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A woman wears a pair of ballet flats Ballet flats are derived from a woman's soft ballet slipper, with a very thin heel or the appearance of no heel at all. The style usually features a ribbon-like binding around the low tops of the slipper and may have a slight gathering at the top-front of the vamp (toe box) and a tiny, decorative string tie. Ballet slippers can be adjusted and tightened to the wearer's foot by means of this string tie. The essence of the ballet flat has existed since at least the 16th century, in which men wore a similar shoe, then known as pompes. In medieval times ballet flats were popular with both men and women. They only came out of fashion in the 17th and 18th centuries when the high-heeled shoe came into fashion after Catherine de' Medici requested that her cobbler add two inches to her wedding shoes. Heels went out of fashion quickly after Marie Antoinette walked to the guillotine in a pair of heels. Functional shoes: sandals, boots, and flat shoes prevailed in the 1800s. Ballet flats took off again when Audrey Hepburn wore them with skinny jeans in Funny Face in 1957. More recently, variations of ballet flats have returned as a current fashion trend, often referred to as ballet pumps or ballet sneakers and designed for outdoor wear, using a variety of fabrics and usually with a rubber sole. Ballet flats are popular with girls and women of all ages. They are also a great alternative to heels, and they are seen with many tweens and teens at school dances and proms instead of heels.
Court shoes (British English) or pumps (American English) are shoes with usually no fastening and a low cut front. However, some have anklestraps. They are usually worn by women now, but are still traditional menswear in some formal situations, when they are sometimes called opera slippers or patent pumps.
As women's shoes
A pair of circular-head court shoes in black leather with 8 cm (3.14") stiletto heelsCourt shoes for women are usually heeled. The heel and toe can be any shape as dictated by the fashion of the time. In the UK, in 2007 a closed toe and wide (non-stiletto) heel were worn by the very fashion conscious, but most still wore stilettos of mainly 'kitten' height to medium height. Outside the fashion trade in the UK, the term "pumps" would normally imply flat or low heel dancing or ballerina pumps, or even rubber soled canvas plimsolls.
The shoes can be made from any material, but traditional patent leather is popular. Court shoes are mostly worn with a suit or a uniform, but are also worn with formal and informal dresses, skirts, trousers, and jeans. White stiletto heeled court shoes are the standard attire with swimsuits in beauty contests. Court shoes are also part of the costume of a ballroom dancer. They are made of satin, usually tan, though other colors are made as well, and worn on both the competition and practice floors.
Slip-ons are typically low, lace-less shoes. The style most commonly seen, known as a loafer in American culture, has a moccasin construction. First appearing in the mid-1930s from Norway, they began as casual shoes, but have increased in popularity to point of being worn in America with city lounge suits, though these still require lace-up shoes in more conservative locations such as Britain. They are worn in many situations in a wide variety of colours and designs, often featuring tassels on the front, or metal decorations (the 'Gucci' loafer). A less casual, earlier type of slip-on is made with side gussets (sometimes called a dress loafer). Made in the same shape as lace-up Oxfords, only lacking the laces, elasticated inserts on the side allow the shoe to be easily removed, but remain snug when worn. This cut is unusual and has its greatest popularity in Britain.
The Norwegians producing leisure slippers of the moccasin style in the 1930s began exporting these to the rest of Europe where they were taken up by visiting Americans, and championed by the American Esquire magazine. Some photographs included with the Esquire feature were of Norwegian farmers in a cattle loafing area. The Spaulding family in New Hampshire started making shoes based on this design in the early 1930s, naming them loafers, the general term for slip-on shoes that remains still in use in America. In 1934, G.H. Bass (a bootmaker in Wilton, Maine) started making loafers under the name Weejuns (sounding like Norwegians). The distinctive addition was a strip of leather across the saddle with a diamond cut-out. Initially only worn in the summer at home, the shoe grew in popularity in America to become a significant part of men's casual shoe wardrobe, though back in Europe its ubiquity has never reached the same degree. When American prep. school students in the 1950s wishing to make a fashion statement took to inserting a penny into the diamond-shaped slit on their
the name penny loafer came to be applied to this style of slip-on and has since stuck. or in plainer. becoming almost a Wall Street uniform. Italian designer Gucci made the further step of adding a metal strap across the front in the shape of a horse's snaffle bit.culture as equivalent to brogues (wing-tips). These Gucci loafers (now a general term referring to shoes of this style by any manufacturer) also spread over the Atlantic and were worn among by 1970s business men.Weejuns. business and legal classes. With such a background. so they are worn in brown with broguing as a country shoe. black styles with suits . Sparkes Hall for Queen Victoria in 1836. further continental influences brought a more elegant image to light. mainly because of singer Michael Jackson wearing them everywhere he went. for example. The stretchable rubber produces a comfortable shoe combining the ease of putting on of lace-less shoes with the profile of lace-ups. and was dubbed Congress gaiter and Boston boot in America. There is also a bespoke shoe company based in London that was established in the 1800s who developed a penny loafer as a country house shoe for the landed gentry and the Royal family. which emerged in the 1950s. some styles of loafers. lower-cut slip-ons. though lace-ups are still preferred for more formal situations. Though originally men's shoes. their use mimics that of Oxfords. its country of origin. may be worn by women. though the practice itself does not continue. Again. In the mid-1950s. and they have gained an association with.  Use In America and less formal European countries. was designed for George VI as a casual house shoe. though casual. it is still the only style of slip-on worn with a suit in some of the highly conservative working environments in the City of London. such as Italy. such as casual tassel loafers. Its feminine image was soon lost. The 'Wildsmith Loafer' made by Matthew Wildsmith& Co of Duke Street. the loafer enjoys general use as a casual and informal shoe worn for work and leisure. Chelsea boots were invented by J. which moved from purely casual use to being paired with suits in the 1960s (but still only in America). The shoe has subsequently been marketed and sold by other London shoe firms and dubbed µthe Harrow¶. their gradual acceptance among the American East-coast prep. The general popularity of brown over black extends to loafers. Rare even in Britain. In 1966. has led to them being worn there with suits. Another variation on the basic style is the tassel loafer. until reaching widespread use by the 1980s. and more exotic leathers such as suede and cordovan are worn (the latter restricted to America). Side-gusset shoes Having an entirely different evolution to the loafer.
a French word. women often find that they need shoes that are more secure than slingbacks. although there is little indication of any structural resemblance. Alternatively. The style is predominantly (but not exclusively) worn by women. By the early twentieth century. . Mules can be any heel height .from flat to high.or open-toe. influenced by the patten. Slingbacks come in a wide variety of styles from casual to dressy. while still holding the foot in the shoe relatively securely. is a style of shoe that is backless and often closed-toed. or back ankle strap. plastic. A slingback is distinguishable from an ankle-strap shoe in that the latter has a strap that crosses around the front of the ankle as well as the back. The term derives from the Ancient Romanmulleuscalceus a red or purple shoe worn by the three highest magistrates. with heel height ranging from none to high. Mule (footwear) A pair of red mules (side) Mule. History High-heeled mules were a popular indoor shoe style of the 18th century. a backless overshoe of the 16th century. Nevertheless. One reason for slingbacks' wide appeal is that they allow the wearer to slip her foot into the shoe easily without needing to make major (or any) manual adjustment to the strap or buckle. or even sometimes stone.Slingback A slingback is a type of woman's shoe that is backless and is characterized by a strap that crosses behind the heel or ankle. The buckle can be made of metal. produces blisters. and they may be either closed. They have been fashionable since the 1930s and continue to be popular today. mules were often associated with prostitutes. when engaging in more vigorous activity such as ballroom dancing. slides are preferable for some women who find that the sling.
In the early 1950s. broad and rounded closed toes. In modern times they are worn by women of all ages. Marilyn Monroe popularized the shoe and helped to break its poor reputation. Gallery 18th century mules A pair of green Red mules (front) mules Woman's Maryjane Woman's loafer style mules with a style mules with a wedge heel flat heel Mary Jane (shoe) Adult Mary Janes by Doc Marten Mary Jane is an American term (formerly trademarked) for a kind of strap shoe or sandal that typically has low heels. but then re-emerged in the early 1990s. They are traditionally made of black patent leather. Mary Janesare typically considered formal for girls and informal when worn by women. although some current incarnations can be in a wide array of colors and leathers. and began to dominate the shoe market for women. Traditionally Mary Janesare a variety of shoe worn mainly by young girls. Mules experienced some popularity in the 1950s and early 1960s. especially in its open-toed form (the "slide"). and a single-buckle strap across the instep and/or around the ankle. . and were seen in 1970s almost exclusively in the form of open-back Scandinavianclogs.
and goth subcultures. cowriesshells. which was first published in 1902. . Even the bonding from the upper to the sole is done by cotton thread that is not only eco-friendly but also enmeshes the leather fibers with great strength. Some product range also uses bright and ornate threads. In popular culture In the Sawhorror-filmseries. A pump with a strap across the instep may be referred to as a "Mary Jane pump". local ethos and ethnicity. The style of shoe both Buster Brown and Mary Jane wore came to be known by her name. The uppers are made of one piece of leather or textile embroidered and embellished with brass nails. Buster Brown. Among them was the Brown Shoe Company. Mojari Mojari is a generic name of handcraftedethnicfootwear produced in India and Pakistan. Buster Brown. mirrors. In ancient times these were worn by multitude and royalty. within punk rock. psychobilly. often with exaggerated grommets or buckles. Current style While the classic Mary Jane still retains its wide popularity and appeal. Mary Janesare a popular part of kinderwhore and Lolita fashion. who later hired actors to tour the country. Billy the Puppet wears a pair of red Mary Janes. Many times the wearers would accent the look with knee-high knit socks in dark-colored stripes or patterns and/or some form of hosiery (stockings/pantyhose). This strategy helped the Brown Shoe Company become the most prominently associated brand with the Buster Brown characters. These styles were especially popular in the United States in the late 1990s and early 2000s. She was the sister of the title character. performing as the Buster Brown characters in theaters and stores. Stacy Ferguson AKA Fergie has an ode to these soles on her debut solo album. Velma Dinkley in the Scooby-Doo animated series usually wears a pair of Mary Janes. pleated schoolgirl-style skirt. products vary in designs and colours. Mary Jane. As it evolved through the centuries and is being produced by individual artisans. These are made by artisans mostly using vegetable tanned leather. and often complete the look with a plaid.to five-inch "chunky heels". bells and ceramicbeads. although it does not have the low heels or wide toe of the original Mary Jane (and a pump is generally strapless by definition). today's more stylish Mary Janes tend to be platform styles. with half-inch to one-inch soles and three. Outcault traveled to the St. as well as Eleanor of the Chipettes. Louis World's Fair and sold licenses to up to 200 companies to use the Buster Brown characters to advertise their products. In 1904. It encapsulescultural diversity.Etymology Mary Jane was a character created by Richard Outcault for his comic strip. The Dutchess.
cities of Rajasthan. synthetic. Both the parts are joined together by a paste and then stitched by white cotton threads. etc. Produced mainly in Jaipur and Jodhpur. Mojari is referred to a man's closed shoe with an extended curled toe. The design would dictate the nature. in order to make them affordable for everyone. these were replaced by artificial materials. while as juttis have flat fronts. Applique in form of differently designed figures are cut out of leather and sewn on the vamp manually. colour and shape of the appliqué. with the passage of time. Kolhapuris and Jootis centered at Rajasthan. It could range from an intricate appliqué which itself could incorporate other design features like embroidery. rear is normally covered but mojaris have an open look from behind. these juttis were embroidered with real gold and silver threads and decorated with precious gems and pearls. . to a simple cut out shape from any material like leather.. bells etc. while the upper part comprises leather or simply textile. Khussa. These juttis&mojaries are made of buffalo. leather stools to Mojaris.The ethnicity of the traditional skills accentuate into poetry when intermingled with the contemporary colours and designs. History India has a very long tradition of leather crafts ranging from handbags. these juttis are sure to enchant you and provide that royal touch to your attire. In those times. beads. Karnataka&Punjab. punches. Delhi. The production of these heavily embroidered juttis date back to the period of Kings and Queens. etc. cow or camel leather soles. But. These shoes were flat soled and there were no left-right distinction Saddle shoe Girl wearing a poodle skirt and saddle shoes. In juttis. weaves. textile.
