FM 21-20

Washington, DC, 1 October 1998


1. Change FM 21-20, 30 September 1992, as follows:


14-3 to 14-8 14-3 to 14-8.2
14-21 to 14-22 14-21 to 14-22

2. A star (*) marks new or changed material.

3. File this transmittal sheet in front of this publication.

DISTRIBUTION RESTRICTION: proved for public release; distribution is unlimited.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .l4-18 Scores Above Maximum . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14-20 Alternate Events . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13-2 CHAPTER 14 ARMY PHYSICAL FITNESS TEST APPENDIX D STATIONARY BICYCLE TEST . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .14-1 Over-Forty Cardiovascular Screening APPENDIX E SELECTING THE RIGHT Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H-O Permanent Profiles . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-0 Typical Injuries Associated with Physical Training . . . .ndex-O ii .l4-11 Test Results. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .G-1 Test Sequence. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .i4-9 Test Procedures . . . . .A-O INDEX. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .14-20 GLOSSARY . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-O Methods of Evaluation . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Glossary-1 REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . .13-1 APPENDIX C PHYSICAL FITNESS LOG . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . C-I Other Factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . APPENDIX A PHYSIOLOGICAL DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE SEXES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . References-O . . . . . . . . .. . . .E-1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . TABLE OF CONTENTS (CONT. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . I. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .l4-2 Test Administration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .) PAGE PAGE CHAPTER 13 INJURIES APPENDIX B POSITIVE PROFILE FORM . . . . . . . . . .14-8 APPENDIX F CALCULATION OF V02MAX . . . . . . . .l4-10 APPENDIX G PERCEIVED EXERTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14-20 OF THE HUMAN BODY . . . . . . ..14-l RUNNING SHOE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14-19 APPENDIX H THE MAJOR SKELETAL MUSCLES Temporary Profiles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F-1 Test Site . . . . . . . .l4-2 Duties of Test Personnel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

i i i . North Korean People’s Army.S. and enhance productivity and mental alertness. The benefits to be derived from a good physical fitness program are many. invigorate training.S. The early days of the Korean war were nothing short of disastrous. as U. U. It provides guidelines for developing programs which will improve and maintain physical fitness levels for all Army personnel. A good physical fitness program also promotes team cohesion and combat survivability. FM 21-20 was written to conform to the principles outlined in FM 25-100. Unless this publication states otherwise. masculine nouns and pronouns do not refer exclusively to men.” Our physical training programs must do more for our soldiers than just get them ready for the semiannual Army Physical Fitness Test (APFT’). These programs will help leaders prepare their soldiers to meet the physical demands of war. were sent to battle. US Army Infantry Center. FM 21 -20 is directed at leaders who plan and conduct physical fitness training. soldiers were routed by a poorly equipped. Training the Force. they left behind wounded comrades and valuable equipment their training had not adequately prepared them to carry heavy loads. we are guilty of paying lip service to the principle of “Train as you fight. As American soldiers withdrew. Fort Benning. The proponent of this publication is HQ TRADOC. Preface On 5 July 1950. US Army Physical Fitness School (ATZB-PF). Send comments and recommendations on DA Form 2028 (Recommended Changes to Publications and Blank Forms) directly to Headquarters. The costly lessons learned by Task Force Smith in Korea are as important today as ever. GA31905-5000. If we fail to prepare our soldiers for their physically demanding wartime tasks. This manual can also be used as a source book by all soldiers. troops. It can reduce the number of soldiers on profile and sick call. who were unprepared for the physical demands of war. but well-trained. It will improve soldiers’ combat readiness.

outlines the phases of fitness. The overwhelming conclu. lack.S. ment and maintenance of the five lenging requirements. plain the objectives and benefits of the manders and leaders can use this infor. Leaders. importance of physical fitness training This chapter provides an overview and will highlight it as a key element of fitness. is but one component of do this. nutrition. and programs rests with leaders at every fitness include weight spiritual and ethical fitness. has reasonable yet chal- fitness. ties for the Army physical fitness score the important role physical fit. diet. tive and progressive. program. taught by the U. The renewed nationwide interest in fitness Leadership Responsibilities has been accompanied by many re- search studies on the effects of regular Effective leadership is critical to participation in sound physical fitness the success of a good physical training programs. procedures. graduates of a special course related. and Leaders must emphasize the value discusses various types of fitness pro. A poorly designed and executed stress management. improve pro. command presence at every level with ing program extends to all branches of leaders setting the example for their the total Army. Leaders must 1-1 . productive lives. comings. and stance abuse. This includes the soldiers. Commanders and leaders must en. the emphasis of Fitness School. manual is primarily concerned with A good program is well planned and spiritual and ethical issues relating directly to the develop. can help commanders this manual. they should modify their It also includes soldiers with limiting programs to correct the weaknesses. However. Some of the “others are level of technical experience MFTs weight control. (MFTs). and is competi- components of physical fitness. and responsibili- American troops have fought under. the sole responsibility for good Components of physical stress management. dental health. combat. leaders must lead PT! the Army. program. Once they identify the short- ginning with initial entry training (IET). must understand and practice person’s quality of life. organized. Army Physical Physical fitness. they are also more likely to Their example will emphasize the have enjoyable. Master Fitness Trainers mation to develop intelligent. and tobacco use. control. especially excessive repe- sure that all soldiers in their units titions or additional PT. Not only participants in physical training pro- are physically fit soldiers essential to grams. This physical fitness program hurts morale. program. In short. who fail to perform to standard. as well as level. USAR and ARNG and encompasses all Leaders should also continually as- ages and ranks and both sexes. the avoidance of hypertension. physical fitness programs. Its sess their units to determine which purpose is to physically condition all specific components of fitness they soldiers throughout their careers be. It defines physical fitness. regardless of the total fitness. It also has The Army’s physical fitness train. Com. sub. of physical training and clearly ex- grams and fitness evaluation. A soldier’s level of physical fitness' fitness in accordance with this manual has a direct impact on his combat and with AR 350-15 which prescribes readiness. especially senior sion is that such programs enhance a leaders. the new Army doctrine of physical fit- ductivity. They must be visible and active physical and mental changes. Leaders should not punish soldiers ticipate in physical fitness training. The many battles in which policies. ness plays on the battlefield. of the unit’s training mission. physical profiles who must also par. often does maintain the highest level of physical more harm than good. and bring about positive ness. Punishment. diet and nutrition. have.

e r s a r e familiar with approved 1-2 . come recurring problems which inter. leaders will done simply by going through the mo- need to make special efforts to over. sickness. or travel and ensure that it is focused on the may also need special consideration. • Unprepared or unorganized lead- Leaders should regularly measure ers. • Become familiar with the Army's • Long rest periods which interfere fitness publications. benefit from regular exer. AR 350-15. they must also emphasize since all individuals. from the conditioning process because fectiveness of physical fitness training of leave. “Positive profiling” cient soldiers up to standard. level of physical fitness cannot be cise. Hard training is essential. Attaining a high age. hensive training in this area. emphasizes form over substance. and 350-22. unit 350-18. also be sure that everyone participates. They must recognize gram which will improve each soldier’s individual differences and motivate level of physical fitness. cally substandard. performance. tions. The application of sound forts to provide the correct fitness leadership techniques is especially training for soldiers who are physi- important in bringing physically defi. An example would be too many Leaders can learn about fitness train. the physical fitness level of every • Assignment fo a group which us too soldier to evaluate his progress and de. slow or too fast. large for one leader. amples include this manual. To foster a positive attitude. tween workouts. termine the success of the unit’s pro. and fair.plan special training to help soldiers Leaders must also make special ef- who need it. In some instances. They must soldiers to put forth their best efforts. ensure that the time observing training. • Insufficient training intensity: it gram. leaders and instructors must be knowl- Commanders must provide adequate edgeable. unit’s missions. • Inadequate facilities which cause long waiting periods between exer- • Request a fitness workshop from cises during a workout and/or be- the Army Physical Fitness School. regardless of rank. for they have received compre. units runs at slow paces or "daily ing in the following ways: dozen" activities that look impres- • Attend the four-week MFT course sive but do not result in impove- or one-week Exercise Leaders ment. ing is used effectively. training to standard. relating their fit. Training times is wasted by the fol. or sex. Important ex. They can evaluate its Commanders must ensure that the Commanders must effectiveness by participating in and time allotted for physical fitness train. Course. Commanders must ensure that lead- fere with regular training. injury. alloted for physical ness programs to the unit’s missions. demanding. duct fitness training and use their • Extreme faomality that usually MFTs. understanding. Those who have been away Commanders must evaluate the ef. fitness training is used and analyzing individual and unit APFT lowing: effectively. and DA Pamphlets 350-15. (DA Form 3349) permits and encour- ages profiled soldiers to do as much as ‘COMMAND FUNCTIONS they can within the limits of their profiles. Commanders should assure that • Rates of progression that are too qualified leaders supervise and con. but facilities and funds to support a pro. However. will result in no improvement. with progress.

and other activities and still have program. Appropriate train- ing can improve these factors within safe physical training. Most Improving the first three compo- importantly. especially improve or maintain all the compo- as it relates to exercise. Components of Fitness tions and that they use them. Excessive special staff assistants for this purpose. since the respon.” MFTs are son to his total body mass. their soldiers and an enhanced ability to perform mission-related tasks. This program should result enough energy left over to handle any in the improved physical fitness of emergencies which may arise.S. These amount of force a muscle or muscle he must develop from his evaluation of group can exert in a single effort. body fat a soldier has in compari- Although called “masters.the ability of (METL). form repeated movements with a sub-maximal force for extended MASTER FITNESS TRAINERS periods of times. simply soldiers who know about all as- pects of physical fitness training and how soldiers’ bodies function.the greatest on his own training objectives. factors affect a soldier’s survivability • Train other trainers to conduct sound. individuals and units. knee) or a soldier who has completed either the any group of joints through an four-week active-component. eye-hand coordination. and tasks and develop sound fitness eye-foot coordination are classified as training programs to support those components of “motor” fitness. on the battlefield. Factors such as speed. needed for muscular activity and transports waste products from the sibility for physical training is the cells. These tasks. since MFTs are taught to nents of fitness listed above will have design individual and unit programs. commander’s. directives. muscle • Analyze the unit's mission-related power. the limits of each soldier’s potential. agility. • Understand the structure and func. a positive impact on body composition they should be used by commanders as and will result in less fat. are as follows: late sound programs that will attain • Cardiorespiratory (CR) endurance- their physical training goals. The Army’s fitness program seeks to tion of the human body. However.techniques. tion effectively in physical work. elbow. • Body composition-the amount of Military Academy’s MFT course work. the efficiency with which the manders must know and apply the body delivers oxygen and nutrients doctrine. two. or U. body fat detracts from the other fit- ness components. train- ods of physical training into a balanced ing. • Flexibility-the ability to move the A Master Fitness Trainer (MFT) is joints (for example. entire. and • Assess the physical fitness levels of negatively affects one’s health. normal range of motion. programs must be based • Muscular strength . The components of physical fitness MFTs can help commanders formu. The ob- jective of every commander should be Physical fitness is the ability to func- to incorporate the most effective meth. detracts from appearance. nents of physical and motor fitness 1-3 . week reserve-component. reduces perform- MFTs can do the following: ance. and publica. but com. the unit’s mission-essential task list • Muscular endurance . Chapter 10 describes the a muscle or muscle group to per- development of the unit’s program.

and Friday are devoted to CR training day or rest day for that fitness. Although swim. week. FREQUENCY Infrequent exercise can do more harm than good. mission. physical training per week. command- hard) and/or duration (how long) ers must strive to conduct 5 days of of exercise must gradually in. To achieve a training quency. Another strength. progressive. During the second week. a training pro- sizes running. For optimal results. For and flexibility training will not im- example. a week. and Type. fitness. since overemphasizing any obtain maximum gains in muscular one of them may hurt the others. the muscle groups exercised every viduals and units. Regularity is Army Regulation 350-15 specifies also important in resting. Frequency. at crease to improve the level of fit. runners if their training empha. muscle endurance. strength. effect. One should strive to exercise remember them. gram for the average soldier can be ming is great exercise. a person must exercise of The acronym FITT makes it easier to Time. Three physical activity periods creases motivation and progress.) "FITT". ness levels. least three exercise sessions for CR ness. ● Overload. soldiers become better prove any of these three components. The principles in order to bring about a training of exercise apply to everyone at all effect. A hard day of training ing program serves as an example. The intensity (how week. however. Monday. three strength-training sessions per tivities reduces boredom and in. strength. Time. Ideally. each of the first four fitness com- ponents at least three times a week.1. to nents. To be effective. other day. strength.through sound. soldiers should have at least ● Variety. way to allow recovery is to alternate specific physical training for indi. and Tuesday and Thursday are component and/or muscle group(s) devoted to muscle endurance and to help permit recovery. FITT Factors end jogger. They also apply to fitness training for military personnel. that vigorous physical fitness training and following a good diet. especially when training for strength and/or muscle endur- Principles of Exercise ance. The following train- ● Recovery. ● Regularity. will be conducted 3 to 5 times per ● Progression. ten. physical fitness. Thus. Certain factors must be part of any Factors for a successful These basic principles of exercise fitness training program for it to be training program are must be followed: successful. (See Figure 1. for example. muscle e Balance. a pro. and Type. These factors are Fre. sleeping. With some planning. and flexibility should be gram should include activities that performed each week to improve fit- address all the fitness compo. with only one session ● Specificity. it does not developed which provides fairly equal improve a 2-mile-run time as emphasis on all the components of much as a running program does. from the Olympic-caliber athlete to the week. Intensity. The work load of each Adherence to certain basic exercise exercise session must exceed the principles is important for developing normal demands placed on the body an effective program. geared toward specific goals. Training must be each of cardiorespiratory. for a given component of fitness In the first week. Providing a variety of ac. levels of physical training. the 1-4 . Intensity. Wednes- should be followed by an easier day.

Wednesday. and Friday. done in every training session to en. can be done during each daily training ously in this manner. Figure 1-1 training days are flip-flopped: muscle can be given to developing muscular endurance and strength are trained on endurance and strength and to CR Monday. some muscular and some CR training hance flexibility. and fitness while training five days per CR fitness is trained on Tuesday and week. equal emphasis session as long as a “hard day/recovery 1-5 . By training continu. Stretching exercises are If the unit’s mission requires it. Thursday.

will help keep soldiers be the gains in strength.) RM as the training intensity. when the movement is taken stretching during HRR is explained in Chapter 2. When using a 12+ Training Program in Chapter 10. for strength development. both muscular strength and endurance. when coupled with repetitions performed. The strength.” For ratory endurance. they 1-6 . 8 to 12 repetitions with enough Doing an exercise “correctly” means resistance to cause muscle failure moving the weight steadily and with improves both muscular endurance and proper form without getting help from strength. For example. an 8-12 RM is best. and Friday. weight that can be correctly lifted 10 exercise time equates to the number of times. On three-day-per-week schedule. versely.) exercise being done. the other hand. the of fitness can be developed using a weight used should be a 3-7 RM. sessions are conducted. it is easier to refer to a used in order to improve cardiorespi- “repetition maximum” or “RM. fit to” approach is used. One should stretch so All exercises sessions and 90 percent of the heart rate reserve there is slight discomfort. a 1O-RM is the maximum For muscular endurance and strength. all components Thus. TIME For muscular strength and endur- ance. Exercise for CR All exercise sessions should include development must be strenuous enough stretching during the warm-up and to elevate the heart rate to between 60 cool-down.) Those beyond the normal range of motion. the more Numerous other approaches can be repetitions performed per set. but no should include (HRR). day the intensity and/or distance/time The person who wants to concen- should be reduced to allow recovery. trate on muscular strength should use Depending on the time available for weights which let him do three to seven each session and the way training repetitions before his muscles fatigue. An 8-12 RM is the weight that repetitions done. if other muscle groups by jerking. As soldiers progress. with low fitness levels should start (See Chapter 4 for information on the warm-up and cool- exercising at a lower training heart stretching. However. Con- principles of exercise are not violated. At least 20 to 30 continu- ing intensity in a strength-training ous minutes of intense exercise must be program. the greater the number of Such programs. it may also average person who wants to improve choose to run on Tuesday and Thurs. For example. (See should use a 12+ RM. intensity refers to the percentage Like intensity. over taken when tailoring a fitness program time. ing. (The calculation of percent pain. the smaller will good nutrition.) down. the time spent exer- of the maximum resistance that is used cising depends on the type of exercise for a given exercise. For the Wednesday. (See Chapter 3 for informa- intensity should vary with the type of tion on resistance training. or twisting the body. being done. bend- a unit has a hard run on Monday. day. soldier. example. a five-day-per-week program is to concentrate on muscular endurance much better than three per week. When determin. the greater will be the improve- to meet a unit’s mission as long as the ment in muscular endurance. the person who wants ever. How. on Tuesday and Thurs. a person who regularly trains with a weight which lets him do 100 repeti- !NTENSITY tions per exercise (a 1OO-RM) greatly increases his muscular endurance but Training at the right intensity is the minimally improves his muscular biggest problem in unit programs. rate (THR) of about 60 percent of HRR. For the average can be lifted 8 to 12 times correctly.

During exercise. a maintenance to a conditioning phase. heavy sweating stops. After exercise. After a seconds. discussed in Chapter 2. it is proper warm-up. If flexibility improvement Soldiers should cool down properly is a major goal. with each stretch held for 30 to ity. One must prepare the body before and previous physical activity. prepared for exertion. the commander should consider the however. These are bility. Factors such as ex- internal temperature and the heart rate. minutes and should occur just before For warming-up. the blood to the heart. should include some running-in-place Flexibility exercises or stretches or slow jogging. The physical fitness training pro- ups. soldiers are ready best to do stretching during the cool. unit sports Young. taking part in organized PT. one must do push. For example. A warm-up may help prevent while those who have been exercising injuries and maximize performance. preparatory. A good the 2-mile run). regardless week should be devoted to developing of the type of workout. at least one session per after each exercise period. healthy persons may be able competition. When choosing the type. such as before a run. down serves to gradually slow the heart rate and helps prevent pooling of TYPE the blood in the legs and feet. the muscles squeeze the blood Type refers to the kind of exercise through the veins. to be good at push-ups. one must practice the Phases of particular exercise. to start with the conditioning phase. or skill he Fitness Conditioning wants to improve. 60 seconds. This usually bility. the muscles relax and no principle of specificity. No other exercise will improve gram is divided into three phases: push-up performance as effectively. thenics.will make better strength gains by ligaments. For example. 1-7 . The starting phases for Warm-up and Cool-Down different units or individuals vary depending on their age. and tendons are properly doing two or three sets of each resis. stretching. It should last five to seven pending on the objective of the session. The cool- it. The basic rule is that to improve performance. activity. fitness levels. happens five to seven minutes after manders design programs which are the conditioning session. A warm-up tance exercise. tended field training. for a more intense conditioning activ- down. tailor-made to their soldiers’ needs. leave time. longer do this. while Chapter 4 discusses flexi. These chapters will help com. regularly may already be in the main- The warm-up increases the body’s tenance phase. and main- tenance. and calis- should be held for varying times de. conditioning. Soldiers should walk and stretch Ways to train for muscular strength until their heart rates return to less and endurance are addressed in Chap. or vigorous physical ac. and The chance of getting injured illness can cause soldiers to drop from decreases when the heart. than 100 beats per minute (BPM) and ter 3. and the blood can to improve his soldiers’ levels of CR accumulate in the legs and feet. tivity. muscles. To improve flexibility. he should have them cool-down will help avoid this possi- do CR types of exercises. the CR or muscular endurance and each stretch should be held for 10 to 15 strength part of the workout. This helps return performed. This fitness (the major fitness component in can cause a person to faint.

Recovery days should be To reach the desired level of fitness. By the end of the lower to a higher level of fitness second week (four to six workouts). Progression from a resistance exercise. This is very important. they should be third week. poorly conditioned sol. intensity. At Initially. exercise and/or the workout intensity Soldiers should continue at this or an as their strength and/or endurance appropriate level until they have no increases. planned they should know how much weight increases in frequency. ning time by one or two minutes each To be sure their pace is faster. rect training level. is. the first two to three workouts). and ligaments. preparing muscles. that selected resistance exercises. they can do more than 12 repetitions of bic training. Chapter 2 8 to 12 repetitions for each of the progress beyond shows how to determine the THR. as PREPARATORY PHASE they must first learn the proper form for each exercise. through weight training should start Many soldiers who fall into this cate. should be achieved by gradual. soldiers must increase the amount of and training should progress slowly. When minimum requirements. for example. they must in- should then lengthen their exercise crease the length of time they run. three times a week at a comfortable pace that elevates their heart rate to CONDITIONING PHASE about 60 percent HRR for 10 to 15 minutes. They durance. evenly distributed throughout the week. the condition- handle an intensity of 70 percent HRR ing phase normally begins during the Soldiers and units for 20 to 25 minutes. They should do one set of should be encouraged to ready for the next phase. joints. or they may be just out of high 8 to 12 exercises that work all the school. muscle failure for each exercise. gins. cover it in less time. beyond their training heart rate (THR) They should train at least three times a while running should resume walking week and take no more than two days until the heart rate returns to the cor. The preparatory phase for improv- especially if they are age 40 or older. or walk if need be. ing muscular endurance and strength should start with the preparatory phase. When they can For weight trainers. between workouts. first week (that is. During the body to handle the conditioning the second week. The work load in the beginning gressively heavier weights on each must be moderate. the right training level during aero. Light weights will The preparatory phase helps both also help minimize muscle soreness and the cardiorespiratory and muscular decrease the likelihood of injury to the systems get used to exercise. this point the conditioning phase be- diers should run. session to 16 to 20 minutes and/or They should start with the preparatory elevate their heart rate to about 70 phase and gradually increase the run- percent HRR by increasing their pace. they should use pro- phase. Those who feel they can increase the intensity until breathless or whose heart rate rises they reach the desired level of fitness. undue fatigue or muscle soreness the To improve cardiorespiratory en- day following the exercise. Most units will have soldiers in body’s major muscle groups. they should increase the 1-8 . At this point. and will let them do 8 to 12 repetitions to time. Begin- gory may be recovering from illness or ning weight trainers should select about injury. any exercise.Persons who have not been active. easily and progress gradually. They all three phases of training at the same should use only very light weights the time. they week until they can run continuously should run a known distance and try to for 20 to 30 minutes.

Although women muscular endurance and strength. soldiers should one. It should also pro- necessary for them to do more than one mote the development of coordination set per exercise. The Army has too many types of mote further increases in strength and/ units with different missions to have or muscle mass. it is not body composition. A single unit may require soldier is physically mission-capable several types of programs. When they stop as well as basic physical skills. CR endurance. They are for any given muscle group. absolute level of work or exercise.weight used on that exercise by about should be continued throughout his five percent so they can again do only life. 45. This process An effective program uses a variety continues throughout the conditioning of activities to develop muscular en- phase. Commanders can high level of fitness achieved in the develop programs for their own unit conditioning phase. On the other hand. As training progresses. strength-related goals such as infantry companies. optimal level of fitness should become To overcome this problem in the part of every soldier’s life-style and case of running. more frequent training may fitness programs as men. are able to participate in the same However. they must be needed to reach and maintain peak work harder to perform at the same fitness levels. both men and women must also under- propriate level of physical fitness. This adds variety and ensures UNIT PROGRAMS better strength development. erally the same types of soldiers and MOSS. MFTs know how to help designed. for example. CR endurance. As long as they continue to durance and strength. each The maintenance phase sustains the with unique needs. ditioned soldiers running with well- mum requirements. individual. The emphasis here by following the principles in this is no longer on progression. 8 to 12 repetitions. ing a unit program. certain MAINTENANCE PHASE combat--service-support units have many different types of soldiers. (See making progress with one set. Unit programs must support unit The conditioning phase ends when a missions. and to achieve good only one set of each exercise. These are summa- their flexibility. 60-minute workout commanders develop programs for their (including warm-up and cool-down) at units/soldiers. Soldiers and units should always be The same holds true for poorly-con- encouraged to progress beyond mini. Therefore. and special periodically do a different type of programs. A well. and all personal. the right intensity three times a week Commanders of units composed of is enough to maintain almost any ap. only broad categories do strength training three times a week of programs and general considera- with 48 hours of rest between workouts tions are covered here. Maintaining an conditioned soldiers. and rized in Appendix A. Some units. exercise for a given muscle or muscle group. one single fitness program for every- For maximum benefit. It helps to classified as unit. progress and get stronger while doing and flexibility. have gen- and unit-fitness goals have been met. These stand the physiological differences workouts give soldiers time to stabalize between the sexes. the unit 1-9 .) cises in which progress has slowed. they may want to Types of Fitness Programs increase the sets to three to help pro. they Chapter 10 for guidance in construct- should add another set on those exer.

it is time for those soldiers to special assistance to improve his defi- move up to the next ability group. Ability group running does two Additional training should not be things more effectively than unit runs: used as punishment for a soldier's 1) it lets soldiers improve to their highest attainable fitness level. 350-6. and challenging. With good pro- ability. minimize the risk of injury. (See TRA- The training program in basic train. the physical fitness. APFT standards. Hold- ing a fit soldier back by making him Although AIT focuses on technical run at a slow. More PT is not necessarily better. Physical training in AIT requires con- ship to ensure that it is appropriate.should use ability group runs rather Training emphasizes progressive than unit runs. it more quickly brings subpar per. Special training should be consid- are usually enough. It also allows soldiers to train to excel on the APFT which. formers up to minimum standards. THR.) ing (BT) brings soldiers up to the level Walking. Advanced Individual Training (AIT) helps promotion opportunities. in turn. demonstrate that they. and climbing of physical fitness they need to do during unit training contribute to their jobs as soldiers. possess the re- riods and the first week of training. 1-10 . Within each ered for soldiers who fail to maintain group. stresses the whole body and addresses all the components of fitness. Therefore. During basic training they grams and special training. Commanders should evaluate When the run is not intense enough to each basic trainee who falls below bring one or more of the soldiers to standard and give him individualized. 2) inability to perform well. each soldier’s heart rate while the unit’s or group’s rate of progres- running should be at his own THR. ciencies. vigorous exercise which demanding. To ability group will run at a set pace. regular. DOC Reg. unit-run pace (normally and MOS-oriented subjects. soldiers must various levels of physical fitness and meet APFT standards. pass through the preparatory into the AIT graduates should easily be able to soldiers must meet conditioning phase. mile run on the APFT) hurts his Most soldiers arriving from basic train- morale and violates the principle of ing are already well into the condition- training to challenge. physical less than his minimum pace for the 2. and. Soldiers in a given conditioning of the whole body. and the inten- most recent 2-mile-run time. running. Trainees report to active duty at By the end of AIT. all healthy By the end of AIT. Chapter 4. During “fill” pe. quired level of physical fitness. AIT unit training should focus on preparing soldiers to initial Entry Training (lET) meet the physical requirements of their initial duty assignments. sion. exercises with groups based on each soldier’s must be done properly. fitness must be emphasized throughout. ing phase. tinued. Chapter 11 describes how to develop physical training programs in IET units. the focus is on learning and develop- ing the basics of physical fitness. Three sity must progress at an appropriate to six groups per company-sized unit rate. However. but they are not enough. program requires good cadre leader.

enough stamina to pass the 2-mile run all special fitness should not be ridiculed. • Those who have either permanent bers of RC units cannot participate or temporary medical profiles. There are many types of units in the SPECIAL PROGRAMS Army. explaining that special programs are lined in this manual to help them attain being developed in their best interests. since mem. and their missions often require different levels of fitness. hospitals. By regulation suited to their needs. TOE and The day-to-day unit PT program TDA units must emphasize attaining conducted for most soldiers may not and maintaining the fitness level re. and ROTC. the unit’s standards can At least three groups of soldiers may be established by the unit’s commander. it should at least INDIVIDUAL PROGRAMS occur at the same time. TOE and TDA Units–Active fitness. Commanders must counsel soldiers. follows: TOE and TDA Units--Reserve • Those who fail the APFT and do Components not have medical profiles. must still ensure Special programs must be tailored that the unit’s fitness level and indi. Some of them may not be able to ex- The unit’s standards may exceed the ercise at the intensity or duration best Army’s minimums. A accept individual responsibility for their company-sized unit may have as many own physical fitness. manders. They are as based on mission requirements. Only smart planning will pro- as for others. duce good programs for all of them. However. however. shortcomings should be assessed and In such organizations. their MACOM staffs. Instead. to each soldier’s needs. RC unit programs sideration to soldiers who are age 40 or must focus on the individual’s fitness older and to recent arrivals who cannot responsibilities and efforts. should be conducted with the unit. need special PT programs. • Those who are overweight/overfat The considerations for the active according to AR 600-9 component also apply to reserve com- ponents (RCS). and maintain a high level of physical They must make it clear that standards 1-11 . Fitness require. Soldiers positions that offer little opportunity who lack enough upper body strength positive approach to to participate in collective unit PT to do a given number of push-ups or programs. service school t r a i n i n g . commanders must the information used to develop indi- develop leadership environments that vidualized programs to help them encourage and motivate soldiers to remedy their specific shortcomings. vidual soldiers need to use the funda. knowledgeable leaders should develop MFTs can give valuable assistance to and conduct them. Com. There must be a positive approach There must be a Many soldiers are assigned to duty to all special fitness training. quired for the mission. and trained. mental principles and techniques out. If this is impossible. MFTs can help develop indi - Component vidual fitness programs. vidual PT programs are maintained. be appropriate for all unit members.15). together in collective physical training Leaders must also give special con- on a regular basis. Section chiefs and indi. This training RC commanders and soldiers. Examples are HQDA. meet the standards of their new unit. as 20 soldiers who need special atten- ments are the same for these personnel tion. staff and faculty. (AR 350. recruiting.

weight loss. flexibility. Two-a-day sessions. The quality. They can devise a sound. Although it is not the heart of the The type of exercise the soldier does Army’s physical fitness program. overweight soldiers should ability groups for their running pro. reduced caloric intake. the affects the amount and nature of the APFT is the primary instrument for weight loss. This may be due to water loss ing with special populations. muscular strength and Designers of weight loss and physi- endurance. however. These facts help explain why ample. un- sonnel to develop programs that fit the less designed extremely well. Those whose fitness Those who participate in an exercise levels are substandard will fail. reducing the number of calories consumed is equally impor- APFT Failures tant. in addition to a total-body pounds per week. individualized plan to arrive at that When trying to improve APFT per. Sol. unit formances. counterproductive. Each soldier should then always better. either by diet or exercise or clude exercises designed for push-up both. not just the these losses may be encouraging to the 1-12 . events. muscular endurance of specific muscle Thus. program that emphasizes the develop- diers who fail the APFT must receive ment of strength and muscular endur- special attention. Likewise. One soldier. It is structured to assess the pound of fat contains 3. Although recovery. Next. On the other hand. should in. they should quantity. emphasized. a large initial weight loss is not and sit-up improvement. fat.500 calories. More PT is not limitations. They can also develop soldiers should remember this: even thorough. When deal. pass the APFT. leaders must ensure that MFTs can also develop training pro- soldiers are not overloaded to the point grams which will lead to fat loss where the fitness training becomes without the loss of useful muscle tissue. A combination of both actions is best. can be capabilities of soldiers with medical counter-productive. Leaders should ana. DA Pam 350-22 outlines mine the specific caloric requirement several ways to improve a soldier’s he needs to safely and successfully lose performance on each of the APFT excess fat. weight. strive to reduce their fat weight by two gram and. if the soldier is overweight. their muscle mass while losing body grams to overcome them. two very associated with the using up of the important principles are overload and body’s carbohydrate stores. be needed along with a special exercise Unit MFTs can help a soldier deter- program. For ex. They should use Generally. Both running and walking evaluating the fitness level of each burn about 100 calories per mile. running or walking. of the workout should be coordinate closely with medical per. Overweight Soldiers MFTs know how to assess CR en- durance. ance. Soldiers with reasonable levels of weight lost through dieting alone in- overall physical fitness should easily cludes the loss of useful muscle tissue. begin an individualized program based on his needs.will be enforced. burning one pound of fat through groups and the functional capacity of exercise alone requires a great deal of the CR system. unusual. can actually increase lyze their weaknesses and design pro. When a soldier loses strength-training program. tailor-made programs for though exercise is the key to sensible all of a unit’s special population. exercise and good dietary practices nutrition and dietary counseling may must be combined. and body cal training programs for overweight composition.

If there is fitness. the unit should direct the regular fitness profiled soldiers to participate in the Soldiers who are age 40 and older activities they can do. health care personnel list. his percentage o f appropriate. Chapter 3 shows how to endurance and strength. On the battlefield. tivities with medical or unit supervi- sion. little of this initial weight loss program as they can.” medical supervision. DA Form 3349 is in Appendix B. and The Office of the Surgeon General the right PT programs. they must along with substitut e All profiled soldiers should take lead other soldiers under conditions of activities. On normal routines and fitness levels. With this Fitness All profiled soldiers should do as much of information. tivities should be substituted to re- Soldiers should be weighed under place those regular activities in which similar circumstances and at the same they cannot participate. time each day. soldier. will develop physical fitness programs This guidance becomes more impor- in cooperation with health care per. (Chapter 4). Such treatment should use reasonable doubt. part in as much of the regular fitness severe stress. however. along with limitations. Applying mass generally increases. commanders their diets to avoid gaining body fat. a physical fitness program consistent The activity levels of soldiers usu- with their limitations as advised by ally decrease while they are recovering medical authorities. Soldiers with Profiles MFTs can help profiled soldiers by explaining alternative exercises and This manual stresses what soldiers how to do them safely under the can do while on medical profile rather limitations of their profile.” from sickness or injury. sarily mean he is not losing fat. This helps avoid false Chapter 2 describes some aerobic measurements due to normal fluctua. As a soldier develops muscular cannot run. In fact. caution is advised in assessing his when body parts are injured. The progress. cise programs. “For individuals they should pay special attention to with limiting profiles. (An example of represent the Army’s senior leader- program as they can.) ship. progressive physical ac- body fat should be determined. Just because a soldier is not same principle applies to flexibility losing weight rapidly does not neces. those activities Age as a Factor in Physical that the profiled soldier can do to maintain his fitness level. AR 350-15 states. To meet this challenge 1-13 . soldiers should has developed DA Form 3349 to ease be able to overcome their physical the exchange of information between profiles and quickly return to their health care personnel and the units. activities the soldier can do to main- tions in their body weight during the tain cardiorespiratory fitness when he day.1 requires that. not. As a result. MFTs are than what they cannot do. trained to diagnose in- DOD Directive 1308. With sonnel. lean muscle strengthen each body part. proper diet. This is the domain of cally limiting defects shall be placed in qualified medical personnel. juries or prescribe rehabilitative exer- “Those personnel identified with medi. soldier to a suitable level of physical ously losing fat weight. this form. Because muscle this information should allow some weighs more per unit of volume than strength training to continue even fat. Appropriate ac- is due to the loss of fat. Medical treatment and rehabilita- a good fitness program often results in tion should be aimed at restoring the gaining muscle mass while simultane. tant as soldiers grow older.

40-501. the APFT in accordance with AR 350- Soldiers who are fit at age 40 and 15. Decreases in muscular strength To evaluate their physical fitness and endurance. long-term per beat and per minute decreases conditioning program for all soldiers. programs for these soldiers. as does the Only those age 40 and over who have maximum heart rate. during maximal exercise. ing program before taking the APFT. ance. A People undergo many changes as program based on the principles of ex- they grow older. CR endurance. Years of inac- increases. while total muscle mass de. ance and CR fitness until age 30. may have SCORING CATEGORIES the same level of CR fitness as a sedentary 20-year-old. For example. 1-14 . Only a medical profile will exempt After 30 there is a gradual decline them from taking the biannual record throughout their lives. Those who larly in a physical fitness program. it is not necessary normal duties may be stressful but or desirable to develop special fitness nonphysical.and set a good example. all military those who regularly train these fitness personnel are tested biannually using components. the ercise and the training concepts in this amount of blood the heart can pump manual will result in a safe. and per. these leaders The assessment phase of a program must maintain and demonstrate a high is especially important for those age 40 level of physical fitness. however. ing age 40 are no longer required to get Men tend to maintain their peak clearance from a cardiovascular screen- levels of muscular strength and endur. Women tend to APFT. to start their exercise program at a formance suffers. The result is that muscular cannot be corrected in a few weeks or strength and endurance. and and the effectiveness of their physical flexibility occur to a lesser extent in fitness training programs. normally occurs with aging. regu. In short. These include screening for Although a decline in performance cardiovascular risk factors. they did before reaching age 40. those who seldom exercise. have reach their peak in physical capability periodic physical examinations in ac- shortly after puberty and then undergo cordance with AR 40-501 and NGR a progressive decline. A As of 1 January 1989.) However. (Refer to Chapter 14. and body composition suffer. they must take part regu. tivity and possible abuse of the body creases. soldiers reach- decrease in flexibility also occurs. This lowers a not been exercising regularly may need person’s physical ability. CR endur. tial Entry Training (IET) and the Army Standard. months. However. The have been exercising regularly may need to be physically fit does not continue to exercise at the same level as decrease with increased age. Also. those who stay physically active do not have the Evaluation same rate of decline as those who do not. They must. A trained 60-year-old. There are two APFT categories of lar exercise can help add life to your testing for all military personnel Ini- years and years to your life. the percent of lower level and progress more slowly body weight composed of fat generally than younger soldiers. for example. continue to exercise show a lesser commanders may evaluate their physi- decrease in many of the physiological cal fitness programs more frequently functions related to fitness than do than biannually. Since their and over.

physical training and reserve) who are non-IET soldiers programs •Facilities (availability/instruction/ must attain the minimum Army stan- dard of at least 60 points per event. Any physical training which results in numerous injuries or acci- dents is detrimental to this goal. Commanders event and no less than 150 points must ensure that the programs do not overall by the end of basic training. As in most training. dress the following items: Safety is a major •Environmental conditions (heat/ consideration when Army Standard cold/traction). complete the 2-mile run or one •Emergency procedures (medical/ of the alternate aerobic events. To repair). tions). The objective of physical training in the Army is to enhance soldiers’ abilities to meet the physical demands of war. •Traffic (routes/procedures/forma- cally profiled soldier must. communication/transport). place their soldiers at undue risk of Graduation requirements for AIT and injury or accident. common sense must prevail. planning and evaluating • Soldiers' levels of conditioning ( low/ All other Army personnel (active high/age/sex). get credit for a record APFT. IET Standard SAFETY Safety is a major consideration The APFT standard for basic train. sound physical training should challenge soldiers but should not place them at undue risk nor lead to situations where accidents or inju- ries are likely to occur. mum. 1-15 . a medic. as a mini. They should ad- One Station Unit Training (OSUT) require 60 points per event. Good. when planning and evaluating physi- ing is a minimum of 50 points per cal training programs.

swimming. It also brings into play a fairly complex set of physiological events. the following Cardiorespiratory (CR) fitness. aero. events occur: sometimes called CR endurance. • Regulation of the blood vessel's size quate oxygen is supplied to the work. these sys- tems attempt to supply oxygen to the working muscles. CR fitness is a condition in the lungs into the blood stream. especially during heart's accelerated pumping action. bicycling. CR fitness is needed for ing muscles to produce energy. road marching. and jumping rope place an extra demand on the cardiovascular and respiratory systems. of the body's large groups. cross- country skiing. Any activity that con- tinuously uses large muscle groups for 20 minutes or longer taxes these sys- tems. is one the lungs. To provide enough energy-producing oxygen to the muscles. Because of this. or aerobic capacity. Physiology of Aerobic Training Aerobic exercise uses oxygen to produce most of the body’s energy needs. to the heart. rhythmic use mic use of the body’s large muscle the blood into the muscle tissue. of the five basic components of physi. CR tive tissue to working muscle. Activities such as running. to distribute blood away from inac. • Greater movemen t of oxygen from prolonged. without a decline in performance and allows for rapid recovery following fatiguing physical activity. rowing. rhyth. A high level of CR fitness • Accelerated return of veinous blood permits continuous physical activity muscle groups. Most of this oxygen is used to produce energy for muscular contraction. fitness is needed for prolonged. a wide variety of training methods is used to improve cardiorespiratory endurance. to ensure that ade. • Increased movement of oxygen from cal fitness. which the body’s cardiovascular (cir. exercise or work. • Increased delivery of oxygen-laden culatory) and respiratory systems blood to the working muscles by the function together. During exercise. 2-0 . stair climbing. • Greater movement of air through bic fitness.

