Arc Welding Notes

TERMS: Amperage The measure of electricity that is flowing between the rod and the metal. A high amp (amperage) setting will give an agitated puddle A low amp setting will not spread out and tie in - results in shallow penetration. Arc Force This is the pressure at the end of the rod which is created by the electrical arc. The angle of the electrode (rod angle) controls the arc force. Arc Gap The height of the electrode tip off of the metal. A small arc gap will not allow the metal to heat up, and will give a shallow penetrating weld. The first step to controlling the molten puddle is the Arc Gap. AC Alternating Current. The electricity flows one way, then switches and goes the other. DC Direct Current. The electricity flows one direction only. Lead The cable that runs from the welder to the electrode holder and ground clamp. Penetration § The depth of the weld into the metal. Measured from the surface of the metal to depth the weld reaches into that metal. Porosity § Caused by welding on metal that is painted, rusted, or has oil or grease on it. Rod Angle A more perpendicular angle will cause the arc force to penetrate the metal deeply, and leaves a flatter weld bead. An electrode angle of 45 degrees will cause the arc force to give a bigger weld build up (taller weld bead) and also will be shallower penetrating. Speed § Too fast of a travel speed will cause a shallow penetrating weld. § Too slow causes the puddle to spread out, and you loose control of the weld. Undercut A groove that is created from welding that is below the surface of the metal. It is created from: traveling too fast, and/or improper rod angle, and/or improper arc gap, and/or improper amperage of welder. Weld Joints T-Fillet, Lap, Corner, Butt (most common weld joints). Welder The machine the welds. Weldor

Do not use 7018 for Vertical Up welds. 6010 is an ALL POSITION rod. Horizontal: Use a circular motion. Be cautious of overheating base metal. 1 in 6010) represent position. and/or DC-.e.´ The first two numbers (i. See chart next page. Use a straight of side to side movement for 7018. 7018 is a good rod for Vertical Up welds. Use a straight or circular motion when oscillating. zigzag. Almost perpendicular. WELD POSITIONS Flat. 6010 & 6011 will not give a smooth weld bead. Penetration § The depth of the weld into the metal. 60 in 6010) represent 60. or whip and pause oscillation movement of rod. Measured from the surface of the metal to depth the weld reaches into that metal.000 pounds of tensile strength per square inch. it simply means ³electrode for arc welding.´ Angle the rod (in relation to direction of travel slightly back into the puddle). overhead. Overhead: Keep the angle of the rod almost perpendicular. The third number (i.The person who is welding.e. or a lower case cursive ³s. Stabilizers in the flux is what maintains the arc current. Learning with a thinner electrode (5/32) can be easier. and vertical. No oscillation (movement of the rod). DC+. Vertical Down: Less penetration Requires a higher amp setting Use circular.e. The Meaning of the Electrode Numbers: If there is an ³E´ in front of the electrode numbers. The last number on the electrode (i. Watch out for dripping metal and sparks. horizontal.e. The third and fourth numbers (i. This is the #1 reason the weld puddle will fall out. 10 in 6010) represent the flux coating. A faster traveling speed helps keep the weld cool which helps prevent dripping and/or sagging. a serious burning hazard. Vertical Up: Undercutting is usually a problem. such as AC. 8 in 7018) allows the weldor to know what type of electrical current the electrode utilizes. .

