Amrita Bhandari Kathmandu, Nepal Dec.11, 2010 Module 2: Answers Part A: Quiz 1. how, learning 2.

teaching, effective, teaching 3. 16th, bilingual 4. situational 5. reasons 6. grammar 7. spoken 8. spoken, language 9. beginning 10. language, children, native 11. Natural 12. language, 20th 13. goal, material, related 14. pronunciation, intonation, grammar, vocabulary 15. general grammar, particular 16. general grammatical, particular 17. Deductive 18. Inductive 19. Deductive, Inductive, preferable. 20. memorize 21. vocabulary, listening, listening, detailed, vocabulary, grammar, recalling 22. A 23. written, teaching. 24. structure, using 25. analysis, needs, course, made. 26. information plane, reflection plane, action plane. 27. encounter, cultures, cross-cultural, communication 28. text reconstruction, input comprehension checks, communicative simulations. 29. computers 30. learner autonomy, project culture, learner education. 31. facilitating, learning. 32. craft approach, cognitive approach, social-constructivist approach. 33. language teaching/learning, methods/objectives of language teaching, views on language, etc. 34. model, instruction/teaching, quality, effectiveness, efficiency. 35. parameters, criteria. 36. change. 37. classroom. 38. theoretical, pedagogy, teacher/teachers, professional. 39. quantitative, qualitative, action, teaching. 40. theoretical, competence, communicative.

41. Project Work See the attached audio file. wav Part B: Essay Problems 42. Developing Multiple Intelligence in Language Learning Language teaching or learning develops communicative competence and learner intelligence. Abilities like guessing, deciding, working, playing, thinking, etc. are vital for effective language use. In the process of language learning, intelligence skills come to real world situations. Language learners not only develop entire knowledge on subject matter but also need to acquire multiple intelligence such as visual, verbal, mathematical, kinaesthetic, interpersonal, intra-personal, naturalistic, and rhythmic intelligence. In speaking and everyday communication, the learner shows his or her verbal intelligence. For example, the learners listen to the text of teacher and as a result of his language understanding; he shows his assignment to the teacher because his teacher asks him to do so. 43. Communicative Language Teaching and Authenticity It is essential to use authentic teaching materials such as highly evaluated and proven teaching materials in the communicative language teaching classroom. As we know the communicative language teaching means teacher-learner interaction. The teacher should not show cleverness or demonstration skills and the learner should not participate in the communication with the memory of the language. However, teachers can use their own teaching resources, depending upon the nature and subject matter of the teaching lesson. Scripted texts, i.e. materials written specially for teaching and learning purposes are described as unnatural, contrived, lacking features of a genuine discourse. Preparation of such text is economical and less time consuming, but experts do not highly recommend using self made text materials. Authentic material can give the learner a taste of real language. But it is believed there is no harm in using self made texts for the purpose of instruction. With such texts, it is assumed that learner can learn in better and effective ways, and it will be easier to teach students. However, authentic and self made texts have different purposes and impact on the minds of learners. Unauthentic texts may be prepared locally and may include situational and local happening of communication. Such communicative teaching may not be real and formal. If students are exposed to such texts, they may not meet all the needed highfrequency language items. 44. Communicative Language Teaching and Bilingual Activities We often use more than one language in communication. Sometimes we speak in mother tongue and other times we speak in foreign language. In communicative language teaching, it is said that the use of mother tongue is not effective. It is better to use the meaning and structures in the targeted language. The learners can learn quickly and effectively by doing this. Yet, mother tongue plays an important part in learning a foreign language. It serves as a way to support one¶s learning by putting a familiar language pattern onto a target language material. Learners can increase communicative language skills fast when they find similarities and differences between mother tongue and foreign language. In any case, bilingual experience leads to better language awareness in learners and does not contradict communicative language instruction, being part of natural brain function in learners. The avoidance of speaking of mother tongue in communicative