These fac- percentage of body fat. include diseases of the lungs. should do these on alternate days. tors are summarized by the following A person’s maximum aerobic capac. and step Smoking can lead to any or all of the tests . tory. increases as the intensity and duration Some of this decrease in aerobic fitness of training increases. aerobic must integrate several factors into any maintaining a low exercise is the best type of activity for successful fitness training program to attaining and maintaining a low per. regular exercise program. one must train hard. however. These include the following: • Age. In fact. and dis- CR fitness level and get an accurate abling heart conditions. improve his fitness level.the bicycle. words which form the acronym FITT. ity can be modified through physical Frequency. a person attaining and oxygen is present. However. and Type. It is related to the intensity • Carbon monoxide from tobacco smoke and duration of the exercise session. on warming up and cooling down is Many factors can negateively affect given in Chapters 1 and 4. one's ability to perform well aerobi- FREQUENCY cally. To reach very high levels of They are described below as they aerobic fitness. Intensity. and recognize that the risk of injury ness that occurs with increasing age. Aerobic exercise is the In the presence of oxygen. They using other methods. building up gradually. Inactivity causes aware of the danger of overtraining much of the decrease in physical fit. be accomplished by three adequately • High altitude (reduced oxygen pres. Conditioning the CR system can best or pollution. severe blocking of the arteries which ing his APFT 2-mile-run time. inhibits blood flow to the heart and (Appendix F explains how to do this. By • Illness (heart disease). Soldiers sure). walk. Certain medical conditions also timate maximum oxygen uptake by impair the transport of oxygen. soldiers can get • Obesity. adversely affect one’s one’s CR fitness level. leaders should recognize the need for Any condition that reduces the body’s recovery between hard exercise peri- ability to bring in. Frequency refers to how often one • Anemia. It is much easier. 2-1 . Hence. exercises. even greater benefits from working out five times a week. which It is possible to determine a soldier’s interfere with breathing. ability to do aerobic exercise.) skeletal muscles. in the long one’s aerobic capacity and evaluate and short term. centage of body fat. They must also be perform aerobically. Information aerobic exercise program.may also be used to estimate above problems and can. Time. pertain to cardiorespiratory fitness. Other tests . training. intense workouts per week. The best way to determine aerobic can be slowed by taking part in a capacity is to measure it in the labora. Another is estimate of his aerobic capacity by us. transport. muscle cells produce energy by breaking down FITT Factors best type of activity for carbohydrates and fats. fats are only used as an energy source when As mentioned in Chapter 1. to es. A The best way to improve CR fitness is warm-up and cool-down should also to participate regularly in a demanding be part of each workout. or use ods and should adjust the training in- oxygen reduces a person’s ability to tensity accordingly. • Sedentary life-style.

Un- fortunately. the THR is fig- about by sustaining training heart ured using the estimated maximal heart rates in the range of 60 to 90 percent rate. With this information. a 20- are generally inadequate to produce a year-old would have an estimated training effect. Thus. the greater Percent MHR Method the intensity of the exercise. mated maximum heart rate by sub- tensities of less than 60 percent HRR tracting his age from 220. and those that exceed maximum heart rate (MHR) of 200 90 percent HRR can be dangerous. beats per minute (220 -20 = 200). at 90 percent MHR. A person using this method may for some and not intense enough for exercise at an intensity which is not others. By determining one’s maximum heart rate. one and others at 95 percent HRR. it is the factor many units ignore. the unit run will be too intense ness. some soldiers in a formation may be training at 50 percent HRR When using the MHR method. In.) high enough to cause a training effect. an appropriate THR or intensity can be prescribed. 2-2 . and relative conditioning level. It represents the degree of effort with which one trains and is probably the single most important factor for improving performance. For example. resting heart rate. Changes in CR fitness are directly related to how hard an aerobic exercise is performed. To compensate for this. and. Using the THR method lets them find and pre- scribe the correct level of intensity during CR exercise. if he is in Keeping track of the heart rate lets one relatively good shape. being done. Soldiers should gauge the intensity of their workouts for CR fitness by determining and exercising at their training heart rate (THR). The more energy ex- pended per unit of time. One’s ability to monitor the heart rate is the key to success in CR training. Signifi- cant changes in CR fitness are brought With this method. percent of his MHR. INTENSITY one can be sure that the intensity is enough to improve his CR fitness level. Intensity is related to how hard one exercises. The heart rate during work or exer. a person who cise is an excellent indicator of how is in poor shape should exercise at 70 much effort a person is exerting. (Note: Ability-group run- ning is better than unit running be- cause unit running does not accommo- date the individual soldier’s THR. if he is in excellent shape. As a must compensate for its built-in weak- result. A soldier determines his esti- of the heart rate reserve (HRR). at 80 percent gauge the intensity of the CR exercise MHR.

if he is in reasonably good shape. at 70 percent HRR. Exercising at any lower percentage of HRR does not give the heart. particularly if they cannot find more than 20 minutes for CR exercise. he could start at 85 percent of his HRR. he can determine which percentage of HRR is a good starting point for him. at 60 percent HRR. an adequate level of fitness. and. if he is in poor shape. and lungs an adequate training stimu- lus. 2-3 . For example. Soldiers who have reached a high level of fitness may derive more benefit from working at a higher percentage of HRR. The range from 60 to 90 percent HRR is the THR range in which people should exercise to improve their CR fitness levels. If a soldier knows his general level of CR fitness. Before anyone begins aerobic train- ing. Percent HRR Method A more accurate way to calculate THR is the percent HRR method. muscles. if he is in excellent physical condition. or main- tain. he should know his THR (the heart rate at which he needs to exercise to get a training effect). Most CR workouts should be con- ducted with the heart rate between 70 to 75 percent HRR to attain.

fit 20-year-old soldier with a resting For example. as in the example. gives an error another way is to place the hand over of six BPM. He should count his pulse for 10 tion of a heart beat. multiplied by the HRR. (RHR) to get the THR. a THR of 160. To de.) at a lower intensity to reduce the pulse Another convenient spot from which rate to the prescribed THR. As shown. the heart and count the number of heart beats. 160. This will whole number. (See Figure 2-1 C. These arteries are pulse to the THR.) Yet count. and immediately after ex- product obtained by multiplying 0.70) before it is State" after five minutes of exercise. When 91. In this case.83 or 27) within the THR during and right after if he is exercising at the right intensity. exercise. he should normally exercise Adam’s apple. seconds. He should to monitor the pulse is on the radial count as accurately as possible.7. When the calculations produce a frac. If his pulse is above located to the left and right of the the THR. During aerobic exercise. place the tip of the third If his pulse rate is below the THR.7 let him determine if his training inten- BPM is rounded off to give a THR of sity is high enough to improve his CR 161 BPM. the body cent in this example) is converted to will usually have reached a "Steady the decimal form (0. (See Figure 2-1A. The result is then added to the resting heart rate and the heart rate will have leveled off.7 results. use the THR of 161 heart rate of 69 BPM has a training BPM figured above.7 is added to the RHR of 69. or to see if one is count of 27 beats (161/6= 26. heart rate. In summary. Thus. (See Figure 2-lB. second period. the soldier should monitor his and 131 is 91. During the 10- heart rate goal of 161 BPM. a reasonably fitness level. since artery on the wrist just above the base one missed beat during the 10-second of the thumb.) I Figure 2-1 2-4 . multiplied by six.70 ercising. then multiply this by six to get the value is rounded off to the nearest his heart rate for one minute. he finger lightly over one of the carotid must exercise harder to increase his arteries in the neck. the percentage (70 per. the soldier should get a termine the RHR. the At this time.

low fitness level should. a 40-year-old soldier with a in Appendix G. during aerobic Figure 2-2 2-5 . the table by locating his age and then his THR throughout a provement in his CR fitness level. he should do it five minutes into and those with a good fitness level at the workout. check. have a THR of 23 beats in 10 throughout a 20. He can determine this from A soldier who maintains period is doing well and can expect 30-minute exercise seconds. Those with a high Figure 2-2 is a chart that makes it level of fitness may benefit most by easy to determine what a soldier’s THR training at 80 to 90 percent HRR. For exercise seems to be and is described example. 70 percent HRR.” This find his own THR just by knowing his method relies on how difficult the age and general fitness level. If he takes only one pulse should work at about 60 percent HRR in his CR fitness level. percent HRR for his fitness level. Another way to gauge exercise in- Using this figure. He tracking upward until he reaches the 20-30-minute exercise should check his exercise and post. A soldier who maintains his THR exercise. a soldier can easily tensity is “perceived exertion. period is doing well and exercise pulse rate at least once each Again. those with a low fitness level can expect improvement workout. should be during a 10-second count.

straight ahead. They must also be of sufficient Some soldiers may need instruction duration and intensity (60 to 90 per. gram ‘because a training effect can be bic activities must involve the use of attained with only three 20-minute large muscle groups and must be rhyth. to overtraining. the soldier must Running train for at least 20 to 30 minutes at his THR. soldiers need information on ways to •Swimming. The faster the run. help prevent Important information •Handball (singles). the heel and push off at the big toe. and the feet strike on • Road marching. knees. rally from front to rear in straight • Jogging. mic. Worthwhile aero. to improve their running ability. injuries. The more intense Every activity has its advantages and Every activity has its the activity. common injuries associated with PT in • Stair climbing. Proper warm-up and cool-down. Trainers must weigh advantages and to produce or maintain a training these and design programs that fit the disadvantages. the shorter the time needed disadvantages. the unit’s needs.) along with stretching exercises and •Racquetball (singles). opponents of equal or greater ability. and SECONDARY (Done with partners or legs. the • Walking (vigorous). The elbows are bent so the PRIMARY forearms are relaxed and held loosely • Running. refers to how it elevated to the THR throughout the long one exercises. prevent running injuries. The most • Bicycling (road/street). secondary exercises for improving CR The head is erect with the body in a fitness are as follows: straight line or slightly bent forward at the waist. 2-6 . Examples of primary and following style of running is desired. workouts per week. related to intensity. The arms swing natu- • Rowing. must design programs longer the required duration. waste energy. To that fit the unit’s needs. wearing appropriate clothing and well- •Basketball (full court). Running breathing in large volumes of air fits well into any physical training pro- improve CR fitness. It is inversely entire workout. ankles. injuries is presented in fective than the secondary exercises in Failure to allow recovery between C hapter 13 and producing positive changes in CR fit. TIME The secondary activities may briefly elevate the heart rate but may not keep Time. lines. fitting running shoes. at waist level. hard bouts of running cannot only lead ness. The cent HRR). Besides learning running techniques.) The toes point • Exercising to music. • Rope skipping. but can also be a major Appendix E . Appendix E. (Cross-body arm movements • Skiing (cross-country). improve CR fitness. the less intense the activity. Important information on on safety factors and •Tennis (singles). or duration. Trainers effect. faster the arm action. • Bicycling (stationary). the Army result from running and occur to the feet. safety factors and common running in- juries is presented in Chapter 13 and common running The primary exercises are more ef. Running enables the body to im- prove the transport of blood and oxy- TYPE gen to the working muscles and brings about positive changes in the muscles’ Only aerobic exercises that require ability to produce energy.

2-mile-run times. those who have a Traditionally. of the unit’s ber of leaders available to conduct the ment that ability-group running de- most recent APFT runs. Only soldiers who not be exercised “hard” on consecutive cannot run two miles in a time faster days. If AGR is used on hard CR- than 18 minutes will receive a signifi. tracts from unit cohesion is invalid. The number of will result in more effective training groups is to. soldiers can gain who can pass the 2-mile-run test are the desired benefits of both unit and wasting their time and losing the chance ability-group runs. the slowest group first. Leaders should program ability groups at a predetermined re- these runs for specific lengths of time.runs to build unit cohesion. Ability group when units have a limited number of running (AGR) is the best way to days for PT and there is not enough provide enough intensity so each sol. in slower groups. soldiers should move to faster groups when they are ready. and. A company-sized unit broken down Good leadership and training in all 2-7 . too many group exercises. As the PT leader. time for both. and range of 2-mile-run times. should be recognized for what they AGR lets soldiers train in groups of are -. A well-conditioned into four to six ability groups. training days. he should training. Good leadership will soldiers are not challenged enough by prevent a constant shifting of soldiers the intensity or duration of the unit between groups due to lack of effort. unit runs dier can improve his own level of CR should seldom. Therefore. be used and fitness. to do this safely. num. The best way to assign order. workouts for each soldier. For example. each soldier can run five to six times a week. smaller groups are easier to the intensity and/or duration of the work with than one large group. cause of injuries. that runs at a nine-minute-per-mile As explained. near-equal ability. This procedure lets with soldiers divided into ability groups more-fit groups run a greater distance which join at a link-up point. For activities like circuits. the CR system should pace for two miles. make a list. if ever. most soldiers Using this rotation. and they do not receive a training AGR is best conducted at the right benefit. so unit runs to improve unit cohesion and should the intensity at which each fitness levels. The run can also begin not miles to be run. do two things: 1) gradually buildup to strength training. in sities are good for recovery days. groups depends on the unit size. In this case. lease point. is best for aerobic However. rates. running sessions to allow recovery Because people progress at different between them. with a leader. unit runs at lower inten- cant training effect. ability groups can be started time period thus enabling every soldier over the same route in a stagger. Each group runs at Leaders can use additional methods a pace intense enough to produce a to achieve both goals. and competitive running that frequently. The unit can training effect for that group and each begin in formation and divide into soldier in it. of the unit’s most recent APFT With imagination and planning. run. terms of conditioning. The argu- in order. soldiers have run in hard time keeping up with a group unit formations at a pace prescribed by should be placed in a slower group. To help ABILITY GROUP RUNNING them train at their THR and enhance their confidence. Commanders have used the unit’s fitness level progresses. The problem comes to train hard to excel. Alter- than the less-fit groups in the same nately. Unfortunately. with to improve. take a company intensity at least three times a week. Link-ups The best way to assign soldiers to occur as each faster group overtakes ability groups is to make a list. 2) vary events. AGR soldiers to ability 2-mile-run times.

yards by dividing the 1-mile-race pace vanced form of exercise training which by four. run in 1 munute. Run six to eight 440-yard repeti- at which a soldier should run each tions with each interval run at a 1:56 440-yard lap) depends on his actual pace.1 to 4 seconds short periods of time. Recovery periods. seconds long (1:56 + 1:56 = 3:52). Thus. For 1600 minutes as an example. 56 secons by an easy jog of it can be estimated from his last APFT 440 yards for recovery. This may be = 1:59 to 1:56. from the 440-yard time in Step 2 to In interval training. Subtract one to four seconds time and increase his running speed. Using the work-interval time for and road marching. This type of intermittent training can also be used with activities such as cycling. a soldier exer. the work- culated as follows: to-rest ratio is 1:2. Thus. Determine (or estimate) the areas promote unit cohesion and team actual 1-mile-race pace. The soldier's spirit. twice the length of the work-interval and the exerciser can do more fast. 56 and recovery times can be calculated seconds (1:56) for each 440-yard run. (8:00 minutes/4 = 2:00 min- helps a person significantly improve utes per 440 yards. 1 minute. (2:00 minutes . there are two for an interval training workout is cal. Using the time from Step 1. the pace each second of work. training that emphasizes form over substance does not. will be 3 minutes. Using a 2-mile-run time of the work interval (that is. 2-8 . 59 seconds during interval recovery placed between periods of training based on the soldier's 16:00. Follow each 440-yard run done in actual 1-mile-race time is not known. Each 440-yard by taking one half of his 2-mile-run jog should take twice as much time as time. The following example illustrates each 440-yard lap from Step 3. It is an ad. therefore. swimming. seconds of recovery.) his fitness level in a relatively short Step 3. the how the proper work-interval times soldier can run six to eight repetitions of 440 yards at a pace of 1 minute.find the time each 440-yard lap should cises by running at a pace that is be run during an interval training slightly faster than his race pace for session. 2-mile-run time is 16:00 minutes. 52 if he ran continuously without resting.determine the time it took to run 440 diorespiratory system. 3:52).) faster than the pace he wants to main. race pace for one mile. rowing. each 440-yard lap should be tain during the next APFT 2-mile run. Step 1. The work-interval time (the speed 1. 56 seconds to 1 He does this repeatedly with periods of minute. Interval training also works the car. and his estimated pace for 1 mile is one half INTERVAL TRAINING of this or 8:00 minutes. In this way. for interval training so that it can be This can be done on a 440-yard track used to improve a soldier’s 2-mile-run (about 400 meters) as follows: performance. Step 2. the energy mile run time.periods. These recovery peri- paced running in a given workout than ods. systems used are allowed to recover. 2- fast running. bicycling. If a soldier’s 2.

he starts with veryslow In Fartlek training. running. on off days. interval training should be However. Because of the intense nature of inter. As with any workout. he should portant as making sure that the work rest the few days before the test by intervals are run at the proper speed. jogging. For these he should do it once a week. FARTLEK TRAINING ally falls to around 120 to 140 beats per minute. He may also levels. This process intensity (speed) of the CR fitness level using the THR method. he should either shorten the re. (speed) of the running during the As the soldier becomes more condi. Because the heart rate is not In Fartlek training. his recovery is quicker. As with any other new training the same results as interval training. method. Instead of running at a con- tioned. the soldier varies the intensity training guide is not necessary. many runners prefer Fartlek responds well. soldiers should val training. doing no. ning (both of varying distances) gives ing. 2-9 . At this time he recovers After a soldier has reached a good by jogging at an easy pace. of alternating fast and recovery run- running throughout the he should be ready for interval train. he may do it twice a training to interval training. It shows do recovery workouts of easy jogging common 1 -mile times and the corre. neither the running nor re- introduced into his training program covery interval is timed. interval training be done two times a Monitoring the heart-rate response week only during the last several during interval training is not as im. When ready. the heart rate usu. At first. workout. During the recovery interval. refer to Table 2-1. during the work interval start intervaI workouts with a warm- the heart rate will generally climb to 85 up and end them with a cool-down. another type of the major concern during interval train. It is recommended that sponding 440-yard times. he runs hard for covery interval (jogging time) or run a few minutes until he feels the need soldier varies the the work interval a few seconds faster. If he reasons. or 90 percent of HRR. CR training sometimes called speed ing. the result. with at least one intervals for a wide range of fitness recovery day in between. or very easy. As a stant speed. to slow down. and the run- gradually and progressively. workout. ning is not done on a track. weeks before an APFT. Also. Table 2-1 To help determine the correct time week at the most. monitoring THR and using it as a play.

or on any other irregular terrain. They also help develop endurance in the muscles of the lower CROSS-COUNTRY RUNNING body when soldiers carry a heavy load. and be physically able to ues until each soldier has resumed his perform their missions after extended original position in line. immediately sprints to the they can be conducted in garrison or in front. These runs may also be com- a continuous 2. BENEFITS OF ROAD MARCHES tance run and number of sprints per- formed should increase as the soldiers’ Road marches are an excellent aero- conditioning improves. of sprinting and running is repeated several times during the run. and large new environments. In certain distance on a course laid out addition. 2-10 . when done in an intelligent. The object is to cover the also help troops acclimatize to new distance in the shortest time. This type of running. single-file line on a soldiers attain a reasonable level of track or a smooth. and supervision and let leaders group starts its run at the same time. the next soldier. environments. the squad leader. Because run farther and helps ensure that they road marches are excellent fitness- receive an adequate training stimulus. over hills. make first-hand observations of the This lets the better-conditioned groups soldiers’ physical stamina. runs have several advantages: they to 50-yard sprints at near-maximum provide variety in physical fitness train. This pattern marching. bic activity. They are easy to organize. compass work (orienteering). The rest of the soldiers continue the field. Road marches offer several benefits Road marches help Cross-country running conditions when used as part of a fitness program. and they can accommodate large done by squads and sections. who is now at either administrative or tactical. Interest can be squad leader places the squad in an stimulated by competitive runs after evenly-spaced. They help train leaders The unit is divided into ability to develop skills in planning. It consists of 40. across fields. prepara- groups using 2-mile-run times. At first. It should then be gradually in. numbers of soldiers. It consists of running a numbers of soldiers can participate. During fitness. Soldiers must be able to move to run at a moderate pace. and progressive manner. flat course. LAST-MAN-UP RUNNING conditioning improves. carry a load (rucksack) of of sprinting by the last person 3-mile run of bined with other activities such as moderate intensity. commanders should The speed and distance can be make them a regular part of their unit’s increased gradually as the soldiers’ PT program. level. Road marches are classified as front. improves CR endurance and creased to four miles. running in the last position. can be used as both a physical condi. and the rear. This pattern quickly. Each numbers of soldiers. depending on the terrain and fitness cludes both sprinting and paced run. durance. It they produce relatively few injuries. systematic. Many soldier-related skills can be tioning activity and a competitive integrated into road marches. Cross-country runs can ning. training activities. equipment. through woods. They can event. When he reaches the front. After he reaches the fitness. sprints to the front of the line and becomes the Road Marches leader. troops acclimatize to the leg muscles and develops CR en. Each tion. which in. Cross-country accommodate large conditions the legs. he The road or foot march is one of the resumes the moderate pace of the best ways to improve and maintain whole squad. This type of running is best ing. The dis. effort. the distance should be one mile or less.

to obtain a conditioning effect. A shuttle Personal hygiene is important in march can be planned to move troops preventing unnecessary injuries. stride length. •Water stops. Forced Marches This stride. gently rolling terrain unless not enough vehicles to carry the entire the footing is muddy. shuttle . These marches may be modified rough. When a 10- the normal effort in speed and exer. which fit easily into the daily training plan. however. limited visibility. Day marches. results in a speed of 4. march for longer stretches than those day. soldiers should cut to another. They are characterized by dispersed •Route reconnaissance. ac- cording to FM 21-18. going on a march. with all soldiers arriving at their toenails short and square them 2-11 . •Present level of fitness. Limited Visibility Marches •Rest stops. forced. slowly and are in tighter formations. Limited visibility marches require •Provisions for injuries. formations and ease of control and re. Although they are excellent con. to lead the march. more detailed planning and supervi- •Terrain an weather conditions. Be- of various fitness levels from one point fore the march. usually because there are moderate. Soldiers who have high fitness levels can generally The four types of road marches . Soldiers should usually receive ad- soldiers may not exercise hard enough vance notice before going on a march. They protect an experienced soldier as a pacesetter soldiers from the heat of the day. sion and are harder to control than day marches. The situations. and used as fitness activities. Lim. and soldiers and should be of medium provide secrecy and surprise in tactical height to ensure normal strides. TYPES OF MARCHES about the same time. •Distance to be marched. This helps morale and gives them time ited visibility marches do have some to prepare. are most con. see PLANNING A ROAD MARCH FM 21-18. The pacesetter challenge the ability of NCOS and of. ducive to developing physical fitness. minute rest is taken each hour. is 30 inches. For example. normal stride for a foot march. slippery. and a cadence of 106 steps per minute. and who are less fit. or unit. Normal stride Shuttle marches alternate riding and and cadence are maintained easily on marching. For more information on marches. a net advance notcie before tion.8 Soldiers should receive Forced marches require more than kilometers per hour (kph). the length them time to prepare. Shuttle Marches decreases when soldiers march up hills or down steep slopes. connaissance. •Intensity of the march. Because they move more •Safety precautions. •Discipline and supervision. The leader should choose advantages. •Time allotted for movement. Any plan to conduct a road march to improve physical fitness should con- Day Marches sider the following: •Load to be carried. to ditioners. speed of 4 kph results.are described below. should carry the same load as the other ficers to control their soldiers. they may leave soldiers too The pacesetter should keep in mind fatigued to do other required training that ground slope and footing affect help morale and give tasks.

soldiers should again lightly apply foot powder. dry socks that fit well and socks. wash and dry their wear clean. ness and help prepare the muscles to If there are only three days available continue exercising. They should care for their feet. apply improving CR fitness and muscular powder. Roughly equal for a few minutes before resuming the emphasis should be given to each of march may relieve cramps and sore. and elevate their feet. The four generalized programs de- Leaders should check soldiers’ boots scribed below can be used to improve before the march to make sure that the soldiers’ load-carrying ability. off. Stretching endurance and strength. soldiers should help persed throughout the week. be trained. PROGRAMS TO IMPROVE Soldiers who have had problems with LOAD-CARRYING ABILITY blisters should apply a thin coating of petroleum jelly over susceptible areas. have no holes. and After marches. emphasis should be placed 2-12 . To help prevent for PT. of muscular endurance and strength Soldiers can relieve swollen feet by for the whole body. If time permits. wash and dry their feet. and dry their boots. program. Two of each other reposition the rucksacks the days should stress the development and other loads following rest stops. both should include exercises for they should massage their feet. these fitness components. During halts soldiers should lie down If only two days are available for PT. with heels that are even and not ber of days per week available for a PT worn down. Each soldier should take one or more extra pair of socks depending on the length of the march. Although all of the slightly loosening the laces across their major muscle groups of the body should arches. Each they fit well. are broken in and in good program is based on a different num- repair. and change socks. they should be evenly dis- lower back strain.

on the leg (hamstrings and quadriceps), A recent Army study showed that
hip (gluteal and hip flexors), low back road-march training two times a month
(spinal erector), and abdominal (rectus and four times a month produced
abdominis) muscles. These two days similar improvements in road-march-
should also include brief (2-mile) CR ing performance. Thus, twice-monthly
workouts of light to moderate intensity road marches appear to produce a
(65 to 75 percent HRR). On the one favorable improvement in soldiers’
CR fitness day left, soldiers should abilities to road march if they are
take a long distance run (4 to 6 miles) supported by a sound PT program
at a moderate pace (70 percent HRR), (five days per week)
an interval workout, or an aerobic Commanders must establish realis-
circuit. They should also do some tic goals for road marching based on
strength work of light volume and assigned missions. They should also
intensity. If four days are available, a allow newly assigned soldiers and those
road march should be added to the coming off extended profiles to gradu-
three-day program at least twice ally build up to the unit’s fitness level
monthly. The speed, load, distance, before making them carry maximum
and type of terrain should be varied. loads. This can be done with ability
If there are five days, leaders should groups.
devote two of them to muscular strength Road marching should be integrated
and endurance and two of them to CR into all other training. Perhaps the best
fitness. One CR fitness day will use single way to improve Ioad-earring
long distance runs; the other can stress capacity is to have a regular training
more intense workouts including in- program which systematically increases
terval work, Fartlek running, or last- the load and distance. It must also let
man-up running. At least two times the soldier regularly practice carrying
per month, the remaining day should heavy loads over long distances.
Leaders must train and
include a road march. As much as possible, leaders at all
march with their units Soldiers can usually begin road- levels must train and march with their
as much as possible. march training by carrying a total load units. This participation enhances
equal to 20 percent of their body leaders’ fitness levels and improves
weight. This includes all clothing and team spirit and confidence, both vital
equipment. However, the gender make- elements in accomplishing difficult
up and/or physical condition of a unit and demanding road marches.
may require using a different starting
load. Beginning distances should be Alternate Forms of
between five and six miles, and the Aerobic Exercise
pace should be at 20 minutes per mile
over flat terrain with a hard surface. Some soldiers cannot run. In such
Gradual increases should be made in cases, they may use other activities as
speed, load, and distance until soldiers supplements or alternatives. Swim-
can do the anticipated, worst-case, ming, bicycling, and cross-country
mission-related scenarios without ex- skiing are all excellent endurance ex-
cessive difficulty or exhaustion. Units ercises and are good substitutes for
should take maintenance marches at running. Their drawback is that they
Units should do
least twice a month. Distances should require special equipment and facili-
maintenance marches vary from six to eight miles, with loads ties that are not always available. As
at least twice a month. of 30 to 40 percent of body weight. with all exercise, soldiers should start
The pace should be 15 to 20 minutes slowly and progress gradually. Those
per mile. who use non-running activities to


such training may not improve run- aerobic workout. They can also do
ning ability. To prepare a soldier for calisthenics in the water. Together
the APFT 2-mile run, there is no sub- these activities combine walking and
stitute for running. running with moderate resistance work
for the upper body.
SWIMMING For injured soldiers, swimming and
aerobic water-training are excellent
Swimming is a good alternative to for improving CR fitness without plac-
running. Some advantages of swim- ing undue stress on injured weight-
ming include the following: bearing parts of the body.
o Involvement of all the major muscle
groups. CYCLING
o Body position that enhances the
blood’s return to the heart. Cycling is an excellent exercise for
o Partial support of body weight by developing CR fitness. Soldiers can
the water, which minimizes lower bicycle outdoors or on a stationary
body stress in overweight soldiers. cycling machine indoors. Road cycling
Swimming may be used to improve should be intense enough to allow the
one’s CR fitness level and to maintain soldier to reach and maintain THR at
and improve CR fitness during recov- least 30 minutes.
ery from an injury. It is used to Soldiers can alter the cycling inten-
supplement running and develop upper sity by changing gears, adding hill Cycling should be
body endurance and limited strength. work, and increasing velocity. Dis- intense enough to let the
The swimmer should start slowly with tance can also be increased to enhance soldier reach and
a restful stroke. After five minutes, he CR fitness, but the distance covered is maintain THR at least
should stop to check his pulse, com- not as important as the amount of time 30 minutes.
pare it with his THR and, if needed, spent training at THR. The intensity
adjust the intensity. of a workout can be increased by in-
Compared with all the other modes creasing the resistance against the wheel
of aerobic exercise presented in this or increasing the pedaling cadence
manual (e.g., running, walking, cy- (number of RPM), For interval train-
cling, cross-country skiing, rope ing, the soldier can vary the speed and
jumping, etc.) in swimming alone, resistance and use periods of active For swimming, a soldier
one’s THR should be lower than while recovery at low speed and/or low should set his THR at
doing the other forms of aerobic exer- resistance. about 10 beats per
cise. This is because, in swimming, the minute lower then when
heart does not beat as fast as when WALKING running.
doing the other types of exercise at the
same work rate. Thus, in order to Walking is another way to develop
effectively train the CR system during cardiorespiratory fitness. It is enjoy-
swimming, a soldier should set his able, requires no equipment, and causes
THR about 10 bpm lower than while few injuries. However, unless walking
running. For example, a soldier whose is done for a long time at the correct
THR while running is 150 bpm should intensity, it will not produce any sig-
have a THR of about 140 bpm while nificant CR conditioning.
swimming. By modifying their THRs Sedentary soldiers with a low degree
in this manner while swimming, sol- of fitness should begin slowly with 12
diers will help to ensure that they are minutes of walking at a comfortable
working at the proper intensity. pace. The heart rate should be moni-
Non-swimmers can run in waist-to tored to determine the intensity. The
chest-deep water, tread water, and do soldier should walk at least four times
pool-side kicking for an excellent a week and add two minutes each week


to every workout until the duration ROPE SKIPPING
reaches 45 to 60 minutes per workout.
He can increase the intensity by adding Rope skipping is also a good exer-
hills or stairs. cise for developing CR fitness. It
As the walker’s fitness increases, he requires little equipment, is easily
should walk 45 to 60 minutes at a faster learned, may be done almost any-
pace. A simple way to increase walk- where, and is not affected by weather.
ing speed is to carry the arms the same Some runners use it as a substitute for
way as in running. With this technique running during bad weather.
the soldier has a shorter arm swing and A beginner should select a jump
takes steps at a faster rate. Swinging rope that, when doubled and stood on,
the arms faster to increase the pace is reaches to the armpits. Weighted
a modified form of race walking (power handles or ropes may be used by
walking) which allows for more upper- better-conditioned soldiers to improve
body work. This method may also be upper body strength. Rope skippers
used during speed marches. After should begin with five minutes of
about three months, even the most jumping rope and then monitor their
unfit soldiers should reach a level of heart rate. They should attain and
conditioning that lets them move into maintain their THR to ensure a train-
a running program. ing effect, and the time spent jumping
should be increased as the fitness level
Rope jumping, however, may be
Cross-country or Nordic skiing is stressful to the lower extremities and
another excellent alternative to the therefore should be limited to no more
usual CR activities. It requires vigor- than three times a week. Soldiers
ous movement of the arms and legs should skip rope on a cushioned sur-
Cross-country skiing which develops muscular and CR face such as a mat or carpet and should
requires vigorous endurance and coordination. Some of wear cushioned shoes.
movement of the arms the highest levels of aerobic fitness
and legs, developing ever measured have been found in HANDBALL AND
muscular and CR cross-country skiers. RACQUET SPORTS
endurance. Although some regions lack snow,
one form or another of cross-country Handball and the racquet sports
skiing can be done almost anywhere-- (tennis, squash, and racquetball) in-
on country roads, golf courses, open volve bursts of intense activity for
fields, and in parks and forests. short periods. They do not provide the
Cross-country skiing is easy to learn. same degree of aerobic training as
The action is similar to that used in exercises of longer duration done at
brisk walking, and the intensity may be lower intensities. However, these
varied as in running. The work load is sports are good supplements and can
determined by the difficulty of ter- provide excellent aerobic benefits
rain, the pace, and the frequency and depending on the skill of the players.
duration of rest periods. Equipment is If played vigorously each day, they
reasonably priced, with skis, boots, may be an adequate substitute for low-
and poles often obtainable from the level aerobic training. Because run-
outdoor recreation services. ning increases endurance, it helps


improve performance in racket sports, jumping jacks, hops, jumps, or many
but the reverse is not necessarily true. other calisthenics.
Workouts can be done in a small
EXERCISE TO MUSIC space by diverse groups of varying
fitness levels. Heart rates should be
Aerobic exercise done to music is taken during the conditioning phase to
another excellent alternative to run- be sure the workout is sufficiently
ning. It is a motivating, challenging intense. If strengthening exercises are
activity that combines exercise and included, the workout addresses every
rhythmic movements. There is no component of fitness. Holding rela-
prerequisite skill, and it can be totally tively light dumbbells during the work-
individualized to every fitness level by out is one way to increase the intensity
varying the frequency, intensity, and for the upper body and improve mus-
duration. One can move to various cular endurance. Warm-up and cool-
tempos while jogging or doing down stretches should be included in
the aerobic workout.


devices are classified as pseudo-isoki- nents: muscular strength and muscular netic and some as variable-resistance endurance. they are closely related. To achieve a fantrymen may need to carry loads constant speed of movement. This is an eccentric (negative) contraction. as when a high level of muscular endurance and pushing against a wall. ment. tric or “positive” phase and the eccen- Muscular endurance is the ability of tric or “negative” phase. (elongation) the muscle returns to its Although muscular endurance and normal length. Force is pro- strength. which.the concen- group can exert in a single effort. sit-ups. the joint. depend on the muscular of isokinetic machines. artillerymen may have to load from 300 Isokinetic contraction causes the to 500. lift heavy tank or artillery rounds. in return. move equip. against a constant resistance. the nents. or do many other to move through a range of motion strength-related tasks. Isotonic contraction causes a joint push stalled vehicles. upward phase of the biceps curl. and isokinetic than it can lift concentrically. while in the eccentric phase maximum resistance for a given time. This greater overload. described here. There are endurance and strength of the individ. Some of these Muscular fitness has two compo. 155mm-howitzer rounds (95-lb angle at the joint to change at a rounds) while moving from 6 to 10 constant rate. Pro. This is a con- gressively working against resistance centric (positive) contraction. the lifting of weights. biceps are shortening. different angles. at 180 times each day over 8 to 12 days. On today's battlefield. machines. Muscular Contractions A muscle can control more weight in the eccentric phase of contraction Isometric. 3-1 . the load exceeding 100 pounds over great dis. affect it by Muscular Fitness varying the resistance throughout the range of motion. and ios of an invasion of Western Europe. tric phase (shortening) the muscle peated contractions against a less-than. other resistance-training machines ual soldier. or resistance must change at different tances. isotonic. degrees per second. For example. Common based on computer-generated scenar. Muscular strength is the greatest Isotonic and isokinetic contractions amount of force a muscle or muscle have two specific phases . soldiers need traction but no movement. In a single day they may duced with no change in the angle of carry injured comrades. In the concen- a muscle or muscle group to do re. This requires the use in large part. contracts. on the strength are separate fitness compo. in addition to Isometric contraction produces con- cardiorespiratory fitness. while supporting units will joint angles to counter the varying deploy and displace many times. For example. examples are push-ups. In. the muscle may be able to best produced by regularly doing each handle more of an overload eccentri- specific kind of contraction. They are cally. biceps are lengthening. forces produced by the muscle(s) at deed. As a muscular endurance and strength are result. In. survival on the battlefield may. During will produce gains in both of these the lowering phase of the curl the components. for example. while not precisely controlling the speed of movement. may produce greater strength gains.

resistance machines will result in • One-repetition maximum (1-RM). beginning. balance. To obtain When a muscle is damage. improvements in all three of these This is a repetition performed against categories. Each type of contraction has advantages and disadvantages. specificity. require sets with 70 to 80 percent of In other words. recovery. isotonic. to do from 8 to 12 correct repeti- scribed in Chapter 1. To understand the principle of over- tion. dier’s 1 -RM is 200 pounds. ity. Similarly. to achieve enough during exercise must be increased overload. one repetition has been ing program with free weights or completed. it adapts by contractions. (For example. important to those who assess strength • Repetition. so there is more muscle sore- ness following eccentric work. a fully contratcted position. This is a series of repetitions done without rest. regular. makes the muscle and load. it adapts by becoming sociated muscles through its com- plete range starting from the pre. This is the inabil- OVERLOAD ity of a person to do another correct repetition in a set. The intensity for muscular to all muscular endurance and strength endurance and strength training is training. 1 -RM. The overload principle is the basis for all exercise training programs. whether applied thoughout the full range of isotonic. and each stretched position (stretched past will result in strength gains if done the relaxed position) and ending in properly. often expressed as a percentage of. an 8-12 RM is To have a good exercise program. it is important to know the connective tissue more susceptible to following strength-training terms: • Full range of motion. load. range of motion and back to the ally. if a sol- overloaded. A 10-RM is the maxi- Training mum weight one can lift correctly 10 times. When an exercise has than to average people trying to de.contractions. multiply creased workloads by becoming larger 200 pounds by 70 percent [200 X 0. becoming stronger. or isokinetic by isometric. progressed through one complete velop strength and endurance. however. These principles are over.70 and stronger and by developing greater = 140 pounds] to get 70 percent of the endurance. or isokinetic motion. must be applied tions. • Set. that weight which allows a person the seven principles of exercise. de.The nature of the eccentric contrac. a properly designed weight train. For The minimum resistance needed to a muscle to increase in strength.) 3-2 . the greatest possible resistance (the maximum weight a person can lift Principles of Muscular one time). stronger. This is The above descriptions are more crucial to strength development. progression. Exercise a joint and its as. When a muscle is overloaded. • Muscle Failure. Actu. the muscle must be one’s 1 -RM. Muscles adapt to in. the overload must be overloaded by isometric. the obtain strength gains is 50 percent of workload to which it is subjected the 1 -RM. programs are designed to beyond what it normally experiences. the 1-RM. and variety. optimal gains. However.