 In the United States. A loafer may even be "decorated with metal chains or tassels" (Drummond). The slipper is comparable to the profile and style of a Venetian bark ("Vénitienne") (OQLF). The new trend is particularly prevalent in New York City. ankle boots. Saddle shoes are typically constructed of leather and are most frequently white with a black saddle. The term came from Great Britain (OQLF). Venetian style shoe "Venetian loafer in dark brown calf. Saddle shoes were popular with girls in the 1950s. and thirties. Loafers are "Slip on shoes with a moccasin toe construction and slotted straps stitched across vamps" (Drummond). saddle-shaped decorative panel placed mid foot. A penny-loafer has a "tongue and strap" (Jackson 7). casual shoe characterized by a plain toe and distinctive. The venetian style shoe and its lack of ornamentation contrasts with the loafer which may have slotted straps.The Saddle shoe is a low-heeled." (Soletrain) Venetian style shoes (venetian-style loafers) are mid-heel slippers with an upper or top part that is slightly open to the kick of the foot and the ankle bone (OQLF). and specialized sport . vamps and even tassels. laced oxfords in various leathers. twenties. oxford. Los Angeles. Tokyo and the southwest region of the United States. although any color combination is possible. During this period other popular shoes included low. the slip-on loafers were common male footwear. Saddle shoes are worn by both men and women in a variety of styles ranging from ultra high platforms to golf cleats. By the 20th century. Saddle shoes have recently been enjoying a comeback among males in their teens.
History Origins Winklepicker shoes were a conspicuous contrast to the brothel creepers worn by Teddy Boys. along with the aloha shirt. which is eaten using a pin or other pointed object to carefully extract the soft parts out of the coiled shell. However. or circa the 1940s. winklepickers with traditional sharp-point styles made a comeback of sorts in the late 1970s and . platform shoes and sportswear. teddies. Bermuda shorts. 2009 Winklepickers (also known as Winkle Pickers) are a style of shoe or boot worn from the 1950s onward by male and female Britishrock and roll fans. reminiscent of medievalfootwear and approximately the same as the long pointed toes on some women's high fashion shoes and boots in the late 2000s. Winklepickers Winklepicker boots. flight jackets. 1960s In the early 1960s the winklepicker toe was popular with modernists. During World War II. argyle (pattern). culottes. was not considered to be a Winklepicker. The pointed toe was called the winkle picker toe because in England periwinkle snails or winkles are or were a popular seaside snack. beanies. became fashionable (Drummond). and from that. windbreakers. Cuban heel ) was notably worn by the Beatles. The feature which gives both the boot and shoe their name is the very sharp and quite long pointed toe.shoes. A Chelsea Boot style (elastic-sided with a two-inch. The male shoes were lace-up Oxford style with a low heel and an exaggerated pointed toe. and later as much as two and one half inch. crew cuts. winkle-pickers as a humorous name for shoes with a very pointed tip. In the early 1960's the point was effectively chopped off (they hung on for longer than that in the UK) and gave rise to the "chisel toe" on the footwear of both genders. halter neckline. Winklepicker shoes from Stan's of Battersea were also worn by the Teddy Girls as well as being a fleeting fashion for young women generally. but although it had a pointed toe. hence the phrase: "to winkle something out". the forerunners of the mods. cummerbund. the loafer.
although the Winklepicker looks lethal. thicker. more set-back heels. and in the goth scene. as ever. while in German speaking countries they (at least the Gothic models) are often referred to as "Pikes". and bear more resemblance to the less pointed mass-produced versions of the era. The shoes are closely related to British Garage Rock band The Horrors who even went as far to have a wincklepicker boot with three buckles on their official merchandise t-shirt along with the words "I am a horror" FarisBadwan has personally endorsed Paolo Vandini Veers. though most were in the three to four inch range. could be as low as one and a half inches or as high as five inches. Klaxons and Daniel Johns. too. Kaiser Chiefs. such as the members of Kings of Leon. as a result of being worn in gang fights (sometimes by both sexes) though it seems that contemporary newspaper reports of such clashes were. and it would be highly unlikely that a fashion-conscious person of the 1960s would have subjected a prized pair of expensive Italian imports or custom-made Stan's originals to this sort of abuse. In fact. where they are known as "pikes". The stiletto heels on the original 1960s styles were. it would be far more likely for damage to be caused to the delicately pointed shoe than to the opponent in any serious kicking incident. Winklepickers with stiletto heels for women swept the UK in the late fifties and at one stage the High Street versions were worn by virtually all the female English population who wore high heeled shoes. rather at odds with the look of the pointed toe. Modern day Winklepicker boots are very popular among the modern Vogue Goth and Punk sub-cultures. however. sensationalised flights of the imagination on the part of bored journalists with nothing better to write about. which often have straighter. if somewhat bulky-looking at the toe compared with the Italian styles. English DJ and TV presenter Alex Zane. They were often manufactured in Italy. The long sharp toe was always teamed with a stiletto heel (or spike heel) which. when they first appeared. The original 1960s winkle picker stilettos were similar to the long pointed toe which has been fashionable on women's shoes and boots in Europe of late. . Punks. They are also worn by English comedians Russell Brand and Noel Fielding. Rockabillies. Rock'n'Roll Revivalists. They attained some notoriety. Neils Children. second-hand originals. the modern shoe toes lack the length of the true 1960s winklepicker. In most cases. or contemporaryproduction attempted copies) when they were sold at London indoor markets like Kensington Market and Chelsea's Great Gear Market and worn by several subculture groups including Mods. much more curved-in at the rear (also sometimes sharply-waisted and slightly flared out at the top piece) than most of the recent pointy-toed fashion shoes.early 1980s (either as previously unworn old-stock. Mod Fun. as today. The Kills. but the handmade versions. They are often informally called "Pointies" in Britain. notably those from Stan's Shoes of Battersea were the most extreme. They are worn by many band members.
thong sandals. versions were briefly popularized by servicemen returning from occupied Japan. In the post war period in both New Zealand and America. jandals are known by other names. consisting of a flat sole held loosely on the foot by a Y-shaped strap. Flip-flops Flip-flops are secured to the foot by a strap of material passing between the toes. jandals or slippers are an open type of outdoor footwear. Unlike sandals. Flip-flops. they are usually nowadays "tamed down" or shortened (often with a sacrifice of comfortable toe space) for mass market appeal. flip flops. this claim has recently been contested by the children of John Cowie. that passes between the first (big) and second toes and around either side of the foot. History The traditional woven soled Japanese z ri had been used as beach wear in New Zealand in the 1930s. The first pair were manufactured there by . thongs. zories. pluggers. The idea of making sandals from plastics did not occur for another decade. Despite 'jandal' being commonly used in New Zealand to describe any manufacturer's brand.Although slightly pointed toes are often a feature of women's fashion shoes.toesies. In countries other than New Zealand. His children claim that it was Cowie that started manufacturing a plastic version of the sandals in the late 1940s and that Yock was just a New Zealand importer. The latest design was invented in Auckland. However. for a long time owned by the Skellerupcompany. John Cowie and his family emigrated to New Zealand in 1959. the word Jandal is actually a trademark since 1957. like a thin thong. slip slaps. In Australia they are known as thongs. New Zealand by Morris Yock in the 50s and patented in 1957. flip-flops do not secure the ankle. John Cowie was an England-raised businessman who started a plastics manufacturing business in Hong Kong after the war. The children also say that their father claimed to have invented the name "jandal" from a shortened form of "Japanese Sandal".
A pair of "Havaianas" thongs Flip-flops now come in a variety of shoe styles other than the traditional flat sandal. Measures have been made to reduce cost. so it is not clear whether it is referring to footwear of the flipflop style. often costing less than a dollar. and Southeast Asia." Later the letter reads: "The men have not yet been supplied with shoes. rubber flip-flops are the cheapest footwear available.Skellerup rival Dunlop in 1960. Despite their disposable design. Panama. and wedges. they are most commonly known as flip-flops. The popular use of flip-flops as beach or outdoor wear has spread through much of the world. In the UK and U. Uses and fashions Flip-flops are a common type of footwear. Thongs became popular there after being worn by the Australian Olympic swimming team at the Melbourne Olympic Games in 1956. street vendors will repair worn sandals for a small fee. slides. New Zealand. the Pacific Islands.S. Australia. although it is most common in Pakistan and India (where it is immensely popular and is called a Hawaii chappal). ² in many cases with flip-flap shoes. South Africa. and yet still march flip-flop. Why?" The letter does not describe the men's shoes in detail. or perhaps to the poor state of their shoes. such as making them out of recycled tires. The business-like air with which they marched rapidly through the deep mud of the Third-avenue was the more remarkable. . Because of their low cost they are very widely used in these countries as typical footwear instead of as fashion wear. Flip-flops may have been familiar in the United States in the mid-19th century. In most developing countries. They are a thin rubber sole with two straps running in a Y shape from the sides of the foot to the gap between the big toe and its neighbour. USA. An 1861 letter to the editor of The New York Times mentioned poorly equipped troops in the Seventh Regiment Volunteers wearing "flip-flaps": "The men were not in uniform. Brazil. but very poorly dressed. such as women's heels.
