Eli Esrig Mrs.

Bressler LA072 Elizabethan Espionage

Centuries ago, in the Elizabethan era, if you were a royal figure, you had it made. You got the best food, many servants, and you didn't have to work for the rest of your life. Of course, all good things have a flaw. These kings and queens were always in danger of being overthrown. This is why many of them had systems of spies, to stop plots of rebellion before they sprouted. Of all these spy systems, England's was by far the most successful. The Elizabethan era ran from 1558 to 1603. At that time, Queen Elizabeth was on the throne, and Sir Francis Walsingham was in France, negotiating the Queen's marriage to the Duke of Alençon. Unfortunately, the negotiations were not going well, and both sides were getting impatient. Sir Francis himself said, "My private life hath made me utterly unacquainted with that skill that the dealings in Prince's affairs requireth." In England, dissent was spreading throughout the populace, and rebellion was in the air. Soon, the Queen realized that the army alone was not enough to protect against the plots to kill her. So, she asked her advisor and close friend, Sir Francis, for advice. They were such good friends, that Sir Francis was known to scold her, in one instance saying to her, "Surely, Madame, I fear that this late severity executed herein will make all the princes of the Religion [Catholicism] to repute the same a general denunciation of war against them." Walsingham responded to her questions by setting up an espionage

and leaves. One of these inventions was not an object or a machine. realized that the amount of employees that they had were not sufficient for the needs of the Queen. Some genius had the thought: Why do at least two agents have to be together to transfer information? In that moment. the dead drop was born. the second leaves the currency at the dead drop to be picked up by the other. then leaves. The Elizabethan Era has a different name in other parts of the world. but it worked. this group of spies was not exactly the CIA. they hired more people. inventors were inventing many things that would revolutionize the intelligence business. picks up the information. most important. only thinking about the fee involved. which is French for rebirth. Most of them were mercenaries. it would be called a spy system. and. Not a very efficient strategy. Sir William Cecil. as the word espionage was not invented until later. and then they reported back. . Ingenious. a dead drop. Then. As the spies succeeded more and more. It was called the Renaissance. To be exact.service. composers were composing. Artists were painting. Anyway. It was called this because the world was coming out of the Dark Ages. It was an idea. So. The basic principle of it is that one person leaves some form of information in a spot. If the first agent requires money. Sir Francis and his partner. Sir Francis's few loyal spies would scout around for the best people to hire. another agent comes. Because of how well they were doing at the time. the Queen had given them a large budget.

a very useful thing for a spy to be able to do. but not hard to trace. The camera obscura transfers an image from the front to a piece of paper. Ciphers were not a Renaissance invention. Not only would this be useful for watching someone secretly. These ciphers could be used in ways similar to the uses of the invisible ink. were working very hard. Ciphers have existed for millenniums. A very useful (and my personal favorite) invention was the camera obscura. was invisible ink. Only those who knew the secret (or put it up to a bright window) could read what it wrote. There is one thing that the English spy system did that no one else did at the . first recorded by Leonardo da Vinci. Contrary to popular belief. They redeveloped many unique ciphers. to keep people from reading over your shoulders. which an artist would then fill in with the image the camera obscura was seeing. it could be used to project an image that would be hard to draw. and to just keep things secret were several uses. combined with ciphers. Invented by a man named Henry Wellcome. including the Caesar cipher. which is still used today. inspired by the many works of genius being created around them. such as a particularly complex face. In fact. What happened at the time was that mathematicians. It was an easy way to conceal information. This device could be used to watch without being watched.Another amazing invention. Another amazing invention from that time is the telescope. To let a mole in a treason plot communicate with his superiors. a spectacle maker. it was a simple but effective device. it could make any correspondence perfectly secure. It was invented by a Dutchman by the name of Hans Lipperhay. Galileo did not invent it. simply a rediscovery. This could be used in many ways.

along with the plot's head. ans scientists. The first of the plots. the Ridolfi plot." The motto must have worked. was helped by the Duke of Norfolk. The plot was discovered by a man named John Hawkins. and was pardoned. much as the Duke of Norfolk wanted. who acted as a go-between for Mary. engineers. Even though the evidence was mounted against Mary. see and keep silent: It was said to be Queen Elizabeth's motto. Queen of Scots. While other countries were fighting their battles with brute force. England fought with knowledge. "Video et taceo. 1583. Thomas Howard (the Duke) plotted to overthrow Elizabeth and replace her with Mary. England hired linguists. Queen of Scots and Bernardino de Mendoza. who was imprisoned by her cousin. Throckmorton was executed and de Mendoza was sent back to Spain. . Roberto Ridolfi. Francis Walsingham caught wind of the plot and cracked down on all involved. but it was Walsingham's first. Elizabeth refused to believe that her cousin had anything to do with the plots to liberate her. was led by a man named Francis Throckmorton. scholars. Howard was killed. He planned to use de Mendoza's influence to gain troops to help overthrow Elizabeth and replace her with Mary. always listening. As said in the book Her Majesty's Spymaster. They kept quiet when others were loud. While other intelligence groups hired fighters and killers. because Walsingham foiled many plots that would have ruined Elizabeth if they had come to fruition. the ambassador from Spain. the Throckmorton plot.time. The Duke was engaged to Mary. Mary insisted that she had no part in the plot. In November. who reported it to the government. The second plot. Mary's native country. page 33. Queen Elizabeth. authors.

Sir Francis deciphered the letters and set an agent. to watch the correspondence. Countries took notice of the fact that. she said. How? How do you control them? Soon. . well-behaved populace. Sir Francis Walsingham. England's spy system has had an amazing success/failure ratio. Spain. achieve your work!" There are several other. England soon became known for its ruthlessness and effectiveness. Babington sent coded messages to Mary telling her of the plan to free her. provoked by the banishment of their ambassador.The Babington plot was the third and final plot with the aim to free Mary and put her on the English throne. who was enlisted by John Ballard. inflamed by the Queen's rejection of Catholicism. more disturbing stories about her death. Mary wrote back saying yes. Thomas Phelippes. "Executioner. After all this. Babington. After many days. and many others involved in the plot. This scheme is different than the first two in that it had more power. the mastermind behind the plot.They were all executed. and the Pope. and that after the first. 450 years after his death. who is still remembered. It is said that it took three strokes of the axe to kill Mary. they had a docile. It is named after Anthony Babington. England was being noticed. Phelippes forged a letter to Mary asking her to take an active part in the plot. sent men too. Throughout its vibrant history. gave the plot many resources. and the population knows that. That letter was all it took to condemn her. They asked. somehow. Ballard. the word spread: England shows no mercy to criminals. her throat cut. but I prefer not to tell them. and a lot of this is due to its founder.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful