International Faith Theological Seminary Department of Linguistics & English Language Studies Graduate Program in Teaching English as a Second Language

(MChrEd TESL) Candidate: Amrita Bhandari/Nepal Date: December 20, 2010 Exam: Basic Module 3: Learners as a Potential Achiever 1-32. Quiz 1. Social skills, language acquisition, thought processes. 2. Learning styles, learning disabilities, learning environment. 3. Preference, task, way, strategies, how. 4. Impaired, accessing, processing, general. 5. Setting, supportive, complicating. 6. Preference, intake, process, store, certain. 7. Preference, study tasks, certain. 8. Processing, storage. 9. Performance/carrying out, certain 10. Giftedness/propensity, language 11. Motivation, general intelligence. 12. Memorize well. 13. Inherited, consciously, achieve, (A), (C). 14. Style, active, articulation, hands-on. 15. Reading, visual. 16. Equally well, proficiency. 17. Analysis, memory, interact/work together. 18. External, memory/memorizing, proficient, internal, analysis 19. Left, right 20. Four 21. Expectations, own, cognitive, ³style wars´, congruence, important, learning. 22. Impaired, social, language, inhibited, dysfunction, nervous, uneven, skills, abilities. 23. Reasons, learner. 24. Set, teaching, learning, physical, social, instructional, psychological. 25. Global, situational, task. 26. Motivation. 27. Set, theoretical, learner, success, ³achiever´. 28. Instruction/teaching, teaching, teaching, interaction, students/learners. 29. Preferred, learning, learner/student, direct, indirect. 30. Memorizing, cognitive, compensation, strategies, overcome, knowledge. 1

31. Strategies, direct, meta-cognitive, affective, social, interaction/communication, target. 32. Repetition, note-taking, elaboration, knowledge, new, information/knowledge, memory. 33-35. Project work 33. Presentation on Cognitive Approach to Teaching Vocabulary. 34. Cognitive and learner styles in the reading materials. The text preparation has focused on the learner¶s kinaesthetic, visual and learning styles. It goes from simplex to complex styles with examples and practice exercises. The course is designed on the basis of learner¶s environment and need. The text contains several examples and exercises which make learner easy to complete the assigned task. The learning style helps the students to carry out the study tasks in a certain way. The text includes kinaesthetic style in which learners prefer learning by active language articulation and hands-on experience. It also includes visual style and auditory style. In visual style, learners feel most comfortable in reading tasks and relying on visual memory like PowerPoint Presentation and in auditory style; learners are most effective in listening and relying on the information ³ringing in the ears´. 35. Inductive or deductive grammar method. Deductive grammar learning is an approach to language teaching in which learners are taught general rules and given specific information about a language. Then, they apply these rules when they use the language. Deductive grammar learning may be contrasted with inductive grammar teaching in which learners are not given grammar rules but they are left to make out grammar rules by themselves. Students can learn best once they have achieved basic comprehension of learning grammar. They can accept feedback in the form of their production in meaningful discourse. The students in the classroom should be provided with opportunities to use language to communicate. Just listening to their teachers in the classroom does not help them in using language for communication. Learning deductively and inductively among the communicative approaches encourages the students to communicate volubly. However, an inductive method involves students more in an analytical study than the deductive method does in language learning. 36-52 Essay Problems

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36. Communicative Disability. Define Communicative disability refers to a disorder in communicating with other people using both linguistic and non-linguistic means of communication. Mostly, learners gets this disability while communicate in a foreign language. In fact, communication is the process of being able to understand and to be understood. Problems with speech, using and understanding language, voice, and reading, writing or listening are associated with communication disabilities. Various cultures, language and geographical regions are the factors which cause communicative disability in learners. Who has a communicative disability? Mostly people have a communicative disability in following situations: y y y the student wants to leave the school because of reading and writing disabilities the baby born with cleft palate and lip the teacher whose vocal cords are damaged from incorrect use

These people have one thing in common that they feel hard to understand and to be understood. Their ability to communicate- talk, listen, read and write has broken down. As a result, they suffer from frustration, anger, embarrassment or grief from time to time. They try to communicate their needs, ideas and feelings but could not be able to communicate properly. A communicative disability affects both individuals with a communication problem and people around them. It may last temporarily or throughout life. Even a mild communicative disability can have serious effects. For example: not being able to say ³s´, ³f´, ³th´ or ³r´ may be a mild communicative disability for a young learner. How can you tell whether someone has a communication disability? The people who have a communication disability look like anyone else and they may speak like one else. A person with a communication disability cannot speak clearly or cannot string a sentence together or is not intelligent. A person with a communication disability has following problems: a. b. c. d. e. f. g. tripping or stumbling over words occasional loss of voice feeling hard to understand conversation and follow it being reluctant to speak to new people becoming arrogant because of frustration difficulty in understanding written material needing directions repeatedly on how to do something