 Because of growing environmental concerns. Each time a foot hits the ground. Following on from this. bones. Flip-flops are also popular with those who enjoy being barefoot but need to wear shoes. especially if flip-flops are worn throughout childhood and adolescence when the muscles. the arch." but were dressier thong sandals. the arch opens and releases this locking mechanism. 2005. the chappal. as a lightweight emergency replacement for damaged boots. The strap between the toes can snap after moderate use. They are also popular because they are easy to carry and come in an assortment of colors and patterns. some pairs of flip-flops last a year or less. where wearing flip-flops slows the spread of fungal infections. some flip-flops force a person to overuse the tendons in the foot. Overpronation of the foot also results in flat feet. because they allow the foot to be out in the open but still constitute a shoe for wear in places such as restaurants or on city streets. Some flip-flops have a spongy sole. it rolls inward and the sponge allows it to roll even more than usual. flip-flops do not provide ankle support. or a pair of flip-flop soles sewn to socks. On July 19. Exacerbating this. both as a truncheon and a missile. in many developed countries flip-flops are typically treated as annual or seasonal. some companies have begun to sell flip-flops made from recycled inner tubes or car tires. Safety concerns While widely regarded to be comfortable. These disposal habits may pose an environmental problem because most flip-flops are made with polyurethane. leading to problems such as pain in the heel. which can cause tendinitis. as well as sustainable materials like hemp.However. This is known as overpronation and causes many problems in the foot. and tendons of the feet are growing and developing. This material is a number seven resin and cannot usually be recycled in small amounts. most people in developed countries do not bother to repair flip-flops because they are very inexpensive and easily replaced. some members of Northwestern University's national champion women's lacrosse team were criticized for wearing "flip-flops" to the White House to meet with President George W. . in order to make their aggravation more palpable to the other party. so when the foot hits the ground. But during overpronation. some soldiers and other trampers or hikers have begun carrying flip-flops. cotton and coconut.. and can cause many foot-related problems. The use of flip-flops has also been encouraged in some branches of European and North American military as sanitary footwear in communal showers. Depending on the material makeup of the shoe. and can be quickly and easily removed. It is not unheard of for people to whip off their chappals in the heat of an argument. and although this problem can be solved by using replacement straps that are easily "snapped" into the flip-flop. which comes from crude oil. has even been known to be deployed as a weapon. short lasting footwear. The Indian manifestation of the flip-flop. The women pointed out that their shoes were not "beach shoes. Bush. although it is more commonly merely a threat. the toes and in the forefoot. the arch is supposed to be locked to absorb shock.
slip-slopers (or just slopers) in South Africa. Thong sandals are also popular with the same proportions and structures of flip-flops. The toe grip can be useful for preventing the foot from slipping forward in a convenient sandal. Socks . The open nature of flip-flops also makes the wearer more susceptible to stubbed toes. Arch support is also found in many more expensive and better made flipflops rather than the ubiquitous foam materials. Brands still manufacturing in Brazil such as Havaianas ( São Paulo Alpargatas) and in the United States include Okabashi (based in Buford. most mass production of flip-flops has moved to developing countries with lowcost labor. When wearing flip-flops. HI). Regional names Along the east coast of the US so called flip-flops are sometimes referred to as "zories".Ankle sprains are also common due to stepping off a curb or stepping wrong. better created shoe can influence the wearer's health and safety. and go-aheads in the South Pacific. found that flip-flop wearers took shorter steps and that their heels hit the ground with less vertical force than when the same walkers wore athletic shoes. thongs in Australia. the study participants did not bring their toes up as much during the leg¶s swing phase. the Philippines. and several other places around the world. ankles and legs. possibly because they tended to grip the flip-flops with their toes. but flip-flops with bands across higher areas of the foot or the arch are recommended for support and keeping the shoe on the foot. They are known as jandals in New Zealand. In 2008. In parts of Texas they are known as clam diggers because of the way they flip sand on a beach. Such shoes are also more commonly endowed with rubberized soles and better cushions. and exposes the foot to the environment. Spending more on a better quality. Auburn University researchers found that wearing thong-style flip-flops can result in sore feet. GA) and Island Slipper (based in Pearl City. the ankle bends. but the flip flop neither holds on to nor supports it. but with the addition of a slingback or an ankle strap that holds and supports the foot in a stable position. who presented their findings at the annual meeting of the American College of Sports Medicine in 2008. resulting in a larger ankle angle and shorter stride length. In Hawaii. they are called "slippers". Manufacturing In recent years. The research team. This repeated motion can result in problems from the foot up into the hips.
they borrowed the Gaulish boot style. A discussion took place in November 2007 on the Victoria Web Discussion group. especially a rubberized boot. Properly speaking. The word galoshes might be used interchangeably with boot. from the Gaulishshoe or gallicae. are a type of rubberboot that is slipped over shoes to keep them from getting muddy or wet. The spelling perhaps changed around 1920 to the present-day spelling. Galoshes Galoshes. also known as boat shoes.Toe socks worn with flip-flops In Japan tabi are a traditional sock with a slot for the thong. to protect the floors against dirt from the outside. This shoe had a leather upper and a sole carved of wood. or overshoes. however. galoshes are synonymous with rain boots often reaching heights just below the knee. shaped wooden bases and mules or slippers into which one could slip their indoor shoes. or merely a wooden sole fastened to the foot by a strap or cord. dickersons. History The term may trace back to the Middle Ages. Galoshes (from French: galoches). When the Romans conquered Gaul (France). Nobles would wear a red leather boot with ornately carved wooden soles to display their station. In Turkey the word refers to a polythene overshoe that is worn temporarily when visiting homes or offices. they could be considered similar to galoshes. "Goloshes" appears to be the older spelling of galoshes used previously in Great Britain. Pattens were overshoes with tall. . In this respect. and toe socks (with separate compartments for each toe) also mate with flip-flops. The term originally referred to wooden shoes or patten.
school children know the black rubber. He patented cloth overshoes reinforced with rubber to keep the feet dry. they are called "claques". just above the sole. durable. Galoshes in media y RussianFMradio stationSilver Rain Radio has presented a "Silver Galosh Award" for the most dubious achievements in show business every year since 1996. Vulcanization of rubber tempered its properties so that it was easily molded. In the bootmakers' trade. more like a rubber slipper. who received a patent for an overshoe in 1898. designed for heavy-duty use. who quit the act during the family's vaudeville days and thus never appeared in a Marx brothers film. over-the-shoe boot as "fourbuckle arctics". a "galosh" is the piece of leather. or different from that of the "uppers". This references the Russian idiom "to sit into a galosh". of a make stronger than. the fifth of the Marx brothers. in the LigueNationaled'ImprovisationLNI. A more modern term for galoshes is overshoes. which runs around the bottom part of a boot or shoe. Midwest. He suffered from rheumatism and wanted to keep his feet dry. A rubberized elastic webbing made Goodyear's galoshes (circa 1890) easy to pull on and off. galoshes are outer shoes worn in inclement weather to protect the inner shoes and keep the feet dry. While reading De Bello Gallico by Julius Caesar he noticed a description of protective cloth overshoes "gallicae" and decided to capitalize on the idea. The transition from a traditional wooden sole to one of vulcanized rubber may be attributed to Charles Goodyear and LeverettCandee. and tough. They were also used by the public.Today In modern usage. though fascinating to Goodyear. One is like an oversize shoe or low boot made of thick rubber with a heavy sole and instep. was nicknamed by Art Fisher based on his habit of always wearing gumshoes. There are two basic types. The other one is of much thinner. were highly dependent on temperature: it was tacky when hot. While all the other performers wore street shoes. In Russia. Galoshes are now almost universally made of rubber. galoshes have been an indispensable attribute of valenki. There are also records of a black inventor by the name of Alvin Longo Rickman. brittle when cold. In Quebec. Gummo Marx. In the upper U. more flexible material. to indicate discontent.S. and thus y . which means "to get into a mess". designed solely for protection against the wet rather than for extensive walking. An unconfirmed legend states that an Englishman named Radley invented galoshes. Overshoes have evolved in the past decades and now are being made with more advanced features. such as high traction outsoles. The qualities of rubber.
Sometimes geta are worn in rain or snow to keep the feet dry. Styles There are several different styles of geta. Milton (Gummo) was known for startling people by appearing suddenly from out of nowhere.made a loud noise when they walked on a hardwood stage. They are worn with traditional Japanese clothing such as kimono or yukata. They are a kind of sandal with an elevated wooden base held onto the foot with a fabric thong to keep the foot well above the ground. There are children's movies based on this tale. but this often didn't bring them real fortune or happiness. y Hans Christian Andersen wrote a fairy tale The Goloshes of Fortune about magic galoshes which made every wish of their bearers true. because the gumshoes on his feet gave him a nearly soundless footfall. stand) that the foot is set upon. The most familiar style in the West consists of an unfinished wooden board called a dai ( . Geta (footwear) A pair of geta Geta ( ) are a form of traditional Japanese footwear that resemble both clogs and flip-flops. but (in Japan) also with Western clothing during the summer months. with a cloth thong ( . 1986) and RussianGaloshischastya (Russian: ). due to their extra height and impermeability compared to other shoes footwear such as z ri. The Magic Galoshes (Czechoslovakia | Austria | Germany.
also called "maiko".. Ordinary people wear at least slightly more formal zori when wearing special toe socks called tabi. Apprentice geisha. As geta are usually worn only with yukata or other informal Japanese clothes or Western clothes. there is no need to wear socks. wear their special geta (see below) with tabi to accommodate the hanao. . hanao) that passes between the big toe and second toe.
tengu-geta have only a single centered "tooth". breaking the thong on one's geta is considered very unlucky. A traditional saying in Japanese translates as "You don't know until you have worn geta. called teeth ( ha). or narrow and hard. usually very light-weight kiri ( . The teeth are usually not separate. lacquered. It sits between the two first toes because having the thong of rectangular geta anywhere but the middle would result in the inner back corners of the geta colliding when walking. The hanao can be wide and padded." This means roughly. Merchants use(d) very high geta (two long teeth) to keep the feet well above the seafood scraps on the floor. showing the "teeth" The two supporting pieces below the base board. and the thong at the side as in flip-flops. and it can be made with many sorts of fabric. The hanao are replaceable. This is sometimes mentioned as one of the sounds that older Japanese miss most in modern life. but there are also geta with vinyl and leather hanao. The ha may also vary in style. as Western shoes have become more popular. Recently. but traditionally hemp) that is knotted in a special way to the three holes of the dai. In the wide hanao there is some padding as well. more Western looking geta have been developed. and the soles of the teeth may have rubber soles glued onto them. strengthened by a special attachment. The tengu tooth is. They are more round in shape. are also made of wood. or stained). however. . a thick heel as in Western clogs. may have an ergonomically shaped dai. the geta is carved from one block of wood. "you can't tell the results until the game is over. According to Japanese superstition. Inside the hanao is a cord (recently synthetic. for example. instead of separate teeth. paulownia) and make a distinctive "clacking" sound while walking: or karankoron. The teeth of any geta may have harder wood drilled into the bottom to avoid splitting." Construction The dai may vary in shape: oval ("more feminine") to rectangular ("more masculine") and color (natural.The bottom view. Printed cotton with traditional Japanese motifs is popular. instead. There are also less common geta with three teeth.
