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Limit and shakedown analysis of 3D steel frames
Hoang Van Long
∗
, Nguyen Dang Hung
LTAS Fracture Mechanics, University of Li` ege, Chemin des Chevreuils, 1, B 52/3, 4000 Li` ege, Belgium
Received 13 July 2007; received in revised form 6 December 2007; accepted 6 December 2007
Available online 22 January 2008
Abstract
This paper presents an efﬁcient algorithm for both limit and shakedown analysis of 3D steel frames by the kinematic method using linear
programming technique. Several features in the application of linear programming for rigidplastic analysis of threedimensional steel frames
are discussed, as: change of the variables, automatic choice of the initial basic matrix for the simplex algorithm, direct calculation of the dual
variables by primal–dual technique. Some numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the robustness, efﬁciency of the proposed technique
and computer program.
c 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Limit analysis; Shakedown analysis; Plastic hinges; Space frames; Linear programming
1. Introduction
The fundamental theory of plastic analysis of the frame
structures was pointed out ﬁfty years ago. This technique
consisting of an application of the mathematical programming
is widely exposed in the literature [1–6]. When the linearized
condition of plasticity admissibility is adopted, the plastic
analysis problem can be reduced to a linear programming (LP)
problemwhere simplex technique is largely used. This direction
has been deeply exploited in the years 1970–1990, and some
interesting computer programs have been developed [7–11].
Unfortunately, for the last two decades, the research in this area
has been sporadic and limited; practical engineering has not yet
responded.
The major advantage of the shakedown analysis is
solely applicable for the arbitrary loading histories (often
in the practices). However, under geometrical nonlinearity
conditions, usually considered for steel structures, difﬁculties
have generally appeared in this kind of problem (shakedown
analysis).
In recent years, numerous authors have concentrated their
efforts on the advanced nonlinear analysis of 3D steel
frames [12–17]. Modern analysis must take into account the
∗
Corresponding author.
Email address: VanLong.Hoang@student.ulg.ac.be (H. Van Long).
interrelated effects of material inelasticity and geometrical
nonlinearity in furnishing an adequate response to the problems
of structural systems and their components. The complicated
3D steel structures may be solved in this direction. However,
this development is based on the step by step methods that may
contain a lot of difﬁculties in considering the cases of arbitrary
loading histories.
Consequently, the parallel development of both step by
step and direct methods (by mathematical programming) is
necessary. They give a better view of the behaviour of the
real structure and also they may mutually make up for
their deﬁciencies. It is the fundamental motivation of our
work: the development of the theoretical foundations and the
practical software useful for inelastic structures analysis and
optimization. In the following, one can ﬁnd a brief presentation
of a computer program, namely CEPAO:
This package had been developed in the Department of
Structural Mechanics and Stability of Constructions of the
University of Li` ege by NguyenDang Hung et al. in the
1980s [9–11]. Indeed, CEPAO was a uniﬁed package devoted to
automatically solving the following problems for 2D frames:
Elastic analysis, limit rigidplastic analysis with proportional
loadings; step by step elastic–plastic analysis; shakedown
analysis with variable repeated loadings; optimal plastic design
with ﬁxed loading; optimal plastic design with choice of
discrete proﬁles and stability checks; shakedown plastic design
01410296/$  see front matter c 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
doi:10.1016/j.engstruct.2007.12.009
1896 H. Van Long, N. Dang Hung / Engineering Structures 30 (2008) 1895–1904
with variable repeated loadings; shakedown plastic design with
updating of elastic response in terms of the plastic capacity.
With the CEPAO, efﬁcient choice between statical and
kinematic formulations is realized leading to a minimum
number of variables; also there is a considerable reduction
of the dimension of every procedure. The basic matrix
of LP algorithm is implemented under the form of a
reduced sequential vector which is modiﬁed during each
iteration. An automatic procedure is proposed to build up
the common characteristic matrices of elastic–plastic or rigid
plastic calculation, particularly the matrix of the independent
equilibrium equations. Application of duality aspects in the LP
technique allows direct calculation of dual variables and avoids
expensive reanalysis of every problem.
At this time, the CEPAO is extended to the case of space
steel frames with the following problems: rigidplastic analysis
and design by LP; elastic–plastic analysis by the stepbystep
method in both ﬁrst and second order (Pdelta effects). The limit
and shakedown analysis is based on the upper bound theorem
while the rigidplastic design is supported by the lower bound
theorem. It is important to indicate here that in the case of
frame structures both kinematic and statical methods lead to
the same one and only solution. The geometrical nonlinearity is
completely ignored in this direct method (by LP).
Because of the limitation of an article, the present work
describes only details of the module of limit and shakedown
analysis where some original contributions are indicated in the
Section 3. We hope that other contents will be presented in our
next papers.
2. Assumptions and modelling plastic hinges
The following assumptions have been made:
– Loading is quasistatic and service load domain is speciﬁed
by linear constraints;
– The torsional stiffness and the effect of the shear forces are
negligible;
– The rigid — perfectly plastic material is used in the limit
analysis; the elastic — perfectly plastic material is applied
in the other problems.
– Plastic hinges are located at critical sections.
Modelling plastic hinges
Since the effect of both shear forces and torsional moments
are ignored, the condition of plastic admissibility at the critical
sections becomes Φ(N, M
y
, M
z
) ≤ 0, with N is the normal
force and M
y
, M
z
are respectively bending moments about to
y and z axes. The plastic hinge modelling is described by the
choice of net displacement (relative)  force relationship at the
critical sections. In present work, the normality rule is adopted.
¸
¸
∆
θ
y
θ
z
¸
¸
¸
= λ
¸
¸
∂Φ/∂ N
∂Φ/∂ M
y
∂Φ/∂ M
z
¸
¸
¸
,
or, symbolically:
e
i
= λ
i
N
i
C
, (1)
where λ
i
is the plastic deformation magnitude; e
i
is the vector
of longitudinal displacement and two rotations of i th section;
N
i
C
is a gradient vector of the yield surface Φ.
The application of the LP techniques requires that the
nonlinear yield surfaces must be linearized. In civil engineering
practices, for bisymmetrical wideﬂange shapes, several
Standards replace the curvilinear yield surface by a polyhedron
sixteenfacet:
α
1
N
N
P
+ α
2
M
y
M
Py
+ α
3
M
z

M
Pz
= 1 for
N
N
P
≥ α
0
; (2a)
α
4
N
N
P
+ α
5
M
y
M
Py
+ α
6
M
z

M
Pz
= 1 for
N
N
P
< α
0
; (2b)
where: M
Py,
M
Pz
are the plastic moment capacity with respect
to y and z axis, N
P
is the squash load, 0 ≤ α
0
< 1, α
1
, . . . α
6
are the dimensionless coefﬁcients. The Eqs. (2a) and (2b) may
also be written
a
1
N + a
2
M
y
+ a
3
M
z
 = S
0
for
N
N
P
≥ α
0
; (3a)
a
4
N + a
5
M
y
+ a
6
M
z
 = S
0
for
N
N
P
< α
0
; (3b)
with S
0
is a referential value, and a
1
, . . . a
6
are the nonzero
coefﬁcients.
At the i th critical section, the plastic admissibility deﬁned
by Eqs. (3a) and (3b) has the following form:
Y
i
s
i
≤ s
i
0
, (4)
where matrix Y
i
contains the coefﬁcients a
1
, . . . a
6
; s
i
collects
the vector of internal forces; the column matrix s
i
0
contains the
corresponding terms S
0
.