) The weight should be heavy weight selected should be heavier and enough so that. the greater will be the improvement in muscle endurance and the smaller the gains in strength. his RM should be deter- mined from an analysis of the critical tasks of his mission. If one cannot do at least three repetitions of an exercise. Soldiers who are just begin- ning a resistance-training program should not start with heavy weights. he momentarily cannot repetition maximum (RM) method. to develop both muscle endurance and strength. of repetitions. the greater the number of repetitions per set. 3-3 . an effective range is a 3-7 RM. This is his 12+ repetition maximum (12+ RM). a MUSCULAR ENDURANCE/ soldier should choose a weight for each STRENGTH DEVELOPMENT exercise which lets him do 8 to 12 repe- titions to muscle failure. but the gain in strength will not be as great. To develop muscular endurance. To optimize a soldier’s performance. when a soldier trains with a 25-RM weight. The correctly do another repetition. For example. the 3-1. They should first build an adequate foundation by training with an 8-12 RM or a 12+ RM. The weight should also not be too heavy. A better and easier method is the repetitions. gains in muscular endurance will be greater than when using a 15-RM weight. after doing from 8 to 12 the RM will also be different. Although the greatest im- provements seem to come from resis- tances of about 6-RM. the resis- tance is too great and should be re- duced. This exerciser finds and uses that weight weight is the 8-12 RM for that exer- which lets him do the correct number cise. However. (See Figure To develop muscle strength. most soldiers will benefit most from a resis- Figure 3-1 tance-training program with an 8-12 RM. This weight is the 3-7 RM for that exercise. The weight should be heavy enough so that an eighth repetition would be impossible be- cause of muscle fatigue. the soldier should choose a resistance that lets him do more than 12 repeti- tions of a given exercise. For ex- ample. For example. With continued training. the soldier should find that weight for each exercise which lets him do 3 to 7 repetitions correctly.

pletes the eighth repetition in one or the soldier must always strive to over. The soldier sets. the soldier can be made in three to four weeks of must do resistance movements that are proper training depending on the in. increases the resistance by no more than 10 percent. • Increasing the number of repeti.) Those muscles that are contracting or becoming tense during the movement • Using any combination of the above. there will be no diering tasks. He should workouts per week are best for optimal continue with that weight until he can gains.12 RM). repetitions in the bench press. He then applies to the exercises for individual should increase the weight by about 5 muscle groups. Sporadic Exercise must be done For example. he ensures gressively increased to keep pace with maximum carryover value to his sol- newly won strength. If the workload is not pro. this Exercise must be done regularly to upper limit should be 12 repetitions. When a soldier can cor- rectly do the upper limit of repetitions for the set without reaching muscle REGULARITY failure. but when different In a multi-set routine. slowly does work-related movements • Increasing the speed of movement he wants to improve and. A resistance-training program should tions per set. if his goal is to muscle groups are exercised at each do three sets of eight repetitions of an workout. he starts with a weight that violated and gains in strength are causes muscle failure before he com . He continues to work load his muscles. the task. A soldier can work out percent but no more than 10 percent. These groups can be identified by • Reducing the rest time between doing a simple assessment. groups that need to be strengthened. produce a training effect. When an overload is applied to a strength training for the identified muscle. the speed of movement. To im- and/or by improving its endurance. 3-4 . then exercise harder than it normally does. are the muscle groups involved. Whichever RM range is selected. the principle of regularity is exercise. but three training effect. time. prove his muscular endurance and Usually significant increases in strength strength. For most soldiers. at the same in the concentric phase. An overload may be achieved by any of the following methods: SPECIFICITY • Increasing the resistance. if his plan is to do 12 exercise may do more harm than good. the Soldiers can maintain a moderate level regularly to produce a soldier starts with a weight that causes of strength by doing proper strength muscle failure at between 8 and 12 workouts only once a week. as similar as possible to those of doing dividual. If the PROGRESSION soldier’s performance of a task is not adequate or if he wishes to improve. provide resistance to the specific muscle • Increasing the number of sets. it is usually time to increase the resistance. The principle of regularity also do 12 repetitions correctly. three times a week. The key to overload. he feels the muscles on each side (Good form is more important than of the joints where motion occurs. In this way. with that weight until he can complete ing a muscle is to make that muscle all eight repetitions in each set. repetitions (8. it adapts by becoming stronger muscle(s) will be beneficial. minimal. in a given task. further gains. more of the sets.

follow an overhead press switch to partner-resisted exercises or with a lat pull-down exercise. As a groups are rotated. changing the exercises. and they opposing pairs. exercise the muscles of the hips and Recovery is also important within a legs. low back. enough time to adapt or to see im- cise the larger muscle groups first. BALANCE VARIETY When developing a strength training A major challenge for all fitness program. 3-5 . while acti. reduce the risk of become frustrated if they do not have injury. as a result. One should not work just the be very boring. A poorly de- include exercises that groups in both the upper and lower signed strength. the lat pull-down stresses both the larger Consecutive days of hard resistance latissimus dorsi muscle of the back and training for the same muscle group can the smaller biceps muscles of the arm. then provements in strength. so that the same result. different exercises and sets depends. and neck. long as all muscle groups are exercised Normally. Most muscles are organized into good ways to add variety. followed by the muscles of the workout. it is squats with a barbell instead of leg best to follow a pushing exercise with presses on a weight machine. As part. Activating one muscle may also produce better results. and Friday and the upper The best sequence to follow for a body muscles on Tuesday. be detrimental. group(s). it is important to include training programs is maintaining en- It is important to exercises that work all the major muscle thusiasm and interest. the smaller allowed sufficient recovery time to muscle group will be exhausted and adapt. workout. technique helps ensure good strength However. For program can work all the major body. improvement sets should be 30 to 180 seconds. and al- the upper and lower strengthen the legs. frequent wholesale changes balance between opposing muscle groups should be avoided as soldiers may which may. for a pulling exercise which results in variety or due to necessity (for ex- movement at the same joint(s). they for the same muscle groups. Strength training can be done too weak to handle the resistance every day only if the exercised muscle needed for the lat pull-down. For example. Sequence the program to exer. For example. the recovery time between at the proper intensity. The muscles must be If curls are done first. on the intensity of the workout. Also. then the arms. in abdominal. when in the field). soldier should periodically substitute vating the opposing muscle results in different exercises for a given muscle the opposite. For ample. he can example. There should be normally could in the lat pull-down. movement. the legs can be may not benefit very much from the trained with weights on Monday. the soldier cannot do as many There should be at muscle or muscle group is not exercised repetitions with as much weight as he least a 48-hour recovery on consecutive days. in turn. This another form of resistance training. Wednesday. he can do When planning a training session. thinking that running will ment. or pushing. group. total-body strength workout is to first and Saturday. at least a 48-hour recovery period The latissimus dorsi muscles will not period between workouts between workouts for the same muscle be overloaded and. Thursday. The recovery time between upper back and chest. Using different equip- muscle groups in both upper body. tering the volume and intensity are body. RECOVERY the smaller muscIes. The results in a pulling motion. will occur.

They principles just described. because the beginner ing program. The con- factor in strength training. the soldier should choose must concentrate at first on learning 3-6 . low back. downs on the “lat machine” works the niques combined with lifting weights latissimus dorsi of the back and the that are too heavy. This is and maintenance. Workout Techniques about 8 to 16 exercises that work all of the body’s major muscle groups. muscles. All weights should be selected “multi-joint” exercises. of the upper arm. an exercise like con- rectly before he starts his strength centration curls for the biceps muscles training program. the concentration curl who can observe his performance as he requires twice as much time as lat pull- exercises. the elbow joint. The soldier should use very light conditioning are weights during the first week (the EXERCISE SELECTION preparatory. use the equipment and the proper Perhaps a simpler way to select an spotting technique for each exercise. Breathing centration curl. For example. one joint. There are should include those for the muscles of also other factors to consider. To ensure safety and the downs because only one arm is worked best results. The exercise so that proper form can be maintained should provide movement at more than for the appropriate number of repeti. The soldier should never hold his breath. exercise produces motion at both the Correct breathing is another safety shoulder and elbow joints. inhale during the negative (eccentric) phase as the weight returns toward the Preparatory Phase The three phases of floor. although an effective The soldier should always do weight exercise. This will help him train a greater number of muscles in a given Major causes of injury when strength time. These are also described stack moves away from the floor. however. shoulders. or spotter. Lifting too much weight forces a people. especially beginners. and contraction as the weight or weight maintenance. For most lift. doing lat pull- training are improper lifting tech. Also. the pull-down tions. and in Chapter 1. The soldier should choose exer- of conditioning. For example. Each soldier must biceps muscles of the upper arm. as this can cause dizziness and PHASES OF CONDITIONING even loss of consciousness. conditioning. As a general rule. and so safety. exercise is to determine the number of A natural tendency in strength train. conditioning. preparatory phase) which includes the first two to three workouts. exercise selection. cises that work several muscle groups and try to avoid those that isolate single SAFETY FACTORS muscle groups. Usu- Workouts for improving muscular ally eight well-chosen exercises will endurance or strength must follow the serve as a good starting point. namely. On understand how to do each lift cor. the other hand. and phases forth. only works the arm flexor training with a partner. one should exhale during There are three phases of condition- the positive (concentric) phase of ing: preparatory. joints in the body where movement oc- ing is to see how much weight one can curs during a repetition. When beginning a resistance-train. most of compromise in form and may lead to the exercises in the program should be injury. the leg. only involves should be constant during exercise. very important. both should know how to at a time.

If he can by training the major muscle groups do only seven repetitions of an exer. This usually involves an in. ideally. As riod of time. During this As with aerobic training. The making progress with one set of 8 to 12 exercise period. the maintenance phase joints. set of that exercise is done in an than one set per exercise. one can maintain them repetitions to muscle failure. he should use progres. a second. however. Al- the second week (4 to 6 workouts). physical training in which as many titions. and ligaments. is can do more than 12. level of fitness. During the is used to maintain that level. After an appropriate long as he continues to progress and get period of rest. Maintaining the optimal level of fitness should become part of Conditioning Phase each soldier’s life-style and training routine. It ever need to do. throughout his life. he may bene. The second week. the sol- phase. many repetitions of an exercise as pos- cise is the maximum most soldiers will sible within a period of time. the weight must be reduced. the number of sets done should be fit from adding another set of 8 to 12 selected to make sure that an overload repetitions on those exercises in which of the involved muscle groups occurs. unlike exer- and he progresses. ginning weight trainer. the weight should required to reach and maintain peak be increased. If he stops equal or lesser time period. Maintenance Phase Using light weights also helps mini- mize muscle soreness and decreases the Once the soldier reaches a high likelihood of injury to the muscles. Three sets per exer. the soldier should increase the dier should do strength training three amount of weight used and/or the times a week and should allow at least intensity of the workout as his muscu. 48 hours of rest from resistance train- lar strength and/or endurance increases. progress has slowed. does not hold back the more capable 3-7 . cise. he though training three times a week for should know how much weight on each muscle endurance and strength gives exercise will allow him to do 8 to 12 the best results. cise are performed in a specified pe- This process continues indefinitely. properly one or two times a week.the proper form for each exercise. When he can do TIMED SETS more than 12 repetitions of any exer- cise. repetitions as possible of a given exer- crease in weight of about five percent. The maintenance phase should The third week is normally the start be continued throughout his career of the conditioning phase for the be. fitness levels. he should increase the weight Timed sets refers to a method of until he can again do only 8 to 12 repe. helps get even further gains in strength and/ to ensure that each soldier does as or muscle mass. emphasis in this phase is no longer on sively heavier weights. he may increase the cises performed in cadence or for a number to three sets of an exercise to specific number of repetitions. and repetitions per exercise. he does not need to do more on. repetitions for each of the heavy- resistance exercises. ing between workouts for any given He should do one set of 8 to 12 muscle group. third. As time goes on The use of timed sets. and so stronger. recovery period. By the end of progression but on retention. if he More frequent training. and.

timed sets will be to follow when doing a resistance applied to improving soldier’s sit-up exercise is as follows. the best procedure In this FM. and to be assured the muscles used in the sit-up are that all emergencies can be met. as of repetitions he may do. is a very time-efficient way of con- forms a workout geared to develop ducting push-up/sit-up improvement. At ance. Instead. muscle endurance and strength. Then. cises will already be pre-exhausted. the Alternate timed sets of push-ups and goal should be to develop sufficient timed sets of sit-ups with little or no strength and/or muscle endurance in time between sets allowed for recov- all the muscle groups he will be called ery. It push-ups and sit-ups are conducted must be to develop an optimal level of should occasionally be varied. The follow- training regimen which exercises all ing is an example of this type of the body’s major muscle groups must approach: Figure 3-2 3-8 . should not be the main goal of an The manner in which timed sets for Army physical training program. This physical fitness which will help sol. For this reason. here combat. Following this sequence ensures prove push-up and sit-up perform. or they are capable of and thereby be give priority to. (See Fig. several of these will be the same time. ensures continued gains and minimizes diers carry out their mission during boredom. time and work that must be devoted to It should first be stated that im. Thus. used by the push-up can recover while To meet this goal. a exercised. perform a and push-up performance. Below. In this way. ance. a muscle endurance or diers at all levels of fitness can indi. do timed sets to but equally valid approaches can be improve push-up and sit-up perform- taken when using timed sets to im. a general rule. it reduces the amount of given. ) Many different major muscles. First. that all major muscles are worked. sol. push-ups and sit-ups. the muscles worked by those two exer- ance. the muscle groups upon to use as he performs his mission. although important for the APFT. stimulus. those muscle groups sure they obtain an adequate training worked by the sit-up or push-up event.performer by restricting the number be developed and followed. This having been said. and vice versa. when a soldier per. workout to strengthen all of the body’s ures 3-2 and 3-3. strength training workout should not vidually do the number of repetitions be designed to work exclusively. Thus. This is because proving sit-up and push-up perform.

the times listed in the chart above may prove to be too long or too Major Muscle Groups short for some soldiers. one must do at least one set of and sit-up improvement. time. or vice versa. because of the nature of the sit. If this happens. over. he should different types of push-ups (regular. the difficulty ups. In the same way. For example. and Finally. the above activity can be finished several timed sets of push-ups can be in about 3. immediately drop to his knees and feet-elevated. as in any endeavor. When perform. If all soldiers exercise at the same before doing the other. As the soldiers’ done followed by several sets of sit- levels of fitness improve. With this approach. performed. The following example can of any or all timed sets. For future APFTs. and when planning for their next and make adjustments accordingly. close-hand. This ing this type of workout. his knees. soldiers so forth) can be done. pay attention applies when doing each timed set and to how the soldiers are responding. (See Figure 3-4. Figure 3-3 3-9 . In designing a workout it is impor- up. and their pri- more time for timed sets of sit-ups mary action.5 minutes. a these. wide-hand. soldiers can exercises for each of the major muscle also perform all sets of one exercise groups. This rest intervals must be placed between is done by lengthening the time period timed sets. abdominal twists. balanced work- When using timed sets for push-up out. must set goals for themselves. continue doing modified push-ups on and so forth) and sit-ups (regular. it may become apparent that some tant to know the major muscle groups. soldier may reach temporary muscle To add variety and increase the failure at any time before the set is overall effectiveness of the activity. To ensure a good. of the activity can be increased. example. by workout and is reasonable starting increasing the number of timed sets routine for most soldiers. or by any combination of During a timed set of push-ups. abdominal curls.) than for push-ups. by decreasing be done after the regular strength any rest period between timed sets. soldiers can benefit by taking slightly where they are located.

Figure 3-4 Figure 3-5 .

How- groups. this program may most of the important. should be able to complete this routine the quadriceps are worked by the leg and do a warm-up and cool-down press/squat and leg extensions. with respect to the to muscle failure. It is a good program for begin. biceps are worked by the seated row. groups even more thoroughly. Thus. the average soldier muscles that are worked. ever. This at Figure 3-6 is a more comprehensive program also includes exercises to program that works the major muscle strengthen the neck muscles. and biceps curl. lat pull-down. It has When doing one set of each exercise some duplication . for the more advanced lifter. major muscle overwork some muscle groups. Figure 3-6 3-11 . For example. it ners and for those whose time is will make the muscles work in differ- limited. The exercises should be done ent ways and from different angles in the order presented. thereby providing a better over-all The weight-training program shown development of muscle strength. and the within the regular PT time.The beginning weight-training pro. gram shown at Figure 3-5 will work for the beginner.

bility of facilities is always a major This helps to increase motivation. These motions also detract ing large numbers of soldiers. for units. dummy rounds. the principles of exercise previously outlined. All that is required is for ● Accelerate the weight through the the soldier. the result is twist. push-ups. cool down. especially is balanced. relaxed position (pre. cises. three times a week. However. The cise because they take much of the weight of the bags can be varied stress off the targeted muscle groups depending on the amount of fill. Any regular resis- full range of motion. Concentrat. As with all training. Although many installations the intensity of the workout. weight as the resistive force is another cover and help prevent over train. as they from the effectiveness of the exer. but not more training. ammo tween different exercises and sets boxes. lurch. there are limits to the type of lows training that can be done. or partners. excellent alternative method of strength ing and injury. weight. sit- ● Progress slowly. the development of of contraction. Train the whole body. progressively overload his muscles. 3-12 . Sandbags are convenient for train- jury. body. to concentric phase of contraction. Never increase the ups. and single-leg squats are examples resistance used by more than 10 of exercises which use a person’s body percent at a time. are available in all military units. and follow trained. and inhale during strength does not require expensive the eccentric (negative) phase. work harder than it is used to causes it stretched). For example. Soldiers the rest of the body must also be should warm up. Pull-ups. Exhale all units can use them on a regular during the concentric (positive] phase basis. and have excellent strength-training fa- safety. ment that is unique to a unit can also ● Allow at least 48 hours of recovery be used to provide resistance for strength between workouts. They can improve an un- ● Alternate pulling and pushing exer. The availa- ● Train with a partner if possible. Key Points to Emphasize Exercise Programs Some key points to emphasize when When developing strength programs doing resistance training tire as fol. and place it on other muscles. ● Always use strict form. the training uses expensive machines. lunge. then the smaller ones. strength-training circuits. Muscles do not care what is supply- ● Perform all exercises through their ing the resistance. diers at one time. trained soldier’s level of strength. when training large numbers of sol- not just specific areas. Begin from a tance exercise that makes the muscle fully extended. Sandbag exercises are very effective in ● Rest from 30 to 180 seconds be. another good way to develop muscular ● Ensure that every training program strength without equipment. it is unreasonable to expect that ● Always breathe when lifting. EQUIPMENT ● Exercise the large muscle groups first. to let the body re. training. but safety is a critical factor. dips. ing on weak areas is all right. or other equip- of a given exercise. concern. cilities. and return the weight to the starting position in a controlled manner TRAINING WITHOUT SPECIAL during the eccentric phase. equipment. This can cause serious in. Whether phase in a fully contracted position. or arch the largely the same. and end the concentric to adapt and become stronger. Logs. Do not sandbags. follow triceps Partner-resisted exercises (PREs) are extensions with biceps curls. Using a soldier’s own body than 96 hours.

They must communicate with to ensure that the exercising sol- each other to ensure that neither too dier is working his muscle groups much nor too little resistance is ap. 3-13 . The speed of move. This gives starting position). ering individual limitations: tive) phase of contraction (in other A 36-to 48-inch stick or bar one words. The resister must apply enough More than one exercise per muscle resistance to bring the exerciser to group may be used. partners work together. the resister a better grip and/or ment for PREs should always be slow leverage and also provides a feel and controlled. PARTNER-RESISTED EXERCISE take at least as long to complete as the positive part. plied. the second half of each repe. Proper exercise In partner-resisted exercises (PREs) form and regularity in perform- a person exercises against a partner’s ance are key ingredients when opposing resistance. the similar to that of free weights and negative part of each exercise should exercise machines. can select exercises which meet the More resistance usual] y can and should unit’s specific goals while consid- be applied during the eccentric (nega. illustrations of several PREs. They viding the proper resistance for each should be done in the order given exercise. The PT leader muscle failure in 8 to 12 repetitions. the more Following are descriptions and effective they should become in pro. As a general rule. inch in diameter may be used for tition as the exerciser returns to the some of the exercises. from the largest to the smallest. The longer the using PREs for improving strength.

3-14 .

3-15 .

3-16 .

3-17 .

3-18 .

3-19 .

3-20 .

or spotter. all exercises done with free weights require a partner. to ensure proper form and the safety of the lifter. The ex- ercises described here require free weights and supporting equipment. TRAINING WITH EQUIPMENT Units in garrison usually have access to weight rooms with basic equipment for resistance-training exercises. Although not shown below for the sake of simplicity. Free-Weight Exercises 3-21 .

3-22 .

3-23 .

3-24 .

3-25 .

should be done in a delib- also good for strength training. Exercises Performed with an Exercise Machine If exercise machines are available. controlled manner. movements. eccentric (negative) phase of con- the exercises described below are traction. particularly during the 3-26 . All crate.

3-27 .

3-28 .

3-29 .

3-30 .

3-31 .

3-32 .

abdominus and external and internal 3-33 . obliques). resistance can be added. The following exercises can be per. rectus cises. As the soldier becomes formed to condition the muscles of the more conditioned on these exer- mid-section (erector spinae.

3-34 .

He may choose from the following: 1) PREs. leg curls. 3-35 . doing free weight squats. For example. concentrating on the split. 3) exercises with a machine. Exercise Chart The chart labeled Figure 3-5 will help the soldier select appropriate exercises for use in developing a good muscular endurance and strength workout. if the soldier wants to develop his upper leg muscles. doing leg presses. and leg extensions. 2) exercises with equipment. or. he has several options.or single-leg squat.

3-36 .

but no pain. Static stretching involves the grad- ing. He discomfort because the muscles are being stretched beyond their normal should talk with his partner to ensure length. It involves the assumes each stretching position slowly ability to move a part of the body until he feels tension or tightness. The soldier should feel straight and feet together and bend slight discomfort. lengthens the muscles without causing lowed by normal.passive. described here and shown later in this cal fitness. field tests can be for ten seconds or longer. climbing. Stretching during the warm-up and such as a towel. Because people differ some. stretch through a greater range of ballistic. pole. Static stretching should Soldiers shouId stand with their legs not be painful. Good flexibility can help a STATIC STRETCHING soldier accomplish such physical tasks as lifting. the due. This produces a safe stretch through a range of motion not be painful. running. This lets the used to assess flexibility in the ham. person’s flexibility with another’s should PNF STRETCHING not be done. parachut. in part. or rubber tubing. Developing and maintain. tions and relaxations using a partner or proprioceptive Using good stretching techniques equipment to help him stretch. When forward slowly at the waist. The can improve flexibility. and ballistic. These are motion. and increases the soldier’s ability to proprioceptive neuromuscular facili. ing it are important parts of a fitness program. Flexibility is a component of physi. chapter. comparing one through the entire range of motion. through the full range of motion al. to loss of flexibility. There are four PNF technique allows for greater muscle neuromuscular commonly recognized categories of relaxation following each contraction facilitation (PNF). 4-1 . The soldier Stretching Techniques performs a series of intense contrac- static. The unit’s Master Fitness Trainer can help PASSIVE STRETCHING him design a stretching program to Passive stretching involves the sol- improve his flexibility. People with poor flexi- bility who try to stretch as far as others PNF stretching uses the neuromus- The four categories of may injure themselves. These areas without causing injury. lengthened muscles adjust to the stretch string and low-back areas. are commonly susceptible to injury The longer a stretch is held. and rappelling with greater ual lengthening of muscles and ten- efficiency and less risk of injury. However. The soldier of a joint or series of joints and their range of movement of a associated muscles. groups stretched by this test. dons as a body part moves around a Flexibility is the range of movement joint. that length. A soldier pain results from stretching. It is a safe and effective method Flexibility refers to the for improving flexibility. tation (PNF). but it should cause some he could not achieve without help. This joint. cool-down helps soldiers maintain overall flexibility. cular patterns of each muscle group to stretching techniques are help improve flexibility. passive. a reflex contraction in the stretched No one test can measure total-body muscles. Stretching should to help him stretch. dier’s use of a partner or equipment. that each muscle is stretched safely what anatomically. and stretching techniques: static. disease-free joints. He should hold each stretch flexibility. A easier it is for the muscle to adapt to simple toe-touch test can be used. it is a sig- who cannot touch his toes without nal that he is stretching a muscle or bouncing or bobbing needs work to tendon too much and may be causing improve his flexibility in the muscle damage. loading.

BALLISTIC STRETCHING THE WARM-UP The warm-up warms the Ballistic. it muscles and tendons. for one to two minutes. increases the joint’s range of motion als and units should not use ballistic and positively affects the speed of stretching. The warm-up motion and stretch. rotations) to gradually increase the down to help maintain flexibility. sity level before the activity or con- ditioning period. and stretching exer. Work each Intensity: Stretch a muscle beyond its major joint for 5 to 10 seconds. tivity. lift a The warm-up and cool-down are lighter weight to warm-up before very important parts of a physical lifting a heavier one. method may improve flexibility. • Slow joint rotation exercises (for orous activity and to help reduce in. arm circles. and Type: Use static stretches. thus helping often forces a muscle to stretch too far reduce the risk of injury. example. This will "loosen up" muscles Time: Hold stretches for 10 to 15 sec- and tendons so they can achieve onds for warming up and cooling greater ranges of motion with less down and for 30 seconds or longer risk of injury. to increase the inten- ing. It also and may result in an injury. in Chapter 7. 4-2 . or dynamic. as well as pas. assumed do not bounce or bob. before vigorous exercise. A recommended sequence of warm- FITT Factors up activities follows. to help prepare the muscles for vig. Do them during the cool. and in- Frequency: Do flexibility exercises creases the temperature of the ac- daily. Do them during the warm-up tive muscles. ing exercises in all physical fitness • Slow joggin-in-place or walking programs. prepare the neuromuscular path- cises should be a major part of both. as described sive stretching and/or PNF stretch. one should prepare flow of blood and bobbing to attain a greater range of the body for exercise. muscular contraction. Warm-Up and Cool-Down • Slowly mimic the activities to be performed. joint's range of motion. Soldiers should do these for five to seven minutes Commanders should include stretch. static stretching of the muscles to be used during the upcoming ac- or slight discomfort. This helps training session. increasing the physical activity. position for 10 to 15 seconds. Individu. This causes The following FITT factors apply a gradual increase in the heart rate. knee/ankle jury. normal length to the point of tension • Slow. Although this reducing the risk of increases the flow of blood to the injury. circulation. stretching in. slowly and gradually. For example. ways. • Calisthenic exerciese. not pain. Before beginning any vigorous volves movements such as bouncing or muscIes. blood pressure. when developing a flexibility program. Hold each stretch to improve flexibility.

if possible. Use partner-assisted or PNF techniques. for example. This may cause fainting or abnormal stimulate lubrication of the joint with rhythms in the heart which could synovial fluid. This may provide lead to serious complications. After running. The muscles are warm from activity and can possibly be overstretched to the point of injury. Rotation Exercises one should walk for one to two min- utes. and muscles. warm-up to help ease muscle ten. Stretch- ing is one form of exercise that takes ous. 4-3 . creasing the intensity of the activ- ity. gained. "recovery" or "easy"training day to • Do not stop suddenly after vigorous work on flexibility improvement. may also work on it at home. • Hold stretches 30 seconds or more during the cool-down to improve flexiblity. THE COOL-DOWN The soldier should not limit flexi- bility training to just the warm-up and The following information explains cool-down periods. Be careful not to overstretch. as this can be very danger. better movement and less friction in • Repeat the stretches done in the the joint. ligments. The following exercises should be sion and any immediate feeling of performed slowly. He exercise. Stopping exercise suddenly Rotation exercises are used to gen- can cause blood to pool in the tly stretch the tendons. He should some- the importance of cooling down and times use an entire PT session on a how to do it correctly. muscle soreness. Gradually bring the body back very little time relative to the benefits to its resting state by slowly de. thereby reducing blood muscles associated with a joint and to flow to the heart and brain.

4-4 .

Choose the appropriate stretch for lecting stretching exercises. discomfort. the muscle groups which you will be working. warm-up and cool-down. and with gradual progres. 30 seconds or longer. Develop- CAUTION Some of these exercises mental stretching to improve flexibil- may be difficult or too strenuous for ity requires holding each stretch for unfit or medically limited soldiers.Common Stretching Exercises STATIC STRETCHES The following exercises improve Assume all stretching positions flexibility when performed slowly. Common sense should be used .n se. 4-5 . slowly until you feel tension or slight regularly. passive and PNF stretches least 10 to 15 seconds during the are shown. Hold each position for at sion. Static.

4-6 .

4-7 .

4-8 .

4-9 .

4-10 .

4-11 .

4-12 .

4-13 .

When stretching alone. PASSIVE STRETCHES Passive stretching is done with the help of a with a partner. using a partner or equipment. The examples in this chap. 4-14 . towel may help the exerciser achieve a greater ter show passive stretching done with a towel or range of motion.

4-15 .

and relaxations. muscle’s normal length requires a part. Assume the stretch position slowly ion. The following four time. (Caution: The exerciser should steps provide general guidance as to not hold his breath. stretches for most major muscle groups. and try to stretch a little further each ner’s assistance. Relax. for 5 to 10 seconds against the partner’s tive Neuromuscular Facilitation) unyielding resistance. He should breathe how PNF stretches are done. Soldiers can do PNF (Propriocep. Both the out during each contraction. Next. The numbers given above for each with the partner’s help. contract the antago- PNF stretches use a series of contrac. Hold the contraction 4-16 . Repeat this sequence three times. done against a partner’s resis. to be stretched.) exerciser and partner should follow Several examples of PNF stretches these instructions: are provided below in a stepwise fash- 1. Obtaining a safe stretch beyond the 4. Isometrically contract the muscles tion listed below. step correspond to the general descrip- 2. the partner helps the exerciser obtain a tance. nistic muscles for 5 to 10 seconds while tions. greater stretch. 3.

4-17 .

gram is described in AR 600-9. lowances for these differences. body mass accounts for a large share of genetic factors. and exercise. Figure 5-1 5-0 . standards for their height and/or sol- programs for the overly fat. Poor body small percentage of their total body influenced by age. some well-muscled athletes have ing disease increases. their total body composition. they have excessive fat are to be The amount of fat on the body. by age and sex. his ability to perform physi. -esteem. Soldiers with weight (shown in AR 600-9) make al- inadequate muscle development can. The Poor body composition causes prob. Good body composi. and re. Soldiers who do not meet the weight dresses body composition standards. ample. diers whose appearance suggests that lated administrative actions. is referred to as the AR 600-9. percent body fat. evaluated using the circumference (girth when expressed as a percentage of measurement) method described in total body weight. and negative effect on appearance. Evaluation Methods is one of the five components of physical fitness. muscles). Examples of poor body (This is described in AR 600-9. Army’s screening charts for height and lems for the Army. pages composition are underdeveloped mus. are listed in Figure Body composition.) culature or excessive body fat. In such cases. only a with lower percentages. For ex- cally declines. diet. while titude and morale. the body’s relative amounts of fat and lean body mass (organs. Yet. Being Body composition is influenced by overweight (that is. It ad. the lean fitness level. Soldiers with body weights that far exceed the values high percentages of body fat often for weight listed on the charts for their Body composition is have lower APFT scores than those age. especially obesity. The Army determines body fat tion is best gained through proper diet percentage using the girth method. gender. bones. factors (gender and body type). fitness level. As a soldier dard weight shown on the charts may gets fat. The Army’s maxi- mum allowable percentages of body fat. body mass is composed of fat. and his risk of develop. and negatively influences at. has a mass may be fat. and height. A not perform as well as soldiers with soldier whose weight exceeds the stan- good body composition. and genetic more common problem. overly fat) is the age. only a small percentage of the total The Army’s weight control pro. 12 to 21. self. composition. not necessarily be overfat. which refers to 5-1.

Anaerobic activities. does exercise burn calories. However. tissue as well. Fat can only be burned during exercise if oxygen is used. and jump- is a realistic goal which is best accom. snacks. Losing fat safely takes time body mass. with the calories distrib. grams as stipulated in AR 600-9. ing rope.200 lose excessive body fat. In burn little. In re- exercise and diet is the number of calories from all the major ality. a mixture of both fats and unwanted body fat. Because rate and. it loses fat at a there are 3. jogging. stair fat. he needs to run or walk 35 miles A combination of Soldiers must consume a minimum if pure fat were being burned. Such and it may also help keep the body’s programs include sensible diet and ex. Dieting alone can cause lose body fat. expenditure and maintain their lean examples include not fat. especially in large the body to believe it is being starved. and rowing. Losing one to two pounds a week climbing. metabolic rate high during dieting. Aerobic exercise. this tion. Soldiers should avoid diets tians and nutritionists can help soldiers that fail to meet these criteria.500 calories in one pound slower rate. As a result. mostly water and lean muscle tissue. as a result. swim- ming. if any. In and devices or by skipping meals does addition. Aerobic exercises include jog- A combination of exercise and diet ging. under medical supervision when diet. the unit’s MFT can design Aerobic exercise is best not work for long-term fat loss. rowing. This can negatively Soldiers who do not meet Army affect his physical readiness. cross- country skiing. supervised weight (fat) loss pro. bicycling. it helps the mal. of fat. it tries to conserve its fat son. fat is seldom the only source of food groups. A combination of proper diet and ing requires a caloric intake of at least aerobic exercise is the proven way to 1 . other words. ercise regimens. energy used during aerobic exercise. fat. carbohydrates is used. A male soldier who is not over 50 miles to burn one pound of fat. is the best way to lose excessive body cross-country skiing. sumption of necessary vitamins and most people would need to run or walk minerals. swimming. Local dieti- calories. A more accurate way to determine and patience. which uses lots of oxygen. who want to lose weight by suggesting Trying to lose weight with fad diets safe and sensible diet programs. For an average-sized per- In response. method is very time-consuming and The soldier who diets and does not expensive and usually done only at exercise loses not only fat but muscle hospitals and universities. women require at least 1. such as plished by reducing caloric intake and sprinting or lifting heavy weights.500. walking. since tailored exercise programs which will weight lost through these practices is help soldiers increase their caloric for burning fat. body maintain its useful muscle mass. Not only body fat standards are placed on for. increasing energy expenditure. amounts. exercise to music. best way to lose uted over all the daily meals including Instead. one should eat less and Exercise alone is not the best way to exercise more. is Diet and Exercise the best type of activity for burning fat. running or walking one mile reserves by slowing down its metabolic burns about 100 calories. There is no quick and body composition is by hydrostatic or easy way to improve body composi- underwater weighing. bicycling. 5-1 . This ensures an adequate con. walking.

however. balance. (See Figure 6-2. proper nu. they hope to maintain weight control For soldiers to get enough fuel from as well as achieve maximum physical the food they eat and to obtain the fitness. and mental alert.) A well- enhance the ability of soldiers to per. Soldiers must know and excessive amounts of any nutrient. Another dietary guideline is to taining an energy balance are basic consume enough calories to meet one’s guidelines for a healthy diet. Good energy needs. Figure 6-1 6-0 . There tional guidance for enhancing physical are no known advantages in consuming performance. and maintaining total fitness. Good selecting a variety of foods from within dietary habits (see Figure 6-1 ) greatly each group. should regularly eat a wide variety of trition plays a major role in attaining foods fro-m the major food groups. Weight is maintained as nutrition is not complicated for those long as the body is in energy balance. This chapter gives basic nutri. To be properly nourished. Even snacking between meals can Guidelines for Healthy Eating contribute to good nutrition if the right foods are eaten. variety of foods needed for nutrient ness. Eating a variety of foods and main. soldiers In addition to exercise. good diet alone. and follow the basic nutrition principles if there may be risks in doing so. good health. they should eat three meals a day. A needed to keep one healthy. eat a proper variety of foods. balanced diet provides all the nutrients form at their maximum potential. will not Most healthy adults do not need make up for poor health and exercise vitamin or mineral supplements if they habits. who understand these dietary guide- lines.

Figure 6-2

that is, when the number of calories shown in Figure 6-4. Similarly, a
used equals the number of calories person running at 6 miles per hour
consumed. (MPH) will burn 0.079 cal./min./lb.
The most accurate way to control and a typical, 150-pound male will
caloric intake is to control the size of burn 11.85 calories/minute (150 lbs. x
food portions and thus the total amount 0.079 cal./lb./min. = 11.85) or about
of food ingested. One can use standard 710 calories in one hour, as shown in
household measuring utensils and a Figure 6-3.
small kitchen scale to measure portions To estimate the number of calories
of foods and beverages. Keeping a you use in normal daily activity, multi-
daily record of all foods eaten and ply your body weight by 13 if you are
physical activity done is also helpful. sedentary, 14 if somewhat active, and
Figure 6-3 shows the number of 15 if moderately active. The result is
calories burned during exercise periods a rough estimate of the number of
of different types, intensities, and calories you need to maintain your
durations. For example, while partici- present body weight. You will need
pating in archery, a person will burn still more calories if you are more than
0.034 calories per pound per minute. moderately active. By comparing
Thus, a 150-pound person would burn caloric intake with caloric expendi-
5.1 calories per minute (150 lbs. x 0.034 ture, the state of energy balance (posi-
calories/minute/lb. = 5.1 calories/ tive, balanced, or negative) can be
minute) or about 305 calories/hour, as determined.