Historically. consisting of a sole and sides made of one piece of leather.  and from the ProtoAlgonquian word *maxkeseni (shoe). These geta have no "teeth" but are formed of one piece of wood. Pokkuri are usually red in color and are not worn with yukata. that have a small bell inside a cavity in the thick "sole". The sole is soft and flexible and the upper part often is adorned with embroidery or beading. but a very fancy kimono (such as at shichi-go-san festivals). Ojibwamakizin. traders. The clacking sound that geta make when walking are consequently something aspiring sumo stars wish to leave behind as soon as possible.Custom Geisha Maiko (geisha in training) wear distinctive tall geta called okobo which are similar to the chopines worn in Venice during the Renaissance. . hunters. it is the footwear of many Native American peoples. Etymologically. Also very young girls wear "okobo". the moccasin derives from the Algonquian languagePowhatan word makasin (cognate to Massachusettmohkisson / mokussin. and sometimes with a vamp (additional panel of leather). Moccasin A soft-soled moccasin. also called "pokkuri" and "koppori". stitched together at the top. Sumo Japanese professional sumo wrestlers in the lowest two divisions of Jonokuchi and Jonidan must wear geta with their yukata at all times. and European settlers wore them. The middle part is carved out from below and the front is sloped to accommodate for walking. moreover. A moccasin is a slipper made of deerskin or other soft leather. Mi'kmaqmks n). et cetera.
c. moccasins usually are part of a Native American regalia. given that their territorial geography featured rock and cacti.  Shearers' moccasins protect the feet. the moccasin shoe has resurged as a popular form slipper shoe for men. for walking in leaf-covered forest ground. plastic. Platform shoe Platform shoes (also known as Disco Boots) are shoes. In New Zealand and Australiasheep shearers' moccasins are constructed of a synthetic. or sandals with thick soles at least four inches in height.1900 Moccasins protect the foot while allowing the wearer to feel the ground. Wind River Reservation (Shoshone). The eastern Indian tribes wore soft-sole moccasins. These moccasins are laced in the front. e. The Plains Indians wore hard-sole moccasins. They have been worn in various cultures since ancient times for fashion or for added height.g. the same color. grip wooden floors well. rubber. Contemporary use Today.  The word moccasin might also denote a shoe of deer or of faux leather adorned with laces. or wood (wooden-soled platform shoes are technically also clogs). . with a back seam and gathered at the top of the rounded toe. and the lacing is covered with a flap fastened with a buckle at the shoe's outer side. Wyoming. and absorb sweat. often made of cork. a powwow suit of clothes. cream-coloured felt. boots. The most common style is that of the Plains Indian moccasin.Design Beaded moccasins original to the estate of Chief Washakie. The fastener arrangement prevents the shearer's handpiece comb from catching in the laces. Moccasins are usually all brown. recently.
and occasionally by younger girls. During the Qing dynasty. ankle length Lucite platform shoes After their use in Ancient Greece for raising the height of important characters in the Greek theatre and their similar use by high-born prostitutes or courtesans in Venice in the 16th Century. history began at least as early as 1970 (appearing in both advertisements and articles in 1970 issues of Seventeen magazine). There may also be a connection to the buskins of Ancient Rome.S. which frequently had very thick soles to give added height to the wearer. they seem to have been worn . In ancient China men wore black boots with very thick sole made from layers of white clothes. platform shoes are thought to have been worn in Europe in the 18th century to avoid the muck of urban streets. and very early 1950s.) At the beginning of the fad. and although they did provide added height without nearly the discomfort of spike heels. but not nearly to the extent of their popularity in the 1970s and 1980s. this style of boots are often worn today on stage for Peking opera . platform shoe fad in U. aristocrat Manchu women wore a form of platform shoe similar to 16th century Venetian chopine. Of the same practical origins are Japanesegeta. and continued through the late-1980s. and (particularly during the disco era) by young men . and most prolonged. 1940s. when the biggest. they were worn primarily by young women in their teens and twenties. (This is thought not to be the case in Europe or the UK.History Platform boot. older women. Europe and the UK in the 1930s. where they had all but died out by 1979.  Platform shoes enjoyed some popularity in the United States.
Britain generally is not as concerned with women's feet appearing as small as possible. 1996). sneakers. whose members were known for performing in large shoes. the long pointed shoes of the early 2000s. only to be forced into obscurity. which were considered rather outrageous themselves in the early 1970s. oxfords. took a tumble on the catwalk or runway at a fashion show. It may also be a by-product of this fad that Scandinavianclogs. As the fad progressed. Many glam rockmusicians wore platform shoes as part of their act. the UK fashion designer. girls and women of all ages were wearing them. even including all of the knock-offs.  However they did not catch on quickly and platform shoes only began to resurface in mainstream fashion in the late 1990s. "Kork-Ease." but the extreme popularity (perhaps fueled by their light weight and soft leather) supported many imitators. Whilst wedge heels were popular on platforms in the summer. Naomi Campbell. a Texas-based company opened a website. and by the time the fad finally fizzled in the late 1980s. In February 2006. or even orthopedic shoes. on a beige suede-wrapped cork wedge-heel platform sole. or synthetic materials. and both dressy and casual sandals of all description. introduced "comfort" platforms. had become "classic" by the 1980s. it further implies that the footgear in question was introduced just as the last gasps of the brief 1930s and 1940s platform shoe fads were waning. and given that they are said to have never been formally designed there was very little variation in style. cork. re-introduced the high heeled platform shoe into high-fashion in the early 1990s. thanks in part to the UK band the Spice Girls. high thick .primarily for the sake of attracting attention. Their site claims that the original company had been founded in 1953. like Famolare and Cherokee of California. Shoes : A Celebration of Pumps. it was while wearing a pair with five inch platforms and nine inch heels that the super model. While a wide variety of styles were popular during this period. while others. espadrilles. and most of that variation was limited to differences in height. then rocketed to ubiquity at the beginning of the 1970 platform fad. with soles made of wood. Sandals. manufacturers like Candie's stretched the envelope of what was considered too outrageous to wear. and near-total extinction by successive waves of the fad by the late 1970s. claiming to be the legitimate successor to the original Kork-Ease company. including boots. designed to combine the added height of platforms with the support and comfort of sneakers. Slippers & More (New York: Workman. the most popular style of the early 1970s was a simple quarter-strap sandal with light tan water buffalo-hide straps (which darkened with age). survived for a decade and a half in almost complete obscurity. The United Kingdom (and European) experience of platform shoes was somewhat different from that of the United States. This is somewhat suspect: aside from being less than entirely consistent with Linda O'Keeffe's book. These were originally introduced under the brand name. implying further that their platform sandals also originated in 1953. Remarkably. pp 388±9. Vivienne Westwood. were and are still more popular in the US than in the UK. that give an elongated look to the foot. Platform shoes took off in a very big way amongst most age groups and classes of UK men and women in the 1970s.
Elton John has a large collection of platform shoes. especially in Europe (notably Germany and Scandinavia). from the mid 1990s to the early 2000s. Many of the shoe styles were recycled 1940s and early 1950s styles.separate heeled platform boots and shoes were 'all the rage'. many of which he auctioned off for charity. but both shoes and boots were often in garish combinations of bright colours. Buffalo Boots is a brand which platform models were popular. and the Walt Disney Company has licensed Mickey Mouse cutouts and "Disney Princess" and "Action Man" images on footwear that in earlier decades would have been considered totally inappropriate for the company's "wholesome" image. The trend firmly re-established itself in the Developed World fashions of the late 1990s and very early 21st century with a much higher threshold of what was considered outrageous: mothers and fathers of 1997 to 2004 typically think nothing of buying their preschool-age daughters and sons platform sandals that US parents of 1973 would not have wanted their high-school-age daughters and sons wearing and UK parents of 1973 would not have wanted their prepubescent daughters and sons wearing. Sandal High-heeled sandals .
consisting of a sole held to the wearer's foot by straps or thongs passing over the instep and generally. among them economy (sandals tend to require less material than shoes). . and as a fashion choice. people wear sandals in warmer climates or during warmer parts of the year in order to keep their feet cool and dry. comfort in warm weather. around the ankle. Usually. and the wearing of sandals may be part of the treatment regimen for such an infection. People may choose to wear sandals for several reasons. the common understanding is that a sandal leaves most or all of the foot exposed.Sandals for men made by Bata Shoes Yoga sandals Sandals are an open type of outdoorfootwear. While the distinction between sandals and other types of footwear can sometimes be blurry (as in the case of huaraches²the woven leather footwear seen in Mexico). The chances of developing athlete's foot is lower than with enclosed shoes. History Esparto sandals from the 6th or 5th millennium BC found in Spain. but not always.
The oldest known sandals (indeed. state of Oregon. The sole of the latter was sometimes made much thicker than usual by the insertion of slices of cork. radiocarbon dating of the sagebrush bark from which they were woven indicates an age of at least 10. Construction A sandal may have a sole made from rubber. horsemen. a boot sandal that rose above the middle of the leg. It may be held to the foot by a narrow thong that generally passes between the first and second toe. sandals of papyrus were a part of the required and characteristic dress of the Egyptian priests. and by men of rank and authority.000 years. or by a strap or lace. wood. The toes are enclosed by a number of leather bands interwoven with the central length-wise strap. They are sometimes observable on the feet of Egyptian statues. a heavy-soled Roman military shoe or sandal worn by all ranks up to and including centurion Clog. typically wooden sole Fisherman Sandal is a type of T-bar sandal originally for men and boys. so as to add to the stature of the wearer. A sandal may or may not have a heel (either low or high) and/or heel strap. tatami or rope. that passes over the arch of the foot or around the ankle. An adjustable cross .  The ancient Greeks distinguished between baxeae (sing. barefoot sandals originated in South Asia and are popularly worn at religious festivities and events primarily for decoration rather than protection Caligae. the oldest known footwear) were discovered in Fort Rock Cave in the U. hunters.S. baxea). According to Herodotus. worn principally by tragic actors. sabot strap or sandal. The ancient Egyptians wore sandals made of palm-leaves and papyrus. referring to straps or jewelry such as anklets and toe rings that have no sole. a sandal made of willow leaves. having a thick. and the cothurnus. leather. a heavy sandal. variously called a latchet. or fibres worn by comic actors and philosophers. twigs. Variants Walking in sandals Among the many kinds of sandals are: y y y y Barefoot sandals are somewhat of a misnomer.
all slides are a type of sandal. stitched-down to the upper. A length-wise strap extends from the vamp and joins the cross-strap over the arch of the foot to form a T shape. They were invented in 1946 by Frenchman Jean Dauphant in response to a post-war leather shortage. made from closed cell soft foam and uses surgical tubing for the straps. Sold primarily along the Texas Gulf Coast in beach side gift shops. and fastening around the ankle Jelly sandals or Jelly shoes were originally a version of the classic fisherman sandal made in PVC plastic. The heel may be fully enclosed or secured by a single strap joined to the cross strap. or rubber. a traditional Korean sandal made of straw Patten. mainly for women and girls. Generally. z ri. a flat and thongedJapanese sandal. which translates to tooth Grecian sandal. The term is descriptive in that this shoe is easy to 'slide' on and off the foot when the wearer wants to do so. with an enclosed heel and toe. a type of oversized clog often with a wooden sole or metal device to elevate the foot and increase the wearer's height or aid in walking in mud Paduka are the ancient (as old as the time of the Ramayana) Indian toe-knob sandals. The style appears to have originated in France. hence the name of jelly sandals or jellies. Slide (footwear) Slide is a common term that refers to a shoe that is backless and open-toed. Recently. flat-heeled or somewhere in between. but are now mainly worn by much younger children. Slides can be high-heeled. It is fastened by a cross-wise strap or bar secured by a buckle or more recently. or may have only one or two narrow straps.  Roman sandal. a flat sandal developed in the 1940s as a way of coping with wartime leather shortages. by the 1950s they were very common for boys and girls up to their teens. by Velcro. traditionally of cryptomeria wood. A common variant has two cross-straps. Jipsin. Later designs featured translucent soft plastic in bright colours. invented in 1973. leather. a sole attached to the foot by interlaced straps crossing the toes and instep. cloth. a sandal held to the foot by a vamp composed of a series of equally-spaced buckled straps Saltwater sandals. The toe is often pierced with a pattern of holes or slots. Thongs and flip flops are normally classified separately. the crosspiece is referred to as a ha. The sole is low-heeled and usually of crepe rubber. a classical Japanese form of elevated thong. geta. a whole range of styles have been produced in this material. usually made of straw. First seen in Europe and America in the early 1900s.  T-Bar Sandals. They usually include a single strap or a sequence of straps across the toes and the lower half of the foot to hold the shoe on the foot. and may cover nearly the entire foot from ankle to toe.y y y y y y y y y y y strap or bar is fastened with a buckle. primarily for children. essentially an opentoed mule. They are not really worn on a daily basis now except by monks or for ceremonial purposes. but the classic unisex design remains popular. primarily worn by children Soft Foam Sandals. Slipper .