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Who can help someone with a communication disability? In language teaching and learning, a teacher can be the right person to recognize a learner¶s communication disability. The teacher can teach the subject matter being based on the types of disability. He is the only one person to know individual differences and can apply appropriate teaching methods to the learners so that they can be able to achieve their goals of learning language. The teacher can wisely follow the rules of linguistic and non-linguistics concepts in second language learning process. However, besides teachers, speech pathologist is professionally trained to advise, assist and work with the people who have a communication disability. 37. Introverts and Extroverts. Define Introvert means a shy and unsociable person. Psychiatrist Carl G. Jung defined introversion defined introversion as a turning of mental interests away from people and events of the outer world to the inner world of one¶s own thoughts. In other words, introversion is a personality trait where learners prefer to take their energy from within themselves. Extraverts, on the other hand, are energized by direct interaction with the world. Extravert means a social person. Carl G. Jung defined extraversion as turning the interests and energies of the mind toward events, people, and things in the world about us. Extraverts are more interested about what is happening or going around them in the world than in their own thoughts and feelings. There are some level of introversion and extroversion within us, but most of us likely to have one over other. Jung believed that in a normal man, introversion is balanced by extroversion. But in an introvert, the tendency toward introversion is greater than toward extroversion. Jung believed that if the tendency toward introversion became extreme, it would dominate a person¶s unconscious mental life and create a conflict between these two tendencies. This conflict results in a neurosis, which is a kind of mental illness. 38. Autism. Define Autism is a mental development disorder characterized by impaired social interaction and communication, and by restricted and repetitive behavior. In other words, it a qualitative impairment of social interaction, manifested by marked impairments in the use of multiple nonverbal behaviors such as eye-to-eye gaze, facial expression, body posture, and gestures to regulate social interaction; failure to develop peer relationships appropriate to age, a lack of spontaneous seeking to share enjoyment, interests, or achievements with other people, lack of social or emotional reciprocity and lack of varied, spontaneous make-believe play or social imitative play appropriate to age. Causes of Autism & TESL

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Many causes of autism have been proposed. Heritability contributes about 90% of the risk of a child developing autism (Trottier & Walker, 1999). In rare cases, autism is strongly associated with agents that cause birth defects (Freitag, 2007). In language learning, students should have a higher degree of communication and exchange of language. Students with autism cannot share their experience and ideas about what they like to do and how they are progression in language communication. Instructor of ESL, especially in language teaching should focus on how student learn and whether they have autism and other disorder related to autism. ReferencesTrottier G, Srivastava L, Walker CD. Etiology of infantile autism: a review of recent advances in genetic and neurobiological research. J Psychiatry Neurosci. 1999;24(2):103±115. PMID 10212552. Freitag CM. The genetics of autistic disorders and its clinical relevance: a review of the literature. Mol Psychiatry. 2007;12(1):2±22. doi:10.1038/sj.mp.4001896. PMID 17033636.

39. Reasoning Disability. Language learners who have reasoning disability cannot give well performance while speaking and writing. They lack a number of key components of learning. They lack logical order as well as production stage in the learning process. In fact, reasoning disability shows itself in the impaired ability to follow a logical line in one¶s discourse and in the general preference to reproduce a given text despite training in creative tasks. ESL students may face the reasoning disability. They cannot express and write their experiences, emotions, and ideas properly. When they speak or write, they may not connect the ideas logically. They may fail to make use of the facts, slide into a different topic of discussion and may not draw the conclusion from the available facts. 40. Language Acquisition Disabilities. Language acquisition disability may manifest itself in an imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, and spell. Types of difficulties are: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. difficulty with language form difficulty with expressing a content Impaired word use Impaired grammar Separation of content and form