Figure 6-3


Avoiding an excessive intake of fats Concerns for Optimal
Avoiding an excessive is another fundamental dietary guide- Physical Performance
intake of fats is an line. A high intake of fats, especially
saturated fats and cholesterol, has been Carbohydrates, in the form of gly -
important fundamental associated with high levels of blood cogen (a complex sugar), are the pri-
of nutrition. cholesterol. mary fuel source for muscles during
The blood cholesterol level in most short-term, high-intensity activities.
Americans is too high. Blood choles- Repetitive, vigorous activity can use
terol levels can be lowered by reducing up most of the carbohydrate stores in
both body fat and the amount of fat in the exercised muscles.
the diet. Lowering elevated blood The body uses fat to help provide
cholesterol levels reduces the risk of energy for extended activities such as
developing coronary artery disease a one-hour run. Initially, the chief
(CAD) and of having a heart attack. fuel burned is carbohydrates, ‘but as
CAD, a slow, progressive disease, re- the duration increases, the contribu-
sults from the clogging of blood vessels tion from fat gradually increases.
in the heart. Good dietary habits help The intensity of the exercise also
reduce the likelihood of developing influences whether fats or carbohy-
CAD. drates are used to provide energy.
It is recommended that all persons Very intense activities use more car-
over the age of two should reduce their bohydrates. Examples include weight
fat intake to 30 percent or less of their training and the APFT sit-up and
Carbohydrates are the total caloric intake. The current na- push-up events.
tional average is 38 percent. In addi- Eating foods rich in carbohydrates
primary fuel source for helps maintain adequate muscle-gly -
tion, we should reduce our intake of
muscles during short- saturated fat to less than 10 percent of cogen reserves while sparing amino
term, high-intensity the total calories consumed. We should acids (critical building-blocks needed
activities. increase our intake of polyunsaturated for building proteins). At least 50
fat, but to no more than 10 percent of percent of the calories in the diet
our total calories. Finally, we should should come from carbohydrates.
reduce our daily cholesterol intake to Individual caloric requirements vary,
300 milligrams or less. Figure 6-4 sug- depending on body size, sex, age, and
gests actions commanders can take to training mission. Foods rich in com-
support sound dietary guidelines. Most plex carbohydrates (for example, pasta,
of these actions concern dining-facil- rice, whole wheat bread, potatoes) are
ity management. the best sources of energy for active


Figure 6-4


during. This can improve endurance. It is also There is evidence that solutions con- important to avoid simple sugars. On the other hand. muscles. Sweat provide a source of carbohydrate for consists primarily of water with small working muscles. benefit from periodically drinking ance. Soldiers The evaporation of sweat helps cool the on extended road marches can also body during exercise. Water is an essential nutrient that percent of heart rate reserve. these drinks should be used vent dehydration and help en. Therefore. such taining up to 10 percent carbohydrate as candy. in complex carbohydrates. nausea. can lead to ab- Soldiers should drink water before. plain water is the best drink to carbohydrate. Soldiers often fail to drink enough During prolonged periods of exer- water. one can is critical to optimal physical perform. During replaced or poor performance. which are usually days before an activity provide part of simple carbohydrates (sugars) and the fuel for that activity. are tant to eat foods every day that are rich helpful under certain circumstances. dominal cramps. and after exercise to pre. because they can lead to low liver additional glucose to the active blood sugar levels during exercise. especially when training in the cise (1. quantities of minerals like sodium.5+ hours) at intensities over 50 heat. it is impor. can result. As a result. recommendations for fluid intake when Many people believe that body exercising. will enter the blood fast enough to de- ercising. electrolytes dissolved in water. benefit from drinking these types of ter lost through sweating must be glucose-containing beverages. with caution during intense endurance hance performance. drinks that exceed levels of 10 percent Cool. to 10 percent carbohydrate. up to 60 minutes before ex. Because foods eaten one to three Sports drinks. and intense training. It plays an important role in sports drinks with a concentration of 5 maintaining normal body temperature. wa. builders need large quantities of Figure 6-5 6-5 . Figure 6-5 shows training and other similar activities. these beverages can possibly injury. and most fruit juices. and diarrhea. as do regular soda pops use to replace the fluid lost as sweat.

nonathletic people.5 grams per kilogram of body weight eaten and adequate amounts of water per day). ready to eat” (MRE) caloric intake comes from protein. Most people meet this level of water or other non-alcoholic bever- when about 15 percent of their daily ages. who have a are consumed. They must also drink plenty weight.0 to ration when all of its components are 1. protein are to build and repair body tissue and to form enzymes. can enriched and fortified with vitamins easily meet their protein requirement and minerals. fat. Because the foods are high proportion of lean body mass. vitamins. Soldiers to 20 percent of its calories provided must eat all the components in order to by protein. Recent research suggests get the daily military recommended that weight trainers may need no more dietary allowances (MRDA) and have protein per kilogram of body weight an adequate diet in the field. The body part of each MRE item. Protein is Nutrition in the Field believed to contribute little. Soldiers than average. The primary functions of the body. Weight lifters. It is a nutritionally adequate somewhat higher (for example. The recommended Soldiers in the field must eat enough dietary allowance of protein for adults food to provide them with the energy is 0. 1. hydrates. protein. if any.8 grams per kilogram of body they need. Most who are in weight control programs or Americans routinely consume these who are trying to lose weight can eat levels of protein. and ing. to the total energy requirement of heavy- resistance exercises. each component is a with a well-balanced diet which has 15 major source of nutrients.protein to promote better muscle of caloric needs to fat and stores it in growth. supplies the needed amount of carbo- During periods of intense aerobic train. one’s need for protein might be minerals. The “meal. or more. 6-6 . as recom- converts protein consumed in excess mended by dietitians.

time is monitored with a stopwatch. or any same. flexibility. It also describes grass drills and guerilla exercises which are closely Free Circuit related to soldiering skills and should be regularly included in the unit’s In a free circuit. complete a circuit. In a fixed circuit. Progress apply them to a wide variety of train. strength. number of stations. a broad range of physical and motor fitness areas. number of 7-1 . circuits can be organized to exercise all the fitness components in a short pe. repetitions. doing a fixed number the principles of circuit training may of repetitions at each station. and any Several variables in circuit training number of soldiers can exercise for must be considered. it can provide both fun and a challenge to VARIABLES IN CIRCUIT TRAINING soldiers’ physical and mental abilities. Almost any area can be used. a specific length Circuits are designed to provide ex. Soldiers work at manders with a good understanding of their own pace. There are three basic ways to increase ance. is measured by the time needed to ing situations and environments. • Increase the time per station along riod of time. are performed. the quality and number of the A circuit is a group of A circuit is a group of stations or repetitions done should be monitored. rangement of the stations is deter. and no Circuit training is a term associated signal is given to move from one with specific training routines. make circuit training an excellent • Increase the number of times sol- addition to a unit’s total physical fit. soldiers’ common tasks. diers go through the circuit. This chapter gives commanders and TYPES OF CIRCUITS trainers guidance in designing and using exercise circuits. but increase the number of combination of these. In addition. Com. time. and Each has distinct advantages. strength. These include the various lengths of time. coordination. ness program. Circuits can also circuit: be designed to concentrate on sports • Keep the time for completion the skills. It describes The two basic types of circuits are calisthenic exercises for developing the free circuit and the fixed circuit. The ercise to groups of soldiers at intensi. These include CR endur. endurance. and speed. A little imagination can with the number of repetitions. there is no set time physical fitness program. ties which suit each person’s fitness and soldiers rotate through the stations level. for staying at each station. the intensity or difficulty of a fixed flexibility. station to the next. areas where specific tasks or exercises Aside from this. of time is set for each station. Circuits can promote fitness in on command. muscular endurance. the free circuit re- stations or areas where quires little supervision. At the same time. The task or exercise specific tasks or selected for each station and the ar- exercises are performed. Fixed Circuit mined by the objective of the circuit. Because soldiers may do incomplete or fewer repeti- Circuits tions than called for to reduce this time.

Further. On the other hand. number of times the circuit is circuit may have ten stations. A alternated with less difficult ones. Completed may be the top priority. circuits to circuit. a soldiers. The exercise time at each station may be reduced to One of the first things to consider is 20 seconds the second and third time how long it should take to complete the through. the soldiers pects of circuit development. When a fixed circuit is run. number of circuit several times. The designer must no soldier stand around waiting for diers need to concentrate. Having enough equipment ample. should be divided into 10 groups of four each. For example. The whole workout takes less circuit. Each station must then be Determine Objectives equipped to handle four soldiers. and poor results. It is vital in a free circuit that components of fitness on which sol. Difficult exercises can be influence the number of stations. On the other hand. As soldiers become the same to avoid confusion and help better conditioned. increasing muscular strength may be the primary objective. circuit geared for a limited objective After the warm-up. allow from five option is to have four rotations of the to seven minutes both before and after circuit.time. number of stations. while parts of the body and reduces bottlenecks. Another to the next. Soldiers completed. respectively. The designer must first identify the training objec- To achieve the desired training effect. may run through the circuit three These are discussed below. developing lower-body a circuit at any station and still achieve strength) needs as few as six to eight the objective by completing the full stations. and sequence of stations. slowdowns. For ex. consider the specific equipment. soldiers can start (for example. and taking 15 seconds to Time move between stations. running a circuit for warming up and cooling down. exercise periods maintain control. For example. Consider also the may be increased to 30 seconds or time it takes to move from one station longer for all three rotations. exercising for 30 seconds at each station. in this instance a rope jump. fitness on which soldiers Number of Times a Circuit is proving cardiorespiratory endurance need to concentrate. The designer of a circuit must Number of Soldiers consider many factors. 7-2 . the than 45 minutes including warm-up time at each station should always be and cool-down. Sequence of Stations Number of Stations Stations should be arranged in a se- quence that allows soldiers some re- The objective of the circuit and covery time after exercising at strenu- time and equipment available strongly ous stations. times. The six steps below cover the most important as- If there are 10 stations and 40 soldiers to be trained. tive in order to choose the appropriate soldiers may have to repeat the same exercises. muscular endurance work may be the components of secondary. im. The designer must consider the ing station must have at least four jump specific parts of the body and the ropes. develop both strength and CR fitness DESIGNING A CIRCUIT may have as many as 20 stations.

sium. he may do designer decide which exercises to use. joint(s).) Prepare a Sketch Arrange the Stations The designer should draw a simple sketch that shows the location of each A circuit usually has 8 to 12 stations. stations. Select the Activities a chance to recover before it is used in another exercise. Then he should The choice of exercises depends on the look at each item on the list and ask the objectives of the circuit. The the pushing motion of a bench press necessary equipment is placed at each with the pulling motion of the seated station. this in several ways. soldiers can alter- the exercises or activities that can help nate hard exercises with easier ones. for strength training. grass 20 to 40 seconds between stations. available. spreading the Imagination and field expediency are stations too far apart may cause prob- important elements in developing cir. cuits. However. If some exercises are The circuit designer should list all harder than others. The sketch but it may have as many as 20. they may run laps or run this chapter. row. lems with control and supervision. conditioning drills. instructions for the training circuit. tween upper and lower body exercises. following questions: ● Will equipment be needed? Is it Select the Training Sites available? ● Will supervision be needed? Is it Circuits may be conducted out- available? doors or indoors. the same muscle group should not be exercised at con. he should not between spread-out stations if space is limit the circuit to only these activities. meet the objectives. Lay Out the Stations secutive stations. and guerrilla drills described in Outdoors. (See Figures 7-1 through 7-3. For example. Soldiers should work at each By not exercising the same muscle station 45 seconds and have 15 seconds group twice in a row. in a circuit tion. Another Figures 7-1. the number of the designer must decide how to ar. However. drills. In the gymna- He can choose from the exercises. different types of conditioning cir- of the circuit. each muscle has to rotate to the next station. The final step is to lay out the ing” exercises with “pulling” exercises stations which should be numbered which involve movement at the same and clearly marked by signs or cards. If the designer wants ● Are there safety factors to consider? to include running or jogging a certain Answering these questions helps the distance between stations. One approach is to alternate “push. soldiers may run five laps or for calisthenics. and all other useful informa- range them. cuits that hold the interest of soldiers. and 7-3 show depends on the objectives approach might be to alternate be. in a strength In some cases. This could be followed by the pushing motion of the overhead press Sample Conditioning Circuits The choice of exercises which could be followed by the pulling for circuit training motion of the lat pull-down. of time at each station. For example. station in the training area. 7-2. After should include the activity and length deciding how many stations to include. exercisers may follow stations are written on the signs. 7-3 .

Figure 7-1 7-4 .

Figure 7-2 7-5 .

Figure 7-3 7-6 .

have been modified and re. Also. exerciser. exercises that combine rotation and fications should be strictly adhered to. When exercises for unconditioned soldiers doing exercises at a moderate cadence. a conditioned Ranger company Please note that exercises such as the may use multiple sets of flutter’ kicks bend and reach. and strength. exercises are using correct form and intensity. The key to doing calisthenic exer- 20 because of their potential risk to the cises safely is to use common sense. who is of sound body. a cer- Finally. flexor muscles. will derive or dangerous. should be used. Using such spect to the actions and cadence. not conditioning each of their soldier’s physical limita. These exer- directions written below will produce cises are beneficial when the soldier is satisfactory results with a minimum fit and he does them in a regular. horizontal ladder. Therefore. build up to these exercises. progressive manner. bending of the spine increase the risk Few exercises are inherently unsafe. and di. Although calisthenics have some Also. problems resulting from rope climb- cises. for the vanced exercises highly fit soldiers can average soldier. to have recruits do multiple sets of can effectively be used in the condi. However. without sup- down periods. calisthenic exercises are really unsafe dinated soldiers. few coordination. Calisthenics cadence. some of the calisthenics tain level of muscular strength is listed below may be done in cadence. on the other hand. of back injury and should be avoided. risk of injury. wheelbarrow. 7-7 . and strength. All modi. hand. squat bender. following the and crab-walk exercises. While injury is always possible in used to help develop nation. any vigorous physical activity. lunger. calisthenics such as the do. use 50 counts per minute unless otherwise directed. Poorly-coor. soldiers with low fitness levels. Exercises such as the port. and side-straddle hop can an excellent way to condition the hip best be used in the warm-up and cool. soldiers should progressively train to rections are provided below with re. and lower back increases. lunger. These calisthenics are noted. for the average soldier ing. If may find certain exercises less safe this type of action is performed. ballistic (that is. flutter kicks because they probably are tioning period to develop muscular en. with the lower back bend and reach. sit-up. Calisthenics can be used to exercise most of the major muscle groups of the SAFETY FACTORS Calisthenics can be body. CR and muscular endurance. some people. however. It is not sensible chin-up/pull-up. increases the risk of injury and acci- use 80 counts per minute. needed to do them safely. Nonetheless. the possibility of straining the push-up. properly supported. CR and flexibility. tions and use good judgment before Some soldiers complain of shoulder letting a soldier perform these exer. flutter kicks are knee bender. shouId not do the ad- when exercising to music. with good results. had a previous injury to the back. not conditioned for them. However. On the other durance or muscular strength. The keys to avoiding muscular encurance. Leaders must consider stretching exercises. With a slow dent. the greatest benefit from many of these injury while gaining training benefits flexibility. For example. value when included in a CR circuit or such as trainees. They can help develop coordi. quick-moving) introduced in this edition. because of This is especially true if someone has predisposing conditions or injuries. and leg spreader. However. drills done to cadence. parallel bar dip. which were once deleted from FM 21. slow than others.

Such a program has variety. For ing movements. Use minimize stress and permit recovery. if the Monday-Wednesday. only slow. controlled movements ner-resisted exercises followed by a with little or no extra weight. ety of methods they may use to attain develops all the fitness components. ing for warming up. too soon invite problems. However. slow run. the next week should have muscle endurance and strength development on M-W-F and training for CR endurance on T. calisthenics and stretching. Progression and Recovery Key Points for Safety Other important principles for avoid. calisthenic exercises. Doing safe exercises correctly im- ing injury are progression and recov. their physical training goals. The and follows the seven principles of unit’s Master Fitness Trainer is schooled exercise while. example. static (slow and sustained) stretch- The best technique is to train alter. avoided. Leaders must be aware of the vari- Th. The day The following are key points for en- after a “hard” training day. they should • Stretch slowly and without pain and work them at a reduced intensity to unnatural stress to a joint. if soldiers suring safety during stretching and are working the same muscle groups calisthenic exercises: and/or fitness components. if done. CALISTHENIC EXERCISES cises in their program and teach their soldiers to train using good form to The following are some common help avoid injuries. proves a soldier’s fitness with a mini- ery. To ensure balance and regularity in the program. 7-8 . If the • A combination of spinal rotation Tuesday-Thursday (T-Th) objective and bending should generally be is muscular endurance and strength. not to conduct “gut checks. • Do not allow the angle formed by Friday (M-W-F) training objective is the upper and lower legs to become CR fitness. cooling down. effective training meth- minimizes injuries caused by overuse. use soldiers can benefit from doing part. at the same time. get a positive training effect. Programs that try to do too much mum risk of injury. soldiers can do ability less than 90 degrees when the legs group running at THR with some light are bearing weight.” They should know how to correctly do all the exer. it to provide safe. nate muscle groups and/or fitness ballistic (bouncy or jerky) stretch- components on different days. ods and answer questions about train- Leaders should plan PT sessions to ing techniques.

7-9 .

7-10 .

7-11 .

7-12 .

7-13 .

7-14 .

7-15 .

7-16 .

time. they should choose and position. endurance training fit soldiers. Using timed sets. when properly done. both the well- Conditioning drills are conditioned and less-fit soldiers can intended to supplement isthenic conditioning drills for both muscular strength and the poorly conditioned and physically work themselves to their limits. Soldiers do each exercise progressively from 15 should respond to commands as fast as to 40 or more repetitions (20 to 60 sec. The drills are designed to The following conditioning drills sessions. They may also repetitions of each exercise until the do each exercise in cadence unless next command is given. For timed counted. Leaders can mix the exercises to Grass Drills provide greater intensity. that feature rapid changes in body However. They continue to do multiple level of conditioning. Soldiers should all the major muscle groups. soldiers do as many repetitions of calisthenic exercises as part of their PT an exercise as possible in the allowed sessions. These are vigorous drills sequence them to alternate the muscle which. No cadence is timed sets are specified. Figure 7-4 shows three cal. exercise groups being worked. based on the Grass drills are exercise movements fitness level of the soldiers being trained. possible and do all movements at top onds for timed sets) based on their speed. CONDITIONING DRILLS Some large units prefer to use sets of sets. 7-17 . endurance training sessions. be done progressively and are intended (Figure 7-4) are arranged according to to supplement muscular strength and the phase of training.

The endurance and strength. rapid changes in can develop additional drills locally. help develop muscular gauge the intensity of the session. and speed up commands for grass drills are given in reaction time. The soldiers should do a warm-up with the drill. To prevent for short periods (30 to 45 seconds per confusion. The two drills described to distinguish them from comments or movements that feature here each have four exercises. Figure 7-4 Performing grass drills can improve does all the activities so that he can CR endurance. Since these drills are rapid succession without the usual extremely strenuous. they should last preparatory commands. Leaders words of encouragement. cool-down afterward. commands are given sharply Grass drills are exercise exercise). they do all the exercises before performing the drills and do a as vigorously and rapidly as possible. The instructor and they do each exercise until the 7-18 . As soon as the soldiers are familiar body position.

Anything less ● GO This involves running in place than a top-speed performance de. The circle formation is more is across his left thigh. Other basic commands are FRONT. soldiers assume rectly under the shoulders as in the down afterward. at top speed on the balls of the feet. soldiers do not pumps his arms. ) and lowers his body to the ground. He places both hands on the diers to a position of ATTENTION.) tention is described in FM 22-5. The second drill is BACK position (Figure 7-5). ● ATTENTION: The position of at (See Figure 7-5. and STOP. right or left. His knuckles are on the groups. (See Figure 7-5 for his feet are opposite his hands. they may be used the head toward the instructor. His legs are straight and to running. (See fitness of the soldiers improves. with these commands. as dier does the following: soldiers progress in the first drill.or company-sized spread and staggered. he the time devoted to the positions and actions associated thrusts his legs vigorously to the rear the drills. His left arm unit. when only a few minutes are available BACK: The soldier lies flat on his for exercise or when combined with back with his arms extended along another activity. a relaxed. quickly. standing position. his feet face the instructor.or section-sized is straight. his right arm suitable for squad. The instructor uses the command ● FRONT The soldier lies prone performing grass “Up” to halt the drill for instructions or with elbows bent and palms di- drills and do a cool. next command is given. the sol- harder than the first. creases the effectiveness of the drills. position from the standing GO or sion is made by a gradual increase in STOP 15-minute To assume the FRONT or BACK workout may be appropriate. Drill and Ceremonies. Sometimes. At this command. STARTING POSITIONS To change from the BACK to the FRONT position. combine the two drills. ground to the right or left of his legs. his head is up. ● STOP The soldier assumes the stance The extended-rectangular formation is of a football lineman with feet best for a platoon. is roughly parallel to the ground. cise program. Therefore. on the side opposite his hands. slightly at the waist.) times should be gradually lengthened To change from the FRONT to the to 20 minutes. ● Thrusts his legs vigorously to the front. and his back When soldiers are starting an exer. and bends forward Soldiers should do a have to resume the position of atten. bring the sol. the soldier changes the time devoted to the drills. the Figure 7-5. ground. For example. gether. a 10. The Grass drills can be done in a short legs are straight and together with time. - warm -up before tion. 7-19 . the ● Takes several short steps to the instructor should introduce the second. if time is his sides and his palms facing down limited. The soldier raises his knees high. down position of the push up. the soldier sits up After the warm-up. When gradual increase in BACK. Once the drills start. they are a good substitute for ward. As the positions vigorously and rapidly. he can repeat the exercises or which his feet move. Progres. Most movements are done in place. If he sees that the drill needs to be Lifts his arm on the side toward longer. rest. Progression with grass The drills begin with the command He takes several short steps to the rear drills is made by a GO.

Figure 7-5 7-20 .

one. Roll Left and Right Stationary Run From the FRONT position.” The instructor then gives infor- mal commands such as the following: Exercises for grass drill two are “Follow me. given. return to the FRONT Follow the instructor as he counts two position. arms take turns. and inter. Then. move the left arm and right leg up and down. From the position of ATTENTION. At the them back together. raise the hips and knees.” “Increase 7-6. simultaneous. six inches off the ground. GRASS DRILL ONE The Swimmer Exercises for grass drill one are From the FRONT position. extend described below and shown in the arms forward. do half-knee bends with the feet in From the STOP position. Move the right arm Figure 7-6. con. “One. Place the palms legs until the heels are no higher than directly on top of the head. tucked while rolling. Supine Bicycle Leg Spreader From the BACK position. place both line and the hands at the sides. lean 7-21 . GRASS DRILL TWO four. push up Bounce and Clap Hands and support the body on the hands (shoulder-width apart) and feet. sure the knees do not bend to an angle and roll forward. From the FRONT position. the knees straight. and left leg up and down.” “Run on the toes and balls described below and shown in Figure of your feet. up may be substituted for this exercise. three. Bounce up and However. hands. Keep the head off same time. curl the trunk and head the ground. start running in place at the GO manded until another command is command by lifting the left foot first. Spread the lace the fingers. to a sprint. hips. This action requires a more upward springs from the hands. Keep the head less than 90 degrees. while in the air. The curl-up may be substituted for this exercise. tuck the head. Open these movements as opposite legs and and close the legs as fast as possible. four. three. place the upward while touching the opposite hands under the upper part of the but- elbow to the elevated knee. then put leg upward toward the chest. Repeat tocks. Make hands on the ground.” “Speed it up. two. and slightly bend the knees to with the other leg and elbow. flex the From the BACK position. Bring the knee of one legs apart as far as possible. Keep The procedure is almost the same as the back and legs generally in line and for the bouncing ball in grass drill one. Throughout. Bouncing Ball Continue in an alternating manner. vigorous bounce or spring. Knee Bender Forward Roll From the position of ATTENTION. Continue ease pressure on the lower back. two. repetitions of cadence. For example. then. tinue to roll in the direction com. raise your knees high. The push- and feet. clap the down in a series of short.

one. four. two.” and “Slow it down. To halt the exercise.” two. and pump your the left foot strikes the ground: “One. three. arms vigorously.” counts two repetitions of cadence as Figure 7-6 7-22 .forward at your waist. the instructor HALT. three.

and the by doing all the The group moves in circle forma. tion while doing the exercises. CR endur. how vigorously it is done. EXERCISE AND PROGRESSION ance. After the circle is formed. A warm-up For the double guerrilla exercises (in activity should precede these exer. If the The command “Quick time.” exercises a second time. Guerrilla exercises. ends each exercise. time marching periods cise should be continued for 20 to 40 The preparatory command is always between exercises and seconds. and a cool-down should follow diers. These quick-time marching periods between drills require soldiers to change their exercises and by doing all exercises a positions quickly and do various basic second time. combine Soldiers progress by shortening the individual and partner exercises. which can be used to improve agility. Figures load that improves fitness. muscular endurance. the commands for pairing are as them. However. Many soldiers have not had a chance The instructor decides the duration to do the simple skills involved in Soldiers progress with for each exercise by observing its guerrilla exercises. Depending on do these exercises easily and quickly in shortening the quick. almost any situation. circle formation) involving two sol- cises. the name of the exercise. This produces an over- skills while moving forward. command of execution is always “March. each exer. the follows: Figure 7-7 7-23 . and to some degree muscular strength. Guerilla Exercises instructor steps into the center and issues commands. 7-7 and 7-8 show these exercises. tric circles may be used. they can guerilla exercises by effect on the soldiers. concen. march” platoon exceeds 30 soldiers.

and move the feet toward the Hold one foot behind the back with hands in short steps while keeping the the opposite hand and hop forward. leaning-rest position. feet first.” taining the circle formation.) front of the body. to keep the arms parallel to the ground the instructor halts the soldiers and throughout the entire exercise. knees locked. and hop forward.” He then com- mands “Fall out and fall in on the base Do a double-time run while main- man (or platoon guide). bring the left knee upward to ● “You are now paired up for double the left elbow. series of broad jumps. supporting the body Straddle Run on the hands and feet.” grasp the close to the hands as possible. positions the base soldier or platoon guide by commanding. Two-Man Carry Crab Walk For two-man carries. the right foot.” (For example: 1. two soldier work as partners. count off. Bottoms-Up Walk Hobble Hopping Take the front-leaning rest posi- tion. Swing the arms vigorously to help with the jumps. positions. soldiers are Assume a sitting position with the designated as number one (odd-num- hips off the ground and hands and feet bered) and number two (even-num- supporting the body’s weight.” The command “Change” position. by twos. Stand with the arms straight and in 2. Continuing to walk forward. When the feet are as On the command “Change. with the left foot and to the left with nated way. Recover to the start position.● “Platoon halt. Jump forward on both feet in a ercises follow. post. is given to change the soldiers’ touch the right knee to the right elbow. walk opposite foot with the opposite hand forward on the hands to the front. Be sure After the exercises are completed. 1-2. Walk bered). “Base man (or Double Time platoon guide). 7-24 . Broad Jump EXERCISE DESCRIPTIONS Brief explanations of guerrilla ex. Return to the start guerrillas. Advance forward as fast as possible by moving Run forward. The arms should be ● “Even numbers. All-Fours Run Face downward. leaping to the right the arms and legs forward in a coordi. A number-one and number- forward.” (Pairs are adjusted facing downward. 1-2. While walking according to height and weight.” The Engine ● “From (soldier is designated). move up behind parallel to the ground with the palms odd numbers.) forward.

On command. The positions. On command. bends at the waist and knees with his mand. When in position. number-one soldier moves mand. being careful and back. On com. two soldier. Number-one soldier moves soldier. not to grab his partner’s neck or head. They then change over. On com. number-two soldier bends at toward his partner’s left side and leans the waist. number-two soldier bends over at the waist. They then change positions. reaches He then stands up straight. As number-one over. Fireman’s Carry slightly to the left with feet spread apart in a balanced position. upper chest. holding his between his partner’s legs and grasps partner on his back. num- stance. number-two soldier arms around the back of his partner’s grasps his partner’s legs to help support knees and stands up. He twists 7-25 . same time. He places himself around his partner’s legs. Number-one soldier places his they move forward until the command arms over his partner’s shoulders and for changeover. for changeover. Number-two soldier puts his soldier climbs on. number-two soldier Two soldiers do the carry. number-two soldier bends at the hand on his knees and his head up. number. he reaches around his partner’s himself over his partner’s shoulders back with his right arm. shoulders. Number two stance. He ner. reaches toward his partner. his left wrist. They then change crosses his hands over his partner’s positions. with his left arm. number-one ber-one soldier moves behind his part- soldier moves toward his partner. and climbs carefully onto ner’s right or left shoulder and leans his partner’s hips. To waist with feet apart in a balanced assume the piggyback position. At the Two soldiers do the carry. fireman’s carry can also be done from the other side. with feet apart in a balanced over his partner’s back. At the same time. On command. they move they move forward until the command forward until the command for change. Saddle-Back (Piggyback) Carry Single-Shoulder Carry On command. They move forward until Cross Carry the command for changeover is given. him. At the same by his partner’s left shoulder and bends time. places his hands on his partner’s places his abdominal area onto his part. On command. They then change positions. with his left hand.

Figure 7-8 7-26 .

cilities. are not run against time. but stacles. at a mini- and aquatic exercises. This prepares them for the Running the course can be a test of the physically demanding tasks ahead and soldier’s basic motor skills and physical helps minimize the chance of injury. This chapter describes obstacle When planning and building such fa- courses as well as rifle drills. they OBSTACLES should post an instruction board or sign with text and pictures showing Commanders may build obstacles how to negotiate it. making good use tioning course. log drills. Landing pits for and courses that are nonstandard (that jumps or vaults. to go through it. with loose sand or sawdust. as it helps the body run the course against time. ability to perform skills like those There are two types of required on the obstacle course. protruding nails. and dence in their mental and physical other natural obstacles. must do warm-up exercises before stacles that must be negotiated quickly. rocks. A cool-down after the obstacle course struction and practice the skills. approval in the permanent records. cal training. confidence courses hazards. recover from strenuous exercise. ● Monitor and analyze all injuries. they is also necessary. For this reason. not forced. make split-second decisions. designers should. NONSTANDARD COURSES AND at the approach to each obstacle. and because they help SAFETY PRECAUTIONS obstacle courses- develop and test basic motor skills. should be filled t h e i r u n i t ' s M E T L . and demonstrate lead. Commanders should use ingenuity more difficult obstacles than a condi. Soldiers The conditioning course has low ob. hills. and abilities. ance: nents of physical fitness. through obstacle courses. Commanders ● Secure approval from the local in- should use them to add variety to their stallation's commander. It gives soldiers confi. All 8-1 . of streams. After soldiers receive in. These are not mum. Unlike unsafe landing pits. and areas under or is. and related skills o f e a c h o b s t a c l e . sessment to support construction agility. rotten logs. Physical performance and success in ● Review each obstacle to determine combat may depend on a soldier’s the need for renewing its approval. condition. Soldiers are encouraged. PT programs and to help soldiers de. safety office. not covered in this manual) in order around obstacles where soldiers may to create training situations based on fall from a height. A confidence course has higher. They must abilities and cultivates their spirit of inspect courses for badly built ob- daring. They must take every precau- There are two types of obstacle tion to minimize injuries as soldiers go courses--conditioning and confidence. There are steps which designers can take to reduce injuries. ● Inspect all existing safety precau- Obstacle Courses tions on-site to verify their effec- tiveness. Keep a copy of the learn teamwork. Many of these activities ● Coordinate approval for each ob- also give soldiers the chance to plan stacle with the local or supporting strategy. conditioning and obstacle courses are valuable for physi. For example. safety. consider the following guid- designed to develop specific compo. they begin. trees. Instructors must always be alert to confidence. ● Prepare a safety and health-risk as- velop motor fitness including speed. and other safety conditioning courses. coordination. in building courses. ership.

congestion is avoided and Instructors must explain and dem. Sol. trenches to jump into. Sharp refilled before each use. lowed to use the confidence course. each wave of soldiers is obstacles. If only one watch is available. thus encouraging competi- fidence course. soldiers can spread out on the course. These obstacles are ditches to clear other. they should supervised. Soldiers falls from the high obstacles could should practice each obstacle until they cause serious injury. If several watches to run them. closely Instructors must explain the course against time. The best way for the timer to time correct ways to structor watches and makes needed the runners is to stand at the finish and negotiate all obstacles corrections. Soldiers may run the A course usually ranges from 300 to course with or without individual 450 yards and has 15 to 25 obstacles equipment. and landing pits for jumps or sense of security. and adequately instructed. Soldiers should never be call out the minutes and seconds as before allowing soldiers allowed to run the course against time each soldier finishes. onstrate the correct ways to negotiate To minimize the possibility of falls all obstacles before allowing soldiers to and injuries due to fatigue. obstacles easier than those that follow.) 8-2 . Sometimes. The obstacles must be solidly built. Puddles of points and corners should be elimi- water under obstacles can cause a false nated. heights to jump from.landing areas should be raked and wide are ideal for most of them. The em. the waves are started at CONDITIONING OBSTACLE COURSES regular intervals such as every 30 seconds. Leaders should postpone marked so that soldiers cannot sidestep training on obstacle courses when wet obstacles or detour around them. Soldiers must be are able to negotiate it. or hurdles. weather makes them slippery. These could result in vaults must be filled with sand or saw- improper landing techniques and seri. signs should be placed to stopwatches. a previously determined be shaped like a horseshoe or figure penalty is imposed. dust. If a soldier fails to negotiate If possible. The lanes for the first few practiced the basic skills or run the obstacles should be wider and the conditioning course should not be al. with one leap. more dangerous obstacles. timed separately. an obstacle course should an obstacle. Assistant instructors should two or three obstacles should not be supervise the negotiation of higher. courses can pro- Units should prepare their soldiers vide alternate obstacles that vary in to negotiate obstacle courses by doing difficulty. and a unit roster show the route. until they have practiced on all the are available. Soldiers who have not tion. The obstacles are arranged so that those Obstacles for Jumping which exercise the same groups of muscles are separated from one an. Also. are needed. start. too difficult or involve high climbing. Courses should be built and ous injuries. and demonstrate the make several slow runs while the in. Each course should be wide enough diers should attain an adequate level of for six to eight soldiers to use at the conditioning before they run the con. pens. Trainers must always be aware that phasis is on avoiding injury. the last run them. however. that are 20 to 30 yards apart. conditioning exercises beforehand. (See Peeled logs that are six to eight inches Figure 8-l. In this way. same time. Before they run in proper physical condition. eight so that the finish is close to the When the course is run against time.

Figure 8-1 Figure 8-2 8 . Obstacles for Dodging between the posts are narrow so that soldiers must pick their way carefully These obstacles are usually mazes of through and around them.) The spaces and changing direction. Lane guides posts set in the ground at irregular are built to guide soldiers in dodging intervals.3 . (See Figure 8-2.

● Walls 7 or 8 feet high.Obstacles for Vertical Climbing and Obstacles for Horizontal Traversing Surmounting Horizontal obstacles may be ropes.) 8-3 and include the following: ● Climbing ropes that are 1 1/2 inches wide and either straight or knotted. or beams. (See Figure 8-4. Figure 8-3 Figure 8-4 8-4 . ● Cargo nets. ● Vertical poles 15 feet high and 6 to 8 inches wide. These obstacles are shown at Figure pipes.

) Figure 8-5 Figure 8-6 8-5 . low rails. (See Figure 8-6.) and low walls. 3 1/2 feet high. Obstacles for Crawling Obstacles for Vaulting These obstacles may be built of These obstacles should be 3 to large pipe sections. or wire. Examples are fences (See Figure 8-5.

logs. In ing at most Army installations. Each platoon the Directorate of Facilities Engineer. Soldiers do not ne. more than one. These may span water obstacles and dry ditches. and some are Soldiers may skip any obstacle they high. one at each You can obtain this publication from group of six obstacles. Soldiers are separated into muscular strength. Soldiers progress through the encourage fearful soldiers to try the course without individual equipment. or they may be raised off the ground to simulate natural de- pressions. modate four platoons. Gradually. the example below. and planks may be used. begins at a different starting point. groups of 8 to 12 at each obstacle.) Figure 8-7 CONFIDENCE OBSTACLE COURSES Confidence obstacle courses must obstacle unless it is designed for use by be built in accordance with Folio No. 1. safety nets are pro. they can 8-6 .” Corps of En. as Only one soldier at a time negotiates an their confidence improves. Any similar method confidence and strength by using ob. The obstacles vary from the course. fairly easy to difficult. Obstacles for Balancing Beams. “Training Facilities. they proceed through against time. colors are used to Confidence courses can develop group the obstacles. Confidence courses should accom- gineers Drawing Number 28-13-95. easier obstacles first. Instructors should vided. For these. At gotiate these obstacles at high speed or the starting signal. (See Figure 8-7. may be used to spread a group over the stacles that train and test balance and course. are unwilling to try.

Soldiers vault. Soldiers move from one end should help those who have problems. jump. or climb over the log. but there is a uniformity in the general Island Hopper. and so forth. safety and prevent injuries. they should not roll or rock the Soldiers who have not run the course log while others are negotiating it. but warned that it is not stationary. Soldiers step over each bar.take their places in the normal rotation. Red Group Soldiers proceed from one obstacle to the next until time is called. of the obstacle to the other by weav- Trainers and soldiers should not try to ing their bodies under one bar and make obstacles more difficult by shak. They must be Supervisors should encourage. Soldiers jump from approach. Soldiers step up on a Soldiers need not conform to any log and walk or run along it while one method of negotiating obstacles. Rules for the Course Belly Buster. one log to another until the obstacle is gotiate obstacles are described below. negotiated. These are described below and numbered 1 through 6 in Figure 8-8. Recommended ways to ne. over the next. stacles. They then assemble and move to the next group of This group contains the first six ob- obstacles. verse incline and go down the other planation and demonstration of the side to the ground. including an ex. Hip-Hip. Reverse Climb. Figure 8-8 8-7 . rolling logs. Soldiers climb the re- tion at each obstacle. There- not force. soldiers to try every obstacle. ing ropes. Instructors Weaver. fore. Balancing Logs. before should receive a brief orienta. keeping their balance. best way to negotiate it. Close supervision and common sense they either alternate legs or use the must be constantly used to enhance same lead leg each time.

Soldiers leave the rope at log until they reach the horizontal lad- a clearly marked point of release. They hold the end of the obstacle. keeping the belly area in This group contains the second six contact with it. distant rung each time. This ob. Low Belly-Over. then each higher is slippery. Soldiers climb dency to push the crawling surface. Tarzan. To reduce the ten- Inverted Rope Descent. inclined log and down the one on the diers must be warned that they may get other side to the ground. 8-9. They grasp two rungs of the Only one soldier at a time is allowed on ladder and swing themselves into the the rope. time to time. grasping a more platform and the other at the base. end of the obstacle. Belly Crawl. der. Sol. rope burns on their hands. Soldiers move forward Tough Nut. Soldiers walk up one legs. They negotiate the length of the bounce the ropes. White Group They grasp over the top of the log with both arms. Soldiers should not shake or air. Figure 8-9 8-8 . and is filled with sand or sawdust to the far swing their legs upward. The direction of rope with their legs to distribute the negotiating the crawl is reversed from weight between their legs and arms. Soldiers step over each X under the wire on their bellies to the in the lane. grasp the rope firmly. Soldiers mount the low log and jump onto the high log. Braking the slide with their feet and Easy Balancer. They swing their legs obstacles. stacle can be dangerous when the rope walk the length of it. it the tower. This obstacle re. Soldiers mount the lowest log. they proceed down the rope. These are described below over the log and lower themselves to and numbered 7 through 12 in Figure the ground. ladder by releasing one hand at a time quires two instructors--one on the and swinging forward.