According to the deﬁnitions of the matrices N
C
, Y, we can
see that
N
i
C
= Y
iT
. (5)
The detailed form of matrix N
C
is belowmentioned by Eq.
(13).
3. Application of LP
A systematic treatment of the application of LP in plastic
analysis can be found in [4,5]. In the present work, we restrict
ourselves to describing some practical aspects of the CEPAO
package applied to the case of 3D steel frames. They are:
the further reduction of the kinematic approach (Sections 3.2.2
and 3.3.2), and the direct calculation of the internal force (or
residual internal force) distribution (Sections 3.2.3 and 3.3.3).
3.1. General formulation
In the CEPAO, the canonical formulation of the LP is
considered:
Min π = c
T
xWx = b (6)
where π is the objective function; x, c, b are respectively
the vector of variables, of costs and of second member. W
H. Van Long, N. Dang Hung / Engineering Structures 30 (2008) 1895–1904 1897
is called the matrix of constraint. For the sake of simplicity,
the objective function has a state variable, and the matrix
formulation is arranged such that the basic matrix of the initial
solution appears clearly as follows:
¸
−c
T
1
1 −c
T
2
W
1
0 W
2
¸
¸
¸
x
1
π
x
2
=
¸
0
b
¸
. (7)
The basic matrix of the initial solution is
X
0
=
¸
1 −c
T
2
0 W
2
¸
.
Eq. (7) can then be written under a general form
W
∗
x
∗
= b
∗
. (8)
The matrices W
∗
, x
∗
, b
∗
and X
0
for both limit and shakedown
analysis problems will be accurately calculated in the following
sections:
3.2. Limit analysis by kinematic method
3.2.1. Kinematic approach
A kinematically admissible state is deﬁned by a collapse
mechanism that satisﬁes the condition of compatibility. It leads
to a positive external power supplied by the reference loading.
Based on the upper bound theorem of limit analysis, the
kinematic formulation of limit analysis can be stated as a LP
problem.
Min φ = s
T
0
λ
N
C
λ − Bd = 0
f
T
d = ξ
λ ≥ 0.
(9)
The safety factor will be obtained by
µ
+
= φ/ξ.
In Eq. (9), λ is the vector of the plastic deformation magnitude;
B is the kinematic matrix deﬁned in Appendix A; d, f are
respectively the vector of independent displacements and the
vector of external load; ξ is a constant (generally, one takes
ξ = 1).
3.2.2. Further reduction of the kinematic approach
In the kinematic method, the unknowns are the plastic
deformation magnitude, λ, and the independent displacement,
d (negative or positive). In LP procedure we need nonnegative
variables so that we adopt the change of the variables as in the
following:
d
= d + d
0
so that d
≥ 0.
The way to ﬁx the value of d
0
, which depends on the real
structure, such that d
are always nonnegative is explained in
the Appendix C. Now, the problem of Eq. (9) becomes
Min φ = s
T
0
λ
N
C
λ − Bd
= −Bd
0
f
T
d
= ξ + f
T
d
0
λ, d
≥ 0.
(10)
Therefore, the vector of variables, matrix of constraint, vector
of second member corresponding to the problem of Eq. (8) for
limit analysis are given below.
x
∗T
=
¸
π x
T
η
¸
=
¸
π d
T
λ
T
η
¸
b
∗T
=
¸
0 b
T
¸
=
¸
0 −Bd
0
ξ + f
T
d
0
¸
W
∗
=
¸
¸
1 0
T
−s
T
0
0
0 −B N
C
0
0 f
T
0
T
1
where η is an artiﬁcial variable which must be taken out of the
basic vector in the simplex process.
Because of the use of the simplex technique, ﬁnding an
initial admissible solution such that the initial value of any
variable (except the objective function) must be nonnegative
is needed. To satisfy this requirement, it appears that the
following arrangement leads to good behaviour of the automatic
calculation.
The linearized condition of plastic admissibility for the i th
section (Eq. (4)) may be expanded as follows:
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
a
i
1
−a
i
2
−a
i
3
a
i
1
a
i
2
−a
i
3
a
i
1
a
i
2
a
i
3
−a
i
1
a
i
2
a
i
3
−a
i
1
−a
i
2
a
i
3
−a
i
1
−a
i
2
−a
i
3
a
i
1
−a
i
2
a
i
3
−a
i
1
a
i
2
−a
i
3
a
i
4
−a
i
5
−a
i
6
a
i
4
a
i
5
−a
i
6
a
i
4
a
i
5
a
i
6
−a
i
4
a
i
5
a
i
6
−a
i
4
−a
i
5
a
i
6
−a
i
4
−a
i
5
−a
i
6
a
i
4
−a
i
5
a
i
6
−a
i
4
a
i
5
−a
i
6
¸
¸
¸
¸
N
i
M
i
y
M
i
z
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
≤
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
S
i
0
S
i
0
S
i
0
S
i
0
S
i
0
S
i
0
S
i
0
S
i
0
S
i
0
S
i
0
S
i
0
S
i
0
S
i
0
S
i
0
S
i
0
S
i
0
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
. (11)
The Fig. 1 describes the projection of 16 planar facets of the
polyhedral stressresultant yield surface corresponding to the
16 inequalities numbered on the Eq. (11).
According to Eqs. (4) and (5), we see that Eq. (11) can be
written under symbolic formulation
N
iT
C
s
i
≤ s
i
0
. (12)
Put
˜
N
i
C
=
¸
¸
a
i
1
a
i
1
a
i
1
−a
i
2
a
i
2
a
i
2
−a
i
3
−a
i
3
a
i
3
.
Let us note that:
˜
N
i
C
is always nonsingular because a
i
1
, a
i
2
, a
i
3
are certainly positive.
1898 H. Van Long, N. Dang Hung / Engineering Structures 30 (2008) 1895–1904
Fig. 1. Projection of the yield surface on the plan M
y
OM
z
.
Then, matrix N
i
C
in Eq. (12) may be decomposed into three
submatrices:
N
i
C
=
¸
˜
N
i
C
−
˜
N
i
C
¯
N
i
C
¸
, (13)
with
¯
N
i
C
is the rest of N
i
C
after deducting
˜
N
i
C
and −
˜
N
i
C
.
The decomposition of matrix N
i
C
leads then to the following
form:
s
iT
0
=
¸
˜ s
iT
0
˜ s
iT
0
¯ s
iT
0
¸
=
¸
S
i
0
· · · S
i
0
¸
;
λ
iT
=
¸
˜
λ
iT
˜
λ
iT
+3
¯
λ
iT
¸
,
where
˜
λ
iT
=
¸
λ
i
1
λ
i
2
λ
i
3
¸
;
˜
λ
iT
+3
=
¸
λ
i
4
λ
i
5
λ
i
6
¸
;
¯
λ
i
=
¸
λ
i
7
. . . λ
i
16
¸
.
Let now S
i
be a diagonal matrix, such that
S
i
= diag [1 x sign of ((
˜
N
i
C
)
−1
b
i
)],
with
b
iT
=
¸
b
3(i −1)+1
b
3(i −1)+2
b
3(i −1)+3
¸
.
Let E be a unity matrix of dimension 3 × 3.
And consider now the new plastic deformation magnitude
distribution:
λ
i
T
=
¸
˜
λ
i
T
˜
λ
i
T
+3
¯
λ
iT
¸
,
in which
˜
λ
i
= 0.5(E + S
i
)
˜
λ
i
+ 0.5(E − S
i
)
˜
λ
i
+3
;
˜
λ
i
+3
= 0.5(E − S
i
)
˜
λ
i
+ 0.5(E + S
i
)
˜
λ
i
+3
.