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Learners who have language acquisition disability can have deficiency in language comprehension and production. Empirical evidence suggests that foreign language learning disabilities are related to native language learning, and that most poor foreign language learners have overt or subtle problems with the phonological/orthographic (and syntactic) component of their language acquisition. 41. Dyslexia. Dyslexia is characterized by poor word reading and poor spelling abilities as well as deficits in awareness of sounds in words and manipulation of sounds to spell words. Omissions, additions, substitutions, repetitions, reversals, lack of reading for meaning, hesitations and frequent self corrections are the typical errors in reading. A person diagnosed with dyslexia is called dyslexic. A dyslexic cannot read or spell the words properly and fluently. He is also not aware about the proper use of sounds and manipulations of sounds to spell. In writing discourse, he may be confused in letters such as b, d, p, q, especially in childhood. 42. Thought Process Disability. Thought process plays an important role in learning language. It is the use of memory and retrieving the information in learning process. Thought process disability makes learning difficult for the learner to focus attention on the subject of learning, to use memory resources for processing and retrieving information, and to reason logically. Generally thought process disabilities include: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. lack of logic use of poor text in reading and writing comprehension difficulty in differentiating essential in the text lack of attention to details poor long-term memory

43. Attention Disorder Deficit (ADD). Attention deficit disorder causes impulsive behavior, difficulties in focusing attention, and sometimes hyperactivity. It is a developmental disorder. Many children with this disorder are hyperactive, fidget when seated, and constantly run around in the classroom. They cannot wait their turn and blurt out answers to questions without waiting for the teacher to call on them. These characteristics are persistent and severely interfere with the child¶s learning. Symptoms of ADD The symptoms of ADD are inattentive, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. People with inattentive behavior cannot keep their mind in one thing and may get bored with a task after only 6

a few minutes. People with hyperactivity, are not restless and they always seem to be moving People with impulsive behavior seem unable to curb their immediate reactions or think before they act. ADD and TESL In language learning, learners can have attention deficit disorder. They may not pay proper attention to the teachers and may show restless behavior. They may not wait their turn in answering the questions which they were asked to do. They cannot focus their mind in one thing and their mind gets digressed to different things. There are different factors which create attention deficit disorder in learners. They are food additives, poor nutrition, natural light deficiency, food allergies and poor teaching methods combined with lack of discipline. Teachers should observe their students activities so that they may not distracted from the track. 44. Teaching and Learning Arrangements. Learning environment is a set of teaching-learning arrangements. It includes physical, infrastructure, teaching methodology, learning atmosphere and so on. There are several factors which affect the learning environment such as seats, size of the class, group dynamics, teaching methods, emotional and inspirational atmosphere, and interaction of the learners, supports and technology. The learning environment should be supportive providing intellectual, social and physical conditions for effective learning. Learning environment should be designed according to the needs of the students. Moreover, the school and classroom should provide a cooperative atmosphere, and should be free from harassments such as teasing and sarcasm. A supportive learning environment also provides sufficient and various resources, including space and equipment, print and other materials and useful technology. Teaching methods help in making the learning environment more effective. Teachers should use modern and interesting technology to make the learning prosperous. Traditional way of teaching method could not bring the students¶ attention. It is always necessary to know whether the students are focused in their learning or not. Therefore, teaching methods are also responsible for making the learning environment supportive and attractive. 45. The Taxonomy of Learning. The literal meaning of taxonomy is classification. The taxonomy of learning is the classification of the major outcomes in the learning domain. The most well known Bloom¶s taxonomy which includes cognitive domain i.e. knowledge, psychomotor domain i.e. skills and affective domain i.e. learner feelings, preferences and values. Affective domain signals the learner of their wellbeing in the situation of learning and alerts them against any harm being

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done to their ego. That is why affective domain is crucial in the interaction of the learner with the learning environment. Cognitive: It is the most used of the domains which refers to knowledge structures. It can be viewed as a sequence of progressive contextualization of the material (Bloom, 1956).

(Source: Anderson and Krathwohl, 2001) In language learning, understanding the text is problematic. The contextualized level of understanding comes only with attempting to evaluate ideas and to try them out in new ways, or to create with them. The taxonomy is an epistemological rather than psychological hierarchy, but it also has a basic chronological element. The language learners should have knowledge of understanding the text. There are six categories in the cognitive domain. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Knowledge: recalling of appropriate, previously learned information Comprehension: understanding the meaning of informational materials Application: use of information in new and concrete situations Analysis: separates informational materials into component parts Synthesis: skills to apply prior knowledge and produce a new idea Evaluation: judge the value of materials and ideas