Soldiers walk up the wire on their backs while raising the wall using the rope. and swing their bodies forward High Step-over. The direction of negotiating This group contains the third six the obstacle is alternated. Soldiers gain and numbered 13 through 18 in Figure momentum with a short run. obstacles. These are described below Swing. Soldiers climb over the swing Six Vaults. To reduce the tendency to push hand-over-hand to the rope on the op- the crawling surface. They use the rope to de- sand or sawdust to the far end of the scend. grasp the 8-10. using one or both hands. Low Wire. Swinger. and Jump. it is filled with posite end. Soldiers move under the Wall Hanger. From the top of wire with their hands to clear their the wall. Soldiers vault over the logs log to the ground on the opposite side. Figure 8-10 8-9 . jump to the ground. rope. they grasp the bar and go bodies. Soldiers step over to the top of the wall. Blue Group obstacle. Stop. They release the each log while alternating their lead rope while standing on the wall and foot or using the same one.

inclined ladder to the vertical ladder. underside of the wall. These are described below and Confidence Climb. ground individually or help one an. and pull themselves up lower log and take a prone position on and over. They slide or jump down the the horizontal logs. Soldiers climb the numbered 19 through 24 in Figure 8. A floor must not be. climb the bumped off. They descend to the falling. Soldiers step on the grasp the top. Soldiers climb the other down. The top level or roof is rope or pole on the lowest end of the off limits. they go to the top of the vertical ladder. jump up and Belly Robber. Rope gaskets must be tied to the first floor and either climb the the ends of each log to keep the hands corner posts or help one another to the from being pinched and the logs from higher floors. the logs to the opposite end of the Skyscraper. They crawl over incline to the ground. stacles. and the obstacle should not obstacle. Soldiers should not jump ladder to the high end. Soldiers jump or climb to obstacle. 11. Soldiers climb the ladder to the platform and jump to the This group contains the last six ob. Inclining Wall. Soldiers approach the then down the other side to the ground. level. then climb to the ground from above the first down the cargo net to the ground. Black Group Jump and Land. The Tough One. Figure 8-11 8-10 . ground. logs at the top of the rope. They go over or between the be overloaded. They move come so crowded that soldiers are across the log walkway.

” soldiers execute port arms and assume the starting position.) In exercises that start from the rifle- downward position. They are numbered in a set pattern. The following exercises are for use and back. ever.) Figure 8-12 8-11 . Rifle Drills return soldiers to attention is “Position Rifle drills are suitable activities for of attention. Fore-Up. When the training fosters a warrior’s spirit. shoulders. This rate contin. the command to moderate cadence. it is a good conditioning activity. at a moderate cadence. (See Figure 8-12. (See Figure 8- prove. drawing weapons makes this activity These movements are done without cumbersome for garrison use.) described here. soldiers assume that position before executing most situations. move.) creases by one repetition for each three periods of exercise. 8-13. 14. Behind Back ues until soldiers can do 12 repetitions. There are four rifle-drill exercises arms are tired. in rifle drills. the number of steps and/or rifle exer. and the use of individual weapons in Effective rifle exercises are strenuous enough to tire the arms. At the This is a four-count exercise done at end of the exercise. the number of repetitions This is a four-count exercise done can be adjusted as the soldiers im. How- command and need not be precise.15. However.” In exercises that end in other than fitness training while bivouacking or during extended time in the field. With imagination. that develop the upper body. (See Figure begins with six repetitions and in. moving them with precision is difficult. In the rifle-downward position. Back Bend “Move. Fore-Up. the time consumed in port arms and order arms. This is a four-count exercise done cises can be expanded beyond those at a fast cadence. Squat EXERCISE PROGRESSION This is a four-count exercise done The rifle-drill exercise normally at a moderate cadence. Rifle drill is a fast-moving method of exercising that soldiers can do in as Up and Forward little as 15 minutes. on the command Fore-Up. (See Figure 8. The main RIFLE DRILL EXERCISES muscle groups strengthened by rifle drills are those of the arms.

Figure 8-13 Figure 8-14 Figure 8-15 8-12 .

respectively. The 14-foot logs weigh about 300 pounds. The logs should be stripped. exercises numbered in a set pattern. and teams should complete them in 15 minutes. the left hand is under the height. Soldiers continue this rate until they AREA AND EQUIPMENT do 12 repetitions with no rest between exercises. Log drills consist of six different If more than one column is used. This level is maintained un- Any level area is good for doing log til another drill is used. and arms between the legs. If the group is larger START POSITIONS than a platoon. They chest position. Keep the back straight. Right-Hand Start Position. they log. and in use.” move the show each soldier’s position. PROGRESSION quired to teach. 10 under heavy loads. All exercises are done from a standing position. smoothed. The best way to divide a platoon is to have them form a single Left-Hand Start Position. Log Drills The command is “Count off by sixes (or eights). Figure 8-16. The soldiers fall in facing their log. above the ground. tion for each three periods of exercise. Move the 18-foot logs about 400 pounds. Move file or column with short soldiers in front and tall soldiers at the rear. diers. All soldiers assigned to a log team (See 1. Ten yards should muscles to contract to the PT program. and lead the drill. the logs are stored on a rack lower the body into a flatfooted squat. cording to shoulder height. (See 2.” Each team. an instructor’s stand may be needed. and they may vary from Figure 8-16 shows the basic starting 14 to 18 feet long for six and eight sol. The teams form columns in front of for developing strength ance because they require the muscles the instructor. way as the preceding command. head up. Holding the logs in and muscular endurance. When not left foot 12 inches to the left.) should be about the same height at the shoulders. and dried. shoulders a Log drills are excellent exercises. veloping strength and muscular endur. demonstrate. They are excellent for de. The progres- exercises and techniques peculiar to log sion rate is an increase of one repeti- drills. yards should separate columns. in Log drills are team-conditioning turn.) 8-13 . The drills are intense. not head However. count off. and the right hand encircles its far are divided into teams of six or eight. When they are in position. They This command is done the same take their positions in the column ac. log. to contract under heavy loads. they face the instructor because they require the also develop teamwork and add variety and ground the log. Figure 8-16. The logs should be from six to eight with toes about four inches away. goes to the log rack. Rings should be painted on the logs to On the command “Move. and carries it to the exercise area. A principal instructor is re. Encircle the FORMATION far side of the log with the left hand. separate log teams within the columns. He must be familiar with The starting session is six repeti- leadership techniques for conditioning tions of each exercise. side. The teams have six to eight soldiers per STARTING DOSAGE AND team. drills. Place the right hand under the log. positions and commands. inches thick.

Move left foot to the rear and stand up. right-hand-start position. move the hands.) This movement cannot command “Move. Balance the log on the right This command is given from the shoulder with both hands. On the Figure 8-16.” pull the log upward be done from the left-hand-start posi- in one continuous motion to the right tion because of the position of the shoulder. Right-Shoulder Position. (See 3. facing left. At the same time. Figure 8-16 8-14 .

) Keep facing right.) Figure 8-17 8-15 .” shift the log to a position high the left shoulder in one continuous on the chest. log. and stand up the arms.” slowly lower the straight and fingers laced under the log to the ground. move the the log.) This movement cannot the left shoulder. ” pull the log upward to “Move. the waist position. The body is inclined slightly to the and fingers so they are not under the rear. Keep the arms the command “Move. and the chest is lifted and arched. the command is be done from the right-hand-start “Left-shoulder position. Waist Position. command is “Start position. the log overhead. and lower it to the opposite shoulder. On the com.” Push position. Balance the log on the left the upper arms parallel to the ground. bring the left arm under motion. (See 5. Move Chest Position. and hold the log in the bend of right foot to the rear. the From the right-hand-start position. Move To return the log to the ground from any of the above positions. move. On the command mand “Move. figure 8-17. Move This command is given from the This command is given after taking left-hand-start position.” At pull the log waist high. move. At the same time. Position the hands log. Left-Shoulder Position. To move the log from the right to Figure 8-17. shoulder with both hands. (See 4. (See 6. Figure 8-17.

at the count of -. with feet about “One’’-Bend forward at the waist shoulder-width apart. Exercise 1. tion. with The following are log-drill exer. feet about shoulder-width apart. Forward Bender Start Position: Chest position. Two-Arm Push-Up Movement A four-count exercise. cises. Figure 8-18 8-16 . at the count of -- shoulder position. while keeping the back straight ure 8-18. (See 1.) and the knees slightly bent. the elbows lock. LOG-DRILL EXERCISES Exercise 2. tion.or left. Fig. posite shoulder. Figure 8-18.) Cadence: Moderate. Cadence: Moderate. “Two’’-Recover to the start posi- Movement: A four-count exercise. “Four’’-Recover to the start posi- tion. Start Position: Right. “Four’’-Recover to the start posi- “Two’’-Lower the log to the op. ‘Three’’-Repeat the action of count “One’’-Push the log overhead until one. (See 2. “Three’’-Repeat the action of count one.

Side Bender Start Position Right.19. left knee. Figure Pull the log down with both hands to 8. sition with the feet about shoul- and fingers locked on top of the log. change shoul- ders and do an equal number to the right side. at the count of-- Movement A four-count exercise. count one. Cadence: Moderate. Figure 8-19. bending the “One’’-Jump to a side straddle. der-width apart. der. NOTE: After doing the required number of repetitions. “Four’’-Recover to the start posi.or left-shoul. tion. with feet together.) keep it from bouncing on the shoul. as far as possible. Cadence Moderate.Exercise 3. “Two’’-Recover to the start posi- tion. Start Position: Right-shoulder po- der position. (See 4. (See 3. “Four’’-Recover to the start posi- tion. Straddle Jump Exercise 4. “One’’-Bend sideward to the left at the count of-. ‘Three’’-Repeat the action of count “Three’’-Repeat the action of one. Figure 8-19 8-17 . tion. “Two’’-Recover to the start posi.) Movement: A four-count exercise.

return it to the original shoulder. both hands. The knees are at a at the count of -. Figure 8-20 8-18 . lower the body into a ward on the log throughout the exer. “Four’’-Recover to the start posi- tion. Cadence: Moderate. at the count of -- tion. cise. As the log (NOTE: Pull forward and down.) Start Position: Right-shoulder po- Cadence: Slow. overhead.or left. Half-Knee Bend Exercise 6. when caught. Overhead Toss (NOTE: Start Position: Right. the opposite shoulder. (See 6. ) “Two’’-Again. and fingers strength by doing the other exercises locked on top of the log. Introduce this exercise only after shoulder position. quarter bend. toss the log into the air and. for several sessions. Catch the log with “Four’’-Recover to the start po. Movement: A four-count exercise. and lower it toward sition. der-width part. sition with the feet about shoul- Movement: A four-count exercise.) “One’’-Flex the knees to a half. quarter bend. is caught. “Two’’-Recover to the start posi.Exercise 5. (See 5. “Three’’-Repeat the action of count one. knee bend. Figure 8-20.) Figure 8-20. “One’’-Straighten the knees and “Three’’-Repeat the action of toss the log about 12 inches count one. with feet about soldiers have gained experience and shoulder-width apart.

DURATION: 20 ● Hand paddles. Then. Not only Next. tempo of the workout. Raise the outside leg Aquatic training is a good supple. Then. Leg-Over. 8-19 . Energetic and those who are limited due to music may be used to keep up the painful joints. and continue to alternate legs. The following equip. Nonswimmers must the body away from the wall. tion. As in any PT session. Conditioning Phase Because of its very low impact to the body. the nearest hand. but they can wear boots Rear Leg Lift. seconds (10 seconds each leg). physical training sessions. Aquatic Exercise SAMPLE TRAINING PROGRAM Aquatics is a mode of physical ‘Warm-Up training which helps one attain and maintain physical fitness through ex. Leaders can tailor the of the body at arm’s length to the wall variety and intensity of the exercises to of the pool. Reach backward with the One qualified lifeguard is needed arms extended. Repeat these actions. and lower it to the starting position. and point the foot. pull the leg down to the starting is it fun. Next. It is sometimes required. sideward and upward from the hip. Repeat EQUIPMENT these actions with the other leg. CR minutes for the warm-up. back facing the wall of the pool. a warm-up is ercises in the water. Stand in chest to whole body without jarring the bones shoulder-deep water with either side and muscles. The following files. shoulder-deep water with hands on ment is optional for training: the pool’s edge. (15 seconds per leg). flexibility. Most Army installations wall. and muscular strength. Alternate these actions back and ● Fins. and perform the exercise with have swimming pools for conducting the other leg. chest to the wall. endurance. coordination. DURATION: 30 seconds aquatic. forth with each leg. The body’s buoyancy helps are some exercises that can be used in minimize injuries to the joints of the an aquatic workout.) lower legs and feet. extend it. (See Figure 8-21. Stand in chest-to and fatigues to increase the intensity of the activities. to the front-extended position. ● Pull buoy. or pro. It exercises the Side Leg-Raises. it exposes soldiers to water position. and grasp the edge with the needs of all the soldiers in the unit. Then. pull the leg back to the starting posi- ● Ear/nose plugs. weak muscles. and can make them more comfortable turn the other side of the body to the around it. and grasp the pool’s for every 40 soldiers at all aquatic edge. DURA- Soldiers normally wear swim suits TION: 30 seconds ( 15 seconds per leg). ● Goggles. Stand in chest-to shoul- SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS der-deep water. ment to a unit’s PT program. Aquatic training or on the deck. It can be done in the water called slimnastics. raise one leg in front of training sessions. Raise one leg back and up from the hip. and remain in the shallow end of the pool. for aquatics. Allow five to seven can improve muscular endurance. ● Kickboard. return the leg end with or without flotation devices. move it sideward toward the other leg They should never exercise in the deep as far as it can go. an aquatic exercise program is Soldiers should exercise vigorously ideal for soldiers who are overweight to get a training effect.

Figure 8-21 8-20 .

rotate the head toward the left foot while pushing down vigorously shoulder. Alternate Toe Touch. edge. Recover to the starting position. return forward when the left knee is high and to the starting position. Stand in chest-to TION: 2 minutes (maximum effort). gringing the heels toward the hips by 8-21 . lower the body to the against the wall of the pool. back ward and left leg backward. and grasp the The Bounce. Forward. the legs together. and grasp the pool’s DURATION: 1 minute. in chest-to shoulder-deep water. Raise the left leg as TION: 2 minutes. DURATION: 1 side. At the same water. moving the left leg DURATION 1 minute. assume a supine position. Then with Upon landing. Repeat Next. Arm Stretch. Stand in chest-deep toe with the right hand. shoulder-deep water with arms at sides Twisting Legs. in kicking while touching the elevated Bouncing. versed. and repeat the action. use a bouncing motion. and repeat the the left arm is stretched backward. reverse to DURATION: 1 minute (2 sets. jumping action. Alternate with the right foot. and together. Return to the starting posi- minute. with both hands. 30 the right arm at the side and the left seconds each). and push the left arm back. Then. tion. Brace hand crawl stroke by reaching out with the bottom hand against the pool’s wall the left hand cupped and pressing the with feet below the water’s surface. DURATION 2 min. and repeat the action. Float in chest. forward and right leg backward. Jump. extend the Side Bender. Next. DURATION: 1 the chin. Simulate the over. and assume water with the left arm at the side and a supine position. shoulder. Extend the starting position. return to the starting head. the arms backward. minutes. water downward to the the body with the top arm extended. Extend these actions. together. DURA- Rise on Toes. Jump high with feet together. Stand in waist-deep crawl stroke by pulling down and water with hands on hips and feet through the water with the hand. Repeat the action ward through the water. the right. Stand in nate left and right arm action. Stretch the right arm far feet about two feet apart. arms backward. DURATION 2 minutes. Rise up using the chest-to shoulder-deep water. With feet together. Stand jump again moving the right leg for. Repeat against the wall of the pool. With feet together. Then. slowly to the left. Stand in and feet together. Alter. Jump sideward and land with knee action. ex- water with hands on hips and feet tend the legs in front of the torso. Stretch slowly. back toes. Repeat this twisting action. Then. Walk in waist. chest-deep water. Then. twist the legs the right arm extended straight over. Supine. Supine. hand holding the pool’s edge. Re- peat the stretching action to the right Scissor Kick. Stand in waist. Stand in waist-deep legs in front of the torso. DURATION 2 TION: 2 minutes. Stand in waist-deep pool’s edge.deep water on either side of Walking Crawl. bending to the position. arms at sides. Repeat the action. DURA- leg and opposite hand. Alternate bounc- these actions back and forth with each ing on the left and right foot. Bounding in Place with Alternate Side Straddle Hop. When the position of the arm is re- utes. Bound in deep water with hands on hips and feet place in waist-deep water using high together. raise the knees to and repeat the action. assume a crouching position by the action with the right hand. DURA- waist-deep water. arm extended straight overhead. and twist the legs slowly to left. simulate the action of the Stride Hop. Poolside Knees Up. Bounce on the left time.

and push with the the left knee to the left elbow. 30 seconds each). DURATION shoulder-deep water facing the pool’s 1 to 2 minutes (2 sets). pull the upper body back to the utes. Repeat these actions. Stand in chest-to and spread the legs with the top leg shoulder-deep water. Stand in chest- to shoulder-deep water facing the pool’s wall. squeeze them water with the palms facing down- back together (scissoring). 8-22 . right knee to the right elbow. and bend the arms so that the body is leaning toward the wall of the pool. straighten The Engine. The propulsive force of return to the starting position. 30 seconds each with 5-second rests be- tween sets). kick flutter style. knee joint loose but straight. wall. Stand in chest-to throughout the exercise. Stand in chest- to shoulder. chest back from the wall by straight- ening the arms. Grasp Cool-Down the pool’s edge. Then. While walking forward. Running. ankles flexible. DURATION 1 minute (2 sets.bending the knees. Be sure each. Move in a running gait in chest-to shoulder-deep water with arms and hands under the water’s surface. 30 seconds return to the starting position. Con- the kick will tend to cause the body to tinuing to walk forward. to keep the arms parallel to the water Push Away. DURATION 10 to 20 minutes. Vigorously push the This is required to gradually bring the body back to its pre-exercise state. This activity can be stationary. or the exerciser may run from poolside to poolside. arms straight and extending backward. and TION 1 minute (2 sets. Then. raise the top hand. raise the body up and out of the water while ex- tending the arms. then bottom hand. Place the hands on the edge or gutter of the pool. touch the rise to the water’s surface. repeat this action. toes pointed. Then. DURATION: 2 minutes (4 sets. with equal It should last from five to seven min- vigor.deep water facing the pool’s wall. maximum effort). Gutter Push-Ups. DURA. When the legs are in front of the body and parallel to the extended and spread. Grasp the pool’s edge or gutter and assume a prone position with legs extended just below the water’s sur- face. Front Flutter Kick. Pull with ward. wall and at arm’s length from it. The Iegs should simulate a whip’s action. DURA- TION: 2 minutes (maximum effort). Then. Runners must concentrate on high knee action and good arm movement.

Physical fitness is one of the foun- Factors that affect the content of
dations of combat readiness, and main- the sports program differ at every
taining it must be an integral part of Army installation and unit. Initiative
every soldier’s life. This chapter dis- and ingenuity in planning are the most
cusses competitive fitness activities vital assets. They are encouraged in
and athletic events that commanders the conduct of every program.
can use to add variety to a unit’s
physical fitness program. There is also OBJECTIVES
a section on developing a unit intramu- A well-organized and executed
ral program. Athletic and competi- intramural program yields the follow-
tive fitness activities are sports events ing:
which should only be used to supple-
ment the unit’s PT program. They • Team spirit, the will to win, confi-
should never replace physical training dence, aggressiveness, and team-
and conditioning sessions but, rather, work. All are vital to combat effec-
should exist to give soldiers a chance tiveness.
for healthy competition. Only through • A change from the routine PT pro-
consistent, systematic physical condi-
tioning can the fitness components be
developed and maintained. • The chance for all soldiers to take
Crucial to the success of any pro- part in organized athletics.
gram is the presence and enthusiasm of ORGANIZATION
the leaders who direct and participate
in it. The creativity of the physical The command level best suited to
training planners also plays a large role. organize and administer a broad intra-
Competitive fitness and athletic activi- mural program varies according to a
ties must be challenging. They must be unit’s situation. If the objective of
presented in the spirit of fair play and maximum participation is to be
good competition. achieved, organization should start at
It is generally accepted that com- company level and then provide com-
petitive sports have a tremendous posi- petition up through higher unit levels.
tive influence on the physical and Each command level should have its
emotional development of the partici- own program and support the next
pants. Sports competition can enhance higher program level.
Competitive fitness a soldier’s combat readiness by pro- To successfully organize and con-
activities help in the moting the development of coordina- duct an intramural program, develop-
tion, agility, balance, and speed. Com- ers should consider the following fac-
development of petitive fitness activities also help de- tors and elements.
assets that are vital to velop assets that are vital to combat ef-
combat effectiveness. fectiveness. These include team spirit, Authority
the will to win, confidence, toughness,
aggressiveness, and teamwork. The unit commander should pub-
lish and endorse a directive giving au-
Intramural thorization and guidance for a sports
program. A detailed SOP should also
The Army’s sports mission is to give be published.
all soldiers a chance to participate in
sports activities. A unit-level intra- Personnel
mural program can help achieve this
important goal. DA Pam 28-6 de- Leaders at all levels of the intramu-
scribes how to organize various unit- ral program should plan, organize, and
level intramural programs. supervise it. Appointments at all


echelons should be made for at least prepare a budget in which they justify
one year to provide continuity. The each sports activity separately. The
commander must appoint a qualified budget must include special equip-
person to be the director, regardless of ment, supplies, awards, pay for offi- Commanders can
the local situation, type, and size of the cials, and other items and services.
unit. The director must be a good or- Units can reduce many of their costs stimulate soldiers to
ganizer and administrator and must by being resourceful. participate in
have time to do the job correctly. He competitive athletics by
should also have a sense of impartial- AWARD SYSTEM
ity and some athletic experience. using an award system.
Commanders should form an intra- Commanders can stimulate units
mural sports council in units of battal- and soldiers to participate in competi-
ion size or larger and should appoint tive athletics by using an award sys-
members or require designated unit tem. One type is a point-award system
representatives. The council should where teams get points based on their
meet at least once a month or as often win/loss records and/or final league
as the situation requires. The council standings. This reflects the unit’s
serves as an advisory body to the unit standings in the overall intramural
commander and intramural director. It sports program. The recognition will
gives guidance about the organization help make units and individuals par-
and conduct of the program. ticipate throughout the year. Trophies
can then be given for overall perform-
Facilities and Equipment ance and individual activities.

Adequate facilities and equipment PROGRAM PLANNING
must be available. When facilities are
limited, leaders must plan activities to A successful program depends on
ensure their maximum use. In all sound plans and close coordination
cases, activities must be planned to between the units involved. The
ensure the safety of participants and intramural director should meet with
spectators. subordinate commanders or a sports
representative to determine what pro-
Funds and Budget gram of activities is compatible with
the mission and training activities of
Adequate funds are essential to each unit. Unless they resolve this
successfully organize and operate a issue, they may not get command
sports program. Therefore, before- support which, in turn, could result in
hand, organizers must determine how forfeitures or lack of participation.
much money is available to support it. The less-popular activities may not be
To justify requests for funds they must supported because of a lack of interest.


Evaluations • Funds. Determine how much each
unit can spend on the intramural
Before the program is developed, program.
leaders must study the training and • Personnel. Assess how many people
availability situation at each unit level. are needed to run the program. The
They should include the following list should include a director and as
items in a survey to help them deter- sistants, sports council, officials,
mine the scope of the program and to and team captains, as well as volun
develop plans: teers for such tasks as setting up a
● General. Evaluate the commander’s playing field.
attitude, philosophy, and policy • Coordination. Coordinate with the
about the sports program. Under units’ operations sections to avoid
stand the types of units to be conflict with military training sched
served, their location, the climate, ules.
and military responsibilities. • Activities. The intramural director
● Troops. Determine the following: should plan a tentative program of
1) number and types of personnel; activities based on the season, local
2) training status and general duty situation, and needs and interests of
assignment; 3) special needs, inter- the units. Both team and individual
ests, and attitudes. sports should be included. Some
● Time available. Coordinate the team sports are popular at all levels
time available for the sports pro- and need little promotional effort
gram with the military mission. for success. Among these are vol-
Determine both the on-duty and leyball, touch football, basketball,
off-duty time soldiers have for taking and softball. Some individual com-
part in sports activities. petitive sports have direct military
● Equipment. Consider the equip- value. They include boxing, wres-
ment that will be needed for each tling, track and field, cross country,
sport. triathlon, biathlon, and swimming.
● Facilities. Determine the number, While very popular, these sports are
type, and location of recreational harder to organize than team sports.
facilities both within the unit and in See Figures 9-1 and 9-2 for a list of
those controlled by units at higher sports activities.


Figure 9-1

Figure 9-2


This type of competition is There are 25 to 50 players on each adaptable to both team and individ. they require quick thinking son of the year. Unless the competition must take The object of this game is for each place in a short time. and the use of strategy. Local situations may be included in the unit’s PT and normal obstacles may conflict program. the following functions should game number. standing operating procedure (SOP). ● Make a handbook. date. They should also know how to draw up tournaments. ball. The round-robin tournament has the greatest advantage because indi. Championship games or each level of command from instal. elimination of a team’s five goalies to have one tournaments should not be used. How ties which can combine many compo- ever. An intramural Space for scores and officials is also handbook should be published at helpful. The following games and activities ● Plan the calendar. addition. Table 9-1 Functions ● Make a printed schedule. to choose the type of competition best suited for the sport and local NINE-BALL SOCCER circumstances. court or be performed: field. The goalies play be- in any sport. and home or visiting team. This handbook should include the Unit Activities essential elements listed in Table 9-1 above. they are excellent activi- Intramural directors should be able ties for adding variety to the program. Players viduals and teams are never elimi- nated. They are large-scale activi- with the intramural program. In a scheduled program for every sea. a way can be found to provide nents of physical and motor fitness. time. Using scheduling forms makes this job Once the evaluations have been easier. team. The ual play. When played ● Choose the type of competition. matches should be scheduled to lation to company to serve as a take place at the best facility. tween the goal line and 5-yard line of 9-5 . vigorously. It is appropriate for small other players are divided into four numbers of entries and league play equal groups. five of whom are goalies. The form should include made.

The Game Goalies may use their hands in playing the ball and may give a ball to The game starts with all players other goalies on their team. The first team to score five from the goalie’s team and gives these points wins. first team whose goalies have five balls If a goalie steps on or over a wins a point. balls are placed as follows. The other There are no time-outs except in four groups start the game between the case of injury. A ball is played along the ground or yard free space at the center of the over any group or groups of players. The game then stops. The signal to start the rest of the set and one additional play is one long whistle blast. Players set. The nine a ball. the referee takes the balls are placed for the start of a the ball being played plus another ball new set. balls to the nearest opposing player.a standard football field. after the set. The teams change field. (See Figure 9-3. Rules yard lines. and all other players must stay in their Team members move to different zones assigned areas throughout the game. One is centered ree removes them from the game for on the 50-yard line. The only exceptions are midfielder who stand between the 35. which is signaled by two designated 10-yard segments of the sharp whistle blasts. field.and 45.) The goalies positions on the field after each set. For a set inside their own areas and midfielder to officially end. These players may occupy both their assigned areas and the 10. The outside the goal area. and boundary or sideline. the refe- yards between balls. rest of the set if they step on or over a ing team’s defenses into the goal area boundary or sideline or use their hands using only their feet or heads. If Figure 9-3 9-6 . each goalie must have on their own 40-yard line. The ball may travel any distance if it is played legally. He also removes players for the must pass the balls through the oppos. Four are on If players engage in unnecessary each 45-yard line with at least five roughness or dangerous play.

placed on the centerline with the op- posing captains three feet away from PUSHBALL it. There are 10 to 50 soldiers on each the ball is placed on the opposing of two teams. The length of the field for two minutes where it was when the is divided equally by a center line. the teams Two more lines are marked 15 feet exchange goals. It captains immediately play the ball. and the teams line Figure 9-4 9-7 . the ball stays dead 150 feet wide. passing. The Players team that scores a goal may then try for an extra point.) the ball across the opposing team’s end line. At halftime. the that is five to six feet in diameter. team’s 5-yard line. the the ball over the opponent’s goal line referee retrieves it. The object of the game is to send If a ball goes out of bounds. and play resumes as if from and parallel to the end lines and the game were beginning. referee puts the ball back into play by The game begins when the ball is rolling it to the nearest opposing player. extending across the entire field. This game requires a large pushball At the referee’s starting whistle. quarter ended. also requires a level playing surface and their teams come to their aid. rolling. (See A team scores a goal when it sends Figure 9-4. caused it to go out of bounds or over or using any method other than kick- the goal line loses possession. A goal counts five points. that is 240 to 300 feet long and 120 to At quarter time. The ing the ball. For the extra point. The other players line up 45 feet from the ball on their half of the field.the team has no other ball in the goal The Game area. The team that by pushing. carrying. the referee limits the penalty to the ball that is being played.

within limits imposed by the ball is put into play for one minute. Team commanders assess the width of the ball. of players. Soldiers wearing team is penalized half the distance to illegal equipment may not play until its goal. that are five to six feet in diameter. the offense fields occurs at the same time. lines extend across both fields. Each team STRATEGY PUSHBALL occupies the third of the team space that immediately adjoins its initial Strategy pushball is similar to push. Rest periods are allowed for two min. The length of each referee tosses the ball between the field is divided equally by a centerline teams. A extra caution must be used to prevent player who strikes or clips an opponent injuries caused by kicking or stepping is removed from the game. the ball is are also marked 45 feet from each side tied up in one spot for more than 10 of the centerline and parallel to it. by 120 to 150 feet wide. The seconds. Play on both goal line in this period. that is parallel to the goal lines. They are They should be six feet apart at the separated lengthwise by a 20-foot- point where the ball went out. Start- ers and reserves should be easily dis- Players may use any means of tinguishable. This number may be adjusted any part of the ball is driven across the throughout the game. a team’s points from both The game continues until four 10. The space between the fields is the team area. Combat boots may be worn. the overall winner. but they are playing the ball or not. Only one player may situation on the fields and distribute place his hands on the ball. letic shoes except those with metal gally be applied to all opponents whether cleats. The com- who just scored is directly in front of mander decides the number of soldiers the ball. and his on other players. The defense may not game progresses independently. playing field. At the referee’s signal. The teams line fields. the back of an opponent’s legs as he is Players may wear any type of ath- running or standing. Pull-over vests or jerseys of two dif- ferent colors are used by each team for Rules a total of four different colors. Starters and substitutes interfering with the opponents’ prog. the referee declares it dead. Force may le. If rules. This game requires two pushballs utes between quarters and five min. The wide divider strip. it is dead. At the score during the extra point attempt. ball except that it is played on two Time periods should be adjusted to adjacent fields. the team commander and reserves wear Clipping is throwing one’s body across vests of the second color. the problem has been corrected.up across the field separated by the fields. These are 240 to 300 feet long up at right angles to the sidelines. utes at halftime. fields are added together to determine minute quarters have been played. Lines When. should wear vests of one color. for any reason. while ress except striking and clipping. and opposing teams suit weather conditions and soldiers’ supply soldiers to the games on both fitness levels. but each scores one point. Di- He returns the ball into play the same mensions may be determined locally way he does after it goes out of based on available space and the number bounds. When any part of the ball goes out The playing area is two lined-off of bounds. 9-8 . end of play. The player their soldiers accordingly. the used.

the total number on a team. a starter by switching vests with an The proportion of soldiers in each original starter. He is respon. A reserve may become commander to field captains. They sitions of players on the field. One team commander. Team commanders may enter the appointed field captain. game organizers must coordi. Players must not question an official’s Figure 9-5 9-9 . Before the When possible. of the other components on a one-for- placements for starters or reserves. on the number on each team. Players Runners serve at least one period. may enter or leave the playing field at Sixteen starting members. senior NCOS and event. There are 25 to 40 soldiers on each They are allowed on the field only team. or quarter. Eight are any time whether the ball is in play or on each field at all times. These are for such action. one is not. These are re.and half- convey messages from the team time breaks. one basis only during dead balls. in- One runner. officers from higher headquarters or nate with participating units and agree other units should be used as officials. mitted as individuals or groups. He is designated to jury time-outs. A typical. who then becomes a category stays constant regardless of reserve. they may not play during that period. Reserves are used at any point in sible for overall game strategy and the game on either field and are com- for determining the number and po. players the team commander des. game as reserves if they see the need Four reserve members. Reserves. substitutes. members may be redesignated into any Three substitutes. 25-member team has during breaks in play after a dead ball the following: or goal. and starting ignates as reinforcements.

The on the spot where it was when the number of officials may be increased quarter ended. starts beginning. sig- if teams have more than 25 players. (See Figure 9-5. naled by the scorekeeper. field at once. Referees concentrate restarts play as with an out-of-bounds on player actions so that they can dead ball. a three-minute from the ball (six feet from the center. except that he puts the ball quickly detect fouls and assess penal. the player being replaced leaves the Chain-of-command personnel field. a chief umpire. The next quarter. At the end of the air horn. the A substitute may not start to play until game can quickly get out of control. ball. Substitutes may enter the game only The game continues until four 10- during breaks in play after a dead minute quarters have been played. it is dead. means other than kicking. klaxon. passing. starts as it Referees use their whistles to stop and does after a ball goes out of bounds. fourth quarter. no more than 15 immediately play the ball.authority during play. The referee places the ball between the teams at a The object is to propel the ball over point 15 feet inside the sideline. field captains control purposes. The rest of the starters are lined same as in regulation play. Time does not stop for dead balls or keeper occupy any area where they goals. ties. and reason. resumes when the referee blows the rolling. and ends each quarter and stops play A goal is scored when any part of for injuries with some noisemaker the ball breaks the plane of the goal other than a whistle. with starting squads from of the field. the winner is the team maintained. The chief while dead balls are restarted on the umpire monitors the use of substitutes other. For scorekeeper’s signal. or time-out for injury. the points of each team The game begins after the ball is from both fields are added together to placed on each field’s center mark. of bounds. carrying. He may use such line between the sidelines. The chief umpire and score. should act as team commanders and When any part of the ball goes out field captains whenever possible. that has gained more territory. If the game is still tied when starters or substitutes per field is time expires. overtime is played. or using any whistle. Play continues on one field can best officiate the games. but only one up 45 feet from the ball on their half field is used. The teams line up at right angles to the sidelines. goal. they are 10 feet apart at the point where the The Game ball went out of bounds. the ball stays ress of the games on both fields. When the ball gets tied up in one The game is officiated by two refe. and reserves and ensures smooth prog. determine the winner. and their players per team are allowed on the teams come to their aid. There is a 10-minute halftime between 9-10 . and each quarter. At each quarter break. Play the opponent’s goal line by pushing. A goal devices as a starter’s pistol. Otherwise.) At the both teams opposing each other. At start play except at the start and end of halftime the teams exchange goals. The team with more Starters may be exchanged between points at the end of the overtime wins the fields if the minimum number of the game. on the spot where it was stopped. It is played the line). or counts one point. The scorekeeper. He a scorekeeper. spot for more than 10 seconds for any rees on each field. the referee declares it dead. who play resumes as if the game were times the game with a stopwatch. Opposing field captains are three feet If there is a tie.

Penalties may also be called for BROOM-BALL HOCKEY infractions committed on the field or sidelines during playing time. until he completes the penalty lap and but they are penalized for striking or the next break in play occurs on the clipping opponents or throwing them field from which he was removed. standard soccer or hockey field or ● Butting heads. This game is played on ice or a and halftime breaks. out. and time-outs.the second and third quarters. or flip their play and team area. pass the ball through the opposing ● Throwing an opponent to the ground team to reach its goal. player leaves the team shorthanded fering with their opponents’ progress. goalie plays in the goal area of a ● Kicking. The object of this game is for teams ● Clipping (throwing the body across to score goals through the opponent’s the back of the opponent’s legs as he defenses. ers wear boots with normal soles and lowing: carry broom-shaped sticks with which ● Illegal blocking (below an oppo. Substitutes for elbows or forearms. frozen field using hockey rules. They enter on referee may call infractions and im. It is also called against a halftime. or piling on an opponent who is already on the Players ground. along the goal line if the two opposing Unsportsmanlike conduct is called goals are the same size. Referees and legally applied to any opponent whether the chief umpire may. conduct or personal fouls on either field. tackling. lifting and dropping or to score five points wins. One soccer for abusive or insulting language that ball. eject any player who is a chronic ing is allowed if blockers stay on their violator or who is judged to be danger- feet and limit contact to the space ous to other players. players is running or standing). to the ground. Broom ball slamming a player to the ground in provides a good cardiorespiratory work- stead of tackling cleanly). Tackling opposing ejected players may enter during the soldiers who are playing the ball is next break in play that follows a goal allowed. at their discre- or not they are playing the ball. Time-out is allowed only for player on the sidelines who interferes serious injury. ● Spearing. Force maybe then enters the game. Play- Personal fouls are called for the fol. The chief umpire or any scored by either team. A penalized Players may use any means of inter. These penalties are The penalized player or a substitute enforced by the referees. The the referee judges to be excessive and clock stops at quarter breaks and blatant. Using only brooms. Blockers player must leave both the field of may not swing. Play is then stopped on with the ball or with his opponents on both fields. One is a goalie and the others are ● Grasping an opponent’s neck or divided into three equal groups. they hit the ball into the goals. ● Striking or punching with closed There are 15 to 20 players on each fist(s). nent’s waist). team. The head. Block. the field from which the players were pose penalties for unsportsmanlike ejected. quarter. or some other type of inflated 9-11 . the field. tion. the between waist and shoulders. throw. The first team (that is. A player who violates these rules should be removed from the Rules game and made to run one lap around both playing fields. Once ejected.