then you will be welding Electrode Positive.(Straight Polarity . The 7018 electrode.the electrode holder lead connects to the DC terminal) 3 ± AC or DC+ or DC.the electrode holder lead can connects to the DC + or ± terminal) 5 .AC or DC+ (Reverse Polarity ± the electrode holder lead connects to the DC + terminal) Use this chart for quicker reference: Electrode Current Chart (note: there is not a 7) 0 DC RP 1 AC/DC RP 2 AC/DC SP 3 AC/DC E (Either RP or SP) 4 AC/DC E (Either RP or SP) 5 DC RP 6 AC/DC RP 8 AC/DC RP NOTE: All electrodes can utilize a welder set up DC+ except electrodes ending with a 2. 8 in 7018) is what we are looking at.´ there isn¶t much more to remember. The connection points are labeled + (positive) and ± (negative). What this means is that the electrode can weld with the welder leads connected to either the Alternating Current (AC) connection points. you will be welding Electrode Negative. if a welder can remember that all electrodes can be DC+ except those ending in ³2.0 ± DC+ only ± Reverse Polarity 6 ± AC or DC+ (Reverse Polarity ± the electrode holder lead connects to the DC + terminal) 7 . which is called Straight Polarity ( DC. When connecting to the leads to DC it is very important which lead goes to which connector. The ³E´ on the chart means Either RP (Reverse Polarity) or SP (Straight Polarity). or Direct Current (DC) connections point. 0 ± DC+ only ± Reverse Polarity 1 ± AC or DC+ (Reverse Polarity ± the electrode holder lead connects to the DC + terminal) 2 ± AC or DC.e. Welding Notes in General . which is called Reverse Polarity ( DC+ = Reverse Polarity). If the lead which has the electrode holder on it is connected to the + (positive) connection point on the welder. Another point to remember is that electrodes ending in 0 or 5 cannot use AC power. the whole chart is almost memorized.the electrode holder lead can connects to the DC + or ± terminal) 4 ± AC or DC+ or DC. Therefore. it doesn¶t matter which lead goes to which connection point. for example. The last number of the electrode (i. When connecting the electrode leads AC.DIRECTIONS FOR USING THE ELECTRODE CURRENT CHART The following chart will tell the weldor what type of electricity each electrode requires.= Straight Polarity). If the electrode holder lead is connected to the ± (negative) connection point on the welder. means that the electrode is a DC+ electrode.

etc.) is called Reverse Polarity (R. Another process is called Long Arc. A circular. This means that the Arc travels from the ROD DOWN to the METAL. The 7018 electrode is more sensitive to Arc Gap. The thinner the metal. One of the highest quality welding rod. 7024 . and can handle higher stress. Both 6010 & 6011 are Fast Freeze Rods. then when it is whipped back fills in the gouge.P. 7024. not the flux. 6011 is the easiest rod to use because of the stabilizers in the rod. Long Arc is for thin metal.. 6013 Easiest to use electrode.) is called Straight Polarity (S. 1/8. Stabilizer in flux makes it the easiest to use. The weld is not as attractive. DCEN = Direct Current. This means that the electrical current (Arc) travels from the METAL UP to the ROD. 11018 Common Rod Sizes: 3/32. 7018.Two types ± DC and AC (DC = Direct Current. Arc Gap (the height of the tip of the rod off of the metal) is extremely important. 5/32 These are just the most common rod diameters. Use a constant short arc gap with 7018. Do not use a small Arc Gap. DCEP = DC+ Electrode Positive (E. Whip and Pause digs in. is difficult to master.). on metal). and is usually used as a first pass rod. This diameter is that of the actual metal rod. and the metal hotter. 6011. deep penetrating. The metal must be clean (no rust. but allow the deepest penetration and is a process recommended to learn.keeps the rod cooler. Whip and Pause isn¶t the best looking weld. They both have a light flux which allows you to see the molten puddle clearly. Both can use DC+ . the faster this goes. AC = Alternating Current) DCEP = Direct Current. DC. such as 7018.N. Requires a higher amperage setting than 6011. designed for high speed welding on sheet metal on DC. 6010 & 6011 6010 cannot be used on AC. 7018 Shallower penetrating than 6010 or 6011 This is a low hydrogen rod with iron powder in the flux which prevents the weld from cracking. Iron powder higher metal deposit rate (used as a filler rod) Has a heavier slag which allows the molten metal to solidify faster will slag is still molten.P. which is then covered by another rod. 6013. The small Arc Gap will not give the metal enough time to heat up. or whip and pause electrode motion (oscillation) is recommended.P. DCEN = DCElectrode Negative (E. zigzag. Electricity generally travels from the negative to the positive. Electrode Negative (see chart last page) Also.). Electrode Positive (See chart last page) Also. Common Rods: 6010. dirt. oil.

Clean metal. very pretty looking weld. . higher amp setting. 11018 For tempered steel.

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