a t e d and t h e d e g i e e of l i g h t n i n g m o t e -
c t i o n e s t i m a t e d u s i n g t h i s v a l u e of impulse V.K:S;+ was born a t Kasganj tU.P.,Indip) on
impedance. I n c a s e it is found t h a t t h e s y s t e m Feb 1 ,1358. He r e c e i v e d t h e B.Tech.(Elect.)
d o e s n o t give sotisFoctOI'Y l i g h t n i n g DroteCMn Engineering de r e e frcm G.B.Pant U n i v e r s i t y
i t may be necessary t o s h i f t t h e p o s i t i o n of ( I n d i a ) i n 1988 and p.G.(Diplcma i n power
t h e f e e l i n g p o i n t t o as c l o s e t o t h e c e n t r e of Systems from panjab U n i v e r s i t y ( I n d i a ) i n 1381.
t h e g r i d as p o s s i b l e . I n s m e extreme c a s e s
i t nay even be necessary t o i n s t a l l a d d i t i o n a l
e q u i m e n t s which e l o n g a t e t h e wave f r o n t o f t h e
Engineering College, Chandigarh
fields of r e s e a r c h are power system grounding
.
A t p r e s e n t h e is a r e s e a r c h s c h o l a r a t -%njab
111s s p e c i a l
i m p u l s e s l i k e l y t o s t r i k e t h e s u b s t a t i o n - I t 1s and p r o t e c t i o n .
seen from e q ~ t i o n ( 2 )t h a t a n i n c r e a s e i n t h e
v a l u e of wave f r o n t t i n e T i n c r e a s e s t h e e f f e -
c t i v e a r e a w i t h a consequent r e d u c t i o n i n
impulse Impedance.
C ONC U S IONS
1. The impulse lm9edance of a r e c t a n p l a r
r r i d is h i g h e r t h a n t h a t of a s q u a r e grid
zf t h e same area.
2. EmDirical formulae have been s u g g e s t e d f o r
c a l c u l a t i n g t h e e f f e c t i v e r a d i i and i m d -
se impedance of r e c t a n g u l a r g r i d s .Feeding
n o l n t has been assumed t o be a t t h e c e n t r e
or a t t h e c o r n e r .
3. The e f f e c t i v e area of a r s c t a n p l a r g r i d
i s reached when t h e f a c t o r RT/ reaches a
v a l u e of 0.65.
4. To a c h i e v e a l o w value of impulse impeda-
nce t h e l e n g t h t o b r e a d t h = t i 0 Of t h e
g r i d s h o u l d be kept a s c l o s e t o 1 as
p o s s i b l e . The f e e d i n g o o i n t should be as

5.
ble .
c l o s e t o t h e c e n t r e of t h e g r i a a s DOSSI-
The r e s u l t s p r e s e n t e d i n t h e paper o f f o r
a simple m e t h o l t o d e t e n i n e t h e e f f e c t i -
v e area, impulse c o e f f i c i e n t and Impulse
Impedance of r e c t a n m l a r grounding grids.
6. The degree of l i g h t n i n g p r o t e c t i o n
provided by i~ grounding system deoends
on t h e impulse Impedance and n o t the
power frequency grounding r e s i s t a n c e .
7. A grounding grid should Be so designed a s
t o give minimum impulse impedance.
AC Kh @JLPDGEME~IIS
The-authors t h a n k t h e Department of scie-
nce and Technology, Govt. o f I n d i a for the
f a c i l i t i e s Provided for c a r r y i n g out t h i s work,

-~
218

pectively.
He has been e n t h e t e a c h
i n f a c u l t y of Punjab e n g
C o h e g e , Chandigarh, I n d f a
s i n c e 1961 and i s c u r r e n t l y
P r o f e s s o r o f ElcctrZcalEngg
H e h a s broad teaching, re=
- search and consultancy exp
e r i e n c e i n t h e areas of high v o l t a g e engg.,
power s stem t r a n s i e n t s , p r o t e c t i o n , e a r t h i n g
and r e l X a b i l i t He has been a c o n s u l t a n t t o
a number of &ties i n t h e area of designof
e a r t h i n g systems and p r o t e c t i o n systems. He
i s t h e a u t h o r of over f i f t y r e s e a r c h p a p e r s
and r e p o r t s and f i v e t e x t books.
D r , Gupta was; awarded t h e medal f o r d i s t i n c -
t i o n i n e n g i n e e r i n g and technology i n 1978 by
C e n t r a l Board af I r r i g a t i o n and Power fer his
r e s e a r c h work. I n 1981 and 1983 h e was award
ad Gold Medals by I n s t i t u t i o n of Engineers
( I n d i a ) f o r h i s r e s e a r c h papers. He i s a s e n i o r
member IEEE and member I n s t i t u t i o n of Enginee

*rs ( I n d i a ) .
V K S i n h was born a t Kasganj (U.P.,Indio)
958. He received t h e B,Tech.(Electri-
tal) Engineerin degree from G.P.Pant Univer-
s i t y ( 1 n d i a ) i n f980 and M.Sc.(&lectrical E g )
on

from Panjab U n i v e r s i t y i n 1984. During 193-


1983 he was a research a s s o c i a t e i n a Govt.of
I n d i a sponsered r e s e a r c h scheme a t Punjabengg
College,Chandigarh, India. A t p r e s e n t he i s a n
A s s t t .Engineer i n U.P. S t a t e ElectricityBoard
India. H i s s p e c i a l f i e l d s of researcharepower
system p r o t e c t i o n and grounding.