With the mentioned arrangement, and if the case of initial basis
of variables is
¸
˜
λ
1
T
˜
λ
2
T
. . .
˜
λ
n
s
T
¸
, the initial basic matrix
may be determined as follows:
X
0
=
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
1 −˜ s
1T
0
−˜ s
2T
0
. . . −˜ s
n
s
T
0
0
0
˜
N
1
C
S
1
0 . . . 0 0
0 0
˜
N
2
C
S
2
. . . 0 0
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
. . . .
.
.
.
.
.
.
0 0 0 . . .
˜
N
n
s
C
S
n
s
0
0 0
T
0
T
. . . 0
T
1
,
in which, n
s
is the number of critical sections.
Easily, we may demonstrate that the initial solution
x
0
= X
−1
0
b
is certainly nonnegative.
3.2.3. Direct calculation of the internal force distribution
The strain rate at critical sections is chosen as variables
in kinematical approach. The collapse factor and mechanism
are given as output. To obtain the internal force distribution
while avoiding the static approach, the dual properties of LP
are used. The physical signiﬁcance of the dual variables may be
established as follows:
The canonical dual form of the LP problem of Eq. (6) is
Max (b
T
y + 0
T
h)
W
T
y + h = c
h ≥ 0,
(14)
in Eq. (14), y
T
=
¸
s
T
µ
−
¸
,
and h are the nonnegative slack variables:
h
T
=
¸
0
T
h
1T
h
2T
. . . h
n
s
T
¸
, with:
h
iT
=
¸
˜
h
iT
˜
h
iT
+3
¯
h
i
¸
.
It may be seen from the equality (14) that the internal forces are
related to the slack variables h:
s
i
= (
˜
N
iT
C
)
−1
(˜ s
i
0
−
˜
h
i
). (15)
H. Van Long, N. Dang Hung / Engineering Structures 30 (2008) 1895–1904 1899
It can be shown that the slack variables h are identiﬁed exactly
as the reduced costs ¯ c of the primal problem (8):
h = ¯ c = (X
 1
op
(1, :))W
∗
where X
−1
op
(1, :) is the ﬁrst row of the inverses basic matrix at
optimal solution.
The reduced costs ¯ c necessary for the convergence test of
the simplex algorithm are variable in the output of the primal
calculation. The automatic computation by (15) of the internal
forces distribution is independent of the type of collapse:
partial, complete or overcomplete.
3.3. Shakedown analysis by kinematic method
3.3.1. Kinematic approach
Based on the upper bound theorem of shakedown analysis,
the safety factor can be determined by minimizing the
kinematically admissible multiplier. Since the service load
domain is speciﬁed by linear constraints, the kinematic
approach leads to a LP problem:
Min φ = s
T
0
λ
N
C
λ − Bd = 0
s
T
E
N
C
λ = ξ
λ ≥ 0,
(16)
where s
E
is the envelope of the elastic responses of the
considered loading domain.
The safety factor will be obtained by
µ
s+
= φ/ξ.
3.3.2. Further reduction of the kinematic approach
As in the limit analysis, by an appropriate choice of d
0
such
that:
d
= d + d
0
≥ 0,
and by using the new plastic deformation magnitude
distribution, the vector of variables, matrix of constraints and
vector of second member corresponding to the problem of
Eq. (8) for shakedown analysis have the following form:
x
∗T
=
¸
π d
λ η
¸
;
b
∗T
=
¸
0 −Bd
0
ξ
¸
;
W
∗
=
¸
¸
1 0
T
−s
T
0
0
0 −B N
C
0
0 0
T
s
T
E
N
C
1
.
With initial basic matrix:
X
0
=
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
1 −˜ s
1T
0
−˜ s
2T
0
. . . −˜ s
n
s
T
0
0
0
˜
N
1
C
S
1
0 . . . 0 0
0 0
˜
N
2
C
S
2
. . . 0 0
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
. . . .
.
.
.
.
.
.
0 0 0 . . .
˜
N
n
s
C
S
n
s
0
0 s
1T
E
˜
N
1
C
S
1
s
2T
E
˜
N
2
C
S
2
. . . s
n
s
T
E
˜
N
n
s
C
S
n
s
1
And the initial basic variables:
¸
˜
λ
1
T
˜
λ
2
T
. . .
˜
λ
n
s
T
¸
.
The problems of Eqs. (10) and (16) are similar except for the
choice of the initial admissible point in the permissible domain
and the shakedown analysis requires preliminary calculation of
elastic responses.
3.3.3. Direct calculation of the residual internal force
distribution
Again the dual form of Eq. (16) is written similarly to Eq.
(14) with:
y
T
=
¸
ρ
T
µ
s−
¸
; h
T
=
¸
0
T
h
1T
h
2T
. . . h
n
s
T
¸
where ρ is the residual internal force vector, h
iT
=
¸
˜
h
iT
˜
h
iT
+3
¯
h
i
¸
.
From Eq. (14), the residual internal forces are related to the
slack variables h as the following relation:
ρ
i
= (
˜
N
iT
C
)
−1
(˜ s
i
0
− µ
s
˜
N
i
C
s
E
−
˜
h
i
).
As h is identiﬁed to be the reduced costs of the primal problem
(16), the distribution of residual internal force is directly
obtained without performing a second static approach.
4. Numerical examples and discussions
The presentation of the two following examples aims at a
comparison of the CEPAO results with those of some other
authors, and the comparison of the ultimate states of the frames
ﬁned by different models in CEPAO. Therefore, we present
not only the results given by limit and shakedown analysis
but also those calculated by the stepbystep method (a brief
presentation is presented in Appendix B).
In those examples, with the elastic–plastic analysis by hinge
byhinge method (ﬁrst and second order), the plastic interaction
function proposed by Orbison [18] for compact wideﬂange
sections is introduced in the CEPAO.
Φ = 1.15n
2
+ m
2
y
+ m
4
z
+ 3.67n
2
m
2
y
+ 3n
6
m
2
z
+4.65m
2
z
m
4
y
− 1 = 0,
in which, n = N/N
p
is ratio of the axial force to the squash
load, m
y
= M
y
/M
py
and m
z
= M
z
/M
pz
are the ratios of
the majoraxis and minoraxis moments to the corresponding
plastic moments. This yield surface is already used in several
references [12–14] that we consult to compare with our results.
In the direct analysis by LP, the plastic strength of cross
sections used in the AISC [19] is installed in the CEPAO, with
the value of a
1
, . . . , a
6
and α in the Eqs. (3a) and (3b) are:
a
1
= S
0
/N
p
; a
2
= 8S
0
/9M
yp
, a
3
= 8S
0
/9M
zp
, a
4
= S
0
/2N
p
,
a
5
= S
0
/M
yp
, a
6
= S
0
/M
zp
, α = 0.2.
Example a — Sixstorey space frame: Fig. 2 shown Orbison’s
sixstory space frame. The yield strength of all members is
250 MPa and Young’modulus is 206.850 MPa. Uniform ﬂoor
pressure of 4.8β
1
kN/m
2
; wind loads are simulated by point
loads of 26.7β
2
kN in the Ydirection at every beam–column
joint. In which, β
1
, β
2
are the factors that deﬁne the loading
domain.
1900 H. Van Long, N. Dang Hung / Engineering Structures 30 (2008) 1895–1904
Fig. 2. Example a— Sixstorey space frame ((a) perspective view, (b) plan
view).