These slippers are usually made with a fabric upper layer that encloses the top of the foot and the toes. and are often made of a soft leather or pelt. These slippers are typically made to resemble a character to novelty item. They are mostly made of soft or comforting materials that allow a certain level of comfort for the wearer. Novelty slippers. cartoon characters etc. as they resemble the sheepskin boots that have been the fashion lately. They are typically found to have a hard rubber or leather sole. vehicles. each with varying styles. Slip on slippers. consisting of a sole held to the wearer's foot by a strap running over (or between) the toes or instep.A pair of low-heeled slippers. They are most likely the most common type of slipper as they are quite easy to put on. The slippers are usually made from soft and colorful. materials and commonly come in the shapes of animals. and a soft rubber sole. but are made of fabric which indicates their use as house shoes. allowing the wearer to slip into them casually. they are typically furry boots with a fleece or soft lining. These slippers are made to look like boots. Moccasins. Types There are many different types of slipper in the world today. These slippers closely resemble shoes. materials and purposes. They are designed to be worn like sandals. Sandal slippers. but leaves the heel open. oftenfavoured by females. These slippers sometimes are worn outside of the house. cushioned sandals with soft rubber or fabric soles.The slippers often have beads and . Slippers are soft and lightweight compared to other types of footwear. A slipper or houseshoe is a semi-closed type of indoorfootwear. Slipper boots. This can range from faux fur to leather. Most slippers are worn in late fall and winter and on occasion in other seasons.
Closed slippers. The above are the most common. The slippers actually carry warning that advices the removal of the slippers prior to ascending and descending stairs. infant and toddler feet. A popular style of novelty slippers displays a camper van design. While extremely comfortable. . These slippers are also commonly referred to as bootie slippers (booties). There are many different categories and subcategories one could place slippers in. Another form of safety can come in the protection from pathogens on the walking surface. This can cause issues when trying to find a pair that fit properly. or attempting stairs. Health Issues There are certain issues with wearing slippers that can arise in some situations. they can be tricky to wear. Animal Camper Van Slippers. or treadders. The name is typically associated with children's indoor footwear since medical research suggests that a rigid sole is less advantageous to the proper development of newborn. Soft-soled/soft-sided slippers. such as cotton.g. or suede.are quite often made to look tribal and indigenous. The Slippers are manufactured by Animal.. the sheer size of the slippers can cause issues when walking. The slippers closely resemble open slippers. as novelty slippers do not usually come in individual sizes. padders. which includes a large amount of stuffing and an abnormally large size. There is also a sizing issue. leather. Wearing slippers can be used as a way of keep feet clean. it can cause large issues when walking. These slippers seem well suited to outdoor usage as they are associated with the outdoors and are designed to do so. Some people also find slippers to be a type of safety footwear if they are the large overstuffed novelty variety because the stuffing can preclude injury from stubbing one's toe while walking in a dark room at night. only these have a heel guard that prevents the foot sliding out from the slipper. merely a sizing guide (e. While the size and stuffing of this particular slipper offers a great deal of comfort and warmth. The slippers are made entirely of pliable materials. Also. 9-12).
Veldskoen Veldskoens (or veldskoene. and wear slippers. Some schools in the UK have a slipper rule. but could also be due to the dirt being brought into the classrooms on the outdoor shoes. Surprisingly. this is generally acknowledged to be a mistranslation into English of "fox fur". Slippers can also be essential to the health of the foot. as well as the development of the young foot. The ruby slippers worn by Judy Garland in The Wizard of Oz sold for a record $165. Some households in certain cultures. Derek "The Slipper Man" Fan holds the Guinness World Records record for wearing a pair of dress slippers for 23 years straight as of June 30. Though it can also include the forced wearing of slippers. pronounced "FELL-skoons") are South African shoes made from untanned leather or soft rawhide uppers attached to a soft sole without tacks or nails. which can cause many health issues. it can also be a danger. Of course. Wearing slippers can offer warmth and comfort that will allow a good flow of blood In popular culture The fictional character Cinderella is said to have worn glass slippers. 2007. While wearing slippers can offer comfort.000. some rigid-soled slippers can inhibit the correct growth of the child's developing foot. While this is a good method of regulating hygiene. This is due to tradition and respect for the house. In certain cultures it can be a social obligation to remove shoes and wear slippers when entering a place of residence. alternately velskoens or velskoene. operate a "shoes off at the door" rule. Derek had very little success in achieving sexual congress due to his odour. Some British schools have rules that enforce the wearing of slippers indoors. The lack of support can allow the foot to roll inwards during walking. However. in both terms of walking and movement. This may be simply the removal of outside footwear and/or socks. . as diabetes can have effects on blood flow to the extremities of the body. This is mainly to encourage the children to protect the flooring. in modern parlance they would probably be called glass high heels. like in Japan. Some Diabetics may be advised to wear slippers.Most styles of slipper offer little or no support for the tender arch of the human foot. whose young feet are still developing. This has caused some concerned parents quite some grief. This is essential to children. where children must remove outdoor shoes upon entering the school. opposing studies suggest that the introduction of rigid heels in slippers and shoes of infants and toddlers can actually inhibit a child's ability to learn to walk as quickly as they would otherwise. People do not generally wear slippers for more than a few hours at a time.
Combat boot From Wikipedia. and sometimes waterproofedleather. Veldskoens are familiarly referred to as "vellies" in South African slang. and their design is believed to be based on the traditional Hottentot footwear observed by the first Dutch settlers in South Africa. the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation. although their topline is considerably lower than those of chukka boots or desert boots. search Black combat boots as worn by the Bundeswehr Sole of modern German combat boot Combat boots are militaryboots designed to be worn by soldiers during actual combat or combat training as opposed to during parades and other ceremonial duties. and footprotection suitable to a rugged environment. . anklestability.Their name comes from Afrikaansvel ("hide") and skoen ("shoe"). They are sometimes considered light boots. They are traditionally made of hardened. Veldskoen soles are sometimes cut from old car tires rather than crepe rubber. Modern combat boots are designed to provide a combination of grip. which are otherwise similar.
By World War I. the Roman legions.Today. they had been replaced with the Galosh pattern or "George" boots. such as tanker boots and jump boots. These in turn were replaced by ammunition bootswhich were used from World War II until the 1950s. who wore hobnail boots called caligae to war. These were replaced in 1858 with an improved version used until the 1880s. History Pair of hobnailed boots Early The first soldiers to have been issued boots were the foot soldiers of the Assyrians. known as Jeff Davis boots after Jefferson Davis the secretary of war who re-equipped the army in the 1850s. which improve ventilation and comfort. such as Gore-Texnylon side panels. and cold weather boots as well as specific uses. They are also often specialized for certain climates and conditions. After every march the soldier would change them round to ensure they received even wear. These "Blucher" boots remained in use throughout the 19th century and were used in conflicts that included the Crimean War. Zulu War and Boer War. until they were broken in. During the English Civil War each soldier of the New Model Army was issued three shoes or ankle boots. Trench boots Main article: trench boot . Hessian boots were used by cavalry from the 18th century until World War I. many combat boots incorporate many technologies originating in civilian hiking boots. From the 1820s until before the American Civil War soldiers were issued ankle-high boots which were made on straight lasts. these boots were very uncomfortable and often resulted in blisters. Following the Restoration shoes and uniforms followed the civilian pattern: shoes with buckles were used by most armies from 1660 until around 1800. Late in the Napoleonic Wars the British army began to be issued lace-up boots that replaced the older buckle shoes. Needless to say. There was no "left" or "right" boot: instead they shaped themselves to the wearer's feet over time. desert boots. Rifle units of the US military were equipped with calf-high boots in the War of 1812. such as jungle boots.
allowing the boots to replace the existing service shoes and leggings worn by most soldiers with a more convenient and practical solution. with the M81 BDU. the US Army switched to shined black combat boots. US Army Boots. They were modified service shoes. and had several minor changes from the 1917 Boot." were introduced in conjunction with the M-1943 Uniform Ensemble during World War II. made from molded synthetic or reclaimed rubber. Shined black combat boots as worn by the IDF Shined combat boots In 1957. Combat Service The first true modern combat boots in the US Army. The jungle boot had a black leather lower and an olive drab nylon upper. The cuff was closed using two buckles. and the service shoes they were made from. Both of these boots had a direct molded sole. These "double buckle" boots were worn through the Korean War as a substitute for the Boots. and Airman Battle Uniform the services transitioned to more practical. Combat Service. As the BDU was replaced with the MCCUU. it replaced the Russet Marching Shoe. The first type of Combat Boots. a smooth leather high-top cuff added. rough-out or. or Combat Tropical boots were based on the "buckle boot" design and worn during the early parts of the Vietnam War. more commonly. Black boots continued to be worn following Vietnam. The boots. non-shine . The boot was made of tanned cowhide with a half middle sole covered by a full sole. with an extended. which also saw the introduction of the jungle boot. who oversaw its creation. although the transition to black boots was not completed until late in the Vietnam War. Russet. Army Combat Uniform. however it lacked waterproofing. had a one piece sole and heel. also called the Pershing Boot after General John Pershing. officially called the "Boots. It soon evolved into the 1918 Trench Boot. It was a great improvement. Iron plates were fixed to the heel. In American service. It used heavier leather in its construction. Leather Lace Up introduced in 1948. although non-shine boots were considered by the Army.The 1917 Trench Boot was an adaptation of the boots American manufacturers were selling to the French and Belgian armies at the beginning of World War I.