The sion. The ball is played at Figure 9-6.) outside the center circle. hands to play the ball. Basic penalties are game. including goalies. Each half lasts 15 ● Unnecessary roughness or danger- minutes. All players must stay in Other players must stay in their re- their designated space throughout the spective zones of play (Attack. A diagram of the field is shown fense.) stay inside their legal boundaries at all Figure 9-6 9-12 . sharp whistle blasts.ball. along the ground or over one or more groups of players.) forward and cross the center circle ● Use of hands by a player other than before being played by another player. each player ous play. The ball must travel the nearest player. De- game. It may travel any The Game distance as long as it is legally played. posses- sion will be awarded to the other All players. he stays in the players. (The player must stay in There are no time-outs except for the penalty box one minute. except the two centers. a goalie. The referee ● Ball out-of-bounds. must team. but they must The three groups begin the game in always keep control of their sticks. All from the game. is used. The referee calls infractions and The face-off marks the start of the imposes penalties. and the opposing team puts the signal to begin play is one long blast on ball back into play by hitting it to the whistle. The players need no times. For the face-off. Only goalies may use their padding. (The team that places the ball in the center of the caused it to go out loses posses- circle between the two centers. (When a member of the team in pos- session of the ball crosses the bound Rules ary line of his zone of play. The time-out signal is two ● Improper crossing of boundaries. and the restart those called for the following: of play after goals.) injury. are penalty box for two minutes. (The player is removed is on his own half of the field. Centerfield). center field. the second half.

map reading. major factors in score orienteering. This makes it an excellent activity LINE ORIENTEERING use.000 route. URBAN ORIENTEERING SCORE ORIENTEERING Urban orienteering is very similar Quick thinking and strategy are to traditional types. NIGHT ORIENTEERING CROSS-COUNTRY ORIENTEERING Competitors in this event carry This popular type of orienteering is flashlights and navigate with map and used in all international and champi. on any installation by using a map of Point values throughout the course are the main post or cantonment area. The winner is determined by of the compass is transparent plastic. The map should be 1:25. Speed and accuracy advanced competitors. looks for checkpoints or control-marker teering compass works best. It combines map ducted for returning late to the finish Orienteering combines reading. Participants navigate to country orienteering is usually shorter a set number of check or control points than the day course. The orienteer premarked on the map. compass with strategy. The base signs. points are not shown. Points are de- of land navigation. but a compass. While negotiating the simple for training beginners or longer course. compass.000 yards route that is clearly marked with signs square. Whoever collects the most points within a designated Orienteering is a competitive form time is the winner. area in the least time. While negotiating the course. and exer- cise. ROUTE ORIENTEERING The best terrain for an orienteering course is woodland that offers varied This variation is also excellent for terrain. is much more right order and returns to the finish challenging at night. and navigation skills competitor selects the check-points to are not needed. marked with reflective material or dim tant since the winner is the one who lights. which is reaches all the control points in the poor for day courses. An orienteering course is set up by Line orienteering is excellent for competition. The standard military. with strategy. A topographical map. are described below. A course can be set up find based on point value and location. and placing control points or marker signs training new orienteers. A liquid-filled orien. compass use. Courses can be short and or streamers. or navigator uses a detailed topogra. Several different courses can beginners. The navagator phical map and a compass to negotiate tries to walk or run the exact map the course. The navigator follows a be setup in an area 2. The night course for cross- onship events. compass will work even though it is not specifically designed for the sport. high or low depending on how hard the Soldiers run within this area looking 9-13 . Speed is impor. he records on the map the and more difficult to challenge the route being taken. the time taken to run the course and and it gives accurate readings on the the accuracy of marking the control run. Open. of marking the route determine the The various types of orienteering winner. lensatic points when they are found.000 to 4. and terrain study area. competition. rolling terrain. The route is over a variety of terrain. and terrain study for any training schedule. but check- exercise. Orienteering markers are to reach. Control points are in a designated order. he scale or larger.

each cardiovascular workout. team gets identical maps that show the Figure 9-7 9-14 .) man teams based on their APFT 2- Urban orienteering adds variety mile-run times. This eliminates the Urban orienteering is conducted need for a compass. Soldiers only need during daylight hours to ensure safety a combination map-scorecard. (See Fig- mural program. have similar running ability. A handi- gram and is well suited for an intra. Team members should and competition to a unit’s PT pro. a watch.) At the assembly area. (Figure 9-7 shows a point markers easy. and make the identification of check- and a pencil. Soldiers form two- sample scorecard. which are Participants and Rules numbered and marked on the map before the start.for coded location markers. It also provides a good ure 9-8. cap is given to slower teams.

While it to identify their team. it records together and not separate to get two on the scorecard the letters that corre- markers at once. team members must stay reaches a location marker. He also given. Point values of each location marker diers may participate. and teams finishing late are gives each team a combination map/ penalized. the start of the event. A time limit is about the overtime penalty. the orienteering bly area have the highest point values. A team that separates spond to its two-digit number. Any number of sol. signed a partner. When a team on the course. Once the soldiers have been as- The markers farthest from the assem. are also annotated on the scorecard. Five points are deducted scorecard with a two-digit number on for each minute a team is late. marshal briefs them on the rules and The maps are labeled with a location objectives of the game. tors being space and the number of When the orienteering marshal signals points on the course. all competitors Figure 9-8 9-15 . is disqualified.location of markers on the course. the limiting fac. Playing the Game Location markers are color-coded on the map based on their point value. He gives them number corresponding to the location their time limitations and a reminder marker on the course.

Each team goes to as combinations. Combat acetate (also scorecards. on building corners. Setting up This line number corresponds to the requires some man-hours. sections. The letters corre- sponding to 54 are LD. They should not be too hard to find. Figure 9-9 leave the assembly area at the same while running across streets and to time. sample location marker is shown at Figure 9-9. and along creek beds Safety Briefing and trails. all maps must be precisely safety briefing before the event starts. so they place The course must be well thought out “LD” on line 39 of their scorecard. When the can be used many times. marked to correspond with the place- He reminds soldiers to be cautious ment of the course-location markers. The major location marker code is deciphered. After all teams have on the maps. Handicap points how many location markers to make are then added. the points are computed by called plastic sheet) can be purchased the orienteering marshal to determine in the self-service supply center store the teams’ standings. tasks are making and installing location the team moves on to the next marker markers and preparing map/scorecard of its choice. 9-16 . Suggestions for locations to put The teams’ standings are displayed point markers are as follows: at inter- shortly after the activity ends. team number 54 Set Up and Materials found the marker. to all the points and can determine The course organizer must decide each team’s accuracy. but the course location’s marker number. (See Figure 9-8. along roads in the tree line. For this example. One to two hours is the optimal emphasize that team members should time for conducting the activity. He should use points if his 2-mile-run time is slower creativity to add excitement to the than 12 minutes.) course. A always stay together. To help teams negotiate the The orienteering marshal gives a course. He has the key under stock number 9330-00-618-7214. Each soldier gets and where to put them. they are covered with found as many location markers as combat acetate to keep them useful for possible and have turned in their map/ a long time. and set up in advance. Once the location marker many markers as possible within the numbers are marked and color coded allotted time.

can be within a unit or between com. and they should be team members are stretched. T-shirt or arm band. cally equal. For instance. When conducted with en. player crosses the finish line. the events. as many TYPES OF EVENTS team members should participate as possible. flexibility. and team member puts one foot against the related sports skills. from each team lines up at the starting Unit olympics rate into a team-level competition line with a full sandbag in each hand. events that represent all five He hands the sandbags off to a team- events that represent all fitness components. agility. Only one team member does The organizer should use his imagi- push-ups at a time. Unit Olympics Sandbag Relay The unit olympics is a multifaceted This event uses four-man teams for event that can be tailored to any unit to a running relay around a quarter-mile provide athletic participation for all track carrying sandbags. from the same starting line. If not. It is a good finish. diversion from the regular PT session. One player soldiers. The teams begin by throwing the ball The following are examples of ath. cover the most distance is the winner. incorporate athletic athletic. This goes on until all viduals and teams. anchor man’s extended foot and does a Events can be held for both indi. Teams should wear the start point without a break in their a distinctively marked item such as a chain is the winner. member teams. as possible as in doing a split. A unit olympics. Placings thusiasm. He members may rotate as often as de. The objective is to incorpo. The next durance. The team whose combined throws This is a timed event using four. They designed so that both male and female cover as much distance as possible soldiers can take part. speed. Each team’s anchor person The olympics should include events places his foot against a wall or a curb. the ball is marked for each team unit olympics: thrower. he could 9-17 . Each soldier keeping in contact with each other. can be a good In this event. This is repeated Push-Up Derby until all the team’s players have thrown. The four team nation when planning activities. of an MOS. The objective is for the team to do as many correct push-ups as Job-Related Events possible within a four-minute time limit. it promotes team spirit and are determined by the teams’ order of provides a good workout. aerobic en. race. all members of each team should participate. if well promoted Team Flexibility from the top and well staged by the project NCO or officer. This continues until the last team peting units. that challenge the soldiers’ muscular He stretches his other foot as far away strength and endurance. may incorporate soldier skills required sired. if teams are numeri- precursor to an SDT or the EIB test. should be required to do a minimum The team that stretches farthest from number of events. This adds char- acter to the event and sets teams apart Medicine-Ball Throw from each other. A warm-up should precede and a cool-down should follow This event uses four-member teams. split-stretch. and the next team player throws from this spot. When it letic events that could be included in a lands. The competition mate when he finishes his part of the five fitness components.

This type of event is excellent The MC should have one assistant for fine-tuning job skills and is also per team who will judge that one team physically challenging. mortar (tube. After the symbolic parade of all the teams. tional speech before the opening cere. each a mile JUDGING AND SCORING apart. Points are awarded for each event as follows: The commander. the is officially opened with a torch light. • Second = 3 points. The competition ends. The team would carry an 81 -mm then begin. during each event.through fourth-place teams are ing chants. or ceremony host gives an inspira. welcoming competitors and • Fourth = 1 point. • First = 4 points. The master of ceremonies then recognized. the totaled point teams are then put back into forma. points are added together and split ing. The games 11 C. • Third = 2 points. This is followed by a short equally between them. The MC monitors the point OPENING CEREMONY accumulation of each team. wishing them good luck. and set it up in a firing configu- ration. first. Assistants give input on events that need a numerical count. The olympics When two teams tie an event. and baseplate) to three different locations. 9-18 . ranking person. monies. The tion. tripod. scores for each team are figured. and team captains lead motivat.devise a timed land-navigation event (MC) announces the sequence of events geared toward soldiers with an MOS of and rules for each event.

To plan PT suc. survive and win on the battlefield. 10-1 . it PT program that will improve all the must be our goal to ensure that our fitness components. According to FM 25-100. ● Decrease the number of physical dents. Leaders should as physical fitness advisor. and know how to cal fitness of the soldier is a critical apply them in order to develop a sound combat-multiplier in the division. yields the mission-essential task list (METL) a The goal of the Army’s physical unit must perform. as tactician. other training activities. ● Improve the unit’s average APFT istic training is good. ready to find the unit’s current fitness As stated in FM 25-100. fitness program is to improve each Regardless of the unit’s size or soldier’s physical ability so he can mission. plan and 70 points on the 2-mile run. leaders score through each soldier obtain- must be aware of the risks involved ing a minimum score of 80 points with physical training and related ac. and the MFT. However. the commander must con- sider the type of unit and its mission. not just per. scientific diers in the unit can correctly per- principles. Examples participation. therefore. must set the example through their own specific fitness objectives. on the push-up and sit-up events tivities. must ana- maximize their physical use incentives. The commander and MFT identify STEP 1: ANALYZE THE MISSION and prioritize the objectives. wisely to minimize injuries and acci. coupled with the commander’s intent. The wise commander also form at least one repetition with 50 uses his PT program as a basis for percent of their bodyweight on the building team spirit and for enhancing overhead press using a barbell. real. Leaders must systems. follows because the exceptional physi- the FITT factors. The develop prgrams that that train soldiers to maximize their commander. for all the commander’s programs and formance on the APFT. It must reflect his strength by ensuring that all sol- goals and be based on sound. They should. With the training objectives estab- Missions vary as do the physical re. ● Improve the unit’s overall level of mander’s program. lished. (See FM 25-100. soldiers are capable of roadmarching cessfully. Tough. More importantly. of fitness objectives are the following: The unit PT program is the com. training injuries by 25 percent through properly conducted train- Steps in Planning ing. An example of a goal is as understand the principles of exercise.” A careful level. analysis of the mission. the commander and MFT are quirements necessary to complete them. the goals Physical fitness includes all aspects of should provide a common direction physical performance. system. They must develop programs by prescribing specific actions. reasonable goals are essential. train soldiers to physical performance. the commander and MFT 12 miles with a 50-pound load in less must know the training management than three hours. they lyze the METL and equate this to performance. When planning a physical fitness STEP 3: ASSESS THE UNIT program.) Commanders should not be satisfied STEP 2: DEVELOP FITNESS with merely meeting the minimum OBJECTIVES requirements for physical training which Commanders must is having all of their soldiers pass the Objectives direct the unit’s efforts APFT. “The wartime level and measure it against the desired mission drives training.

training task. Any ample would be to conduct training to quantifiable. develop strength and muscular endur- mission-essential task can be used as an ance utilizing a sandbag circuit. An ex- while carrying a specified load. and the sequence for training requirements. EDREs. the setting up of the desired levels of fitness. Giving a diagnostic APFT is one Collective tasks. Leaders must emphasize the of the training plan. Fitness tasks SCHEDULE establish priorities. For example. soldiers cannot reach curing resources. training training. They are keyed to the unit’s a certain distance within a set time specific fitness objectives. The (1) Collective tasks training schedule shows the order. Training records and Individual tasks. When. frequencies.and short-range equipment. interval training. sources which are available. Identifying the necessary headquarters’ long. specific tasks leaders must do in order tives. The bottom line is that training pro- Fitness tasks provide the framework grams must be developed using re- for accomplishing all training require. Leader tasks are the standards defined in training objec. The fitness training schedule re- They must be adjusted for real world sults from leaders’ near-term plan- constraints before they become a part ning. can also must do to accomplish the collective provide invaluable information. road REQUIREMENTS marching. after to take place. facilities. Fartlek training. 10-2 . Individual tasks are reports. physically demanding. These will involve pro- extensive training. and the supervision of the actual Once training requirements are deter. Figure 10-1 illustrates a typical (4) Resources required for training PT session and its component parts. They identify what has to be done to correct all deficiencies and STEP 6: DEVELOP A TRAINING sustain all proficiencies. training. in- (2) Individual tasks tensity. to improve CR endurance the individual soldier STEP 4: DETERMINE TRAINING must do ability-group running. bilities and comparing them to the Leader tasks. and duration of activities for (3) Leader tasks PT. assessment tool. the commander reviews higher Resources. leaders can determine fitness for collective and individual training training requirements. and training aids training plans to identify training events during the planning phase gives the and allocations of resources which will trainer ample time to prepare for the affect near-term planning. nents and follow the principles of loged into four groups: exercise and the FITT factors. as well as any previous activities that an individual soldier ARTEP. Collective tasks are way to find the current level. diers. education of individual sol- requirements may be too idealistic. training. ments. and calculate/monitor his By possessing the unit’s fitness capa. The essential development of all the fitness compo- elements of fitness tasks can be cata. The early identification and acquisition of resources is necessary to STEP 5: DEVELOP FITNESS TASKS fully implement the training program. THR when appropriate. mined. and so forth. Another the training activities performed by way is to have the soldiers road march the unit.

physical conditioning. along with the duration Each activity period should include of the daily workout. This STEP 7: CONDUCT AND depends on the specific purpose of EVALUATE TRAINING the training session. Leaders should Figure 10-1 10-3 . begin managing and supervising the day-to-day training. There are three distinct steps in planning a unit's daily physical train. the training needs revision. They should also understand include three cardiorespiratory and the objective of the training session three muscular conditioning ses. If not. Determine the type of activity. stressed. using THR or factors in Chapter 1. a workout that develops The key to evaluating training is to cardiorespiratory fitness and/or mus. factors in Chapter 1. (See the FITT their fitness levels. and 3.) 2. a warm-up. At the end of a well-planned and ing activities. (See Figure 10-1). (See the FITT monitoring its intensity.) muscle failure. it should in. Determine the minimum frequency feel that they have been physically of training. (See Figure 10- 2. 2. all soldiers should 1. determine if the training being con- cular endurance and strength. see Chapters 1.) For more information on this The commander and MFT now topic. Determine the intensity and time of how the training is performed by the selected activity. They evaluate 3. They are as follows: executed PT session. Ideally. and a ducted will result in improvements in cool-down. and how it will help them improve sions each weeks.

The most common Teaching soldiers about physical error concerns the use of unit runs. addition. Another error is exclusively reinforced throughout part. Local “Fit to Win” coordina- form and little substance. Education also helps the Army substance and do little to improve develop its total fitness concept. Figure 10-2 not be sidetracked by PT that is all intervals. and stress manage. imbalances often stem from a ment should be held at regular lack of variety in the program which 10-4 . they are be training at heart rates above their Total fitness should be more likely to wholeheartedly take THR. It must be an ongoing When all soldiers must run at the same effort that uses trained experts like pace as with a unit run. durance and strength training. To. endurance training and muscular en- ciples of exercise. When they know why they are unit may be at risk because they may training in a certain way. based training and results in little benefit to soldiers. tors (AR 600-63) can help develop ing defeats the concept of objective. Soldiers must understand why receive a training effect because they the program is organized the way it is do not reach their training heart rate and what the basic fitness principles (THR). Classroom a balance in a PT program between CR instruction in subjects such as prin. Yet another error is failing to strike out each soldier’s career. many do not MFTs. In tobacco cessation. Common Errors Education There are some common errors in unit programs. classes on such subjects. tal fitness should be reinforced through. These exercises emphasize form over classroom instruction. using activities such as the “daily dozen. fitness. fitness is vital. The least-fit soldiers of the are.” each soldier's career by fective. Such train. This makes the training more ef. diet and nutrition.

and moving of heavy equip- ing his unit during this ARTEP. un- three low back strains. poor performance. good lifting tech- talion commander’s physical training niques. ● Improve the unit’s overall level of ANALYZE THE MISSION flexibility. They went through the (0600-0700) when in garrison. re. and there was an DEVELOP FITNESS OBJECTIVES apparent lack of prior emphasis on. organized PT will beat the com- mander’s discretion. and much lifting. DEVELOP FITNESS OBJECTIVES He based this on his unit’s mission. for 15 to 30 minutes. Captain Jones decided to ask The guidance and objectives issued are the battalion’s MFT to help him de- as follows: velop a good unit program for the a. CPT Jones reviewed his bat- and training in. After evaluat. ● Improve the unit’s overall level of CONDUCT AND EVALUATE TRAINING muscular endurance and strength. combined with poor guidance. hand. strains. ASSESS THE UNIT and on his commander’s guidance and DETERMINE TRAINING REQUIREMENTS objectives. 7-STEP PLANNING PROCESS Captain Jones determined that the ANALYZE THE MISSION major PT emphasis should be to im- prove muscular endurance and strength. With this information and the MIT’s recommendations. It showed that the com- flexibility in the low back and ham- mander was aware that the unit’s tasks strings. typically. The soldiers’ flexi- bility was poor. loading. Next. The principles of ARTEP manual to find the most physi- exercise are described in Chapter 1. as quickly as possible. field. CPT Jones DESIGN FITNESS TASKS developed the following fitness objec- DEVELOP A TRAINING SCHEDULE tives. leads to boredom. muscular endurance and strength and cal fitness was inadequate. may have contributed to the require muscular endurance and unacceptably high number of low back strength and cardiorespiratory fitness. it would need to completed an ARTEP. This. cally demanding. The analysis showed sample program below. Each soldier will score at completed ARTEP and reviewed the least 80 points on the push-up and 1 0 . ● Improve the unit’s average APFT First. the company does a tactical road march and then occupies A Sample Program a position. It establishes a perimeter. improves its positions. that. digging. equipment Captain Frank Jones’s company has weighing up to 95 pounds. One of a commander’s thought processes as he the most demanding missions while in develops a 12-week fitness training position requires soldiers to move by program for his unit. All of these tasks require good Jones concluded that its level of physi. This requires sulting from a dropped container. available resources. Units will do PT five days a week company. He thought a reasonable level of cardiorespiratory this contributed to the injuries and endurance. training schedule. CPT ment. and selects and The following sample program shows prepares alternate positions. If his unit just returned from the field where it received artillery fire. loading.5 . they analyzed the recently score. In the following steps. Several injuries be able to move to alternate positions occurred including a broken foot. mission-oriented tasks and their application is shown in the the unit performs.

pervise lifts. ● Eight percent of the unit is now on Once all training requirements are temporary profile. and hip extensor ● There were six failures. tance/weight training for all the muscle Following the MFT’s recommenda. the next step is to use them problems. back.5 hours. Training requirements are deter- ● Decrease the number of profiles. tablished to reduce the number of ● Thirty percent of the unit uses to. The next step is to compare ASSESS THE UNIT this data to the standards identified in the training objectives. REQUIREMENTS ● Improve the unit’s road marching capability so that 100 percent of the The next step CPT Jones accom- unit can complete a 12-mile road plished was to determine the training march with a 35-pound load in at requirements. groups of the body two to three times tions. ● A formation toe-touch test revealed Road marches will be conducted at that over half the company could least once every other week. tions of bent-leg. substance abuse. during the warm-up and cool-down ● The average sit-up score was 72 phase of every PT session. formance is less than the established plished was to assess his unit. During the points. subordinate leaders made the a week. ● Two soldiers are in the overweight DESIGN FITNESS TASKS program. bacco. strength. to design fitness tasks which relate to 10-6 . sandbag dead-lifts at The MFT also recommended that least two times a week to develop the unit be assessed in the following strength. When per- The next step CPT Jones accom. emphasis on will be placed ● The average number of points scored on developing flexibility in the low on the 2-mile run was 74. the problem must be ad- The MFT studied the results of the dressed and corrected. The section leader will su- areas: road march performance. not touch their toes while their Tobacco cessation classes will be es- knees were extended. following assessments/determinations: Each soldier will perform timed sets ● Eighty-eight percent of the com. unit’s latest APFT and came up with Captain Jones established the fol- the following information: lowing training requirements. and the data obtained from the unit as- sessment. sit-up events and 70 points on the DETERMINE TRAINING 2-mile run. flexibility. standard. two on the muscle groups. cool-down. most from back identified. Each soldier will do 8 to 12 repeti- up. Each soldier will do heavy resis- and profiled soldiers. tobacco users. mined by analyzing the training results ● Reduce tobacco use. a week. ● The average push-up score was 68 Units will do flexibility exercises points. 2-mile run and four on the push. least 3. hamstrings. of push-ups and sit-ups. pany finished the 12-mile road Each soldier will train at least 20 to march with a 35-pound load in 30 minutes at THR two to three times under 3 hours 30 minutes.

and improve leaders tasks in the area of training for flexibility. For developing strength and durance-training session works all muscular endurance. PREs. tasks is provided in Figure 10-3 by the leader must organize and supervise using the activities which might occur all warm-up and cool-down sessions during one week of physical training. sit-up improvement. they must with respect to strength/muscle Figure 10-3 10-7 . to best meet the fitness objectives for The collective tasks for the unit are the development and maintenance of to perform the following: develop flexibility. ● High priority is given to training clude performing bent-leg dead lifts those muscles and muscle groups exercises. the major muscle groups of the form appropriate strength circuit exer. To improve ● Areas where weaknesses exist. cises. the sub. muscular endurance and strength. The leader’s tasks are to organize sources required to do them. cardiorespiratory endurance. the The individual tasks all soldiers leader will ensure the following: must perform during the week are as ● Each strength. and training for push-up/ used in mission-essential tasks. strength and muscle endurance. Similarly. to in. and leader culate their THR and monitor THR tasks as well as resources required. tasks that must be done and the re. road marching. and they must cal- address collective.and muscle sequent step of developing a training endurance-training sessions and CR schedule is greatly facilitated. To provide specific examples of prove CR endurance. im. and supervise all strength. when appropriate. CPT Jones must ing. body. By accurately listing the fitness and cool-down.the fitness objectives. training sessions so as to best meet all An example of designing fitness related fitness objectives. individual. they must do stretching ex- for accomplishing the training require. To improve their Fitness tasks provide the framework flexibility. ercises during their daily warm-up ments. interval train- the fitness tasks.and/or muscle en- follows. sandbag circuits. they must per. In developing do ability-group runs.

progression. room. are targeted in all work. The next step was to develop a In a similar manner. the leader fitness training schedule (shown at would ensure that the guidelines and Figure 10-4). formance are addressed in appro. DEVELOP A TRAINING SCHEDULE covery. Figure 10-4 10-8 . sessions for improving CR endurance ● Problem areas related to APFT per. The resources needed for the one- priate workouts. specificity. overload. and flexibility. a PT field. re. week period are as follows: a strength ● The duration of each strength train. bags. a gym. ● All the principles of exercise.endurance. chapters are used to organize training outs. and sand- ● Soldiers train to muscle failure. a running ing session is 20-40 minutes. bal- ance are used. track and/or running trails. It lists the daily activi- principles outlined in this and earlier ties and their intensity and duration. to include regularity.

Figure 10-4 (continued) 10-9 .

Figure 10-4 (continued) 10-10 .

Figure 10-4 (continued)


CONDUCT AND EVALUATE used in their job-related lifting tasks.
TRAINING Developmental stretching should help
reduce work-related back injuries. The
Conducting and evaluating training different types of training in running
is the final phase of the training will help ensure that soldiers reach a
process. This phase includes the evalu- satisfactory level of CR fitness and
ation of performance, assessment of help each soldier score at least 70
capabilities, and feedback portions of points on the APFT’s 2-mile run.
the training management cycle. These Soldiers do push-ups and sit-ups at
portions of the cycle must be simulta- least two or three times a week to
neous and continuous. To be effec- improve the unit’s performance in
tive, the evaluation process must ad- these events. The competitive fitness
dress why weaknesses exist, and it activities will help foster teamwork
must identify corrective actions to be and cohesion, both of which are essen-
taken. Evaluations should address the tial to each section’s functions.
following: ● Overload. Soldiers reach overload
● Assessment of proficiency in mis- in the weight circuit by doing each
sion-essential tasks. exercise with an 8- to 12-RM lift
● Status of training goals and objec- for a set time and/or until they
tives. reach temporary muscle failure. For
● Status of training in critical indi- the cardiorespiratory workout, THR
vidual and collective tasks. is calculated initially using 70 per-
● Shortfalls in training. cent of the HRR. They do push-ups
● Recommendations for next training and sit-ups in multiple, timed sets
cycle (key in on correcting weak- with short recovery periods to en-
nesses). sure that muscle failure is reached.
● Results of educational programs. They also do PREs to muscle fail-
Using the Principles of ● Progression. To help soldiers reach
Exercise adequate overload as they improve,
the program is made gradually more
As CPT Jones developed his pro- difficult. Soldiers progress in their
gram, he made sure he used the seven CR workout by increasing the time
principles of exercise. He justified his they spend at THR up to 30 to 45
program as follows: minutes per session and by main-
● Balance. This program is balanced taining THR. They progress on the
because all the fitness components weight training circuit individually.
are addressed. The emphasis is on When a soldier can do an exercise
building muscular endurance and for a set time without reaching
strength in the skeletal muscular muscle failure, the weight is in-
system because of the many lifting creased so that the soldier reaches
tasks the unit must do. The pro- muscle failure between the 8th and
gram also trains cardiorespiratory 12th repetition again. Progression
endurance and flexibility, and warm- in push-ups and sit-ups involves
up and cool-down periods are in- slowly increasing the duration of
cluded in every workout. the work intervals.
● Specificity. The unit’s fitness goals ● Variety. There are many different
are met. The sand-bag lifting and activities for variety. For strength
weight training programs help and muscular endurance training
develop muscular endurance and the soldiers use weight circuits,
strength. The movements should, sandbag circuits, and PREs. Ability
when possible, stress muscle groups group runs, intervals, Par courses,


Fartlek running, and guerrilla drills are system to recover on the day the
all used for CR training. Varied other is working hard.
stretching techniques, including static,
partner-assisted, and contract-relax, Conclusion
are used for developmental stretching. CPT Jones’s step-by-step process
● Regularity. Each component of of developing a sound PT program for
fitness is worked regularly. Soldiers his unit is an example of what each
will spend at least two to three days commander should do in developing
a week working each of the major his own unit program.
fitness components. They will also Good physical training takes no
do push-ups and sit-ups regularly to more time to plan and execute than
help reach their peak performance does poor training. When commanders
on the APFT. use a systematic approach to develop
● Recovery. The muscular and cardi- training, the planning process bears
orespiratory systems are stressed in sound results and the training will
alternate workouts. This allows one succeed.


requirements of their own training
course to ensure that their soldiers are
prepared for the physical challenges
of their future assignments. This
means developing safe training pro-
Soldiers report to initial entry train- grams which will produce the maxi-
ing (IET) ranging widely in their levels mum physical improvement possible.
of physical fitness. Because of this, MFTs are skilled at assessing sol-
there are special considerations when diers’ capabilities. They use the five
designing a physical training program components of physical fitness in de-
for IET soldiers. Physical training signing programs to reach the training
involves safely training and challeng- objectives established by the com-
ing all soldiers while improving their mander. They also know how to
fitness level to meet required stan- conduct exercise programs that are
dards. The regulations which govern effective and safe. MFTs are not,
the conduct of physical training in IET however, trained to diagnose or treat
and explain the graduation require- injuries.
ments are TRADOC Reg. 350-6 and The commander’s latitude in pro-
AR 350-15. gram development varies with the
The mission of physical training in length and type of the IET course.
IET is twofold: to safely train soldiers For example, commanders of basic
to meet the graduation requirements combat training (BCT) may do a
of each course and to prepare soldiers standard PT program at one installa-
to meet the physical demands of their tion, while AIT commanders may
future assignments. design their own programs. Regard-
less of the type of course, all leaders
Program Development must strive to train their soldiers to
attain the highest level of physical
All physical training programs in fitness possible. This means using the
IET must do the following: 1 ) progres- established principles of exercise to
develop a safe physical training pro-
sively condition and toughen soldiers
for military duties; 2) develop soldiers’ gram.
self-confidence, discipline, and team Safety Considerations
spirit; 3) develop healthy life-styles
through education; and, 4) improve Overuse injuries are common in
physical fitness to the highest levels IET. However, they can be avoided by
possible in all five components of carefully following the exercise prin-
physical fitness (cardiorespiratory ciples of “recovery” and “progression.”
endurance, muscular strength, muscu- Research suggests that soldiers are
lar endurance, flexibility, and body more prone to injuries of the lower
composition). extremities after the third week of
Because each IET school is some- IET. High-impact activities, such as
what different, commanders must road marching and running on hard
examine the graduation requirements surfaces, should be carefully moni-
for the course and establish appropri- tored during at this time. During this
ate fitness objectives. They can then period, fixed circuits and other activi-
design a program that attains these ob- ties that develop CR fitness are good,
jectives. The seven principles of low-impact alternatives.
exercise outlined in Chapter 1 are Properly fitted, high-quality run-
universal, and they apply to all PT ning shoes are important, especially
programs including those in IET. when PT sessions require running
Commanders of initial entry training on hard surfaces. Court shoes, like
should look beyond the graduation basketball or tennis shoes, are not


In the first two weeks of IET. and require combat boots to protect and weapon. they should 350-6. Naturally. start of the fourth week. be accustomed to marching in boots.designed to absorb the repetitive shock up to 5 kilometers with light loads. early weeks of IET. and ten- support the feet and ankles. paragraph 4-2. dons respond slowly to training and common sense dictates a reasonable may be injured if the load and/or break-in period for new combat boots. and their feet should be less prone to Road Marching blistering. duration are increased too quickly. Specific health and safety ier loads including a rucksack. By he considerations are in TRADOC Reg. ducted weekly with the difficulty of At no time during IET or one-station the marches progressing gradually unit training (OSUT) should loads ex- throughout IET. the load may be increased to 40 pounds includ- One road march should be con. Activities such as running Loads should be restricted to the obstacle courses and road marching standard LCE. ing personal clothing and equipment. Figure 11-1 11-1 . of running. After the initial adaptations in the Examples of recommended PT ses. soldiers can be sions and low-risk exercises are in expected to carry progressively heav- Chapter 7. especially before long marches. A sample regimen for road marches soldiers can be expected to road march during IET is at Figure 11-1. ligaments. By the sixth week. Bones. kevlar helmet. ceed 40 pounds.

To survive. To main. Sweating. usually between 74 and 110 cooling occurs is also directly related to degrees Fahrenheit. however. This causes heat at a rate 10 to 20 times greater even more sweating. no health and physical performance. During exercise. important means for heat loss.) problems concerning soldiers’ physical • Radiation-the transfer of heat by performance. sweat rates of up to two get rid of the excess heat. soldiers may deploy from a warm object to a cool one anywhere in the world. However. the deserts of the Middle • Convection-the transfer of heat by East.) America. While recogniz- • Evaporation. evaporate into the surrounding air. The body constantly produces heat. that slows or blocks the transfer of heat ment.the transfer of heat ing such problems is important. espe- tain a constant normal temperature. Life-threatening circumstances from the body by evaporation causes can develop if the body becomes too heat storage which results in an in- hot or too cold. The degree to which evaporative row limits. the air’s relative humidity (a measure pothermia and heat injuries can occur of the amount of water vapor in the within much narrower limits. Body temperature crease in body temperature. or circulation or movement the rolling hills of Western Europe. During exercise than during rest. This requires an understanding of the (Evaporating sweat cooling the skin environmental factors which affect is an example. the air is completely saturated devastating effect on the body’s ability at its temperature. extreme temperatures can have a percent. They may go that is touching it. it cially during exercise. must be maintained within fairly nar. Any condition must pass this heat on to the environ. 12-0 . is the body’s most especially during exercise. the body can produce body temperature increases. No more water can to control its temperature.) physical performance and how the body responds to those factors. hy. cooling effect takes place. There. and the During exercise. heat can be lost by a combination of the four methods. physical electromagnetic waves. When the relative humidity is 100 fore. (Sitting un- exertion in extreme environments can der a heat lamp is an example. it must in the heat. The four ways in which the body can gain or lose heat are the following: • Conduction-the transfre of heat In today’s Army. air). As Overheating is a serious threat to a result. (Warming boots into the tropical heat of Central by putting them on is an example. Heat moves from warm to cool areas. quarts per hour are not uncommon. by changing a liquid into a gas. (Using a fan on a hot day is Each environment presents unique an example. pre- venting them is even more important. the frozen tundra of Alaska.) be life-threatening. sweat does not evaporate. of air. when the body Temperature Regulation is extremely warm. Furthermore.

and level of fitness. to use combat-development running 12-1 . Highly con. the fol- lowing hydration guidelines should be in turn. soldiers are much more ● Heat stroke-hot. They must ensure that soldiers do the same task. cessa. but the training effect is the because they slow the absorption of same. nausea. High relative ● During the activity: drink 3 to 6 ounces at 15 to 30 minute intervals. A soldier’s ability to perform ef- tal confusion. process of evaporation. relative workload. legs. tion of sweating. it is important weight loss occurs. The degree of cising. ity cause increased heart rates. Acclimatization to Hot. These facts underscore the need water from the stomach. ● Before the activity: drink 13 to 20 there is no cooling effect through the ounces at least 30 minutes before. When two soldiers ity. exces. Until they are ac- clammy skin. dry skin. de- hydration can occur. be suspected. If rapid to be better. These are places where soldiers have been or could be deployed. dizziness. unconsciousness. the heat stress is less drink enough water before and during for the soldier who is in better physical the exercise session. ately active in it can acclimatize in 8 to ● Heat exhaustion-headache. Humid Environments Heat Injuries and Symptoms Adapting to differing environmental conditions is called acclimatization. If the lost fluids are not replaced. then drink a little more. The following are common types of heat injuries and their symptoms. Soldiers who are sedentary sive sweating. This condition. humid climate and are moder- abdomen. Plain water is the best Increased temperatures and humid- replacement fluid to use. it takes much less effort to and those with a high sugar content elevate the heart rate into the training may hurt the soldier’s performance zone. dehydration should to maintain high levels of fitness. To prevent heat injuries. Soldiers who are newly introduced to ● Heat cramps-muscles cramps of the a hot. climatized. rapid pulse. can result in severe heat used: injuries. sity to fit the temperature and humid. or arms. Therefore. trainers must adjust the inten. humidities combined with high tem. thirst. Con- centrated liquids such as soft drinks sequently. humid conditions Adapting to differing depends on both his acclimatization environmental conditions To prevent heat injuries while exer. heat stress directly depends on the is called acclimatization. Body weight is a condition. men. in hot. and his performance is likely good gauge of hydration. 14 days. Weather of this type occurs in the tropics and equatorial regions such as Central America and southern Asia. take much longer. ● Type of drink: cool water (45 to 55 Thus. a soldier’s sweat cannot evaporate. fectively in hot. likely to develop heat injuries. ● After the activity: drink to satisfy peratures can cause serious problems. humid conditions when degrees F).

loss of judgment. especially in hot.and to monitor heart rates when run. without proper pre. the cold. lost. HYPOTHERMIA ning. GUIDELINES FOR DRESSING FOR EXERCISE IN THE COLD Clothing for cold weather should protect. insulate. cause a rapid onset of hypothermia. ● Insulation will occur by trapping air which has been warmed by the body and holding it near the skin. Clothing should leave your body slightly cool rather than hot. major threat any time he is exposed to ● Blood volume is increased. Some guidelines for dressing for cold weather exercise are shown in Figure 12-1. maintaining a normal temperature. produce heat as fast as Environments During exercise in the cold. \ / “ Clothing should also be loose enough to / allow movement. The combination of decreased heat cautions. hypothermia. If the body’s core temperature drops Some important changes occur as a below normal. Figure 12-1 12-2 . As they get few real dangers in exercising at tem. This can lead to death. frostbite. they slow down and peratures well below freezing. However. of a soldier becoming hypothermic is a ● Sweat production is increased. This makes the body sweat. The chance temperature. and muscle weak. and ventilate. It develops because the body environment cannot produce heat as fast as it is losing ● Sweating occurs at a lower body it. ● Heart rate is less at any given work Some symptoms of hypothermia are rate. This condition is called hypother- tions help the body cope with a hot mia. i l l FEET SHOULD Clothing soaked with perspiration should BE KEPT DRY J ! ! ! ! be removed if reasonably possible. The sweat dampens the clothing next to There is no danger of freezing the the skin making it a good conductor of lungs. however. drowsiness. humid condi- tions. it has little trouble the cold. shivering. 40% HEAT LOSS THROUGH HEAD J:q(([l’ AND NECK WHEN UNCOVERED t i= $ ● Protect by covering as large an area of the body as possible. Since their bodies produce less heat. its ability to regulate its result of acclimatization to a hot cli. LIGHIWEIGHT ● Ventilate by allowing a two-way WARM-UPS exchange of air through the various (NOT WATERPROOF) layers of clothing. and production and increased heat loss can dehydration can occur. Also. slurred Hypothermia develops speech. The following physical adapta. when the body cannot Exercising in Cold ness. there are normal body temperature. fatigued. temperature can become impaired or mate. the body produces large amounts of people often overdress for exercise in heat during exercise. people it is losing it. usually produce enough heat to maintain Contrary to popular belief. heat.