Example b — Twentystorey space frame: Twentystorey space
frame with dimensions and properties shown in Fig. 3. The
yield strength of all members is 344.8 MPa and Young’modulus
is 200 MPa. Uniform ﬂoor pressure of 4.8β
1
kN/m
2
; wind
loads = 0.96β
2
kN/m
2
, acting in the Y direction.
Concerning the loading domain (for two examples), two
cases are considered for shakedown analysis: (a) 0 ≤ β
1
≤
1, 0 ≤ β
2
≤ 1 and (b) 0 ≤ β
1
≤ 1, −1 ≤ β
2
≤ 1. For ﬁxed
or proportional loading, we obviously must have: β
1
= β
2
= 1.
The uniformly distributed loads are lumped at the joints of
frames.
Diverse models have been adopted by some research
to capture both the material inelasticity and geometrical
nonlinearity [12–17], the corresponding load ratios are well in
accord (see Table 1). In which, the secondorder plastichinge
model has been used in the CEPAO, the large deﬂection is
ignored.
The results analysed by CEPAO with different methods
shown on the Table 2, Figs. 4 and 5 point out:
– An expectable coincidence of results calculated by limit
analysis and elastic–plastic analysis ﬁrst order, it allows us
to deduce the good convergence between the dual methods
Fig. 3. Example b— Twentystorey space frame ((a) perspective view, (b) plan
view).
Table 1
Comparison of results (elastic–plastic 2nd order)
Author Model Load multiplier
Example a Example b
Liew JYR2000 [12] Plastic hinge 2.010 –
Kim SE2001 [13] Plastic hinge 2.066 –
Chiorean CG2005 [14] Distributed
plasticity
2.124
(n = 30)
1.062 (n = 30)
Chiorean CG2005 [14] Distributed
plasticity
1.998
(n = 300)
1.005 (n = 300)
Cuong NH2006 [15] Fiber plastic
hinge
2.040 1.003
Liew JYR2001 [16] Plastic hinge – 1.031
Jiang XM2002 [17] Fiber
element
– 1.000
CEPAO2007 Plastic hinge 2.033 1.024
H. Van Long, N. Dang Hung / Engineering Structures 30 (2008) 1895–1904 1901
(a) Example a.
(b) Example b.
Fig. 4. Deformation at limit state given by CEPAO (From the left to the right: Elastic–plastic ﬁrst order, Elastic–plastic second order; Limit analysis; Shakedown
analysis, load domain a; Shakedown analysis, load domain b. The points on Fig. (a) indicate the plastic hinges.).
Fig. 5. Load–deﬂection results at point A (Figs. 2 and 3) given by CEPAO.
in the CEPAO (kinematic and static methods) and the good
correlation between the Orbison’yield surface and this in AISC
LRFD.
– In the case of symmetrical horizontal loading (seismic load
or wind load), the load multipliers determined by shakedown
analysis are the smallest (alternating plastic occurs).
1902 H. Van Long, N. Dang Hung / Engineering Structures 30 (2008) 1895–1904
Table 2
Ultimate strengths of the frames given by CEPAO with different analysis
Method Load multiplier Limit state
Example
a
Example
b
Hingebyhinge, ﬁrst order 2.489 1.689 Formation of a mechanism
Hingebyhinge, second
order
2.033 1.024 Unstableness
Limit analysis 2.412 1.698 Formation of a mechanism
Shakedown analysis,
domain load a
2.311 1.614 Incremental plasticity
Shakedown analysis,
domain load b
1.670 0.987 Alternating plasticity
5. Conclusions
From the performed work, we can draw the following
conclusions:
It appears that the canonical formulas in both limit and
shakedown analysis using LP for 3D steel frames may be
reduced by a special change of the variables and by a natural
choice of the initial basic matrix useful for the simplex
algorithm. The distribution of the internal forces may be
directly calculated by the application of duality aspects in
the LP technique. This allows avoiding expensive reanalysis
of the primal problem. The abovementioned techniques are
very suitable for automatic computation; consequently, they
have been completely implemented in CEPAO package. By the
way, the problem of ultimate strengths of the largescale 3
D steel frames under ﬁx or repeated loading, in the sense of
respectively limit and shakedown analysis, can be solved now
by the CEPAO package in an automatic manner look like any
ﬁnite element algorithm devoted to 3D frame structures. This
paper shows also that the simplex technique still is a necessary
tool in the automatic plastic analysis of 3D steel frameworks
after a less eventful period of the application of LP in the
analysis of frame structures.
Appendix A. Compatibility relation
Let e
T
k
=
¸
∆
A
θ
y A
θ
z A
∆
B
θ
yB
θ
z B
¸
be the vector
of the axial displacement and the net rotation of the member
ends (Fig. A.1(a)). Assemble for the frameworks (system of the
elements) we have the vector e.
Let d
T
k
= [d
1
d
2
d
3
d
4
d
5
d
6
d
7
d
8
d
9
d
10
d
11
d
12
d
ek
]
be the vector of the member independent displacements in
the global coordinate system OXYZ, as shown in Fig. A.1(b).
Assembled for the frameworks we obtain the vector d.
In the sense of limit analysis, we may think that: d
1
, d
2
,
d
3
, d
7
, d
8
, d
9
are the displacements corresponding to the
deﬂection mechanisms (beam and sideways); d
4
, d
5
, d
6
, d
10
,
d
11
, d
12
are the displacements showing the joints mechanisms;
d
ek
displacement in the longitudinal direction of the element,
describes the bar mechanisms (the bar translates along this
axis). Since the torsional stiffness of the elements is negligible,
we must eliminate the degree of freedom that only provokes
pure torsion in the bars.
The compatibility relation is deﬁned as
e = Bd,
where B namely the kinematic matrix that is determined by
B =
¸
k
A
k
T
k
L
k
. (A.1)
In Eq. (A.1), L
k
is a localization Boolean matrix of member k;
and
A
k
=
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 −1
0 0 −
1
l
k
1 0 0 0
1
l
k
0 0 0
0 −
1
l
k
0 0 −1 0
1
l
k
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 −1
0 0
1
l
k
0 0 0 0 −
1
l
k
−1 0 0
0
1
l
k
0 0 0 0 −
1
l
k
0 0 1 0
,
T
k
=
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
C
k
C
k
C
k
C
k
1
,
with:
l
k
is the length of element k;
C
k
=
¸
c
11
c
12
c
13
c
21
c
22
c
23
c
31
c
32
c
33
¸
is the matrix of direction cosines of
element k;
C
k
=
¸
c
21
c
22
c
23
c
31
c
32
c
33
¸
.
Appendix B. Hingebyhinge method
In the CEPAO, the step by step method is used for the
increment nonlinear elastic–plastic analysis. After each step,
a new plastic hinge occurs, the elastic–plastic constitutive
equation is then updated and it replaces the elastic constitutive
in the elastic analysis. The other procedures are identical to
those of the elastic analysis, even when the Pdelta effect is
taken into account. Therefore, in a brief presentation, we only
present the construction of the elastic–plastic matrix.
Let e
C
and e
R
be the vectors of relative displacement
increments at the yielded sections (plastic hinges), and at the
elastic sections. Elastic constitutive equation (the Hooke’s low)
for the structure may be written as follows:
¸
s
R
s
C
¸
=
¸
D
RR
D
RC
D
T
RC
D
CC
¸ ¸
e
R
− 0
e
C
− e
p
C
¸
, (B.1)
in which, e
p
C
are the plastic strain increments at the plastic
hinges, s
R
and s
C
are the vectors of internal force
increments at the elastic sections and the plastic hinges.