The United States Army followed suit in 2002 with the introduction of the Army Combat Uniform. and a 2 lb hot weather (desert) boot. and Anchor on the outer heel of each boot. the Auxiliary of the U. a 2. The standard-issue boot is the Belleville 500 Waterproof USMC combat boot. Warson Brands/Converse and Wellco. with either hot weather or temperate weather versions. and moisture wicking socks. Air Force. Army soldiers are issued their boots Current American combat boots As the United States Marine Corps transitioned from its utility uniform to the MCCUU. Afghanistan and Cyprus during autumn of 2007.S. Two versions exist. The Guards Regiments in the Household Division still use modified Ammunition boots. British soldiers still use the CAB for combat training and general service although privately purchased boots are often deemed acceptable as long as they are made of black leather. although a tan version is authorized until 2011. Rocky.S. Commercial versions of this boot are authorized without limitation other than they must be at least 8 inches in height and are no longer authorized to have a 'shoelike' appearance.footwear. the British Army elected to replace both the "combat assault boots" that were in general service and the desert boots issued for operations. Belleville Shoe. The US Air Force uses a foliage green suede combat boot with its Airman Battle Uniform. Globe. and are now issuing new boots made by Meindl and Lowa (including boots specially designed for women's feet) for operational purposes. McRae. called the Army Combat Boot. and switched to more functional tan rough-out (non-shine) combat boots. when the green boot will become mandatory. Current manufacturers are Altama.5 lb temperate weather boot. They conducted trials in Iraq. Current United Kingdom combat boots In 2006. U. which also switched to tan rough-out combat boots. Bates. in conjunction with the BDU utility uniform. they discarded shined black combat boots.The only current military service mandating shined black combat boots is Civil Air Patrol. The Boots being . Commercial versions of this boot are authorized without limitation other than they must be at least 8 inches in height and bear the Eagle.
development is underway to create a better boot. having only 43 different sizes. The current model is m/90 that is designed to be both comfortable and light as well as giving ankle support.primarily made of leather can be brought to a high shine for the ceremonial purpose. Swedish military boots Swedish army boots made by Tretorn. although the boots used as every-day military footwear. They were also used by the British SAS during the Falkland war since they worked better in a damp climate than their ordinary boots. Part of the m/59 uniform. They are made to be used as ski boots as well. [Since 2000. The military started using boots 1779. tend to be left comparatively dull. and was later distributed in 2000. Despite the boot's general aptitude for the tasks which the ADF had first put it in place for. primarily uses the Redback Terra Combat Boot as a replacement for the Vietnam War-era General Purpose combat boots. Over time (and with the use of shoe polish) they turn black. Many also claimed that its sole could rot in worst case tropical circumstances. It was given a limited amount of tests in 1999. 90% of all negative feedback from soldiers was about its inappropriate sizing. it still had major flaws. but clean. . Currently. the Australian Army (As well as other its other Defence branches). These are NOS from 1968.
Combat boots as fashion Combat boots worn as fashion apparel Combat boots are also popular as fashion clothing in the goth. many individuals choose to wear combat boots simply due to durability. which can give them a vintage feel. skinhead. grunge. For these and other reasons. and BDSMsubcultures. Combat boots have a longer lifespan than fashion boots. heavy metal. they can be purchased in almost every moderately sized city at military surplus stores. industrial. comfort and other utilities. they are becoming more and more mainstream. however. as the boots are specifically designed to be comfortable to wear in a variety of changing conditions for long durations without significant long-term wear. Beatle boots . even after recrafting. Beyond fashion as such. punk.
Beatle boots are a style of boot that have been worn since the 1960s. bootmaker to Queen Victoria. when English musicians John Lennon and Paul McCartney saw Chelsea boots whilst browsing in the London footwear company Anello&Davide. ankle-high boots that originated in the Victorian era. This became a prominent style in the West until the onset of World War I. Cuban-heeled. The advantage of elasticated boots meant they could be easily removed and put on again. for whom they were originally made. By the late 1840s. to invent the elastic gusset boot in 1837. Chelsea boots Non-leather Chelsea boots made by Vegetarian Shoes of Brighton. and were originally associated with horse riding. Chelsea Boots (also known as dealer boots) are tight-fitting. from which the Cuban heel was derived. Beatle boots are a direct descendant of the Chelsea boot. and they have recently become in fashion again amongst men as well as women. the fashion began to catch on. to complement their new suit image upon their return from Hamburg. running from just above the welt to the top of the shoe. Charles Goodyear's development of vulcanised rubber enabled Sparkes-Hall. from which the pointed toe and centre seam stitch (running from ankle to toe) was derived. ankle-high boots with a sharp pointed toe. The design began as a type of riding boots known as paddock boots or jodhpur boots. and consequently commissioned four pairs (with the addition of Cuban heels) for the Beatles. and the Flamenco boot. Beatle boots saw the reintroduction of high-heeled footwear for men. The boots are tight-fitting. Chelsea boots were considered an element of the 1960s mod scene. Beatle boots originated in October 1961. Similar boots are the heavier Australian work boots such as those made by Blundstone.A pair of Beatle boot replicas. England. which appealed to busier and more demanding lifestyle of Victorian women. . The most notable feature of the Chelsea boot is its elastic siding. made popular by the English rock group The Beatles. which are popular in Australia. The style can feature either zipped or elastic sides.
duck hunters. worn by the stormtroopers of the Empire. manure. The fashion boot article discusses this in depth. etc. Knee-high boots have existed in the fashion world since at least the 1950s.). and to provide traction on slippery surfaces. Mostly made of a synthetic rubber (PVC. Most slip on. etc. or slightly thereunder. they are used by fishermen. Certain types can also be known as muckers or fishing boots. dairy workers. clammers.The boots were featured in the first three Star Wars films. Neoprene. Go-go boots . mud. stable hands. to protect the feet from water. The stormtrooper boots were standard black Chelsea boots which were stained white Knee-high boots Motorcycle boots Knee-high boots are boots that rise to the knee. but there are varieties with buckles and those that lace up. They are generally tighter around the leg shaft and ankle than at the top. etc.
meaning something that was "all the rage". but this article mainly describes the original boot of that term. . which is in turn derived from the ancient French word la gogue for "joy. In Paris. In 1958. The boot was usually fastened onto the foot by a side or back zipper.A woman wearing a pair of go-go boots Go-go boots are a low-heeled style of women's fashion boot worn since the mid-sixties when fashion silhouettes focused on accentuating the leg. The term "go-go" has also been explained as a 1964 back construction of the 1962 slang term "go". happiness". They first appeared in the 1960s. It has been called the first real Americandiscothèque. the original accented Whisky à Go-Go opened in 1947. galore". Style Go-go boots are either calf-. Etymology The term Go-Go is derived from the French expression à gogo. although by the Seventies it was not uncommon to find lace-up versions which accommodated a wider variety of calf sizes. with the occasional two-inch Cuban heel also known as the "kupfer or Trani" (as on Beatle boots). the first Whisky a Go-Go in North America opened in Chicago. The style is a very simple shape with a chiseled. the term "go-go dancer" first appeared in print in 1965. meaning "in abundance. Illinois.or above knee-high boots with a low or flat heel. knee. rounded or pointed toe. Nowadays "go-go boot" is often used to describe any style of knee-high boots regardless of heel height. Heel height ranges from flat to low 1" shaped. on the corner of Rush Street and Chestnut Street.
These knock-offs were extremely popular with teenagers. As such. Girl dancers on the TV shows. white boots. calfhigh boot made of white plastic with a clear cut-out slot near the top was featured as part of the "Moon Girl" look featured in his Fall 1964 collection. "Hullabaloo" and "Shindig" also wore the short. but not as street shoes. tighter and with a slightly higher heel than girl's styles. who could be seen wearing go-go boots on both the street and television dance shows. so did the height of the boot. The term kinky boots referred to the style's Dominatrix and fetish origin and alludes to the perception that women in boots are .Materials were either synthetic or natural. Go-go boots vs. and the emphasis shifted to the height of the heel and the development of the platform. and the heel height dropped proportionately. History The idea of a woman's mainstream fashion boot was revolutionary. the most popular being white. and the Space Age boots worn by Jane Fonda in 1968's science fiction film Barbarella were a nod to their erotic past. The boots usually had a zipper in the back although some styles featured the zipper on the side or with no zipper at all. a style of calf. This new style of footwear was designed for to complement the shorter hemlines of the new. accentuated the simple A-line silhouettes but also offered some modest coverage for the less daring but fashion-minded women. Many women also wore them in the 70s. women's boots were generally worn during only inclement weather. They were often seen worn by "Dolly Birds" in London during the 1960s. Women's styles tended to be taller. or horseback riding. Nancy Sinatra's 1966 number-one pop hit "These Boots Are Made for Walkin'" helped popularize go-go boots. Manufacturers began mass-producing runway knock-offs in contemporary colors and materials.to knee-length pullon black leather boots with 3-4 inch heels and pointed toes. Go-go boots drew attention to the legs. Before the introduction of go-go boots. André Courrèges is often cited as the originator of the fashion go-go boot: a low-heeled. By the early seventies. go-go boots were referred to simply as boots. those came to be called Hullabaloo Boots and Shindig Boots. kinky boots Go-go boots share some history with the UK's "kinky boots". with the oldest designs being made from plastic or vinyl of various colors. legs were de-emphasized. As hemlines rose. rugged activities.  Fashion trends progressed and as women's trousers and maxi-length skirts where only the foot showed became popular. Other designers (including Mary Quant) designed their own versions of go-go boots. modern look. culminating in a pair of thigh-high garter boots designed by Yves Saint-Laurent which clipped up underneath the tiniest of skirts.
like a Dominatrix. Scottish Rockettes and the Oakland Raiderettes often wear go-go boots as part of their squad's uniform. Modern-day use Many versions of go-go boots are still worn today. . and reproductions are available from many costume and specialty stores. in the USA NFL Cheerleaders. They were worn by both men and women.powerful (i. although "go-go boot" is often used to describe any style of knee-high boots worn with a dress or miniskirt regardless of heel height.) Kinky boots broke into mainstream UK fashion in the early sixties and were seen on Honor Blackman and Diana Rigg in the original "Avengers" television series. They were seen as the cutting edge of fashion in the UK during the 1970s and during the British invasion. including the Dallas Cowboys Cheerleaders. high-heeled versions of go-go boots are still worn by exotic and go-go dancers. Platform boot Platform boots Platform boots are boots with thick wedge soles or a combination of thick soles and high heels that are similar in some respects to the platform shoe.e.
For his GroteskBurlesk tour and associated promotion..Platform Boots in Music Since the 1970s ended. Manufacturer Specialized platform boots manufacturer is MINGI LTD. and Mr. then jumped off and ran offstage. .Lordi himself. His main outfit was a black mesh jumpsuit with feathers on the ends of the sleeves and collar.Lordi Many members in the band lordi also wore platform boots such as Kita. The rock band Kiss is known for their outrageous platform boots as well. John 5. Rammstein Richard. Mick Jagger of the Rolling Stones. can be seen in platform boots with large sheet metal razorblades screwed into the front on stage. a black thong with about 6 rivets or possibly diamonds on the front. such as Lenny Kravitz. However. Cradle of Filth Dani Filth. Ox. has worn stylized platforms for the sehnsucht tour. as well as most of the other band members. trashed the set. the lead guitarist. Their styles are often combined with stylish metal plates and patent leather coated platform soles. some music artists have worn them in music videos and on stage. wore platforms²²most notably in the shots taken by Perou and Gottfried Helnwein. Ginger wore them too. as well as black platform boots. They were only viewed when he stood up on the drums. These styles of boots are also popular in the goth fashion. notably Paul Allender. and Stevie Nicks from the rock band Fleetwood Mac. Skold. For live performances. design by JoelenMingi of the German Goth-Rock band The Angina Pectoris . and Pogo. Notable Users Marilyn Manson Marilyn Manson wore platform boots on the Mechanical Animals promo and Rock Is Dead tours. as well as other members of the band. the platform boot declined in popularity. but most of the time they were hidden behind his drumset. Manson. the prominent wearers were Manson.
and are usually distinguished from mules by their higher vamp. but the taps are free to click against each other.Clog (shoe) Plain willow-wood Dutch clogs. A clog can also be a special kind of shoe worn while clog-dancing (clogging). They are often made out of leather. mines and farms. It is commonly accepted that men and women can wear low-heeled or high-heeled clogs. therefore producing a different sound than tap shoes. Denmark. They are similar to tap shoes. Traditional clogs are shoes or sandals made predominantly out of wood. "clogs" also mean comfortable slip-on shoes. for everyday use A clog is a type of footwear traditionally worn by workers as protective clothing in factories. uppers and typically thick wooden soles. because they can be easily hosed off and allowed to air-dry. and are associated with the Netherlands. They can also be a type of heavy boot or shoe with sides. All-rubber clogs are often worn while gardening. and may have steel toecaps and/or steel reinforcing inserts in the undersides of the soles. Belgium. Lithuania and Sweden. but some clogs keep the bottom part out of wood. There are various types of clog. Nowadays. Galicia. Some clogs come with heels. .