Cold environments are often wind speed. While operating in ex- information on windchill factors. very cautious to avoid getting frost- ears. Severe bite. If. and water may be limited. Figure 12-2 12-3 . trainers should A person’s movement through the check the body weights of the soldiers air creates an effect similar to that regularly and encourage them to drink caused by wind. There- parts located away from the core and fore. there is a Frostbite is the freezing of body 5-mph headwind. It commonly occurs in body equivalent to a 20-mph wind. an exercising soldier must be exposed to the cold such as the nose. in addition. As a effect. and skin. soldiers may in time become wind can affect cooling by providing dehydrated. the overall effect is tissue. The wind has a great cooling effect because it causes rapid Dehydration can result from losing convective heat transfer from the body. Factors which lead to frostbite are cold temperatures combined with windy DEHYDRATION conditions. body will substantially reduce the tion. risks. hands. feet. tremely cold climates. Figure 12-2 shows how the result. the greater the cooling dry. body fluids faster than they are re- For a given temperature. FROSTBITE mph is the same as standing in a 15- mph wind. Covering exposed parts of the cases of frostbite may require amputa. the higher the placed. Riding a bicycle at 15 liquids whenever possible.

exercise as well at high altitudes. if possible. deacclima. Ozone and the oxides irritate the air the respiratory tract passageways in the lungs. air pollut- Altitudes ants were thought to be only by- products of the industrial revolution. reason. car- depends largely on the altitude. soldiers should be permitted • In areas of high ozone concentra- twice the length of their absence. the longer a are created by the primary pollutant’s soldier remains at high altitude. 12-4 . and an inability to sleep. sulfur diers and persons with low levels of oxides (SO). Secondary pollutants Due to acclimatization. Pollutants can irritate recommended that 30 days of acclima.primary and secondary. train early in the day and after to exceed 30 days. This irritates the cludes such symptoms as headache. Elevations below 5. The primary treatment is further acclimatization or returning to a lower altitude. For normal activi. the interaction with the environment. including regular physical less able to perform activity. For example.000 feet have However. restrictions during periods of heavy vironment which lower the environ. Ex- amples of these include ozone (03). air pollution. and atmospheric pressure is reduced. This There are two classifications of air means that soldiers cannot work or pollutants . to reacclimatize dark. loss of appetite. This in- can be inhaled. Acclimatization to High ment’s quality. better his performance becomes. duced naturally. the time required to acclimatize fects on the body. ticulate (ash). the body tissues get less oxygen. nausea. hydrocarbons. Originally. volca- However. and par- fitness. many pollutants are pro- little noticeable effect on healthy people. In order to insure that soldiers who are bon monoxide binds to hemoglobin in newly assigned to altitudes above 5. and many pollutants acute mountain sickness. it is amount of oxygen carried in the blood. Before acclimatization is complete. respiratory tract and makes the person less able to perform aerobically. however.000 feet. A period of 30 days is adequate eled streets and highways during for any given reacclimatization. and sulfates. The Primary pollutants are produced di- limiting effects of high elevation are rectly by industrial sources. For example. and lightning produces ozone. be permitted before they are pollutants irritate the eyes. include carbon monoxide (CO). administered a record APFT. When exercisers in high-pollution aerobically. • Consult your supporting preven- Air Pollution and Exercise tive-medicine activity for advice in identifying or defining training Pollutants are substances in the en. with air pollution while exercising: tization will occur if they spend 14 or • Avoid exposure to pollutants before more days at lower altitudes. Once soldiers are acclimatized to The following are some ways to deal altitudes above 5. Some pollutants have negative ef- ties. These often most pronounced in older sol. pollutants.000 the red blood cells and reduces the feet are not at a disadvantage. For this and during exercise. not tion. aldehydes. areas breathe through the mouth. Smog is a form as well as at sea level and should combination of primary and secondary not be expected to. Generally. at higher elevations the noes emit sulfur oxides and ash. while other and make the person tization. rapid pulse. he will not per. before being required to take a record • Avoid exercising near heavily trav- APFT. rush hours. the nasal mucosa’s ability to remove impu- people at high altitudes may suffer rities is bypassed.

and/or having calf muscles includes a warm-up and cool-down. and by failing to stretch Blister . health-care personnel tendon that produces pain when the should evaluate the injured soldier. sitting. attached muscle contracts.caused by vented by using petroleum jelly poor running. report the injury. Swelling may not occur. and 13-1 . ice. Many common injuries are caused ● Bursitis .a a well-balanced PT however.a stretching or tearing of Most injuries can be level surfaces for stretching and run. prevented by designing ning also helps prevent injuries. soldiers often bursa (a sack-like structure where exercise too much and too often and tendons pass over bones). and improper off of skin by friction. with a limited range of motion. be recognized and properly treated in one or more muscles. and wearing the proper size of ing. he should stop what into the muscle tissue. or lifting over friction-prone inflammation of the by overuse. ● Stress fractures of the feet. body alignment. shoes. These can be pre. ● Tendinitis . area. ● Shinsplints . responsibility of all leaders to mini. occurs at a joint and produces pain load.a bruise with bleeding that he is injured. injuries do occur. ankles. and to strengthen the abdominal ally be avoided by applying lubri. involuntary contraction of program. (socks. Injuries are not an uncommon oc.a stretching or tearing of medical help. Most overuse injuries can be when the joint is moved or touched.a painful injury to the mize the risk of injury to soldiers. This with too rapid an increase in the work. tion. nonetheless. elevation (RICE). he is doing. knees. that strengthen the front (quadri- Hot spot .an inflammation of a quired first aid. ● Tibial stress fractures . techniques. ● Sprain . Using strengthening exercises and soft. Following any re. These can gener. If a soldier suspects ● Contusion . Soldiers who have Dislocation . treated with rest. muscles. a primary boot or shoe. compression.“the displacement of problems with their knees can bene- one or more bones of a joint from fit from doing leg exercises their natural positions. These are generally caused Most injuries can be prevented by by wearing shoes with inflexible designing a well-balanced PT program soles or inadequate shock absorp- that does not overstress any body parts.caused by running exercise are the following: on uneven surfaces or with worn Abrasion (strawberry) .the rubbing out shoes. running on the toes or on hard allows enough time for recovery.overuse Typical Injuries Associated injuries which seem like shinsplints with Physical Training except that the pain is in a specific area. boots) in good repair. and seek ● Strain . and surfaces.a raised spot on the skin the back and hip-flexor muscles filled with liquid. that is. overuse. If. the muscles. keeping footwear occur in the feet. cants such as petroleum jelly to The most common running injuries areas of friction. ● Low back problems . currence during intense physical train. the ligament(s) at a joint. a blister forms.a hot or irritated feeling ceps) and rear (hamstrings) thigh of the skin which occurs just before muscles. and Sometimes swelling occurs. Common injuries associated with ● Knee injuries . It is. ● Muscle spasm (muscle cramp) . a timely fashion. they should sudden. soft tissues and bone in the shin Safety is always a major concern.

avoid running on sweating which can lead to dehydra- concrete. 13-2 . low back problems. run five to six times a week. See Appendix E for more soldiers may need gloves or mittens information on running shoes. soldiers during exercise. They cause excessive should. or park trails. knee inju- Failure to allow recovery between hard ries. marches. soldiers should run on grass Army Regulation 385-55 (para- paths. skating. on traffic ways. They should fit ing may be layered according to per- properly and have flexible. How. roads. he should do two things: gradually build up to running Other Factors that frequently and vary the intensity of the running sessions to allow recov. or tank trails or which are conducted ● Ankle sprains and fractures. comfortable. For example. Preventive meas. legs. Although they are hard to ● Upper leg and groin injuries (which eliminate. Shoes made with leather and jogging suit. are also injuries which com- juries. running on roads and ing. undershirt and gym shorts are best in footwear. to do this safely. Soft. bouts of running can lead to overtrain.12. vent injuries. control personnel must use proper stretching and shoes that do added caution to ensure the safety of not fit. or even Army-issued nylon uppers are usually the most long underwear. with adequate footwear and re. earlier. lations. can be prevented by vented by wearing proper footwear. or runs which cross highways. jogging. and blisters. Tibial stress fractures. sible. ● Ingrown toenails. Rubberized Since injuries can also be caused by or plastic suits should never be worn running on hard surfaces. A well-conditioned soldier can monly occur in runners. C) prohibits the use of ever. on administative-type walks. However. sonal preference. good technique in stretching and ures include proper warm-up and cool. These are available in a wide range of warm weather. even surfaces are best tion and a dangerous increase in body for injury prevention. down along with stretching exercises. which were mentioned ing and can also be a major cause of in. shinsplints. if possible. In very cold weather. headphones or earphones while walk- covery periods. Clothes used for physi- cal activity should be comfortable and Many running injuries Many running injuries can be pre. and ear-protecting caps. In cold weather. sweat suit. temperature. they may be worn Common running injuries include on tracks and running trails. graph B. However. or bicycling on other hard surfaces should pose no the roads and streets of military instal- problem. dirt paths. multi. Proper clothing can also help pre- ery between them. Whenever pos. visibility. much can be done to keep can usually be prevented by using them to a minimum. A T-shirt or sleeveless wearing proper Soldiers should train in running shoes. support. cloth- prices and styles. fit loosely. doing strengthening exercises). their soldiers. sol- layered soles with good arch and heel diers can wear a BDU. ● Stress fractures of the feet. the following: Road safety equipment is required ● Black toenails. If there is reduced ● Achilles tendinitis (caused by im.

reliable as testing as an indicator of The APFT is a three. given to soldiers with permanent pro. ● Observation. and physical prob- endurance and his ability to do fitness-related tasks. fectively move his body by using his the unit’s level of fitness. ited by a medical profile. 14-1 .15). Reserve must take the Army Physical ● Inspection. ● Medical examination. These include screening for to evaluate both the individual’s cardiovascular risk factors. It is a simple way to review training but is not as way to measure a soldier’s ability to ef. regu- sure that fitness training is designed to lar CR exercise. The APFT is a three-event ness of the unit’s physical fitness physical performance test used to as. both active and reserve fitness level. must take the APFT for cate a need to modify the fitness record regardless of age unless prohib- programs to attain higher fitness levels. there is no requirement to the soldier's fitness ing. ● Provides guidelines for safe. however. program. filed or contraindications to exercise cally fit (AR 350. For soldiers Performance on the However. Soldiers who reached sites for Airborne/Ranger/Special age 40 before 1 January 1989 must be Forces/SCUBA qualification are pro. ● Uses treadmill testing only for high- Commanders should use their unit’s risk soldiers who need it. This is an efficient way 501. and standards which serve as prerequi. cleared through the cardiovascular vided in DA Pam 351-4. they may still take part in physical training to in- Commanders are responsible for clude diagnostic APFTs unless pro- ensuring that their soldiers are physi. January 1989. event physical major muscle groups and CR system. Commanders at every level must en. not just to help soldiers do well on ling heart-disease risk factors. record APFT. This evaluates training Fitness Test (APFT) regardless of their procedures and indicates the sound age. Over-Forty Cardiovascular files and with temporary profiles greater Screening Program than three months’ duration. All soldiers must undergo peri- several ways they can assess fitness odic physical examinations in accor- including the following dance with AR 40-501 and NGR 40- ● Testing. screening program before taking a record APFT. APFT results may indi. component. mission-essential tasks. health-re- assess muscular linked to the soldier’s fitness level and related problems. There are exist. develop physical abilities in a balanced ● Gives advice and help in control- way. coronary heart disease. level and his ability to for clearance in the cardiovascular Additional physical performance tests screening program before taking a do fitness-related tasks. and Army levels. This is an ongoing orespiratory (CR) fitness. sess muscular endurance and cardi. it should not be the sole basis for ● Identifies soldiers with a risk of the unit’s physical fitness training. - APFT results to evaluate its physical All soldiers. The Army’s over-40 cardiovascular tant tool in determining the physical screening program (CVSP) does the readiness of individual soldiers and following: units. not APFT is strongly linked who reached age 40 on or after 1 the APFT. should drive physical train. and the unit’s physical performance Army National Guard. This detects performance test used to Performance on the APFT is strongly individual disabilities. the APFT. Prior to their CVSP Methods of Evaluation evaluation. lems. cardiorespiratory An APFT with alternate test events is (CR) fitness . All soldiers in the Active Army. While the APFT testing is an impor.

they are not all-inclusive. meeting minimum standards. shoes. REQUIRED EQUIPMENT ever. give a com. (Test results are used for personnel As stated. It ever. 350. They above the minimum APFT standards in must be able to measure time in both accordance with their missions (AR minutes and seconds. The supervisor of each event APFT does. tional equipment is not authorized Soldiers must do all three events in the unless prescribed by medical person- same test period. must have the event instructions and mander a sound measurement of the standards. APFT results show a unit’s overall level of physical fitness. BDUs may be worn but may be Diagnostic testing is important in moni. They should al. balanced exercise program. when Anything that gives a soldier an done too often. How- starting to finishing the three events.) cular endurance and CR fitness. however. and running shoes (not to improve their fitness levels. Scorers should have a general fitness level of his unit. mand. T- units can also be used to motivate them shirts. toring training progress but. agencies. stenciled or pinned onto pullover vests ways strive to improve themselves or sleeveless. Each soldier needs a DA Form 705. Soldiers should wear clothing that is tition on the APFT among soldiers or appropriate for PT such as shorts. quirement. actions. The numbers may be performance goals. socks. other physical must have a copy of FM 21-20 on capabilities must be measured. APFT events assess mus. Individual soldiers are also Runners must wear numbers or encouraged to set for themselves a some other form of identification for series of successively higher APFT the 2-mile run. a hindrance on some events. properly and to standard in order to The soldier fills in his name. social accurately evaluate a soldier’s physical security number. mesh pullovers or at- physically and never be content with tached to the runners themselves. Wearing devices such as The test period is defined as t h e weight belts or elastic bandages may or period of time which elapses from may not provide an advantage. for standardization. and sex. The OIC or NCOIC at the test site ness. may decrease motiva. Overview fitness and to be fair to all soldiers. may set performance goals which are Two stopwatches are needed. The Individual soldiers are not author- lowest passing APFT standards reflect ized to administer the APFT to them- the minimum acceptable fitness level selves for the purpose of satisfying a for all soldiers. tennis shoes). age. the APFT. such addi- must not take more than two hours. The APFT must be administered Army Physical Fitness Test Scorecard. When applied to a com . grade. Compe. The only exception is gloves. clipboard and an ink pen to record the Service schools. nel. 14-2 . To assess this. They may be worn in cold weather when approved by the local com- Test Administration mander.15). overall measures of physical-combat readi. unfair advantage is not permitted during tion and waste training time. How. The hand. regardless of MOS or unit’s diagnostic or record APFT re- component. They should not wear Testing is not a substitute for a basketball shoes or other types of court regular. and units results on the soldiers’ scorecards.

the event scorer will convert raw event and initial the results. (See Figure 14-1.) The unit will complete the other pertinent information in the comment height and weight data. If a soldier fails scores to point scores using the scoring an event or finds it difficult to perform. the standards on the back of the scorecards. block. ARMY PHYSICAL FITNESS TEST SCORECARD *Figure 14-1 14-3 .1 for instructions on completing DA Form 705. After the entire APFT has been Scorers record the raw score for each completed. (See scorer should write down the reasons and Figure 14-1.) See page 14-8.

*Figure 14-1 (continued) 14-4 .

*Figure 14-1 (continued) 14-5 .

*Figure 14-1 (continued) 14-6 .

*Figure 14-1 (continued) 14-7 .

and ensure that they are done The APFT must be properly Testers must be totally familiar correctly. • Ensure that necessary equipment is on hand. • Soldiers do not have tiring • Reports the results after the test. supervised to ensure that its with the instructions for each event • Rule on questions and scoring objectives are met. chapter. Twelve to 15 each soldier’s scorecard. The goal of the APFT is to control. eration. and a testees. • Procures all necessary equipment Commanders must strictly and supplies. • Ensures the test is properly They should also ensure the administered and the events are following: explained. 21-191 The goal of the APFT is to manders should plan testing should be used for training those get an accurate evaluation of the which permits each soldier to who administer the APFT. events. scoring. and demonstrators. and have the events demonstrated. following: company-sized unit is tested.) soldier’s fitness levels. • Perform other duties assigned by • Selecting and training the OIC or NCOIC. They must ensure that events. supervision ensures uniformity Correctly supervising testees and in the following: laying out the test area are essential SCORERS • Scoring the test. The OIC or NCOIC does the standards. Com. • Enforce the test standards in this factors. following: the test. soldiers’ fitness levels. • Read the test instructions. SUPERVISION Duties of Test Personnel • Supervise the scoring of events. less than one scorer for each 15 • Record the correct. and medical as • Count the number of correctly get an accurate evaluation of the appropriate). clothing. Proper and trained to administer the tests. scorers. scorers. and • Soldiers are not tested when scored according to the test fatigued or ill. and an accurate APFT include the scorers are required when a initial the scorecard block. • OIC or NCOIC. demonstrated. raw score on Preparations for administering soldiers tested. and equip. EVENT SUPERVISORS • Weather and environ- mental conditions do not Event supervisors do the inhibit performance. • Support personnel (safety. standards in this chapter. There should be no performed repetitions aloud. following: • Safety is the first consid. ment are uniform. • Securing a location for the • Administers the APFT. controlling performance demonstrator for each event. area. supervisors and scorers. • Administer the test events. (Training video tape No. • Trains the event supervisors. discrepancies for their event. The group administering the • Training of supervisors and test must include the following: Scorers do the following: scorers. OIC OR NCOIC Scorers must be thoroughly • Briefing and orienting trained to maintain uniform scoring administrators and partici. They do not participate in pants. perform to his maximal level. 14-8 . duties. • Supervise the performance of • Preparing the test and • Event supervisor. duties just before taking the APFT. control those factors which • Arranges and lays out the test influence test performance.

1 . Circle NO-GO if the soldier fails to complete the alternate aerobic event within the required time. COMMENTS The event supervisor. Figure 14-9. print the soldier’s body fat in the BODY FAT block.2-mile- stationary bicycle ergometer. If the height fraction is greater than 1/2 inch. NAME Print soldier’s last name. June 1998. injury during APFT and or appeals. 6. 14-8. WEIGHT Print soldier’s weight in WEIGHT block. GRADE Print soldier’s grade in GRADE block. The standards for the alternate aerobic event tests are listed in FM 21-20. SSN Print soldier’s social security number in SSN block. NCOIC. for male soldiers and DA Form 5501-R. If the height fraction is less than 1/2 inch. The two-mile run event scorer also determines the point value for push-ups and sit-ups using the scoring standards on the reverse side of the scorecard. The alternate aerobic event scorer totals the points from the push-up and or sit-up events and records the total APFT score in the TOTAL POINTS block. HEIGHT Print soldier’s height in HEIGHT block. 2MR RAW SCORE The event scorer records the two-mile run time in the 2MR RAW SCORE block. The time the soldier completes the alternate aerobic event is recorded in minutes and seconds in the ALTERNATE AEROBIC EVENT block. GENDER Print M for male or F for female in GENDER block. BODY FAT If soldier exceeds screening table weight. the lower point value is used and recorded. round down to the nearest whole number in inches. Weight will be recorded to the nearest pound. UNIT Print soldier’s unit designation in UNIT block. The two-mile run event scorer totals the points from the three events and records the total APFT score in the TOTAL POINTS block. Circle GO if the soldier completes the alternate aerobic event within the required time or less. Chapter 14. print N/A (not applicable) in the BODY FAT block. or OIC may record comments appropriate to the APFT in the COMMENTS block. If soldier does not exceed screening table weight or does not appear to have excessive body fat IAW AR 600-9. Body Fat Content Worksheet. Circle GO if soldier meets screening table weight IAW AR 600-9. Scoring for all alternate aerobic events is on a GO or NO-GO basis. round up to the next highest whole number in inches. The point value is recorded in the 2MR POINTS block and the event scorer prints his or her initials in the INITIALS block. If the weight fraction is 1/2 pound or greater. ALTERNATE AEROBIC EVENT The event scorer prints the alternate aerobic event administered (800-yard swim. PU RAW SCORE The event scorer records the number of correctly performed repetitions of the push-up in the PU RAW SCORE block and prints his or her initials in the INITIALS block. If the weight fraction is less than 1/2 pound. Dec 85. In all cases when a point value falls between two point values. The point values are recorded in the appropriate push-up and or sit -up POINTS block and the event scorer prints his or her initials in the 2MR INITIALS block. Army Physical Fitness Scorecard. 6.5-mile walk) in the ALTERNATE AEROBIC EVENT block. Circle NO-GO if soldier exceeds screening table weight IAW AR 600-9. Dec 85. The point values are recorded in the appropriate push-up and sit-up POINTS block and the event scorer prints his or her initials in the INITIALS block. Circle NO-GO if soldier exceeds percent body fat for their age and gender IAW AR 600-9. NCOIC/OIC Signature The NCOIC/OIC checks all test scores for accuracy and signs their name in the NCOIC/OIC Signature block. Circle GO if soldier meets percent body fat for their age and gender IAW AR 600-9. Percent body fat is recorded from DA Form 5500-R. The alternate aerobic event scorer also determines the point value for push-ups and or sit-ups using the scoring standards on the reverse side of the scorecard. event scorer. round down to the nearest pound. SU RAW SCORE The event scorer records the number of correctly performed repetitions of the sit-up in the SU RAW SCORE block and prints his or her initials in the INITIALS block. The time is recorded in minutes and seconds. round up to the nearest pound.*Instructions for Completing DA Form 705. AGE Print soldier’s age on the date the APFT is administered in AGE block. Body Fat Content Worksheet.2-mile-bicycle test or 2. The event scorer then determines the point value for the two-mile run using the scoring standards on the reverse side of the scorecard. No point values are awarded. Height will be rounded to the nearest inch. first name and middle initial in NAME block. Appropriate comments may include: weather conditions. DATE Print date the APFT is administered in DATE block. for female soldiers.


2-mile running course with a solid surface and no more than a Safety and control people should be three-percent grade. When necessary or expedient. dry area for perform. used. are connected with tangent lines. heavy pollution). However. When the Test Site track is laid out.) ing push-ups and sit-ups. A free of debris. faces.) sonnel may also be there. slippery road sur- the APFT conducted. (Commanders at the test site. 120-foot circle is marked at both ends lowing: of this line. for getting quarter-mile running track can “be medical help if needed. ● No significant hazards. the OIC or NCOIC should have a plan. Figure 14-2. SUPPORT PERSONNEL ● A flat. (See ● A soft. It can be marked with a series of stakes along the inside edge. flat. traffic. a horizontal midline 279 feet. Figure 14-2 14-9 . At a minimum. expected to survey terrain. 9 3/4 inches long must be The test site should be fairly flat and marked in the center of a clear area. (for ex- they do not have to be on site to have ample. The track is formed when ● An area for stretching and warming the outermost points of the two circles up. no one is policy and conditions. It should have the fol. a known to all test personnel. Medical per. depending on local must use good judgement.

) cause of low fitness levels may not retake an event.” (At this 61 feet. The OIC TEST. He may ON THE SCORECARD. If he has not done 10 SPACES. AND illegal position in the process. The “YOU ARE ABOUT TO TAKE THE test is then given.) Next. Therefore. on a 440-yard track. the scoring tables are explained so everyone understands how raw scores Test Procedures are converted to point scores. He then says the follow- However. 4 inches. If he does not issued. STAY WITH YOUR test OIC or NCOIC about the purpose TEST GROUP FOR THE ENTIRE and organization of the test. TIONS ABOUT THE TEST AT THIS scoring standards. point. WHAT ARE YOUR QUES- or NCOIC then explains the scorecard. A 400-meter track may be used in The OIC or NCOIC pauses briefly to place of the standard quarter-mile give the soldiers time to check the (440-yard) track for the 2-mile run. rectly must be stopped by the scorer NESS. A soldier who has problems such as MINING YOUR PHYSICAL TRAIN. RETAKING OF EVENTS A TEST THAT WILL MEASURE YOUR MUSCULAR ENDURANCE Soldiers who start an event incor- AND CARDIORESPIRATORY FIT. WILL ACT AS A GUIDE IN DETER. They COMMANDERS AN INDICATION are then sent to the end of the line to OF YOUR STATE OF FITNESS AND await their turn to retake the event. not retake the event if he has exceeded cards have been issued to the soldiers 10 repetitions. the OIC or NCOIC says the following On test day. he is sent to the end SONAL INFORMATION REQUIRED of the line to retake that event. PRINT IN INK THE PER. Soldiers who are unable and filled out before they arrive at the to perform 10 correct repetitions be- test site.” (If score. If he DO THE BEST YOU CAN ON EACH continues. he receives credit for all OF THE EVENTS. he gets credit for the number time. they are handed out at this continue. THE track. Eight laps on a BEFORE YOU BEGIN. The OIC or NCOIC then says the of correct repetitions he has performed following: “IN THE APPROPRIATE up to that time. correct repetitions. AND must run eight laps plus an additional RETURN IT TO YOU. AFTER than eight laps (2 miles) on a 440-yard YOU COMPLETE THE EVENT. information. HAND THE 400-meter track is 736 inches shorter CARD TO THE SCORER. ARMY PHYSICAL FITNESS TEST. THE RESULTS OF THIS before they complete 10 repetitions TEST WILL GIVE YOU AND YOUR and told what their errors are. muscle cramps while performing an ING NEEDS.” correctly done repetitions within the If scorecards have not already been two-minute period. and sequence of POINT?” events. LISTEN CLOSELY TO event may rest if he does not assume an THE TEST INSTRUCTIONS. 14-10 . one lap run on a 400-meter ing: “YOU ARE TO CARRY THIS track is 92 inches shorter than one lap CARD WITH YOU TO EACH EVENT. INITIAL THE CARD. soldiers who run the SCORER WILL RECORD YOUR RAW 2-mile event on a 400-meter track SCORE. this remark is omitted. Groups are organized as required The instructions printed here in and given final instructions including large type must be read to the soldiers: what to do after the final event. soldiers are assembled “EACH OF YOU WILL BE ASSIGNED in a common area and briefed by the TO A GROUP.

Soldiers who rest in an unauthorized rest position Push-ups measure the endurance of will have their performance in that the chest. SHOULDER. sit-up. aerobic event). Personnel Test Sequence One event supervisor must beat the test site and one scorer at each station. 14-11 . timing techniques. event scorer. Under no MAY BE TOGETHER OR UP TO 12 circumstances is the APFT valid if a INCHES APART. THE FRONT-LEANING REST PO- ing in the APFT. Soldiers without a station for every 15 soldiers to be medical profile will be retested not.’ ASSUME number of soldiers who are participat. facilities. and 2-mile run (or alternate. Each station is 6 feet wide and later-than three months following the 15 feet deep. pushup. event immediately terminated. tested. One stopwatch is needed along with graph 11) must be flagged IAW AR one clipboard and pen for each scorer. Soldiers should be allowed no less The event supervisor must read the than 10 minutes. There are no Instructions exceptions to this sequence.) The records of soldiers who fail a record APFT for the first time and Equipment those who fail to take the APFT within the required period (AR 350-15. PUSH-UPS formed after their rest. paragraph 11. and 2-mile-run events. shoulder. The order of events cannot be changed. 600-8-2 (Reference B). TEST FAILURES instructions. The OIC or NCOIC deter. para. as it will depend on the total COMMAND ‘GET SET. O N T HE events. thorized rest position continue to re- ceive credit for correct repetitions per. and scorers’ duties for the Soldiers who stop to rest in an au. The event supervisor must have the following the instructions in this chap- RETESTING ter on how to conduct the event and one copy of the push-up scoring stan- Soldiers who fail any or all of the dards (DA Form 705). commanders may Facilities allow soldiers to retake the test as soon as the soldiers and commanders feel There must be at least one test they are ready. administration. YOUR BODY events in two hours or less. THE CHEST. initial APFT failure in accordance with AR 350-15. personnel. YOUR FEET intervals between events. staggered starting times WHERE THEY ARE COMFORT- should be planned to allow the proper ABLE FOR YOU. but ideally no more following: “THE PUSH-UP EVENT than 20 minutes. AND mines the time to be allotted between TRICEPS MUSCLES. events must retake the entire APFT. SHOULD FORM A GENERALLY The following paragraphs describe STRAIGHT LINE FROM YOUR the equipment. The event supervisor may not be the sit-up. If many soldiers are SITION BY PLACING YOUR HANDS to be tested. (See Figure 14-3. WHEN VIEWED soldier cannot begin and end all three FROM THE SIDE. to recover between MEASURES THE ENDURANCE OF each event. In case of test failure. The test sequence is the push-up. and triceps muscles. SHOULDERS TO YOUR ANKLES.


the event until all soldiers have com- IF THIS OCCURS. YOU MUST RETURN TO. The event supervisor cannot be SUPPORTING MOST OF YOUR ready to begin. The event supervisor is the timer. WHEN FLEXING After reading the instructions. Scorers must allow for differences CORRECT PERFORMANCE IS IM. The scorer should talk to (The exercise is then demonstrated. throughout the event to evaluate each WATCH THIS DEMONSTRATION. Successive groups do BODY WEIGHT WITH YOUR LEGS. IF YOU REST ON THE GROUND He calls out the time remaining every OR RAISE EITHER HAND OR FOOT 30 seconds and every second for the FROM THE GROUND. THE CORRECT STARTING POSITION BEFORE CONTINUING. YOU WILL HAVE TWO each soldier. YOUR PERFORM. ANCE WILL BE TERMINATED. AND PAUSE Timing Techniques IN. YOU MAY BEND supervisor answers questions. YOU MAY REPOSITION the command “Halt!” YOUR HANDS AND/OR FEET DURING THE EVENT AS LONG AS Scorers’ Duties THEY REMAIN IN CONTACT WITH THE GROUND AT ALL TIMES.) “WHAT ARE -YOUR QUES. warm-up and reference to ensure he is tion. the soldier before the event begins and See Figure 14-4 for a list of points that have him do a few repetitions as a need to be made during the demonstra. Administration SAG IN THE MIDDLE OR FLEX YOUR BACK. pleted it. in the body shape and structure of PORTANT.” repetition. He PERFORMANCE WILL BE TERMI. The scorer uses each MINUTES IN WHICH TO DO AS soldier’s starting position as a guide MANY PUSH-UPS AS YOU CAN. TIONS?” Figure 14-4 14-13 . Then he YOUR KNEES. BUT NOT TO SUCH moves the groups to their testing sta- AN EXTENT THAT YOU ARE tions. YOUR last 10 seconds of the two minutes. the YOUR BACK. ends the event after two minutes by NATED. doing the exercise correctly.

(See Figure 14-5. When the soldier completes the One event supervisor must be at the event. Ensure that no more than 15 what they do wrong as it occurs dur. about even with the testee’s shoulder The event supervisor must have the when the latter is in the front-leaning following: the instructions in this chap- rest position. Instructions SIT-UPS The event supervisor must read the following: “THE SIT-UP EVENT This event measures the endurance MEASURES THE ENDURANCE OF of the abdominal and hip-flexor THE ABDOMINAL AND HIP- muscles. The scorer’s head should be one clipboard and pen for each scorer. Each scorer determines ter on how to conduct the event and for himself if he will sit or kneel when one copy of the sit-up scoring stan- scoring. He counts out loud the number of correct repetitions com. ing the event. and returns it to event scorer. The event supervisor may not be the initials the scorecard. while scoring. ON THE Figure 14-5 14-14 . of correctly performed repetitions. the scorer records the number test site and one scorer at each station. soldiers are tested at a station. A critique of the performance is done following the Personnel test. the soldier. Facilities pleted and repeats the number of the last correct push-up if an incorrect Each station is 6 feet wide and 15 feet one is done. The scorer may either sit or kneel Equipment about three feet from the testee’s shoulder at a 45-degree angle in front One stopwatch is needed along with of it. Scorers tell the testees deep. He may not lie down or stand dards (DA Form 705).) FLEXOR MUSCLES.


initials the scorecard. YOU ups. the scorer must be sure that at STRATION. Scorers tell the PUSH YOURSELF UP TO THE UP testees what they are doing wrong as it (RESTING) POSITION OR TO HOLD occurs during the event. the number of correctly performed sit- FORMANCE IS IMPORTANT. with his elbows may not come to a He calls out the time remaining every completely vertical position. this angle becomes greater than 90 degrees. dier after the event. scoring. Successive groups do terminate the testee’s performance in the event until all soldiers have com. He NATED.” (The exercise is then a 90-degree angle is formed at each demonstrated. The scorer counts aloud the FORT TO SIT UP. The scorer 30 seconds and every second for the must ensure that the holder uses only last 10 seconds of the two minutes. the testing is loss of the proper angle does not ready to begin. IF YOU STOP AND REST IN latter is in the vertical (up) position. 14-16 . the event. Each scorer decides for himself whether THE EVENT WILL BE TERMI. obtain compliance before allowing the tions. When the soldier comes to pleted it. PERFORM AS MANY SIT-UPS AS When checking for correct body YOU CAN. He his hands to brace the exerciser’s feet.) “WHAT one formed by the lower leg and the ARE YOUR QUESTIONS?” ground. the scorer should After reading the instructions. A critique of YOURSELF IN THE REST POSI. and returns WILL HAVE TWO MINUTES TO it to the soldier. See Figure 14-6 for a knee by the soldier’s upper and lower list of points that need to be made leg. THE DOWN (STARTING) POSITION. CORRECT PER. with the testee’s shoulder when the TION. IF YOU DO SO. the vertical position. YOUR PER. SIT-UP. the instruct the testee and holder to repo- supervisor answers questions. At this point. THE UP POSITION IS THE The scorer’s head should be about even ONLY AUTHORIZED REST POSI.GROUND TO RAISE YOUR UPPER ends the event after two minutes by the BODY. A soldier who simply touches his knees The event supervisor is the timer. while performing the sit- Administration up event. OR LET YOUR KNEES command “Halt!” EXCEED A 90-DEGREE ANGLE. AS LONG AS YOU MAKE may not lie down or stand while A CONTINUOUS PHYSICAL EF. The a scorer. He then sition the legs to the proper angle and moves the groups to their testing sta. The event supervisor cannot be testee’s performance to continue. The angle to be measured is not the during the demonstration. IF A REPETITION DOES NOT Scorers’ Duties COUNT. If. his performance is given to each sol- TION. to sit or kneel down when scoring. When the soldier FORMANCE IN THE EVENT WILL completes the event. the scorer records BE TERMINATED. YOU and repeats the number of the last MAY NOT USE YOUR HANDS OR correctly performed repetition if an ANY OTHER MEANS TO PULL OR incorrect one is done. THE EVENT number of correctly performed sit-ups WILL NOT BE TERMINATED. position. THE SCORER WILL RE- PEAT THE NUMBER OF YOUR The scorer may either kneel or sit LAST CORRECTLY PERFORMED about three feet from the testee’s hip. WATCH THIS DEMON. the scorer must be sure that the base of the soldier’s neck Timing Techniques is above or past the base of the spine.

PUSHED. the start and finish and SHORTEST TIME POSSIBLE. AT supervisor. YOU WILL BEGIN RUNNING AT YOUR Facilities OWN PACE. One event supervisor and at least PICKED UP. start and finish points. IF YOU ARE PHYSICALLY Personnel HELPED IN ANY WAY (FOR EX- AMPLE. TO RUN THE RE- QUIRED TWO MILES. PULLED. ALL SOLDIERS WILL each scorer. RUNNING COURSE FOR ANY Figure 14-7 14-17 . and course which a measured course has been layout). ON THE COMMAND ‘GO. TWO-MILE RUN Instructions This event tests cardiorespiratory The event supervisor must read the (aerobic) endurance and the endurance following: “THE TWO-MILE RUN IS of the leg muscles. AL- one-mile (half way) point must be clearly THOUGH WALKING IS AUTHOR- marked. An oval-shaped track of ON YOUR ABILITY TO COMPLETE known length may be used. You MUST COMPLETE THE RUN WITH- Two stopwatches for the event OUT ANY PHYSICAL HELP. IZED. and numbers LINE. copies of the event’s in. LINE UP BEHIND THE STARTING structions and standards.’ for the testees are needed. (See Figure 14-7. THE CLOCK WILL START.) USED TO ASSESS YOUR AEROBIC FITNESS AND YOUR LEG Equipment MUSCLES’ ENDURANCE. If a road THE 2-MILE COURSE IN THE course is used. AND/OR CARRIED) one scorer for every 15 runners are OR LEAVE THE DESIGNATED required. YOU MUST There must be a level area with no COMPLETE (describe the number of more than a three-degree slope on laps. one clipboard and pen for THE START. IT IS STRONGLY DISCOUR- AGED. YOU ARE BEING TESTED marked.

scorers determine the point value for ING OUT THE ELAPSED TIME IS each soldier’s run time. the score awarded is 95 points. CHEERING OR CALL. the MITTED. At the same time. if WHEN YOU FINISH THE RUN. when a time falls between MAKE SURE IT IS VISIBLE AT ALL two point values. the scoring standards on the back side WHAT ARE YOUR QUESTIONS ON of the scorecard. GO TO THE AREA DESIG. THE and times on a separate sheet of paper PRACTICE OF RUNNING AHEAD or card. the lower point value TIMES. age 17 to 21. to a point score. point values on the scorecards. Scorers’ Duties FIED. After reading the instructions.) THE NUM. He uses the commands “Get set” and Properly interpreted. ● Soldiers who need special attention.” Two stopwatches are used in on the APFT shows the following: case one fails. YOU MUST In all cases. AND STRETCH. This simplifies the recording OF. the After the test scores have been checked. They enter those THIS EVENT?” point values on the scorecards and determine the total APFT score for Administration each soldier before giving the score- cards to the test’s OIC or NCOIC. As the soldiers near the ● Each soldier’s level of physical fit- finish line. and BER ON YOUR CHEST IS FOR enter their initials in the scorers’ blocks. fifteen. the push-up and sit-up events by using TERFERE WITH THE TESTING. the event supervisor calls ness. record the ALSO PERMITTED. AS LONG AS THERE IS NO their groups. fifteen-thirty -two. and record their times as PACED SOLDIER AND IT DOES they cross the finish line. (IT IS LEGAL TO PACE A SOLDIER DURING THE 2-MILE The scorers observe those runners in RUN. Test Results ords each soldier’s number. fitness. TURN IN YOUR NUMBER is used and recorded. all runners have completed the run.REASON. IDENTIFICATION. “Fifteen-thirty. OR BEHIND of finish times when large groups of THE TESTED SOLDIER. YOU WILL BE DISQUALI. two miles in 15 minutes and 19 sec- NATED FOR THE COOL-DOWN onds. off the time in minutes and seconds ● The entire unit’s level of physical (for example. in the group. a female soldier. supervisor answers questions. runs the THEN. so on). the scorer collects the scorecards and rec. The scorer for each unit’s commander or designated repre- group assigns a number to each soldier sentative. thirty-one. WHILE soldiers are simultaneously tested.) After SERVING AS A PACER. performance “Go. He then the test’s OIC or NCOIC signs all organizes the soldiers into groups of no scorecards and returns them to the more than 10.” and ● Deficiencies in physical fitness. (It is often NOT PHYSICALLY HINDER OTHER helpful to record the soldiers’ numbers SOLDIERS TAKING THE TEST. the scorers for the 2- NEAR THE SCORERS OR THE mile run also convert the raw scores for FINISH LINE AS THIS MAY IN. monitor their laps (if PHYSICAL CONTACT WITH THE appropriate). ALONG SIDE OF. 14-18 . IS PER. DO NOT STAY At this time. For example. The soldier’s fitness performance Timing Techniques for each APFT event is determined by converting the raw score for each event The event supervisor is the timer.

extra points are awarded at the should be used. Take. unofficial point scores to reward sol- termine the individual’s or the unit’s diers for their extra effort. Using the total point second decrease in the run time. Therefore. want to know Commanders should not try to de. A male soldier per- forms above the maximum in the 17-21 age group by doing 87 push-ups and Scores Above Maximum 98 sit-ups and by running the two miles in 11 minutes and 12 seconds. (100 points per event). Even though some soldiers exceed His score would be calculated as fol- the maximum score on one or more lows: Figure 14-8 14-19 . at or below the 100 point level. For a proper analysis scale. the following case shown interpretation. the official. (Leaders must develop special pro. Each point push-up score should be con. however. Some com- quired standards. value or raw scores may distort the for example. in Figure 14-8. APFT events.) manders. a female’s 80. event scores earned. They are corrected for same rate as points obtained for scores age and sex. strengths and weaknesses in fitness by Only those soldiers who score 100 using only the total scores. maximum grams to improve the performance score on the APFT must remain at 300 of soldiers who are below the re. To fairly determine the points of the unit’s performance. push-up and sit-up beyond the maxi- sidered the same as a male’s 80-point mum is worth one point as is every six- push-up score. A detailed points in all three events are eligible to study of the results on each event is determine their score on an extended more important.