language teaching is not necessary. But there should be the positive transfer of such language and the learners should high level of awareness whilst doing so. 45. Teaching Communication in Cultural Contexts. Culture plays an important role in learning language. But there are many situations in which communicative teaching is unsuitable for different cultural environments. For instance: the curriculum developers and teachers who are native to the English speaking countries try to sell methodologies and materials which are developed in the UK, USA, or Australia. They are considered ideal for any social cultural setting in the world whilst they are not. For example, the texts and methods of teaching English in France may differ in Nepal because of cultural variations. However, it is believed that process is more important than content in communicative teaching. Somewhere, the emphasis is given to meaning rather than form in language teaching. Cultural value plays a significant role in language teaching. The meaning, methods, situational contexts and whole pattern of communication vary in each cultural mode. Western teachers perceive local learners of communicative language teaching in Asia as passive and nonparticipating although this is a culturally based learning style. For example, Millrood (2003) writes ³Traditional Chinese teaching involves a meticulous analysis of what every minute text item means. Learners come to class to ³receive´ information, rather that to ³construct´ knowledge by working together in a group and discussing an issue. Learner output is expected to be error free, and emphasis is therefore put on accuracy, rather than on fluency.´ Similarly in Nepal, memorization in learners is valued more than spontaneous creativity. Students are asked to memorize more meaning and sentences and asked to write same in their final examinations. Even though, the teachers are aware that it is not good in learning, they do not prefer to change because it is culture. Teachers have high authority and are never questioned in such learning. Learners never challenge or threat their teachers to change this style of learning. They take it as a part of culture. 46. Your Country¶s Traditional Culture in Language Teaching. English language teaching in Nepalese culture is not positive and effective for ages. There are several traditional approaches of teaching English language. People do not give importance about language rather they emphasize on the use of language. The least percentage of the total population of Nepal uses English language in communication because it is not an official, urgent and needy one. It is the language of forced learning. Many people believe that English is cow eater¶s language because it does not belong to their caste, culture and tradition. Since, Nepali is the national language of Nepal; people mostly use their language in office and teaching institutions. Very few educational institutions, especially in urban areas, use English as the medium of teaching for few subjects like English, Science, Medicine, Mathematics, etc. Teacher centered approach is used in teaching. There is not good balance between language teaching and its evaluation. The teachers are unable to judge their students with passed score in English examination, especially in School Leaving Certificate. Every year more than three hundred thousand examinees fail only in English in this examination. Papers are not evaluated or scored in front of the students. The answer paper is also not returned to students. Students never know where they have made error. The school teachers have little opportunities to develop teaching strategies in language teaching. These teachers are not given formal teacher training. Ministry of Education in Nepal

has given authority to Higher Education Board to issue teacher license. The teacher license is given on the basis of written exams rather than practical experience. The education faculty of Tribhuvan University, the only one public university, also issues certificates of students without having enough practicum in teaching. In fact, there is no good system of monitoring and evaluating of teaching education in Nepal. Teachers are never encouraged for teacher training. They rarely get participation in teacher workshop or training courses. Classrooms in Nepal are very large and beyond the capacity. They are not organized. The number of the students in the classroom is not fixed. In government school, the average class room size is 60. There are many problems with the learners in term of socio-economic background, cultural traits and psychological growth. The teaching system passes through different stages such as homework check up, presentation and production of the new material. Nepalese English teaching is not communicative at all because teachers spend a lot of time dealing with grammar structures, reading and translating texts. Students get very less time to express their views and feelings. They are forced to listen rather than speak. There is no close contact between the teachers and students. Teachers never visit home of their students and parents do not visit schools of their children. On the day of result, parents visit school and teachers. This trend is changing among educated parents in later days. Private schools are focusing themselves on quality teaching in later days and organizing short training to their teachers. International organizations run teacher-workshop occasionally in urban schools of Nepal. Yet, this is not enough; there is much to do in the teaching-learning system of public schools of Nepal. 47. Teaching Task A language teaching task is defined as a piece of work which involves learners in language comprehension, manipulation, production, and interaction with their attention focused on either meaning, form, format, strategy, practical outcome or everything. It is also an activity or action which is carried out as the result of processing or understands language (Nunan, 1989). The teaching task includes goal, input material and related activities. Communicative tasks usually feature pair or group work to promote naturalistic interactive learning. 48. How to teach and learn Grammar. Grammar is considered important tool in learning language. Grammar teaching is the action of series taking the learners from the state of grammatical ignorance to the state of grammatical competence. Teaching grammar is not linear. Several rules of grammar should be followed while teaching and learning grammar. Grammar of a foreign/second language is taught in three major steps: presenting grammar rules, analysing grammar examples and using grammar for communication. Learners receive the knowledge of grammar through analysing rules and examples. There are two methods of grammar teaching; deductive and inductive. Deductive grammar teaching means applying general rules to particular grammar examples. It is based on the ³rule-examples´ sequence. Deductive teaching is more associated with grammar-translation method of teaching. Inductive grammar teaching involves inference of grammar rules from some particular patterns. It is based on the ³examples-rules´. Inductive approach is advocated by audio-lingual method under which the learners get a number of language samples for memorization. In communicative language teaching induction and deduction revolve around the central task of teaching to use the language in situational settings.

49. Teaching Discourse According to Nunan (1993), ³Teaching discourse is the process of enabling learners to produce spoken and written language with a meaningful and situational communicative intention.´ It enables learners to produce live language rather than manipulating ready-made texts. The learners become able to communicate and comprehend a full message in different contexts or situations such as personal and transactional setting. Discourse competence is taught through developing productive and receptive communicative skills in learners. 50. Teaching Pragmatics According to Yule (1997), ³Pragmatics is the relationship between the language used, the meaning intended and the message received in communication.´ Communicative pragmatics involves closeness and distance between participants in communication, irony and humorous implications of utterances, making correct inferences by ³reading between the lines´, rules of politeness, and co-operative principles in communication through adequate quantity, sincerity, subject relevance and non-ambiguity of communication. Pragmatics is taught through locutionary (putting ideas in words), illocutionary (adding expression to the utterance) and perlocutonary (achieving a communicative goal) acts. 51. Teaching Communicative Strategies. Strategies are the devices to avoid communication failure. The list of communication strategies includes: y Approximate expression of a communicative idea y Paraphrasing a sentence to make communication of ideas easier y Word-coinage in case there is not adequate item in mental lexicon y Negotiation of meaning in case of misunderstanding y Time-creating devices (e.g. hmm) in case of communication lapse y Elliptical language for lack of full structure mastery y Body-language and mime for lack of linguistic means y Changing the subject in order to avoid an unwanted topic On the whole, communicative strategies include groups of avoiding acts of communication, wording ideas in a more suitable way, appealing for co-operation, using paralanguage and restoring to non-linguistics means such as mimicry, gestures, pictures, etc. 52. Issues of Teaching Aural Comprehension Teaching listening is one of the issues in teaching listening comprehension. In teaching listening, tapes are played for the learners, comprehension tasks are offered by the teachers and they are attempted by learners. Then teachers give feedback in the form of correct answer. Teachers try to provide adequate preparation for listening activities. Listeners select the important cues from the whole text. A number of skills are used in listening such as prediction, selection of important cues, and application of general knowledge and experience of listeners. It is important to put the text for aural comprehension in the meaningful context for the learners. Meaningful contexts may be familiar places and similar texts in order to comprehend the idea. For example: if a narrative is to be about a ³house theft´, a predication can draw the picture of a policeman, the thieves in a mask, random scattering of things and fear face.

Therefore, it is very necessary to know about the words of the text which may not be easy to catch in the exam of listening test. 52. Principles of Teaching to Read. Principles of teaching to read are as follows: y Meeting learner interests by offering them the texts they need. y Teaching to read by organising a reading comprehension activity. y Activate cognitive processes. y Reconstruct the author¶s message. y Expand recognition vocabulary. y Encourage learners to make use of what they read about. y Develop intensive and extensive reading skills. y Elicit reader¶s response to the text. y Introduce a variety of genres (Williams 1986: 42-45) 54. Schema Theory in teaching to Read. Schema theory, proposed by gestalt psychologist Bartlett, is how people repeat a story from memory and fill in details that do not occur in the original text but is consistent with their knowledge and culture. Schematic theory is linked to the importance of developing cultural knowledge in learners by contrasting native cultural schemata with that of the target culture represented in a text. This theory helps expand general knowledge in learners and develop ability for cross-cultural communication through reading. This theory suggests that all people understand new experience by activating prior schemata and matching new information to their prior knowledge. Schemata can facilitate reading process if readers recognize familiar schematic knowledge in the text message. Teaching to read for expanding one¶s schemata opens the way to developing a flexible and open mind in learners. 55. Features of Teaching to Speak. It is very necessary to see how the speaking partners interact with each other through language means. Information gap, role simulation and challenge simulation are the most useful categories to teach speak in the classroom. Participants in communication should be provided directions and helped completing a picture or a story. The puzzles and problems of the participants in communication should be resolved through discussion. Speaking as a skill has a number of features: y It takes place in a real-world situational setting y It takes place in real-time y It is motivated by a communicative purpose and result y It always involves a message y It involves interaction with others y It is subject to cultural norms and social etiquette y It follows typical scripts of social interaction (Millrood 1998) It is necessary to provide maximum opportunity to students to speak the target language by providing a rich environment that contains collaborative work, authentic material and tasks