.1Dutch clogs o 1. Denmark. alder wood). birch.5Spain 2Clog-dancing 3Clog fighting 4Overshoe clogs 5Fashion 6Media 7See also 8Notes 9References 10External links Traditional clogs in Europe Clog museum. Belgium.Contents [hide] y y y y y y y y y y 1Traditional clogs in Europe o 1. Porcheresse en Ardenne.4Italy o 1. Belgium Traditional clogs are made out of many different species of wood (willow.2United Kingdom o 1. where they are seen as a form of national dress. beech. poplar. Lithuania and Sweden (though Swedish clogs do not resemble Dutch clogs) as part of the touristic "Holland"/Sweden image.3France o 1. They are associated with the Netherlands.
clogs remain popular among people working in their gardens and farms and among planters.1890 Dutch man with clogs walking on ice Because of the long association of Dutch people. The long association of Dutch with wooden clogs can be traced to the traditional creation myths of ancient Germanic tribes who originally occupied modern Holland. The traditional all-wooden Dutchklompen (clogs) have been officially accredited as safety shoes with the CE mark and can withstand almost any penetration including sharp objects and/or concentrated acids. Today. . and clogs.Dutch clogs Native Dutch girls in clogs c. especially rural workers. Dutch people are sometimes nicknamedcloggies or clog-wearers. Dutch clogs are primarily a beloved tourist souvenir. Despite the fact that most Dutch no longer wear klompen for everyday use. Some of the Dutch also consider wearing clogs as being healthy for the wearers' feet.
In Friuli.United Kingdom In England. not just in the industrial North of England.for their clog soles. However. sabot-clad workers were simply considered less productive than others who had switched to leather shoes. The heyday of the clog in Britain was between 1840s and 1920s and. The English tended to employ Welsh and West Country alder. steel. During this period. mines. Those too poor to afford shoes wore wood directly against the skin. clogs are called. they were worn all over the country. the years of the Industrial Revolution. according to some accounts. sabotage described the actions of disgruntled workers who willfully damaged workplace machinery by throwing their sabots into the works. The wearing of clogs in Britain really took off with the Industrial Revolution. made of part leather and part wood. France A Swedish clog The French wooden shoe or clog (sabot) was. galosis or dalminis. cheap footwear. Allegedly derived from sabot. iron. palotis. They are traditionally made with an upward-pointing wooden sole and a leather hood. not to mention commonly dumped human effluent and animal dung. in the 18th and 19th century. although traditionally associated with Lancashire. Scottish birch and Lincolnshire willow for the soles. Italy Clogs are traditional also in northern Italy and southern Switzerland. where they are part of the traditional local costumes. . slats of wood held in place by thonging or similar strapping were known as "Pattens" and they were usually worn over leather or fabric shoes to raise the wearer's foot above the mud of the unmade road. and chemical works. associated with the lower classes. when workers in the mills. birch&sycamore. roughly equating the term "sabotage" with "inefficiency". The Welsh favouredalder. workshops and factories needed strong. the word sabotage gained currency. and thus the clog was developed.
there is a long tradition of clog-making and wearing. below). Clog-dancing Traditional Lancashire clogs. Traditionally. These clogs are still worn in many rural northern Spanish pueblos today. this form of clog is worn as a patten-type overshoe: the dirty clog kicked off at the door before entering the house (a slipper is worn inside the clog).Spain Clogs of Cantabria (Spain) In Asturias. so that with the heel. These Asturian and Cantabrian clogs are unusual in that they have two 'feet' on the ball of the foot (see picture of the Cantabrian clog. This is said to be useful when working outside or in the barn. used for clogging . the whole clog is elevated from the ground as a short elevated tripod. Cantabria and Galicia. the self-governing territories in northwestern Spain.
clogs returned to the fashion world. The difference between Welsh clogging and other step dance traditions is that the performance will not only include complicated stepping. When one has the other down on the ground he first endeavors to choke him by squeezing his throat. For example. Based on the clog model. They fought quite naked. and are also worn in Korea and elsewhere. Chris Brady Overshoe clogs Pattens are an overshoe variant of sandals or clogs meant to protect other footwear by either covering or elevating it above the street. were another fashion of the 1980s and 90s in many western countries for women. but also 'tricks'. then he kicks him on the head with his clogs. Some of the platforms of these clogs were encompassed about with a string-laced effect. was a combative means of settling disputes. competitions were held and professional clog dancers performed in the music halls. known in Lancashire as 'purring'. In 2010. Geta are Japanese elevated-sole wooden-shoes worn outside the house. This large mid layer was often made of solid cork. Clog fighting Clog fighting. It is all up and down fighting here. although some were merely of plastic with a cork covering. platform clogs or sandals. and were featured on the likes of Chanel's and Louis Vuitton's Spring / Summer 2010 catwalks . Clog dancing is a continuing tradition in Wales. Clog dancing became a widespread pastime during this period in England. The sole. Clog fighting and its associated betting by spectators was illegal. Sometimes they are very severely injured. was made of a light sandy-colored rubber.Traditional Lancashire clogs with plastic on toe and heel to increase clogging volume There is a theory that clogging or clog dancing arose in these industrial textiles mills as a result of the mill workers entertaining themselves by syncopating foot taps with the rhythmic sounds made by the loom shuttles. snuffing out a lit candle with the dancer's feet. toby stepping similar to Cossack dancing² and high leaps into the air. During the nineteenth century. more often than not. They were usually worn without socks and were considered suitable attire for the avant-garde man. Fashion Swedish clogs became popular fashion accessories in the 1970s and 1980s for both sexes. excepting their clogs. often raised as high as 6 or even 8 inches right through between sole and insole.
formal shoes but are now available in a range of styles and materials that complement both casual and formal forms of dress. . a construction method that is also sometimes referred to as "closed lacing". characterized by shoelace eyelet tabs that are sewn on top of the vamp. Oxfords are traditionally constructed of leather and were historically plain. Oxfords first appeared in Scotland and Ireland. Oxfords are better known under the name of Richelieu. Men's quarter brogue oxford shoes Oxfords. characterized by shoelace eyelet tabs that are stitched underneath the vamp contrast with Derbys.Oxford shoe Men's cap toe oxford shoe An Oxford is a style of laced shoe characterized by shoelace eyelet tabs that are stitched underneath the vamp. In France. where they are occasionally called Balmorals.
including the Blücher (Derby). White bunny boots Both Mickey Mouse boots and Bunny Boots have an air valve on each of the boots. to ensure that the air pressure differential between the walls of the boot and the outside air does not cause the boots to rupture. Oxfords can be made from a variety of materials including leather. They are less common than the white pairs that give the boots their name. The Snow Shoe Rabbit. and may be plain or ornately styled Brogues. These are commonly black or brown..S. per boot) than the black boot because of the extra insulation. Originally a military equipment. such boots have become staple cold weather gear both in civilian work and recreational environments. It also is a little bigger and heavier (~8oz. patent leather and canvas based on considerations of function or fashion. while "Oxford" is often used to refer to any "dressy" style of shoe. The liner-less bulbous boots retain warmth by sandwiching up to one inch of wool and felt insulation between two layers of rubber and are typically worn with one heavy wool sock. a style particularly common on boots.The meanings of the terms Oxford and Balmoral vary geographically. . Bunny boots are very popular in Alaska. apiece and are rated for temperatures down to -20 degrees F and is made with oil/diesel resistant rubber to keep oil or diesel from eating the boot. weigh 44 oz. "Balmoral" is synonymous with "Oxford". Bunny boots Bunny Boots is the widely-used nickname for the Extreme Cold Vapor Barrier Boots (Type II) used by the United States armed forces. sometimes called Mickey Mouse boots. in the U. Type II The white boot is designed for use in extreme cold weather from -65 F . especially in Britain. elsewhere. the Balmoral is a particular type of Oxford where there are no seams (apart from the toe cap) descending to the welt. Description Type I The black pairs. These air valves must be opened prior to flying.
Ayer & Son. Greely AK. The word "sneaker" is often attributed to Henry Nelson McKinney. tennis shoes (North American English. is responsible for the nickname. They are also known as trainers (British English). Australian English). sneaks. . and are also called sneakers in American English and daps in Welsh English. W. running shoes. gym boots or joggers (Australian English). tackies (South African English and Hiberno-English). Etymology The British English term "trainer" derives from "training shoe. During the fall the Rabbits furr changes color from brown to white allowing it to blend in with its winter surroundings.a common resident Ft. gym shoes. as the Boston Journal of Education made reference to "sneakers" as "the name boys give to tennis shoes. patented the process for the vulcanization of rubber. tennies. As winter gets closer. the word was in use at least as early as 1887. sports shoes. more and more rabbits appear with their new white "boots": hence the name bunny boots. Charles Goodyear. Athletic shoe A pair of Nike white-on-white low-top Air Force 1s Athletic shoe is a generic name for the footwear primarily designed for sports or other forms of physical exercise." History The idea of a "sneaker" did not come along until an American inventor. in 1917. However. who. runners or gutties (Canadian English. HibernoEnglish). rubber shoes (Philippine English) or canvers (Nigerian English). sandshoes. an advertising agent for N. Australian English. Plimsolls (English English) are indoor athletic shoes. sneakers." There is evidence that this usage of "trainer" originated as a genericizedtradename for a make of training shoe made in 1968 by Gola. coined the term because the rubber sole made the shoe stealthy.