Affective: The affective domain is related to emotional processes. The learning processes in the affective domain include being open to experience, engaging in life, cultivation values, managing oneself, developing oneself. Using this domain language, learners become able to 8

express their emotional feelings, values, appreciation, enthusiasms, motivations, and attitudes. They can cultivate the new ideas and thoughts. They become able to manage themselves. Psychomotor: The psychomotor domain includes physical movement, coordination, and use of the motor-skill areas. Development of these skills requires practice and is measured by precision, procedures, or execution of techniques. The following seven major categories appear from the simplest behavior to the most complex behavior (Clark, 2001; Simpson, 1972). 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. perception readiness to act guided response mechanism complex overt response adaptation origination

46. Learner Self-Esteem. Self-esteem is the individual¶s thoughts, feelings and actions. Self-esteem is not fixed. It goes differently with different people. People¶s levels of achievements are influenced by how they feel about themselves. There is a positive correlation between self-esteem, achievement and motivation. Self-esteem is the result of the ³self-concept´ compared to and contrasted with the ³ideal self´. Self-esteem is the individual¶s evaluation of the discrepancy between self-image and ideal self. Language learners should make the self-esteem high. With low self-esteem, one cannot achieve the right goal of language learning. They should have the ability to evaluate the gap between the self-image and ideal self. Recent research shows that a greater danger is perhaps the emphasis on direct instruction and the teacher dominance in the classroom. The pupils that have gone through ³indirect instruction´ with learner-centred classes and general learner autonomy are generally seen as to have a higher self-esteem. It is necessary to enhance self-esteem in the classroom to make supportive learning environment. I need to make my self-esteem high to achieve the goal in my life. In the beginning of the course, I feel difficulty in reading, understanding the text and writing the answer for the given questions. However, I conquer those difficulties. I raised my self-esteem to higher point. I enjoy reading the text. I connect my emotions and experiences while answering the questions. It is enhancing my prior knowledge too. 47. Attitudes to Learning and Motivation. 9

Learner attitudes in language learning are a set of assumptions about the peer learners, the teacher and the course. Broadly speaking, there are three types of attitudes in language learning. a. towards the people who speak the target language b. towards the language concerned and c. towards the language learning in general The process of learning is driven by motivation. Motives are the personal reasons for behavior, which are usually rooted in the human needs and act as driving force for the activity. Motivation is a drive for activity caused by personal need, subjective probability of success and the individual value of the achievement. Motivation in language learning is more important than language aptitude. Motivation can have effect on learning and can be influenced by learning results. It can be derived from the personal needs and interest. Sometimes it depends on the external sources. The language learners can be motivated by offering a reward or providing interesting activity. Motivation for learning is impossible without learner¶s success. Attaining a goal is motivating factor for language learning. ESL learners should be motivated in learning language. While talking about motivation in my life, it has positive impact on me. I am motivated to take this course from my friend. When I got admission in this course, in the answer of first module, I could not write well. My professor¶s feedbacks and motivation pushed me to do better in second module. As a result, in second module, I could be able to do better and it is the motivation which has encouraged me to give better performance in the course as I go further. 48. Behavior Disorders. A serious indication of a problem in the learning environment is an aggressing, delinquent or social withdrawal behavior in class. Such children can have poor self-control, weak frustration tolerance and little resistance to impulsive temptation. The reasons for disruptive behaviors are usually attention seeking, raising defences and signaling plight. Children with behavior disorders make a very broad group. Parents, who experience difficult in handling the child, may regard the child as having behavior disorder. Children go out of the parent¶s expectation. They show inappropriate behavior which is out the control of parents. Suppose parents want to manage their children in their own way but the children act different. As a result parents may take their children as having behavior disorder. In my teaching class, I have found my students with behavior disorder. I have felt difficulty in handling them. They do not listen to me. They do not want to do what I want. They like to go in their own way. It is good if they want to learn in their own way but sometimes they 10