and shared knowledge. Students should be encouraged in every speaking activity. Teachers should reduce their time of speaking in the class and allow the students to speak more. They should step back and observe students and should give written feedback like ³Your presentation was really great.´ Students should be involved in speaking activities inside and outside the classroom setting. It is necessary to diagnose problems faced by the students who have difficulty in expressing themselves in the target language and provide more opportunities to practice the spoken language. Teaching speaking is very important part of second language learning. Therefore, it is very necessary that teachers should pay attention to teaching speaking rather than leading the learners toward memorization and providing rich environment. 56. Oral Discourse Features. Speaking in a foreign language is difficult task. All speakers, including native-speakers of English make errors but they are the product of the natural process of thinking and speaking at once. When we are speaking our own language we often start our sentences in one way and then change our minds slightly and we begin another sentence without completing the first sentence. We also use some short words as fillers while we are thinking. In English we write these as ³um´ or ³em´. Oral utterance is completely different from the written text. Oral texts have shorter sentences and they are incomplete too. A lot of sentences are left unfinished. There may be the sudden change of the idea in the middle of sentence. A speaker may have a lot of false starts i.e. the ideas which never develop further and are just dropped at the moment they are being born. If you analyse an oral discourse, your attention will probably be drawn to how the utterances relate each other, how the speaker skip from one idea to another, how they effect the opening and closing of the conversation, how speakers try to keep the partner interested in the subject or change it, how the participants interact, how and why the speakers say what they are not asked to, how speakers try to save faces, how they make themselves understood, how they ³repair´ their speech errors, how dense or scarce the vocabulary of the utterances is, how dense the ideas in the utterances are etc. All these points make up directions of oral discourse analysis. 57. Speech Skills. Speaking any language is not easy. We need to follow the three types of skills: language skills, cognitive skills, and social skills. Language skills help the speaker to be able to articulate what he or she has in the mind. Teachers have to train students to use their speech organs differently for the foreign language. As well as good pronunciation, speakers are expected to know how to use intonation to add meaning to the sentences they make. Cognitive skills enable the speaker to produce ideas for the communication. The speaker needs to understand the context of any piece of communication and the roles and purposes of other people in the communication. Effectiveness of communication depends much on cognitive abilities in participants and their intelligence. Social skills are also necessary because of the cultural diversity. The social skills may include starting and closing a conversation in a proper way choosing developing and changing the topic, presenting one¶s case and defending one¶s point, active listening to the partner, etc. List of speech skills: y Clarity y Projection

y y y y y y y y y y y

Enunciation Pronunciation Expression Pace Fillers Slang Buzzwords Acronyms Active listening Stance Eye contact

58. Theories of Creative Writing. Writing is a form of communication through written discourse. It helps the language learners to produce and organise their ideas in written form. It is putting one¶s imagination in one¶s own words. The writer begins with intended view, moves on to the arguments in favor of the chosen position and finally arrives at a conclusive statement. Second language writing has been based on theories of writing in the native and target language. The approach to teaching writing has changed from ³product´ writing with the learners using the given text as a model, to ³process´ writing. Process writing typically carriers learners through a cycle of pre-writing discussion and producing ideas, organising ideas and producing the first draft, sharing the drafts and receiving peer feedback, revision of drafts and re-drafting. Lower-order writing tasks can include writing descriptive (an object) of expository (a situation) paragraphs, joining paragraphs in a sequence, retelling a story in one¶s own way, or putting one¶s own imagination words (prose and poems) Higher-order writing tasks involve search for and organization of data, reviewing one¶s reading, connecting some theory to data, making a personal discovery, and drawing one¶s own conclusions. A preferred mode of writing is deductive with starts with a thesis opening of the piece, followed by development and ending up with a thesis re-statement based on the new findings. This mode of writing is associated with Western culture. Asian writing tends to be inductive with preference. The teachers should play the role of facilitator in creative writing. Teacher can us the several modes such presentation mode, natural process mode, individualized mode and environmental mode to facilitate learner writing. 59. Language Assessment. Language assessment is one of the teaching methodologies and is taken to evaluate learning skills and teaching techniques. Language assessment criteria set goals towards which numerous teaching techniques were channeled in order to achieve these goals in the best possible ways. In later days of teaching and learning, language assessment began to develop and gain strength. The significance of this particular methodology is that the learner taking the test that determined the success of a method. Both methodologies and teachers were turned into µtesttakers¶ hostages.´ 60. Language Tests.