Based on the Drucker’s normality rule, plastic strain
increments are normal to the yield surface and orthogonal to
H. Van Long, N. Dang Hung / Engineering Structures 30 (2008) 1895–1904 1903
(a) Relative displacements at critical sections. (b) Member’s independent displacements (global
axis).
Fig. A.1. Member k.
the internal force increments. Thus, for the sections (element
ends) in the plastic state, we have
e
pT
C
s
C
= 0 and, (B.2a)
e
p
C
= N
C
λ, (B.2b)
(λ and N
C
are deﬁned in Eq. (1)).
From Eqs. (B.2a) and (B.2b) and noting that λ is arbitrary,
we obtain
N
T
C
s
C
= 0. (B.3)
Using (B.1) and (B.2b) and (B.3), the plastic deformation
magnitude may be deduced
λ =
¸
(N
T
C
D
CC
N
C
)
−1
N
T
C
D
T
RC
(N
T
C
D
CC
N
C
)
−1
N
T
C
D
CC
¸
¸
e
R
e
C
¸
,
or:
¸
0
λ
¸
=
¸
0 0
R
1
R
2
¸ ¸
e
R
e
C
¸
. (B.4)
Eq. (B.2b) may be rewritten in the following form:
¸
0
e
p
C
¸
=
¸
0 0
0 N
C
¸ ¸
0
λ
¸
. (B.5)
Substituting (B.4) in (B.5), one obtains
¸
0
e
p
C
¸
=
¸
0 0
N
C
R
1
N
C
R
2
¸ ¸
e
R
e
C
¸
. (B.6)
From (B.1) and (B.6), one ﬁnally obtains the elastic–plastic
constitutive relation:
¸
s
R
s
C
¸
=
¸
D
RR
− D
RC
N
C
R
1
D
RC
− D
RC
N
C
R
2
D
T
RC
− D
CC
N
C
R
1
D
CC
− D
CC
N
C
R
2
¸ ¸
e
R
e
C
¸
.
Appendix C. Determination of the value of d
0
Suppose that
¯
d is the real displacement ﬁeld (the real
mechanism), in which,
¯
d
max
is the largest (absolute value). In
case of limit analysis, the safety factor is determined by the
equilibrium between the internal power and the external power.
µ
+
= s
T
0
λ/f
T
d = φ/ξ (C.1)
where the symbols are deﬁned in Eq. (9).
Based on the upper bound theorem of limit analysis, we have
µ
+
≤ µ
∗
, (C.2)
with µ
∗
is a load factor of any licit mechanism. By giving any
licit displacement ﬁeld d
∗
(for example, only one component
equals unity, and all other components are nil), µ
∗
may be
easily obtained.
From the Eqs. (C.1) and (C.2), one has
φ/ξ ≤ µ
∗
. (C.3)
On the point of view of geometry (kinematic), with the real
mechanism,
¯
d, there is at least a plastic deformation component,
¯ e, such that:
¯ e ≥
¯
d
max
/H
max
,
with H
max
is the maximum dimension of the structure.
Therefore, a lower bound of the internal power may be
evaluated.
φ ≥ s
p min
¯
d
max
/H
max
, (C.4)
in which, s
p min
is the smallest among the plastic capacity (N
P
,
M
py
, M
pz
) of all the sections on the structure.
From the Eqs. (C.3) and (C.4), the maximum displacement
is constrained by an upper bound.
¯
d
max
≤ ξµ
∗
H
max
/s
p min
.
Then, any value of d
0
that satisﬁes
d
0
≥ ξµ
∗
H
max
/s
p min
≥
¯
d
max
,
will lead: d
=
¯
d + d
0
is always nonnegative.
With similar argument, the value of d
0
for the shakedown
analysis may be obtained.
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Chicago: American Institute of Steel Construction; 1993.
also there is a considerable reduction of the dimension of every procedure. We hope that other contents will be presented in our next papers.5]. i NC is a gradient vector of the yield surface Φ. W . NP for (3a) (3b) with S0 is a referential value. and a1 . It is important to indicate here that in the case of frame structures both kinematic and statical methods lead to the same one and only solution. α1 . efﬁcient choice between statical and kinematic formulations is realized leading to a minimum number of variables. with N is the normal force and M y . The basic matrix of LP algorithm is implemented under the form of a reduced sequential vector which is modiﬁed during each iteration. a6 are the nonzero coefﬁcients. where λi is the plastic deformation magnitude. NP (2a) (2b) where: M P y. – Plastic hinges are located at critical sections. In civil engineering practices. b are respectively the vector of variables. 3. the column matrix si contains the 0 corresponding terms S0 . Dang Hung / Engineering Structures 30 (2008) 1895–1904 with variable repeated loadings. Mz ) ≤ 0. Y. .3. . (13).3 and 3. In present work. symbolically: i ei = λi NC . we restrict ourselves to describing some practical aspects of the CEPAO package applied to the case of 3D steel frames. a6 . the CEPAO is extended to the case of space steel frames with the following problems: rigidplastic analysis and design by LP. Modelling plastic hinges Since the effect of both shear forces and torsional moments are ignored.3). N.1. x. At this time. several Standards replace the curvilinear yield surface by a polyhedron sixteenfacet: α1 α4 My N  Mz  + α2 + α3 =1 NP MPy M Pz My N  Mz  + α5 + α6 =1 NP MPy M Pz for for N  ≥ α0 .2). we can see that i NC = YiT . and the direct calculation of the internal force (or residual internal force) distribution (Sections 3. . N P is the squash load. 3. the elastic — perfectly plastic material is applied in the other problems. 0 ≤ α0 < 1. The limit and shakedown analysis is based on the upper bound theorem while the rigidplastic design is supported by the lower bound theorem. . Assumptions and modelling plastic hinges The following assumptions have been made: – Loading is quasistatic and service load domain is speciﬁed by linear constraints.force relationship at the critical sections. – The torsional stiffness and the effect of the shear forces are negligible. At the ith critical section. θz ∂Φ/∂ Mz or. NP N  for < α0 . The plastic hinge modelling is described by the choice of net displacement (relative) . 2. ei is the vector of longitudinal displacement and two rotations of ith section. They are: the further reduction of the kinematic approach (Sections 3. the condition of plastic admissibility at the critical sections becomes Φ(N . General formulation In the CEPAO. Mz are respectively bending moments about to y and z axes. . Application of LP A systematic treatment of the application of LP in plastic analysis can be found in [4. The geometrical nonlinearity is completely ignored in this direct method (by LP). According to the deﬁnitions of the matrices NC . Because of the limitation of an article. . elastic–plastic analysis by the stepbystep method in both ﬁrst and second order (Pdelta effects). shakedown plastic design with updating of elastic response in terms of the plastic capacity.2 and 3. An automatic procedure is proposed to build up the common characteristic matrices of elastic–plastic or rigidplastic calculation. In the present work. (3a) and (3b) has the following form: Yi si ≤ si . NP N  < α0 . .3. the normality rule is adopted.1896 H. α6 are the dimensionless coefﬁcients. the plastic admissibility deﬁned by Eqs. – The rigid — perfectly plastic material is used in the limit analysis. si collects the vector of internal forces. c. M Pz are the plastic moment capacity with respect to y and z axis. (2a) and (2b) may also be written a1 N  + a2 M y + a3 Mz  = S0 a4 N  + a5 M y + a6 Mz  = S0 N  ≥ α0 . 0 (4) where matrix Yi contains the coefﬁcients a1 . Van Long.2. the canonical formulation of the LP is considered: Min π = cT xWx = b (6) (1) where π is the objective function. (5) The detailed form of matrix NC is belowmentioned by Eq. The Eqs. the present work describes only details of the module of limit and shakedown analysis where some original contributions are indicated in the Section 3. particularly the matrix of the independent equilibrium equations. Application of duality aspects in the LP technique allows direct calculation of dual variables and avoids expensive reanalysis of every problem. . . ∆ ∂Φ/∂ N θ y = λ ∂Φ/∂ M y . The application of the LP techniques requires that the nonlinear yield surfaces must be linearized. M y .2. With the CEPAO. of costs and of second member. for bisymmetrical wideﬂange shapes.
0 (12) Put ˜i NC i a1 i = −a2 i −a3 The way to ﬁx the value of d0 .2. f are respectively the vector of independent displacements and the vector of external load. it appears that the following arrangement leads to good behaviour of the automatic calculation. i a3 i i i ˜i Let us note that: NC is always nonsingular because a1 . Min φ = sT λ 0 NC λ − Bd = 0 fT d = ξ λ ≥ 0.H. (8) The matrices W∗ . (9) where η is an artiﬁcial variable which must be taken out of the basic vector in the simplex process. Because of the use of the simplex technique. Further reduction of the kinematic approach In the kinematic method. i S0 M i z S 0 i S0 i S 0 i S 0 i S 0 i S 0 i S0 (11) The Fig. The linearized condition of plastic admissibility for the ith section (Eq. d (negative or positive). x∗T = π xT η = π dT λT η b∗T = 0 bT = 0 −Bd0 1 0T −sT 0 0 W∗ = 0 −B NC 0 0 fT 0T 1 ξ + fT d0 Eq. a2 . W2 Therefore. ﬁnding an initial admissible solution such that the initial value of any variable (except the objective function) must be nonnegative is needed. one takes ξ = 1). (7) b W1 0 W2 x2 The basic matrix of the initial solution is X0 = 1 0 −cT 2 . In LP procedure we need nonnegative variables so that we adopt the change of the variables as in the following: d = d + d0 so that d ≥ 0. ξ is a constant (generally. (8) for limit analysis are given below. the unknowns are the plastic deformation magnitude.2. According to Eqs. a3 are certainly positive. Van Long.1. and the matrix formulation is arranged such that the basic matrix of the initial solution appears clearly as follows: x 0 −cT 1 −cT 1 1 2 π = . matrix of constraint. 3. λ is the vector of the plastic deformation magnitude. the kinematic formulation of limit analysis can be stated as a LP problem. (9). which depends on the real structure. (4)) may be expanded as follows: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 i a1 ai 1 i a1 i −a 1 −a i 1 i −a1 ai 1 i −a1 ai 4 i a4 ai 4 i −a4 −a i 4 i −a4 ai 4 i −a4 The safety factor will be obtained by µ+ = φ/ξ. Based on the upper bound theorem of limit analysis. vector of second member corresponding to the problem of Eq. i −a2 i a2 i a2 i a2 i −a2 i −a2 i −a2 i a2 i −a5 i a5 i a5 i a5 i −a5 i −a5 i −a5 i a5 i −a3 i −a3 i a3 i a3 i a3 i −a3 i a3 i −a3 i −a6 i −a6 i a6 i a6 i a6 i −a6 ai 6 i −a6 i S0 i S 0 i S 0 i S 0 i S 0 i S 0 i S0 i N i S i 0 My ≤ i . x∗ . the problem of Eq.2. d. Dang Hung / Engineering Structures 30 (2008) 1895–1904 1897 is called the matrix of constraint. Limit analysis by kinematic method 3. It leads to a positive external power supplied by the reference loading. (11) can be written under symbolic formulation iT NC si ≤ si . λ. Kinematic approach A kinematically admissible state is deﬁned by a collapse mechanism that satisﬁes the condition of compatibility. d ≥ 0. Now. such that d are always nonnegative is explained in the Appendix C. For the sake of simplicity. (10) i a1 i a2 i −a3 i a1 i a2 . In Eq. . b∗ and X0 for both limit and shakedown analysis problems will be accurately calculated in the following sections: 3. and the independent displacement. 1 describes the projection of 16 planar facets of the polyhedral stressresultant yield surface corresponding to the 16 inequalities numbered on the Eq. the vector of variables. (7) can then be written under a general form W∗ x∗ = b∗ . B is the kinematic matrix deﬁned in Appendix A. (4) and (5). (9) becomes Min φ = sT λ 0 NC λ − Bd = −Bd0 fT d = ξ + fT d0 λ. the objective function has a state variable. (11). N. we see that Eq. To satisfy this requirement.2.
λi .. . . (14). . .5(E − Si )λ + 0. Van Long.1898 H. . 0 0 2 2 ˜ 0 0 NC S . Direct calculation of the internal force distribution The strain rate at critical sections is chosen as variables in kinematical approach.. with: λi 2 λi 5 . . . . .. (14) siT = siT ˜0 0 ˜ λiT = λiT where ˜ iT λ = λi 1 ˜ iT λ+3 ¯i = λi 4 λ = λi 7 ˜0 siT ˜ iT λ+3 i ¯0 siT = S0 ··· i S0 . The collapse factor and mechanism are given as output. Let E be a unity matrix of dimension 3 × 3. i i (13) i ¯ ˜ ˜ with NC is the rest of NC after deducting NC and −NC .5(E + Si )λ+3 . we may demonstrate that the initial solution x0 = X−1 b 0 is certainly nonnegative. 16 It may be seen from the equality (14) that the internal forces are related to the slack variables h: i ˜ iT si = (NC )−1 (˜i − h ). Easily. n s is the number of critical sections. the initial basic matrix may be determined as follows: 1 −˜1T −˜2T . ¯ iT λ . −˜ns T 0 s0 s0 s0 0 N1 S1 ˜C 0 . . yT = sT µ− .. s0 ˜ (15) . the dual properties of LP are used. N Sn s 0 0 0T 0T . . . With the mentioned arrangement. with biT = b3(i−1)+1 b3(i−1)+2 b3(i−1)+3 .. . To obtain the internal force distribution while avoiding the static approach. (6) is Max (bT y + 0T h) WT y + h = c h ≥ 0.5(E − Si )λ+3 . . Projection of the yield surface on the plan M y O Mz . . 1. 0 ˜ ns 0 0 . matrix NC in Eq. . Fig. . . Dang Hung / Engineering Structures 30 (2008) 1895–1904 Let now Si be a diagonal matrix..3. (12) may be decomposed into three submatrices: i ˜C NC = Ni i ˜ −NC i ¯i NC . The physical signiﬁcance of the dual variables may be established as follows: The canonical dual form of the LP problem of Eq. ˜i ˜i ˜i λ+3 = 0. . . hn s T . λn s T . and h are the nonnegative slack variables: hT = 0T ˜ hiT = hiT h1T ˜ iT h+3 h2T ¯i h . . ..5(E + Si )λ + 0. . And consider now the new plastic deformation magnitude distribution: ˜ λi T = λ i T in which ˜i ˜i ˜i λ = 0.. .2. . and if the case of initial basis ˜ ˜ ˜ of variables is λ1 T λ2 T . λi . 3 λi 6 . i The decomposition of matrix NC leads then to the following form: 3. . 0 0 X0 = . such that ˜i Si = diag [1 x sign of ((NC )−1 bi )]. N. i Then. C ˜i T λ+3 ¯ iT λ . 0T 1 in which. in Eq. .
Dang Hung / Engineering Structures 30 (2008) 1895–1904 1899 It can be shown that the slack variables h are identiﬁed exactly ¯ as the reduced costs c of the primal problem (8): ¯ h = c = (Xop1 (1. −˜0s T sn 0 0 . (3a) and (3b) are: a1 = S0 /N p . . The automatic computation by (15) of the internal forces distribution is independent of the type of collapse: partial. Φ = 1. hT = 0T h1T h2T . λn s T . the plastic interaction function proposed by Orbison [18] for compact wideﬂange sections is introduced in the CEPAO. . Further reduction of the kinematic approach As in the limit analysis. ¯ The reduced costs c necessary for the convergence test of the simplex algorithm are variable in the output of the primal calculation..65m 2 m 4 − 1 = 0.. by an appropriate choice of d0 such that: d = d + d0 ≥ 0. (8) for shakedown analysis have the following form: x∗T = π d λ η . . .. . 1 b∗T = 0 −Bd0 ξ . Uniform ﬂoor pressure of 4. 4. m y = M y /M py and m z = Mz /M pz are the ratios of the majoraxis and minoraxis moments to the corresponding plastic moments. (14).8β1 kN/m2 . In which. 0 1 . with the elastic–plastic analysis by hingebyhinge method (ﬁrst and second order). a3 = 8S0 /9Mzp . (16) ˜ ˜ ˜ And the initial basic variables: λ1 T λ2 T . In the direct analysis by LP.H. .15n 2 + m 2 + m 4 + 3. Kinematic approach Based on the upper bound theorem of shakedown analysis. 1 0T −sT 0 ∗ 0 −B NC W = 0 0T sT NC E With initial basic matrix: X0 = 1 0 0 . . and the comparison of the ultimate states of the frames ﬁned by different models in CEPAO.3.1. The problems of Eqs. 3. .. N. The yield strength of all members is 250 MPa and Young’modulus is 206. a5 = S0 /M yp .. ˜ +3 ¯ h From Eq. the plastic strength of crosssections used in the AISC [19] is installed in the CEPAO. 0 ˜ ns NC Sn s ˜ ns sns T NC Sn s E 0 0 . Van Long. . and by using the new plastic deformation magnitude distribution.. the safety factor can be determined by minimizing the kinematically admissible multiplier. a6 = S0 /Mzp . a4 = S0 /2N p . matrix of constraints and vector of second member corresponding to the problem of Eq. . . 3. . . . . . the kinematic approach leads to a LP problem: Min φ = sT λ 0 NC λ − Bd = 0 sT NC λ = ξ E λ ≥ 0. :))W∗ where X−1 (1. :) is the ﬁrst row of the inverses basic matrix at op optimal solution. complete or overcomplete. . . 2 shown Orbison’s sixstory space frame. In those examples. where sE is the envelope of the elastic responses of the considered loading domain.7β2 kN in the Y direction at every beam–column joint.3.3.. (10) and (16) are similar except for the choice of the initial admissible point in the permissible domain and the shakedown analysis requires preliminary calculation of elastic responses. (16) is written similarly to Eq. n = N /N p is ratio of the axial force to the squash load. Numerical examples and discussions The presentation of the two following examples aims at a comparison of the CEPAO results with those of some other authors. the residual internal forces are related to the slack variables h as the following relation: ˜ iT ˜i ˜i ρ i = (NC )−1 (˜i − µs NC sE − h ). β1 . the distribution of residual internal force is directly obtained without performing a second static approach.850 MPa. (14) with: yT = ρ T µs− . β2 are the factors that deﬁne the loading domain. Since the service load domain is speciﬁed by linear constraints. 0 0 −˜1T s0 ˜ 1 S1 NC 0 .3. 0 ˜2 NC S2 . .67n 2 m 2 + 3n 6 m 2 y z y z + 4. 3. This yield surface is already used in several references [12–14] that we consult to compare with our results. α = 0. a6 and α in the Eqs.. Therefore. Shakedown analysis by kinematic method 3.. the vector of variables.2. The safety factor will be obtained by µs+ = φ/ξ. . a2 = 8S0 /9M yp . z y in which.. we present not only the results given by limit and shakedown analysis but also those calculated by the stepbystep method (a brief presentation is presented in Appendix B). . Example a — Sixstorey space frame: Fig.. wind loads are simulated by point loads of 26. hn s T where ρ is the residual internal force vector. Direct calculation of the residual internal force distribution Again the dual form of Eq. 0 0 .3..2. hiT = ˜ iT hiT hi . with the value of a1 . . . s0 As h is identiﬁed to be the reduced costs of the primal problem (16). s1T E 0 ˜1 NC S1 s2T E −˜2T s0 0 ˜2 NC S2 .
010 2. The uniformly distributed loads are lumped at the joints of frames. we obviously must have: β1 = β2 = 1. Table 1 Comparison of results (elastic–plastic 2nd order) Author Liew JYR2000 [12] Kim SE2001 [13] Chiorean CG2005 [14] Chiorean CG2005 [14] Cuong NH2006 [15] Liew JYR2001 [16] Jiang XM2002 [17] CEPAO2007 Model Plastic hinge Plastic hinge Distributed plasticity Distributed plasticity Fiber plastic hinge Plastic hinge Fiber element Plastic hinge Load multiplier Example a Example b 2. (b) plan view). Figs. the large deﬂection is ignored. the secondorder plastichinge model has been used in the CEPAO. The results analysed by CEPAO with different methods shown on the Table 2. Uniform ﬂoor pressure of 4. Concerning the loading domain (for two examples). Diverse models have been adopted by some research to capture both the material inelasticity and geometrical nonlinearity [12–17].998 (n = 300) 2. The yield strength of all members is 344. 3. Example b — Twentystorey space frame: Twentystorey space frame with dimensions and properties shown in Fig.005 (n = 300) 1.124 (n = 30) 1. N.003 1. −1 ≤ β2 ≤ 1.024 .8β1 kN/m2 . 3.96β2 kN/m2 . In which.000 1. For ﬁxed or proportional loading.066 2. (b) plan view). 2. the corresponding load ratios are well in accord (see Table 1). 4 and 5 point out: – An expectable coincidence of results calculated by limit analysis and elastic–plastic analysis ﬁrst order.033 – – 1. two cases are considered for shakedown analysis: (a) 0 ≤ β1 ≤ 1. wind loads = 0.1900 H.062 (n = 30) 1. Example a— Sixstorey space frame ((a) perspective view. Dang Hung / Engineering Structures 30 (2008) 1895–1904 Fig. acting in the Y direction. Example b— Twentystorey space frame ((a) perspective view.040 – – 2.031 1. Van Long. it allows us to deduce the good convergence between the dual methods Fig.8 MPa and Young’modulus is 200 MPa. 0 ≤ β2 ≤ 1 and (b) 0 ≤ β1 ≤ 1.
Shakedown analysis. 2 and 3) given by CEPAO. – In the case of symmetrical horizontal loading (seismic load or wind load). 4. . Limit analysis. Van Long. The points on Fig. Shakedown analysis. (a) indicate the plastic hinges. 5. Elastic–plastic second order. Deformation at limit state given by CEPAO (From the left to the right: Elastic–plastic ﬁrst order. in the CEPAO (kinematic and static methods) and the good correlation between the Orbison’yield surface and this in AISCLRFD. Fig. Fig. Load–deﬂection results at point A (Figs. N. the load multipliers determined by shakedown analysis are the smallest (alternating plastic occurs). Dang Hung / Engineering Structures 30 (2008) 1895–1904 1901 (a) Example a. load domain b. load domain a.).H. (b) Example b.