Commanders may also do the push-up and sit-up events and establish their own incentive programs an alternate aerobic event.) mander easily determine the scores for The profiled soldier must perform performances that are above the maxi. should address the soldier’s abilities ● 2. He may recognize soldiers for cal profile permits. The profiling officer gives the are the following: unit’s commander a list of physical ● 800-yard-swim test.5-mile-walk test. activities that are suitable for the ● 6. soldier has 14 days to train for the APFT after the profile period ends. Soldiers must take the regular three-event APFT who cannot do any of the aerobic after the profile has expired. He also indicates the ter test with a resistance setting events and/or alternate aerobic event of 2 kiloponds (2 kilograms) or that the soldier will do on the APFT. 14-20 . if aerobic event are not awarded promo- the profile period was 7 days. each event to earn a “go” for the test. give the soldier a total score of available. cal Profile. with temporary profiles of more than Such information will be recorded in three months may take an alternate test their official military record. Soldiers who do push-up and profile (but not more than 90 days) to sit-up events but who take an alternate train for the APFT. (See DA Form 3349. the soldier all alternate events is on a go/no go must be given twice the time of the basis. all the regular APFT events his medi- mum. the soldier Alternate APFT events assess the should be given a mandatory make-up aerobic fitness and muscular endur- date.2-mile-stationary. made after ● 6. Scoring for Once the profile is lifted. the tion points for APFT performance. A soldier whose profile prevents two or Temporary Profiles more APFT events must complete the 2-mile run or an alternate aerobic A soldier with a temporary profile event to earn a “go” on the test. For example.2-mile-bicycle test on a conven- consultation with the profiled soldier. The calculations on the previous and preference and the equipment page. If Alternate Events a normally scheduled APFT occurs during the profile period. unofficial fitness challenges. 20 newtons. earn at least 60 points on the regular not only on the APFT but also for events to receive a “go.” He must also other. the profiling officer using the positive profile form DA 3349 (see Appendix The alternate aerobic APFT events B).bicycle ergome- profiled soldier. This method lets the com. ) are listed in Figure 14-9. (Soldiers events due to a profile cannot be tested. ance of soldiers with permanent medi- Permanent Profiles cal profiles or long-term (greater than three months) temporary profiles who A permanently profiled soldier is cannot take the regular. a soldier recognized for any of the tested fitness whose profile forbids only running will components. Each soldier must their outstanding fitness achievements. For example. Physi- 318 points. complete the alternate event in a time Using this method ensures that each equal to or less than the one listed for soldier has an equal chance to be his age group. referenced in AR 40-501. as determined by the commander with The standards for alternate events input from health-care personnel. tional bicycle using one speed. three-event given a physical training program by APFT. He must get and set their own unit’s standards (AR at least a minimum passing score on 350-15). This recommendation.

YOU SHOULD THEN respiratory (aerobic) fitness. ALTERNATE TEST STANDARDS BY EVENT.) PACE. USING ANY STROKE OR COMBINATION OF STROKES YOU Equipment WISH. and medical personnel must also be present.’ THE CLOCK This event is used to assess cardio. and appropriate OF THE POOL AS YOU TURN. Instructions The event supervisor must read the following statement: “THE 800-YARD SWIM IS USED TO ASSESS YOUR LEVEL OF AEROBIC FITNESS. SEX. YOU WILL BE SCORED ON YOUR ABILITY Facilities TO COMPLETE THE SWIM IN A TIME EQUAL TO. YOU MUST TOUCH THE for each scorer. AND AGE AGE EVENT SEX 17-21 22-26 27-31 32-36 37-41 42-46 47-51 52-56 57-61 62+ 800-YARD Men 20:00 20:30 21:00 21:30 22:00 22:30 23:00 24:00 24:30 25:00 SWIM Women 21:00 21:30 22:00 22:30 23:00 23:30 24:00 25:00 25:30 26:00 6.5-MILE Men 34:00 34:30 35:00 35:30 36:00 36:30 37:00 37:30 38:00 38:30 WALK Women 37:00 37:30 38:00 38:30 39:00 39:30 40:00 40:30 41:00 41:30 *Figure 14-9 800-YARD-SWIM TEST WITH THE WALL OF THE POOL. NO DIVING IS ALLOWED. Appropriate safety. one copy each of the test WALL OF THE POOL AT EACH END instructions and standards. and 3 feet deep. WILL START. ANY safety equipment are needed. one clipboard and pen DISTANCE. ON THE COMMAND ‘GO. AT THE START. is WALKING ON THE BOTTOM TO needed. or an approved facility.2-MILE BIKE Men 24:00 24:30 25:00 25:30 26:00 27:00 28:00 30:00 31:00 32:00 (Stationary Women 25:00 25:30 26:00 26:30 27:00 28:00 30:00 32:00 33:00 34:00 and track) 2. YOUR BODY MUST BE IN CONTACT 14-21 . control. SWIMMING GOGGLES ARE PER- Personnel MITTED. YOU MUST SWIM (tell the number) LAPS TO COMPLETE THIS Two stopwatches. RECUPERATE IS AUTHORIZED. BUT NO OTHER EQUIP- MENT IS AUTHORIZED. (See BEGIN SWIMMING AT YOUR OWN Figure 14-10. TYPE OF TURN IS AUTHORIZED. YOU WILL BEGIN IN THE WATER. WHAT ARE One event supervisor and at least one YOUR QUESTIONS ABOUT THIS scorer for every soldier to be tested are EVENT?” required. THAT A swimming pool at least 25 yards long LISTED FOR YOUR AGE AND SEX. OR LESS THAN.

” ERGOMETER TEST Two stopwatches are used in case one fails. The scorers record each soldier’s time for training and testing. cardiorespiratory and leg-muscle “ Nineteen-eleven. The swimmer touches the bulkhead at every bicycle should be one that can be used turn. The time is recorded when each soldier touches the end Equipment of the pool on the final lap or crosses a line set as the 800-yard mark.37)/36 safety of the testees throughout the test. nineteen-twelve. that is. the event supervisor must be alert to the product by 36. one clipboard and pen for each scorer. length is measured in meters.2-MILE STATIONARY-BICYCLE uses the commands “Get set” and “Go. To the soldiers to enter the water. endurance. the event time as an 800-yard-swim time. T h e ergometers should measure assigned to the. multiply the them a short warm-up period to acclimate to the water temperature and loosen up. Above number of meters by 39. If the pool supervisor answers only related questions. the event This event is used to assess the soldier’s supervisor begins calling off the elapsed time in minutes and seconds (for example.4 yards.37 and divide the all.4 yards. He 6. He gives convert meters to yards.) nineteen-thirteen. = yards. 800-YARD SWIM Figure 14-10 Administration in the 2-mile-run block on the scorecard and use the comment block to identify the After reading the instructions. 400 meters equals 437.” and so on). the scorers He assigns one soldier to each lane and tells convert the exact distance to yards. Two stopwatches. (meters x 39. (See Figure 14-11.37)/36 = Timing Techniques 437. that is. (400 x 39. The event supervisor is the timer. an d on e st a t i on a r y bi cycl e er gom et er a r e Scorers must observe the swimmers n eeded. a copy of the t est Scorers’ Duties in str uction s an d stan dar ds. As the soldiers near the finish. For example. Its seat and 14-22 . They must be sure that each resistance in kiloponds or newtons.

ABOUT THIS EVENT?” control.2 MILES (10 KILOMETERS). The test site can be any place where AND YOU WILL BEGIN PEDAL- there is an approved bicycle ergometer. The following: “THE 6. EVENT TESTS YOUR CARDI- nected to the flywheel. Figure 14-11 handlebars must be adjustable to let the Instructions soldier fully extend his legs when pedaling. AS SHOWN ON Personnel THE ODOMETER. See Appendix ORESPIRATORY FITNESS AND LEG D for guidance on using various types MUSCLE ENDURANCE.2-MILE STA- resistance is usually set by a tension TIONARY-BICYCLE ERGOMETER strap on a weighted pendulum con. ON THE COMMAND ‘GO. and medical personnel should also be present. THE of stationary bikes. ING AT YOUR OWN PACE WHILE This could be the post’s fitness facility MAINTAINING THE RESISTANCE or the hospital’s therapy clinic. It should have an adjustable The event supervisor must read the tension setting and an odometer. IN A TIME EQUAL TO OR LESS THAN THAT One event supervisor and at least LISTED FOR YOUR AGE AND SEX.’ THE CLOCK WILL START. test station must be two yards wide and YOU WILL BE SCORED ON YOUR four yards deep. ABILITY TO COMPLETE 6. Appropriate safety. ERGOMETER’S RESISTANCE MUST BE SET AT TWO KILOPOUNDS (20 Facilities NEWTONS). 14-23 . Each INDICATOR AT TWO POUNDS. one scorer for every three soldiers to be WHAT ARE YOUR QUESTIONS tested are required.

instructions and standards.2-MILE BICYCLE TEST After reading the instructions. and they should ergometer is functioning properly. Soldiers should not be tested on a Scorers must ensure that the bicycle quarter-mile track. test. personnel should also be present as tance control to ensure that a continu. and num- He uses the commands “Get set” and bers are needed. a copy of the test The event supervisor is the timer. Safety. can usually be done by taping the gear twenty -thirty -two. He calls the time testee. the This event is used to assess the event supervisor answers any related soldier’s cardiorespiratory and leg- questions. (This (for example. Equipment Timing Techniques Two stopwatches. It must also be clearly marked.” Two stopwatches are used in bicycles are preferred for this event. initial following: “THE 6. the multispeed bicycle is used. control. The scorers must observe the One event supervisor and at least soldiers throughout the event. A relatively flat course with a uni- form surface and no obstacles must be Scorers’ Duties used. Although one-speed “Go. calibrated and are accurate and that the resistance of the ergometers has Personnel been set at two kiloponds (20 new- tons). They never be out of the scorers’ sight. YOU MUST COMPLETE THE 6. As the soldiers pedal the multispeed bicycles may be used. ous resistance of exactly 2 kiloponds (20 newtons) is maintained throughout instructions the test. and medical make small adjustments to the resis.2 14-24 . At the end of the test. one clipboard and pen for each scorer. and note in the TEST IS USED TO ASSESS YOUR comment block that the time is for a CARDIORESPIRATORY FITNESS 6. The event supervisor must read the card in the 2-mile-run block.2-MILE BICYCLE the appropriate block.) remaining every 30 seconds for the last two minutes of the allowable time and Facilities every second during the last ten sec- onds.2-mile stationary-bicycle ergometer AND LEG MUSCLES’ ENDURANCE. twenty-thirty. “Twenty-thirty-one.” and so on). If a last two-tenths of the test distance. they record each soldier’s time on the score. The must then make sure that the bicycle course should be completely free of ergometers’ tension settings have been runners and walkers. Each soldier is given a short muscle endurance. Administration 6. warm-up period and allowed to adjust the seat and handlebar height. shifters at the setting preferred by the three. appropriate. case one fails. measures event supervisor should start calling must be taken to ensure that only one off the time in minutes and seconds gear is used throughout the test. From one scorer for every 10 soldiers are re- time to time the scorer may need to quired.

start and finish points. CHANGING Administration GEARS IS NOT PERMITTED AND WILL RESULT IN DISQUALIFICA. TO COMPLETE THE in their groups and record each sol- REQUIRED DISTANCE OF 6. TO BEGIN. YOU WILL LINE event supervisor answers any related UP BEHIND THE STARTING LINE. The event supervisor is the timer.MILES WITHOUT ANY PHYSICAL REASON. WHAT ARE YOUR QUES- KEEP YOUR BICYCLE IN ONE TIONS ABOUT THIS EVENT?” GEAR OF YOUR CHOOSING FOR THE ENTIRE TEST. OF 6. After reading the instructions.2-mile ride. He then organizes the sol- ON THE COMMAND ‘GO.’ THE diers into groups of no more than ten CLOCK WILL START. As soldiers near the end AND SEX. WILL BEGIN PEDALING AT YOUR Scorers assign numbers to the soldiers OWN PACE. the TION. and course layout). YOU MUST COMPLETE card. YOU MUST FIED.2 dier’s number on the appropriate score- MILES. YOU Timing Techniques WILL BE SCORED ON YOUR ABIL- ITY TO COMPLETE THE DISTANCE. IF YOU LEAVE THE of the 6.” Two stopwatches are used in THAT LISTED FOR YOUR AGE case one fails. the event super- DESIGNATED COURSE FOR ANY visor starts calling off the time in 14-25 . questions. AND YOU and assigns each group to a scorer. YOU WILL BE DISQUALI- HELP FROM OTHERS.2 MILES ( 10 KILOMETERS) IN He uses the commands “Get set” and A TIME EQUAL TO OR LESS THAN “Go. (describe the number of laps.

5-MILE WALK one scorer for every three soldiers to be tested are required. thirty -twenty-three. When the event is over.minutes and seconds (for example. scorers record each soldier’s time in the 2- Facilities mile-run block. one clipboard and pen for each scorer.2-mile-bicycle test and whether or not the testee met the required stan- Personnel dards for his age and sex. One event supervisor and at least 2. Appropriate safety. 6. This event serves to assess cardi- control. Two stopwatches. numbers. and medical personnel should orespiratory and leg-muscle endur- be present. 14-26 . ance. Equipment “Thirty-twenty-one. thirty.twenty- two. They initial the ap- propriate block and note in the This event uses the same course as comment block that the time is for a the 2-mile run. and Scorers’ Duties copies of the test instructions and standards are needed.” and so on).

5-MILE COURSE sure that the soldiers maintain a walk- IN A TIME EQUAL TO OR LESS ing stride. BOTH FEET OFF THE GROUND AT THE SAME TIME. IF example.” and so on). the ment block that the time is for a 2. YOU WILL BE Scorers must observe the soldiers SCORED ON YOUR ABILITY TO during the entire event and must en- COMPLETE THE 2. As the soldiers near the (describe the number of laps.5-MILE WALK IS scorer records on the scorecard.’ THE CLOCK The event supervisor is the WILL START. start and end of the 2. the event finish points. Scorers’ Duties ANCE IN THE EVENT WILL BE TERMINATED. YOUR PERFORM."Thirty-three-twenty-two. YOU MUST COMPLETE case one fails. USED TO ASSESS YOUR CARDI- ORESPIRATORY FITNESS AND Timing Techniques LEG-MUSCLE ENDURANCE. initial the ap- propriate block." 14-27 . scorers record the time in the 2-mile-run Administration block on the scorecard. WHAT ARE YOUR nated from the event and given a “no QUESTIONS ABOUT THIS EVENT?” go. Instructions into groups of no more than three and assigns each group to a scorer. He uses the commands “Get set” BEGIN WALKING AT YOUR OWN and “Go. ONE supervisor starts calling off the elapsed FOOT MUST BE IN CONTACT WITH time in minutes and seconds (for THE GROUND AT ALL TIMES.5- event supervisor answers any related mile walk and whether or not the questions. and course layout). ON THE COMMAND ‘GO.” When the event is over.” Two stopwatches are used in PACE.5-mile walk. AND YOU WILL timer. YOU BREAK INTO A RUNNING thirty -three -twenty -three. He then divides the soldiers testee received a "go" or "no go. Soldiers who break into any THAN THAT LISTED FOR YOUR type of running stride will be termi- AGE AND SEX. Each The event supervisor must read the soldier is issued a number which the following: “THE 2. thirty- STRIDE AT ANY TIME OR HAVE three-twenty -four. and note in the com- After reading the instructions.

and thighs. whereas the average woman of the same age is 64. arms. Men accumulate fat primarily in the back. APPENDIX A PHYSIOLOGICAL DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE SEXES Soldiers vary in their physical makeup. men usually have an advantage in strength. based on weight. they must also realize that women have physiological limitations which generally preclude equal performance. because the center of gravity is lower in women than in men. Thus. This difference in size affects the absolute amount of physical work that can be performed by men and women.4 inches tall and weighs 126. FAT Women carry about 10 percentage points more body fat than do men of the same age.8 pounds.6 pounds. This difference gives men an advantage in running efficiency. speed. and power over women. and abdomen. Therefore. Each body reacts differently to varying degrees of physical stress. than do women. MUSCLES Men have 50 percent greater total muscle mass. HEART SIZE AND RATE The average woman’s heart is 25 percent smaller than the average man’s. FLEXIBILITY Women generally are more flexible than men. women must overcome more resistance in activities that require movement of the lower body. Thus. for any given work rate. Also. The following paragraphs describe the most important physical and physiological differences between men and women. women gain fat in the buttocks. chest. SIZE The average 18. While leaders must require equal efforts of men and women during the training period. A-O . the faster heart rate means that most women will become fatigued sooner than men.year-old man is 70.2 inches tall and weighs 144. For everyone to get the maximum benefit from training. A woman who is the same size as her male counterpart is generally only 80 percent as strong. They must also be aware of the physiological differences between men and women. This lower rate is evident both at rest and at any given level of submaximal exercise. The larger heart size contributes to the slower resting heart rate (five to eight beats a minute slower) in males. BONES Women have less bone mass than men. the man’s heart can pump more blood with each beat. but their pelvic structure is wider. and no two bodies react exactly the same way to the same physical stress. leaders must be aware of these differences and plan the training to provide maximum benefit for everyone.

pregnant women may exercise until they are close to childbirth if they follow their doctors’ instructions. cramps. should be worn to avoid potential injury to unsupported breast tissue that may result from prolonged jarring during exer- cise. physical fitness training need not damage the breasts. Also. Although female soldiers must sometimes be treated differently from males. Regardless of gender. Nevertheless. This guidance is available from medical authorities and the U. lose less heat through evaporation. LUNGS The lung capacity of men is 25 to 30 percent greater than that of women. The Army agrees with the position of the American College of obstetricians and Gynecologists regarding exercise and pregnancy. Army Physical Fitness School (USAPFS). soldiers with a higher level of physical fitness generally better tolerate.S. in fact. women can reach high levels of physical performance. and adapt more readily to. Leaders need to understand other factors too. it is. heat stress than do less fit soldiers. However. however. do not. Properly fitted and adjusted bras. or pains while menstruating should be medically evaluated. Vigorous activity does not harm women’s reproductive organs or cause menstrual problems. Leaders must use common sense to help both male and female soldiers achieve acceptable levels of fitness. ability-group running alleviates gender-based differences between men and women. Women sweat less. however. The safety and health of the mother and fetus are primary concerns when dealing with exercise programs. RESPONSE TO HEAT A woman’s response to heat stress differs somewhat from a man’s. encouraged. OTHER FACTORS Knowing the physiological differences between men and women is just the first step in planning physical training for a unit. Unit runs. Women can exercise during menstruation. This gives men still another advantage in the processing of oxygen and in doing aerobic work such as running. Pregnant soldiers cannot be required to exercise without a doctor’s approval. A-1 . and reach higher body temperatures before sweating starts. Generally. women can adapt to heat stress as well as men. any unusual discomfort. For example.


Fitness goals are determined before the training begins. Figure C-1 shows an example of a physical fitness log that could be reproduced locally. While this is not a requirement. The results should closely parallel or exceed the unit’s goals. The log will serve as a diary of how well they achieve them. the log may also be used by commanders and supervisors as a record of physical fitness training. Figure C-1 C-1 . APPENDIX C PHYSICAL FITNESS LOG Soldiers can use a physical fitness log to record their fitness goals.

alternate APFT event. are found in gymnasiums on Army installations.2 kilometers. • Adjustable resistance displayed in kiloponds or newtons. Care should be taken to ensure that. Very few. not 6. the test would not provide an accurate indication of the soldier’s level of cardiorespiratory fitness. If the stationary bicycle cannot be properly calibrated and adjusted. soldiers designated to be tested on either of the two bicycle protocols should be tested using a moving bicycle IAW the guidelines provided elsewhere in this field manuel. the soldier must pedal 6. The best type of stationary bicycle for testing has the following features: • Calibration adjustment. cardiorespiratory APFT event. Only a limited number of EOSB models are designed to accurately assess a person’s energy expenditure during exercise. Most of them are designed for physical fitness training.braked Bodyguard 990 or Monark 868 is used.2 miles (10.000 meters) against a resistance set at 2 kiloponds or 20 newtons. There are many electrically operated. APPENDIX D STATIONARY BICYCLE TEST Only stationary bicycles which can be calibrated and which have mechanically adjustable resistances may be used to test profiled soldiers on the 6.0 kilometers or 10. Such bicycles can be used to accurately measure a person’s rate of work or the total amount of work. the test is ended at 10 kilometers. D-1 . If the stationary bicycle has an odometer. the event supervisor or scorer must be sure that the stationary bicycle can be accurately adjusted to ensure that the soldier pedals against the correct resistance (force) of 2 kiloponds or 20 newtons. they should not be used for the alternate. the soldier may end up pedalling against a resistance which is too great or not great enough. when using a stationary bicycle which measures distance in kilometers. He receives a “Go” if he is below or at the time allotted for his particular age group and gender. For the sake of accuracy and ease of administration. The test is completed when the soldier pedals 6. however. Examples of stationary bicycles which meet the above criteria are the mechanically braked Bodyguard 990 and Monark 868. if any. If the mechanical y. In either case. Such EOSBS are relatively expensive and are generally found in medical and scientific laboratories. the tester must ensure that the equipment has been properly calibrated prior to each test.2-mile (l O-kilometer). They are often called bicycle ergometers.2 miles (10. Therefore. stationary bicycles (EOSBS) on the market and in gymnasiums on Army installations. • Odometer which accurately measures the distance traveled in either miles or tenths of miles or in kilometers and tenths of kilometers.0 kilometers). Because most of the more common training EOSBS were not designed to accurately assess energy expenditure.

D-2 .

read the information on special features you should look for in a shoe. even. • Check the PX for available brands and their prices before shopping at other stores. and shoe needs with a knowledgeable salesperson. Record the number of miles you run with them on a regular basis. these people need shoes that cushion the impact of running. The shoes' ability to protect you from injury decreases as the mileage on them increases. • Ask if you can try running in the shoes on a non-carpeted surface. These people need shoes that are built to control the foot’s motion. they are usually signs of poor construction. This gives you a feel for the shoes. falls somewhere between mobile and rigid. • Choose a pair of shoes that fit both feet well while you are standing. When shopping for running shoes.” Because feet like this are too mobile. -Feel the seams inside the shoe to determine if they are smooth. Shoe manufacturers are aware that. • Carefully inspect the shoes for defects that might have been missed by quality control. wear socks that are as similar as possible to those in which you will run. Use the chart at Figure E-1 to help you determine what kind of foot you have. be sure to try on both shoes. At the other extreme are people with “rigid” feet. Finally. foot problems. • When trying on shoes.jointed. These feet are very tight-jointed and do not yield enough upon impact. -Check for loose threads or extra glue spots. • Look at more than one model of shoe. • Discuss your foot type. To help avoid impact-related injuries. the third type. or normal foot. not a racing shoe. Do the following: -Place the shoes on a flat surface and check the heel from behind to see that the heel cup is perpendicular to the sole of the shoe. feet usually fall into one of three categories. and replace the shoes when they have accumulated 500 to 700 miles even if they show little wear. E-1 . It can also make running more enjoyable and let you get more mileage out of your shoes. APPENDIX E SELECTING THE RIGHT RUNNING SHOE Choosing a running shoe that is suitable for your particular type of foot can help you avoid some common running. • Buy a training shoe. Some people have “floppy” feet that are very “loose. they “give” when they hit the ground. keep the following in mind: • Expect to spend between $30 and $100 for a pair of good shoes. and well-stitched. This type of foot can use any running shoe that is stable and properly cushioned. Then. Also. anatomically.related injuries.

Figure E-1 E-2 .


F-2 .

For example. when multiplied by 10. the most valid method for calculating THR is percent HRR. The scale in Figure G-1 lets a soldier rate his degree of perceived exertion . estimate how difficult it feels to do the exercise. Although either percent of maximum heart rate or perceived exertion may be used during exercise. G-1 . Do not be concerned with any one single factor such as shortness of breath or work intensity. a PE of 14. . However. APPENDIX G PERCEIVED EXERTION The heart rate has traditionally been used to estimate exercise intensity. try to concentrate on the total inner feeling of exertion.(PE). Instead. evidence shows that a person’s own perception of the intensity of his exercise can often be just as accurate as the heart rate in gauging his exercise intensity. Multiplying the rating of perceived exertion by 10 roughly approximates the heart rate during exercise. Figure G-1 To judge perceived exertion. This scale consists of numerical ratings for physical exercise followed by their associated descriptive ratings. Most soldiers with THRs between 130 and 170 BPM would exercise between a PE of 13 (somewhat hard) and 17 (very hard). equals 140.

It attaches to the lumbar vertebrae and the femur. H-1 . APPENDIX H THE MAJOR SKELETAL MUSCLES OF THE HUMAN BODY Figure H-1 The iliopoas muscle (a hip flexor) cannot be seen as it lies beneath other muscles.

GLOSSARY Section 1: Acronyms and Abbreviations AC Active Component AGR ability group run A IT advanced individual training APFT Army Physical Fitness Test AR Army regulation ARNG Army National Guard ARTEP Army Training and Evaluation Program ATP adenosine triphosphate BCT basic combat training BDU battle dress uniform BPM beats per minute BT basic training BTMS Battalion Training Management System c centigrade CAD coronary artery disease CPR cardiopulmonary resuscitation CPT captain CR cardiorespiratory CVSP cardiovascular screening program DA Department of the Army DOD Department of Defense EDRE emergency deployment readiness exercise EIB Expert Infantryman Badge EOSB electrically operated. intensity. Department of the Army HRR heart rate reserve ID identification IET initial entry training IG inspector general kph kilometers per hour Glossary-1 . time. type FM field manual FTX field training exercise HDL high-density lipoprotein HQ headquarters HQDA Headquarters. stationary bicycle F Fahrenheit FITT frequency.

lat latissimus dorsi LCE load-carrying equipment LDL low-density lipoprotein MACOM major Army command MEDDAC medical department activity METL mission-essential task list MFT master fitness trainer MHR maximum heart rate min minute(s) MOS military occupational specialty MPH miles per hour MRDA military recommended dietary allowance MRE meal. number OIC officer in charge OST one-station training OSUT one-station unit training Pam pamphlet PE perceived exertion PNF proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation PRE partner-resisted exercise PT physical training pts points PU push-up RC Reserve Component rep repetition RHR resting heart rate RICE rest. elevation RM repetition maximum ROTC Reserve Officers’ Training Corps sec second(s) SCUBA self-contained underwater breathing apparatus SDT self development test SOP standing operating procedure SU sit-up TB med technical bulletin. compression. ice. ready to eat NCO noncommissioned officer NCOIC noncommissioned officer in charge NGR National Guard regulation No. medical TDA table of distribution and allowances THR training heart rate TM technical manual TOE table of organization and equipment TRADOC U. Army Training and Doctrine Command TS timed set TSP training support package Glossary-2 .S.

the opposite of flexion. For example. For example. flexion of the elbow involves a decrease in the angle formed by the lower and upper arm as the arm bends at the elbow. Glossary-3 . United States USAPFS United States Army Physical Fitness School USAR United States Army Reserve V 02max maximum oxygen consumption per minute WBGTI wet bulb globe temperature index WCF windchill factor Section II: Terms extension An increase in the angle between two bones in which a straightening movement occurs.U. the opposite of extension.S. flexion A decrease in the angle between two bones in which a bending movement occurs. extension of the elbow involves an increase in the angle formed by the upper and lower arm as the arm straightens at the elbow.

350-22 You and the Army Physical Fitness Test (APFT). July 1987. May 1988. October 1982. June 1990. 350-15 Commander’s Handbook on Physical Fitness. June 1973. DOCUMENTS NEEDED These documents must be available to the intended users of this publication. March 1987. August 1989. OTHER ARMY PUBLICATIONS FM 25-100 Training the Force. 600-9 The Army Weight Control Program. April 1981. October 1981. REFERENCES SOURCES USED These are the sources quoted or paraphrased in this publication. September 1987.1 Physical Fitness and Weight Control Program. 600-8-2 Suspension of Favorable Personnel Actions (Flags). 351-4 Army Formal Schools Catalog. 30-1 The Army Food Service Program. September 1986. November 1987. DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY PAMPHLETS (DA Pares) 28-9 Unit Level Recreational Sports. May 1983. FM 21-18 Foot Marches. TRADOC Reg 350-6 Initial Entry Training (IET) Policies and Administration. 385-55 Prevention of Motor Vehicle Accidents. 350-15 Army Physical Fitness Program. 600-63 Army Health Promotion. READINGS RECOMMENDED These readings contain relevant supplemental information. August 1991. NGR 40-501 Medical Examination for Members of the Army National Guard. 350-18 The Individual’s Handbook on Physical Fitness. November 1989. January 1985. November 1988. October 1987. ARMY REGULATIONS (ARs) 15-6 Procedures for Investigating Officers and Boards of Officers. OTHER ARMY PUBLICATIONS DOD Directive 1308. References-1 . ARMY REGULATIONS (ARs) 40-501 Standards of Medical Fitness.

OTHER ARMY PUBLICATIONS AND MATERIALS AR 215-1 Administration of Army Morale. 21-76 Army Physical Fitness Test (APFT). May 1987. December 1971. December 1989. 1 “Training Facilities. April 1968. 28-13-95.FIELD MANUALS (FMs) 21-150 Combative. Directorate of Facilities Engineering. 1986. 21-191 Administration of the APFT. TB Med 507 Occupational and Environmental Health Prevention. 1987. 1986. SB 10-260 Master Menu. 1988. 21-203 Push-up/Sit-up Improvement. 1989. and Control of Heat Injury. TSP Physical Fitness Training . Treatment. 21-218 Flexibility: The Truth About Stretching. Folio No. July 1980. 22-5 Drill and Ceremonies. References-2 . 31-70 Basic Cold Weather Manual. July 1987. and Recreation. December 1986. TRAINING VIDEO TAPES (TVTS) 8-103 Standards for Determining Body Fat. 21-192 Partner-Resisted Exercises (PRE). 1988. DA Form 3349 Physical Profile. DA Form 705 Army Physical Fitness Test Scorecard. May 1986.” Corps of Engineers Drawing No. February 1984. Welfare.Total Fitness.

7-1 through 7-6 sample circuits for. 14-24 through 14-26 bicycle ergometer test. 14-9. 15. 11 profiles in regard to. 1-12 procedures for testing. 2-14 Index-1 . 14-1 through 14-27 ability group running to prepare for. 1-14. 5-0. stationary (APFT event). 4-3. 9 evaluation of. 1-10 aerobic exercises. D-O bicycling. 14-1 failures. 8-22 cross-country skiing. 7-7 through 7-17 cardiorespiratory fitness. 1-10 administration of. 9-11. 3 duties of test personnel for. 14-19 sequence of. 14-11 through 14-18 site of. 14-2 through 14-8 alternate events for. 1-2. aerobic aerobic fitness. 14-10. see cycling body composition. 14-17. cardiorespiratory aquatic exercise. 2-15 cycling. 1-3. 7-1 circuit training. 1-7. Citations are to paragraph numbers. ability group running advanced individual training. see exercises. 14-8. 14-1 command functions relating to. 12 calisthenics. 18 bicycle test (APFT event). 14-3 through 14-7 scores above maximum in. see fitness. 1. INDEX This is a topical index organized alphabetically. 14-20. 14-18. 2 competitive fitness activities. see also overweight soldiers broom-ball hockey. 9-1 through 9-18 cool-down. 3 types of. 8-19 through 8-22 Army Physical Fitness Test (APFT). 7-1. see also profile push-up as an event in. 14-22 through 14-24. 14-14 through 14-16 two-mile run as an event in. 14-11 through 14-14 results of. 10 sit-up as an event in. cardiorespiratory circuits designing of. 19 scorecard for. 14-20 through 14-27 cardiovascular screening program for. see fitness. 7-2. 7-3 through 7-6 variables in.

1 -3. Fartlek training fat body. 12-2. see drills. 3-21 through 3-35 without special equipment. 12-3 heat injuries and symptoms. 12-3 exercise principles. 12-1. 3-12 Fartlek training. conditioning cool-down after. 7-7 through 7-17 conditioning drills. 7-17 grass. 2-6 through 2-16 aerobic (alternate forms). 13 exercises. 1-12. 12-4 altitude. 6-3 Index-2 . 12-2 temperature regulation. 16 warm-up before. see running. 12-3 frostbite. 7-23 through 7-26 log. 2-0. 2 hydration guidelines. 8-13 through 8-18 rifle. 10-12. 8-19 through 8-22 aerobic. 12-4 cold environments. 3-36 partner-resisted. 2 muscle strengthening. 3-3 through 3-9 muscular training chart. 12-1 hot. 12-0 through 12-4 air pollution. 1-7. 8-11. 4-1 through 4-17 guerilla. 2-15. diet and exercise drills conditioning. see muscular endurance and strength environmental considerations. 1. 7-17 through 7-22 guerilla. 12-0. 13-1. 12-2 hypothermia. see also overweight soldiers saturated. 1-7. 6-5. see weight. 1 windchill factor. 2-13 through 2-13 calisthenic. 3 dehydration. 12-3 diet. 13.dehydration. see drills. see also drills acquatic. 3-13 through 3-20 rhythmic (with music). 4-2 with equipment. cardiorespiratory muscular. see fitness. 12 endurance cardiorespiratory. humid environments. 1-4. 4-3 flexibility. guerilla injuries related to. 5-0.

1-10. see drills. 7 muscular. 3-12 training for. 9-5 through 9-8 nutrition and fitness. 9. 8. 1-5 through 1-7. time. 12. 3-9 through 3-11 muscle contractions (types). 3-6 principles of. 1-1. see FITT factors grass drills. 6-3 through 6-6 cardiorespiratory (aerobic). 2-2 resting heart rate (RHR). 12-1 frequency. 13. flexibility fluid intake. 11-0. 1 special. 1 injuries. 1-7 through 1 -9. components of heart rate reserve (HRR). 1-11. 8. type. 2 muscular endurance and strength. 8. 4-1 through 4-17 flexibility exercises. 2-15 heart rate. 3-6. 15. 6-6 Index-3 . 2-0 through 2-16 components of. intensity. 3-1 fitness programs. 1 -3.I through 9-5 log drills. interval training intramural. 1-11 unit. see heart rate. 4 training heart rate (THR). 1-3. 1-3. 3-1. log master fitness trainer (MFT). see running. 13 maximum heart rate. 7. 4 conditioning phases for. types of advanced individual training (AIT). 1-11 initial entry training (IET). 11-0. 6-5. 2 interval training. 4-2 flexibility. 7-7. see drills. guerilla handball and racquet sports. 1-9. 1-3. 2-3. see drills. 6-0 through 6-6 for optimal physical performance. 3-1 through 3-36 nine-ball soccer. 1-6. see unit program fitness programs. 10. 3-12 through 3-36 exercise selection for. 2-1 through 2-6. grass guerilla drills. 2. maximum muscle groups. (calculation) 2-2 through 2-6 initial entry training (IET). 9. 6-0 through 6-3 in the field. see exercises. 3-1 through 3-36 age as a factor in. 14 exercise programs for. 13-1. 1-4 through l-7. 3-2 through 3-5 key points regarding. 1-6. 9. 1-13. 1-10 individual. 10 FITT factors. 12 TOE and TDA units. 6. 3. 2-3 through 2-6 maximum heart rate (MHR). 2-6. 1-1.

1-15. see heart rate. see heart rate. B-1 principles of exercise. see shoes. ice. body partner-resisted exercise. 2-15 running cross-country. 1-13. see APFT. running (how to select). push-up pushball. B-1 push-up. Fartlek training strategy pushball. see exercise principles profiles. rifle road marches. 9 last-man-up. training stretching. 1-12. see APFT. 12. E-1. 2-6 safety. 2-8. training two-mile run.obstacle courses. and elevation (RICE). running technique. 8 pushball (strategy). see drills. conditioning phases physical fitness log. see pushball (strategy) strength training. 2 olympics. 1 sexual differences. two-mile run Index-4 . 2-14. see exercises. 2 shoes. 14-20. 11-1 rope skipping. 14-21. partner-resisted perceived exertion. 2. see nine-ball soccer speed play. A-1. see flexibility and exercises. C-O positive profile form. 9-8 through 9-11 resistance training. types of conditioning. see injuries interval training. 8-1. aquatic training heart rate. see unit olympics orienteering. 8-2 through 8-6 confidence. G-1 phases of conditioning. 9-16. 11-0. 13. see also exercise. see also fat. 2 sit-up. see muscular endurance and strength. see APFT. see fitness. see running. sit-up soccer. 8-6 through 8-10 safety precautions for using. flexibility swim test (APFT event). 2-10 Fartlek training. compression. 9-7. 3-6. see strength training rest. 13-1 resting heart rate. 2-11. resting rifle drills. 22 swimming. 8-1. 9-13 through 9-16 overweight soldiers. 2-10 shoes. 2-9 injuries. 7-7.

15 warm-up.unit olympics. calculation of. 5-1 methods for evaluating. 14-26. 11 V O2 max. 1 programs for overweight soldiers. 15 sample of. 1-12. 10-5 through 10-12 types of. 1-14. 1 diet and exercise for proper. F-1. 9-5 through 9-16 development of. 10-1 through 10-13 evaluation of. 5-0. 1-10. see also nutrition and fitness Army standards for. 4-2. 27 walking. 5-0. 2 walk (APFT event). 1-7. 18 unit program activities and games for. 2-14. 9-17. 13 Index-5 . 8-19 weight (body).

SULLIVAN General. requirements for FM 21-20. United States Army Chief of Staff Official: MILTON H. Physical Fitness Training (Qty rqr block no.S. USAR and ARNG: To be distributed In accordance with DA Form 12-11E. HAMILTON Administrative Assistant to the Secretary of the Army 02361 DISTRIBUTION: Active Arm y.421 / 82850 . •U. FM 21-20 30 SEPTEMBER 1992 By Order of the Secretary of the Army GORDON R. 0165). Government Printing Office: 1994 — 300 .

PIN: 007192-001 .

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