Language tests are academic tests which are designed to measure learners¶ language performance in academics. They measure mental faculties such as memory and logic, and personalities e.g. level of anxiety, type of motivation and degree of extraversion or introversion. They help know about the progress and improvements made by the learners in language learning. They are evaluation tools as well. 61. Types of Language Tests. List them with their particular features. The types of the language tests are as follows: a) Proficiency: It is the test of the general knowledge of the language. b) Achievement: It is the test to measure the knowledge achieved after a particular course is done. c) Diagnostic: It is the test to diagnose the areas of weakness and strength in learners. d) Placement: It is the test to measure the achieved language level in learners with their peers having similar levels. 62. Test Qualities. Test qualities are as follows: a) Reliability: If a test is reliable, it does not depend on the subjective factors and it is marked by teachers. b) Validity: The valid test is measured and the result does not deny practical data. c) Consistency: There should be the same level of difficulty within one test. d) Practicality: A test is practical if it is finished within the time frame. 63. Approaches to Teaching Culture There are two approaches to teaching English as a foreign/second language. First is that English teaching should be done on the basis if socio-cultural norms and values of an English speaking country. Secondly, English teaching should be on the learner native social cultural context. For instance: In Kuwait, English course-books are written ³with the Kuwaiti situation in mind.´ But in the context of Nepal, English course-books are not designed with Nepalese cultural norms and values. The materials developed by the native English speakers are used in teaching English.

64. Principles of Teaching Culture There are two types of principles of teaching culture: traditional and modernized and innovative. The traditional principles include contrasting ³native´ and ³alien´ culture, contrasting ³native´ and ³exotic´ culture and contrasting ³superior´ and ³inferior´ culture. The modernized and innovative principles include mapping a system of global culture, discovering a place of target culture/s in the global system, presenting continuums of cultural differences, looking for commonalities, facilitating reflections on cultural issues, developing tolerance to diversities and teaching ethno relativism. 65. Cultural Awareness and Foreign Language Teaching

Cultural awareness exists in the form of knowledge and competence. Knowledge of culture comes as a result of formal teaching and learning. It is a ³deduced´ awareness based on taught and learned rules. Cultural awareness can be viewed as an important component informing and enriching communicative competences. On the whole there are seven goals of expressed teaching cultural awareness: y To help students develop tolerance to cultural diversities y To help students develop knowledge of conventional target behavior y To help students develop sensitivity to cultural connotations y To help students develop skill of observing and noticing culture y To help students systematize cultural studies y To help students make decisions about cultural self-identification and participation in the target culture (Tomalin and Stempleski 1993: 7-9) Importantly, it is an essential in students to develop awareness of their own culture. It is also important to evaluate target culture from the ³insider¶s´ perspective. The integrated goal of teaching culture is make learners recognize µotherness´ and reflect critically on one¶s own cultural identity. 66. Prototypes of Culture A prototype is an invariant with a room for deviation and diversity. A culture can be described as a ³prototype´ with a number of features that make this culture recognisable. Social culture can be represented by a ³pyramid´ metaphor with a certain feature Found on top of the pyramid and others found at lower levels down to the foundation of the pyramid. Cultural prototype can be metaphorically described as Yin-Yang that represents Chinese philosophy of how the two energies interact in nature. Parts of Yin-Yang are not completely black and white just like anything in life. ³Yin´ means black, and ³Yang´ means white. Any prototype has link to another prototype. In this sense any prototype is in transition to a difference, divergence and its own opposite. 67. Ethnocentricity. Ethnocentricity means showing one¶s own culture or race is superior to all others. Ethnocentrism often holds the belief that one¶s own race or ethnic group is the most important and/or even best among others. With this ideology, individuals judge their own particular ethnic group or culture with others. Ethnocentric approach is compatible with cultural chauvinism, claiming advantages of one¶s own culture over others. Ethnocentric tendencies can be found in any social group and are often linked to patriotism. 68. Culture and Language Teaching Culture can be approached as behavior, i.e. deportment and mores consistent with community patterns. Culture as behavior can be verbal, non-verbal, cognitive, ethical and affective. Verbal behavior shows certain particular ways of dealing with the language in community. Non-verbal behavior makes up the ³second plane´ and accompanies with communication with gestures, mimicry and other forms of bodily expression. Cognitive behavior distinguished one culture from others. Ethical behavior shows how culture regulated community norms in terms of moral values and bans. Affective behavior is expression of emotions in compliance with cultural expectations.