1(a)). as shown in Fig.614 0.1902 H. Since the torsional stiffness of the elements is negligible. describes the bar mechanisms (the bar translates along this axis). d2 . Ck = element k. where B namely the kinematic matrix that is determined by B= k Hingebyhinge. After each step.670 1. (A. eC are the plastic strain increments at the plastic hinges. d6 .412 2. and Ak = 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 − 1 0 0 0 lk 1 0 − 1 0 0 −1 0 lk lk 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 lk 1 1 0 0 0 0 − 0 lk lk C k Ck Ck Tk = . This allows avoiding expensive reanalysis of the primal problem. even when the Pdelta effect is taken into account. The other procedures are identical to those of the elastic analysis. d3 . the problem of ultimate strengths of the largescale 3D steel frames under ﬁx or repeated loading. plastic strain increments are normal to the yield surface and orthogonal to . Assembled for the frameworks we obtain the vector d.024 1. d7 . A.689 1.1). we can draw the following conclusions: It appears that the canonical formulas in both limit and shakedown analysis using LP for 3D steel frames may be reduced by a special change of the variables and by a natural choice of the initial basic matrix useful for the simplex algorithm. A. d5 .311 1. Dang Hung / Engineering Structures 30 (2008) 1895–1904 Table 2 Ultimate strengths of the frames given by CEPAO with different analysis Method Load multiplier Limit state Example Example a b 2. the elastic–plastic constitutive equation is then updated and it replaces the elastic constitutive in the elastic analysis. can be solved now by the CEPAO package in an automatic manner look like any ﬁnite element algorithm devoted to 3D frame structures.489 2. Van Long. (A. consequently. in the sense of respectively limit and shakedown analysis. dek displacement in the longitudinal direction of the element.1(b). Let dT = [d1 d2 d3 d4 d5 d6 d7 d8 d9 d10 d11 d12 dek ] k be the vector of the member independent displacements in the global coordinate system OXYZ. domain load b Ak Tk Lk . N. Conclusions From the performed work. Compatibility relation Let eT = ∆ A θ y A θz A ∆ B θ y B θz B be the vector k of the axial displacement and the net rotation of the member ends (Fig. they have been completely implemented in CEPAO package. Elastic constitutive equation (the Hooke’s low) for the structure may be written as follows: DRR sR = sC DT RC p DRC DCC eR − 0 p . Assemble for the frameworks (system of the elements) we have the vector e.033 2. and at the elastic sections. we must eliminate the degree of freedom that only provokes pure torsion in the bars. d9 are the displacements corresponding to the deﬂection mechanisms (beam and sideways). d12 are the displacements showing the joints mechanisms. The abovementioned techniques are very suitable for automatic computation. Appendix A. Ck 1 with: lk is the length of element k. This paper shows also that the simplex technique still is a necessary tool in the automatic plastic analysis of 3D steel frameworks after a less eventful period of the application of LP in the analysis of frame structures. eC − eC (B. Based on the Drucker’s normality rule.987 Formation of a mechanism Unstableness Formation of a mechanism Incremental plasticity Alternating plasticity The compatibility relation is deﬁned as e = Bd. −1 0 0 0 0 0 0 . d4 . Lk is a localization Boolean matrix of member k. c33 c11 c21 c31 c12 c22 c32 c13 c23 c33 0 1 lk 0 0 1 − lk 0 5. s R and sC are the vectors of internal force increments at the elastic sections and the plastic hinges. d8 . domain load a Shakedown analysis. The distribution of the internal forces may be directly calculated by the application of duality aspects in the LP technique. Therefore.1) in which. Ck = c21 c31 c22 c32 c23 . In the sense of limit analysis. By the way. Let eC and eR be the vectors of relative displacement increments at the yielded sections (plastic hinges).1) In Eq. in a brief presentation. 0 0 −1 −1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 is the matrix of direction cosines of Appendix B. d10 . ﬁrst order Hingebyhinge. we may think that: d1 . second order Limit analysis Shakedown analysis. we only present the construction of the elastic–plastic matrix. d11 . the step by step method is used for the increment nonlinear elastic–plastic analysis. a new plastic hinge occurs. Hingebyhinge method In the CEPAO.698 1.
there is at least a plastic deformation component. editor.4) ¯ φ ≥ s p min dmax /Hmax . (C. we obtain T NC sC = 0. M py .2a) and (B. eC (B. eC (B. only one component equals unity. eC Appendix C.3) Using (B. 1959. [6] Jir´ sek M. 1990. dmax is the largest (absolute value).3) (B. (b) Member’s independent displacements (global axis). Plastic analysis of structures.1) and (B. e. Belgique: Nelissen. Calcul plastique des constructions. 1979.5). Fig.4) in (B. such that: ¯ ¯ e ≥ dmax /Hmax . (B. Based on the upper bound theorem of limit analysis. we have µ+ ≤ µ∗ .2b) and (B. Determination of the value of d0 ¯ Suppose that d is the real displacement ﬁeld (the real ¯ mechanism).3) and (C. (C. From Eqs. the safety factor is determined by the equilibrium between the internal power and the external power. From (B. Member k. In case of limit analysis. the plastic deformation magnitude may be deduced T T λ = (NC DCC NC )−1 NC DT RC T T (NC DCC NC )−1 NC DCC On the point of view of geometry (kinematic). By giving any licit displacement ﬁeld d∗ (for example. one obtains 0 0 p = NC R1 eC 0 NC R2 eR . (1)). John Wiley & Sons. Mathematical programming method in structural plasticity. the value of d0 for the shakedown analysis may be obtained. we have pT eC sC = 0 p eC = NC λ. µ∗ may be easily obtained. eR .6). ¯ will lead: d = d + d0 is always nonnegative. New York: SpringerVerlag.2a) (B. From the Eqs. Inelastic analysis of structure.1) and (C. [4] Cohn MZ. with the real ¯ mechanism. eC or: 0 0 = λ R1 0 R2 eR . the maximum displacement is constrained by an upper bound. ¯ dmax ≤ ξ µ∗ Hmax /s p min . 1. (C. Therefore. and all other components are nil). λ (B. The plastic method of structural analysis. London: Chapman & Hall. Dang Hung / Engineering Structures 30 (2008) 1895–1904 1903 (a) Relative displacements at critical sections. any value of d0 that satisﬁes Substituting (B. A. one has φ/ξ ≤ µ∗ .1) and (B.1) .2b) (λ and NC are deﬁned in Eq. d.3). 2001. the internal force increments. New York: McGraw Hill.4) Eq. M pz ) of all the sections on the structure. one ﬁnally obtains the elastic–plastic constitutive relation: DRR − DRC NC R1 sR = sC DT − DCC NC R1 RC DRC − DRC NC R2 DCC − DCC NC R2 eR . N.1. Baˇ ant ZP. [5] Smith DL. a lower bound of the internal power may be evaluated. Van Long.2). (C.2b) may be rewritten in the following form: 0 0 p = 0 eC 0 NC 0 . (B. With similar argument. From the Eqs. Canada: University of Waterloo. µ+ = sT λ/fT d = φ/ξ 0 where the symbols are deﬁned in Eq.4).H. (9). Thus. 1970. a z LTD.2b) and noting that λ is arbitrary.5) in which. in which. [2] Neal BG. 1976. Engineering plasticity by mathematical programming. (B. vol. µ∗ (C.6) ¯ d0 ≥ ξ µ∗ Hmax /s p min ≥ dmax . (C. [3] Massonnet Ch. with is a load factor of any licit mechanism. ¯ with Hmax is the maximum dimension of the structure. for the sections (element ends) in the plastic state. Maier G. Save M. References [1] Hodge PG. s p min is the smallest among the plastic capacity (N P .2) and. Then.
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