go out of the track. In this condition, it its very necessary to observe the student and we should check them whether they are doing right or wrong. Students should be handled with care. We need to understand their problems and try to find out the solution for their problems. We should take care of the learning environment of the learners. 49. The Humanist Approach in Success-Building of Learning. Success building approaches are a set of theoretical assumptions and practical decisions in language pedagogy that can contribute to learner development and turn the unsuccessful learner into an achiever. Humanistic approach This model of the teaching was developed by Carl Rogers in the framework of his humanistic psychology. This approach was based on response to student feeling; use of student ideas, discussion with students (dialogue); praise of students; congruent teacher-learner styles; tailoring of contents to the individual student¶s needs; empathizing with students. Humanistic approach is a theoretical alternative to the psychoanalytic and behavioral approaches. However, humanism incorporates aspects of psychoanalytic and behavioral views. 50. The Constructivist Approach in Success-Building of Learning. Constructivism is a theory of knowledge which argues that humans generate knowledge and meaning from an interaction between their experiences and their ideas J Bruner¶s Constructivist theory describes learning as an active process, in which learners construct new ideas or concepts based upon their knowledge and reflecting on their new experience. The learner selects and transforms information, constructs hypothesis, and makes decisions, relying on a cognitive structure to do so. Cognitive structure (i.e. schema, mental models) provides meaning and organization to experiences and allows the individual to µgo beyond their information given¶. Bruner (1996) states that a theory of instruction should address four major aspects: y y y y students¶ predisposition towards learning the ways in which a body of knowledge can be structured so that it can be most readily grasped by the learner the most effective sequences in which to present material the nature and pacing of rewards and punishments

Good methods for structuring knowledge should result in simplifying, generating new prepositions and increasing the manipulation of information.

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In language learning process, the constructivist theory is proved to be useful and helpful. Learners become able to use their past and current knowledge and experiences. They can construct the hypothesis and make decision. 51. Creating a Supportive Learning Environment. Supportive learning environment is essential in teaching and learning. Unless and until the teacher provides a supportive learning environment in the classroom, the learners cannot learn properly. To make teaching and learning fruitful, supportive learning environment is very essential. The teacher should make learning environment using supportive strategies such as increased teacher¶s waiting time, giving the learner short and clear explanations, offering clues, building learners¶ confidence by praising them for participation and achievement, encouraging the learners¶ by participating in the activities and so on. All time learning and teaching in the classroom brings boredom and monotonous in the mind of learners. The teachers should use games, PowerPoint presentation, and audio- visual techniques to make the environment of learning interesting. Learners can enjoy learning and can easily understand their teachers. The will power of learners should be increased. For example: Suppose one of the students does not understand the matter taught by his teacher and hesitates to ask with teacher because he may think that when he asked the question to the teacher, his friend would tease him. In this condition, the teacher should provide such a supportive environment in which the student does not feel any hesitation and could ask his teacher several times until he understands clearly and properly. 52. Co-operative Learning. Co-operative learning is a successful learning strategy in which small teams, each with students of different levels of ability, use a variety of learning activities to improve their understanding of a subject. Each member of a team is responsible for learning as well as helping teammates learn with an atmosphere of achievement. Students work together on common tasks or learning activities. They help each other in completing the assigned task. They can share their feelings and experience with each other. Co-operative learning can be defined as a variety and techniques for enhancing the value of student-student interaction. It includes: a. Positive interdependence: the feeling among a group of students that they sink or swim together, i.e., that what helps one helps all, and that what hurts one hurts all. b. Individual accountability: the feeling among a group that each member is responsible for their own learning as well as that of their group mates. c. Collaborative skills- these skills, that students need to co-operate successfully, often must be explicitly taught.

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d. Heterogeneous grouping- students working with group mates who are different from them on such variables as achievements, learning style and diligence. e. Tolerance for diversity in the classroom in the teacher and learners (Tan, G., P. Gallo, G. Jacobs and C. Kim-Eng Lee, 1999. Using Co-operative Learning to Integrate Thinking and Information Technology in a Content-Based Writing Lesson The Internet TESL Journal, Vol. V, No.8). Language learners can be more benefitted from co-operative learning. It promotes their learning and academic achievement. It enhances student satisfaction with their learning experience, helps students develop skills in oral communication, develops students¶ social skills and knowledge, promotes student self-esteem and confidence and helps promote positive race relations. 53. The Model of Pedagogical Intervention. This model shows the major factors that can affect learner performance and prompts the ways to build on learner success. We can compare the pedagogical intervention with a triangle where each one of the points represents what has to be learned (a learning object), the person who is learning (a student) of the person who makes possible meeting between a learning object and the student (a teacher) respectively. It is the triangular relationship among the students, the teachers and the learning objects. The pedagogical intervention was not implemented through a traditional course but rather a process-oriented effort of pedagogical development based on collaborative learning and crossinstitutional support. Teams of teachers were assigned to implement theories and tools for the use of flexible learning. Each team either worked on new course or on existing course. A pedagogical tutor, a project management and a production team supported and instructed the teams.

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