Models of integrating English language and culture started to appear in 1980s. One of the known models approached the targets of teaching language and culture in unity, featuring skilloriented language learning, knowledge oriented language awareness, knowledge oriented cultural experience of travelers, and knowledge-oriented cultural awareness (Byram 1989). Learning culture can incorporate not only knowledge about foreign ways but also developed the needed skills and competence in learners. Cultural education can develop in learners¶ knowledge, skills, expertise and competence. Knowledge is a certain set of propositions that learners can make about target culture. Cultural knowledge, skills, expertise and competence are achieved through learning, observing and experiencing. 69. Teaching by Distance with Technology Distance education means reaching out to learners who are geographically separated from tutors providing training, supplying with material, creating learning opportunities and assuring quality of instruction. In other words, distance education is formal education where the learning group is physically separated by a geographical distance and where interactive telecommunication systems are used to contact learners, resources, and instructors. The interaction of four components in distance education is training, trainer, material and trainee. Media are mere vehicles that deliver instruction but do not influence student achievement any more that the truck that delivers our groceries causes changes in nutrition. There is a debate on hoe effective is in providing training by distance. It is debated that technology bakes distance tuition more costly, although it is not clear whether it is cost effective. Computers and the Internet are most popular means of technology. Computer technology introduces changes in the material design for distance education. Traditional printed materials are designed in the linear-text module, starting with the input and taking learners to control tasks through a number of other steps. Unlike, linear model, a hyper-text is NOT linear. Hyper-links can take the learner to another part of the same text and back, and even to a different Internet site if necessary. Non-linear progression is typical for a hyper-text model. Actually, hyper-text model leaves the learner free to choose their own sequence and logic of learning. I am taking Far Distance Education on Teaching English as a Second Language. It has become possible by the help of advance technology like computer and internet. But it is very difficult to get connected to internet in the country like Nepal. Another obstacle for distance education is that the country suffers from the long hours of light off. If the access to internet and electricity is made available in all time and with low cost, distance education will prove to fruitful in learning TESL. 70. Principles of Teaching Material Development. Principles of material development include (Tomlinson 2002) y Demonstrating novelty, variety, attractive and appealing presentation y Making learners feel at ease and confident y Promoting learner self-investment and initiative y Exposing learners to authentic language y Providing opportunities for communicative language use y Taking into account learner individual differences y Encouraging intellectual and emotional learner involvement y Opening up opportunities for learner feedback (to and from)

71. Components of Course Design. Curriculum is a statement about the content of instruction. There are eight main known components that can be included in the curriculum (West 1998): a) Grammar b) Vocabulary c) Functions d) Situations e) Topics f) Problems g) Skills h) Tasks Any teaching material is part of a certain teaching course. That is why it is essential to know the basics of course design for effective material development. In order to design course, it is necessary to study the context, in which the language instruction will take place in order to design course. Another important consideration is the content that will put in the curriculum. It is necessary to decide, whether grammar and vocabulary will feature as separate components of instruction and on what level of difficulty. An area of concern is the focus on receptive and productive communicative skills, the choice of topics for oral and written work etc. Finally, the timing of the course means planning out training events in time, including periods of learner assessment. Any course requires monitoring and quality assurance. For this purpose, it is necessary to evaluate the course during its implementation, using a tool designed for this purpose.

72. The Theory of Chaos in Bringing Change to ELT. Teaching becomes successful if the desired goal of the teacher and learner is achieved. Materials writer, teacher and learner do their best to achieve the desired outcome, the didactic system too complex to be absolutely predictable. In fact, teaching and learning outcome is in most random cases. The randomness caused by a complex system is called chaos (LarsenFreeman, 1997). It is necessary to understand the chaos system to know the principle of uncertainty, non-linear development and principle in understanding in English language teaching. The success of language teaching is very much dependent on a ³strange attractor´ i.e. a known or unknown factor that affects the outcome. Interestingly, teaching/learning behavior is unpredictable in most cases, although decisions made by teachers and learners that belong to the same teaching culture are similar. In other words, teaching professionals are not sure how they will teach in the changing situations but their ways are essentially the same. Every teacher¶s behavior, although unpredictable, is self similar to the behavior of a teaching community. The process if ³effective teaching´ is ever-changing, complex, non-linear, unpredictable, sensitive to attending circumstances, and self-organising. Sometimes it is more effective to consider teacher/learner self-organizing strategies rather dictating ³recommended´ methods. Successful teaching can be explained by the theory of chaos rather than by orderliness of some causes and consequences. It is chaos that guides and constrains the way teachers think, make decisions, assess, develop, and change (Bowers 1990).

73. Critical Thinking in ELT. English language teaching should deal with various skills or methods to improve the level of understanding the language. Critical thinking in ELT is the ability to analyse facts, generate ideas, defend opinions, make comparisons, draw inferences, evaluate arguments and solve problems. It is a way of reasoning that demands adequate support for one¶s beliefs and an unwillingness to be persuaded unless support is forthcoming, the analytical thinking for the purpose of evaluating what is read, a conscious and deliberate process which is used to interpret or evaluate information and experiences with a set of reflective attitudes and abilities that guide thoughtful beliefs and actions, systematic process of understanding and evaluating arguments, or it is the disciplined mental activity of evaluating arguments or propositions and making judgments that can guide the developments of beliefs and taking action. In other words, critical thinking is described as a high quality thought process. Enemies of critical thinking are superficial facts, intuitive beliefs, loyalty to stereotypes, unconditional acceptance of ideas shared by the majority, emotional appeals from leaders and reduced/simplistic explanations. Critical thinking is an intended careful consideration of any belief in the light of the evidence, supporting or refuting it. It implies that something is accepted or rejected because of some evidence, proof, or grounds. Critical thinking penetrates what teachers believe in their heart-of-hearts i.e. one¶s system of beliefs. Beliefs are subtle and implicit propositions that can only be changed for very valid reasons. Belief system is very difficult to separate from knowledge. A ³belief´ is based on assumptions and ³knowledge´ is based on solid evidence. Beliefs based on knowledge are the fundamental of one¶s professionalism. Critical thinking can result in changing traditions. English language teaching methodology has always been changing. 74. Models of Teacher Change. Teachers can use several models to change their teaching methods. One is called the ³craft model´ where the teacher uses the recommended experience. The second is the ³applied science model´ which offers the teachers a certain theory to improve a classroom situation. The third is a ³reflective model´. It is based on critical thinking i.e. on critical consideration of ideas and facts based on available facts, experience and evidence. This view of change in teaching practice dominated the educational literature until the early 1990s. It focuses on the failure of teachers to adopt teaching activities, practices, and curricula that are suggested or mandated by those who external to the setting in which the teaching is taking place. 75. The SAGE Model. SAGE model is an acronym where ³S´ stands for ³successful´, ³A´ stands for ³achieving´, ³G´ stands for ³great´ and ³E´ stands for ³effective´. Metaphorically, the model can be defined as ³Letting the Jeannie out of the bottle´, ³Fulfilling the four wishes´ and ³Obtaining a magic wand´. ³Obtaining a magic wand´ is giving the teachers skills of ³exploratory teaching´ i.e. introducing elements of research in one¶s classroom work. 76. Action Research in Exploratory Teaching

According Allwright (1993), ³Exploratory teaching is a productive way of integrating research and pedagogy (teaching and learning) by the teachers for the purpose of developing their professional skills. Action research is a teacher¶s active attempt to improve one¶s classroom situation triggered off by a teacher¶s puzzle and followed by pedagogical intervention, collection of data and interpretative analysis with conclusions drawn from it. AR is an process designed to empower all participants in the educational process (students, instructions and other parties) with the means to improve the practices conducted within the educational experience (Hopkins, 1993).

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