Goodrich and Spalding Co. At this time. Newer brands went in and out of fashion. for a contract with Nike to make his own signature line of shoes and apparel. the market for sneakers was small and practically invisible. This was made possible by podiatrist development of athletic shoe technology. When the Olympics were revived. sneakers were used strictly for athletic events. The Spalding company produced shoes specifically for the game of basketball as early as 1907. Sneaker sales in the United States soared to six hundred million pairs a year in 1957. The U. In the 1970s.. As the 1920s and 1930s approached. market for sneakers grew steadily as young boys lined up to buy sneakers endorsed by football playerJim Thorpe and Converse All Stars endorsed by basketball playerChuck Taylor. this attracted more fans not only to sports. were producing tennis shoes and smaller family-owned companies were manufacturing early cleated shoes. endorsements was to Chicago player Michael Jordan. U.S. the U. if not the largest. Woody Allen wore them to the ballet. including B. Rubber. A huge breakthrough of this time was the separation of designs for men and women. sneakers were being produced by small rubber companies who specialized in the production of bicycletires." In the early 1960s. Led Zeppelin wore them in their 1976 documentary. and as the baby boom started. about the same time that Converse was marketing its All Star. but now the companies started to market their products as a lifestyle purpose. At first. but accounted for only a small portion of the market until Nike founders Phil Knight and Bill Bowerman began importing Tiger shoes under the name Blue Ribbon Sports. and sneaker companies started shelling out major endorsements to players.S.S. these companies added traction. By the 1980s. The 1950s gave American families more leisure time. sneakers were imported to the United States from Japan. turned to sports and athletes as a way to demonstrate moral fiber and patriotism. The shoes originally developed for sports became the mainstay for most people. sneakers led their own way as jogging quickly became popular and so did the necessity to have a pair of shoes for the occasion. factories had been concerned with high production. By the early 1900s. introduced Keds in 1916. Other companies. and also started marketing them for different sports. running²every sport had its own shoe. but after World War I.While many believe that the first basketball shoe was the famous Converse All Stars (developed in 1917). basketball. and Dustin Hoffman wore them while playing reporter Carl Bernstein in the movie All the President's Men. a French brand by the name of Spring Court was born as the first canvas tennis shoe featuring signature 8 ventilation channels on the vulcanized natural rubber sole.F. Until this time. more families chose to dress their youth in sneakers as school dress codes relaxed. . this is mistaken. In 1936. Soon there were shoes for football. Nike and Reebok were among the market leaders. which led leather shoe makers to claim that "sneakers are bad for children's feet" to which sneaker producers replied "sneakers cure the syndrome of Inhibited Feet. One of. sneakers were everywhere. jogging. but to sneakers as well.
gait etc. This is often important for injury prevention. Attributes of an athletic shoe include a flexible sole. Sports endorsements grew larger and marketing budgets went through the roof. and tennis (amongst others) but tends to exclude shoes for sports played on grass such as association football and rugby football. typically featuring a sole made of dense rubber. basketball. dancing and jumping.http://www. While the original design was basic. amateur joggers. manufacturers have since tailored athletic shoes for the different purposes that they can be used for. as well as marathon runners." or in North America as cleats. As the industry and design have expanded. which are generally known as "Studs. Generally. High-end marathon running shoes will often come in different shapes suited to different foot types.drpribut. and definition of identity and personality rather than humble athletic aids. The shoes themselves are made of flexible compounds. Mary Jane and even elevated styles suitable for running.During the 1990s. as well as to increase running efficiency.com/sports/sneaker_odyssey. A specific example of this is the spiked shoe developed for track running. Sneakers became a fashion statement. Today's designs even include sandal.html Athletic shoes are also often worn by children to school. shoe companies perfected their fashion and marketing skills. Use in sports The term athletic shoes is typically used for running in a marathon or half marathon. are beginning to purchase shoes based on their running style and foot arch. overpronation and underpronation (supination) running shoes to fit the respective foot strike of the runners. As running shoes become more advanced. the term "athletic shoes" is based more on the design of the bottom of the shoe than the aesthetics of the top of the shoe. Many of these shoes are made up to a very large size because of athletes with large feet. these shoes are divided into neutral. appropriate tread for the function ability to absorb impact.  There are a variety of specialized shoes designed for specific uses: y y y y y y y y y Racing flats Track shoe Skate shoes Climbing shoe Approach shoe Wrestling shoes Cleats Football boot Dance Shoe .
one of the most profitable shoes was the . Low-tops do not cover the ankle. Sneaker collectors. Each year after the introduction of the first style of shoe Nike would name the next years version two. and began to rise with the introduction of "Air Force 1". no more reproductions are made. called "Sneakerheads". and so on. the classic shoe Nike Dunk has come attention to sneakerheads. There artistically-modified sneakers can sell for up to $500 depending on its popularity. Casual sneakers like the Air Force One (Nike) or Superstar (Adidas) have become icons in today's pop culture. naming them after basketball players. In 1984 the Shoe Game took off with the introduction of Nike's "Air Jordan". meaning a store would only carry a certain amount of shoes and once all stores are out. and that is how many "Sneakerheads" make their profits. Artistically-modified sneakers can sell for upwards of $500. use sneakers as fashionable items. Sneaker boots extend to the calf. This type of buying and re-selling started to become popular during the early 1970s when Nike first started to make basketball shoes. In more recent years. and maximizing their profits by doing limited releases.Types y y y y High-tops cover the ankle. During the release of these shoes people often line up several hours before the shops while open patiently waiting to get their hands on the shoes. three. As the years went on Nike Came out with many shoes. The opening day cost for these shoes can range from USD $60-300. Mid-cut are in-between high-tops and low-tops. Shoe Game The "Shoe Games" is a termed used by many people who buy and sells shoes for profit. For example. Sneakers A pair of sneakers Sneakers or canvas shoes are casual athletic shoes.
This was mainly because the drop in the American Economy. Twenty-three was a big deal because Michael Jordan's number is Twenty-three. The "Shoe Game" became very popular and productive in the late 1990s' and continue to be very profitable until about 2010. People camped out hours sometimes days before to buy these limited edition shoes. Brands Large brands include: y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y Adidas Anta ASICS BATA Clae Converse DC Shoes DVS Fila Gola Heelys Jordan shoes K-Swiss Kalenji Keds Keen Lacoste Li Ning Lonsdale Mizuno New Balance Nike PF Flyers Puma Reebok Saucony Sperry Top-Sider Starbury Supra UK Gear Vans .Nike Air Jordans XXIII. the twenty third release of Nike's Air Jordans.
The classic style is distinguished by a tall boot shaft. no lacing. along with other cowboy accoutrements. usually over one inch high.Cowboy boot Ad for Tony Lama featuring custom boots made for President Harry S. usually less than one inch high. historically worn by cowboys. dating back to the early 16th century. A slightly lower. elk. shaped to the sole of the boot. Roper boots are usually made with rounded toes. usually pointed. the classic design is a narrowed. Cowboy boots are normally made from cowhide leather but are also sometimes made from "exotic" skins such as alligator. There are two basic styles of cowboy boots. the "roper" style. styles with a squared toe are seen. History Riding boots had been a part of equestrian life for centuries. Truman. ostrich. Until the industrial age. and the like. boots were individually handmade in many different styles. and roper. They have a high heel. "walking" heel is also common. The roper style is also manufactured in a lace-up design which often fits better around the ankle and is less likely to slip off. rounded to pointed toe. buffalo. toe. traditionally. and. Although western boots can be customized with a wide variety of toe shapes. but these two features also create safety issues for riding. correlating with style changes in streetwear. Early cowboy boot designs. still angled. eel. with a very low and squared-off "roper" heel. . high shaft. going to at least mid-calf. Military boots designed for cavalry riders also had an influence. A newer design. lizard. snake. sting ray. western (or classic). elephant. were also heavily influenced by the vaquero tradition imported from Spain to the Americas. has a short boot shaft that stops above the ankle but before the middle of the calf. depending on culture. but. Cowboy boots refer to a specific style of riding boot. with an angled "cowboy" heel.
Later, the industrial revolution allowed some styles of boots to be mass-produced. One massproduced boot style, the Wellington boot, (a shorter but cavalry-oriented boot) was popular with cowboys in the USA until the 1860s. During the cattle drive era of 1866±1884, the cowboy was not apt to ruin a good pair of dress boots while working, but some owned more decorative dress boots to wear in town. The basic style elements permeated even working boots, and made the Wellington obsolete. Fashion magazines from 1850 and 1860 show the cowboy boot with topstitching, cutouts of geometric or other natural elements and underslung heel. The American-style boot was taken up by bootmakers in the cattle ranching areas of Texas, Oklahoma, and Kansas. Two of the best known early bootmakers of the era were Charles Hyer of Hyer Brothers Boots in Olathe, Kansas, and H. J. "Big Daddy Joe" Justin of Justin Boots in Spanish Fort, Texas and later Nocona, Texas. After Justin moved closer to Dallas where shipping was easier, the Nocona brand of cowboy boots was made by Enid Justin Stelzer, eldest daughter of Joe Justin, who stayed in Nocona with her husband, and the couple continued the family business. After the couple divorced, the Olsen-Stelzer brand was started by Stelzer.
Comparison of the "cowboy" heel and the lower "walking" heel. Both designs are angled slightly, different from the squared-off "roper" heel
When mounting and, especially, dismounting, the slick, treadless leather sole of the boot allowed easy insertion and removal of the foot into the stirrup of the Western saddle. The original toe was rounded and a bit narrowed at the toe to make it easier to insert. While an extremely pointed toe is a modern stylization appearing in the 1940s, it adds no practical benefit, and can be uncomfortable in a working boot. While in the saddle, the tall heel minimized the risk of the foot sliding forward through the stirrup, which could be life-threatening if it happened and the rider were to be unseated. There was often considerable risk that a cowboy would fall from a horse, both because he often had to ride young, unpredictable horses, but also because he had to do challenging ranch work in difficult terrain, that often meant that he could accidentally become unseated by a quick-moving horse. If a rider fell from a horse but had a boot get caught in the stirrup, there arose a very great risk that the horse could panic and run off, dragging the cowboy, causing severe injury and possible death.
The tall leather shaft of the boot helped to hold the boot in place in the absence of lacing. The tall shaft, comfortably loose fit, and lack of lacing all were additional features that helped prevent a cowboy from being dragged since his body weight could pull his foot out of the boot if he fell off while the boot remained stuck in the stirrup. While mounted, the shaft also protected the lower leg and ankle from rubbing on the stirrup leathers, as well as fending off brush and thorns, particularly if also worn with chaps or chinks. While dismounted, the shaft helped protect the leg and foot from rocks, brush, thorns, and rattlesnakes. In wet weather or creek crossings, the high tops helped prevent the boot from filling with mud and water. The modern roper style boot with a low heel and shorter shaft emerged from the traditional design in response to the needs of modern rodeo, particularly calf roping, where the cowboy had to run to tie the calf as well as to ride. The lower shaft resulted in a less expensive boot, but also allowed the boot to be more easily removed. A laceup design for roper boots became popular as it prevented the boot from falling off too easily and provided more ankle support when on foot, though the lacer also has safety issues because it will not fall off if a rider is hung up in a stirrup, and, lacking a smooth upper, the lacings themselves may make it easier for the boot to become caught in the stirrup in the first place.
A roper-style cowboy boot. Notice the low, squared-off heel
Decoration varied widely. Early boots were cowhide leather pieced together with single rows of top stitching, but as custom boots were made, cowboys asked for decorative stitching, cutouts in the high tops (early on, often Texas stars), and different materials. The interaction of wild west shows and later, western movies, influenced styles that working cowboys at times adopted. Modern cowboy boots are available in all colors and can be made from just about every animal whose skin can be made into leather, including exotic materials such as alligator and ostrich. One accessory used with cowboy boots are spurs, which are sometimes attached to the heel of each boot for the purpose of cueing a horse while riding.
Many cowboy boot companies have been in operation since the 19th century. Each manufacturer has developed its own proprietarylasts for producing boots, which are considered trade secrets and are highly guarded. Because of this, standardization has been slow, and fitting between
companies is not always consistent. When considering wearing a cowboy boot from a different manufacturer, it is recommended to seek assistance from a knowledgeable merchant who specializes in cowboy boots if a person cannot try them on in person. Some wearers will swear by one manufacturer's fit, while others will not perceive any difference between brands. The fit will vary depending on the type of toe that is sought. Pointed toes leave a narrower space between the toes and the tip of the boot which may cause discomfort, though can be minimized by selecting a half size larger than the wearer's normal size. A rounder toe (like a roper or a Wellington) will fit more like a regular shoe. Another factor is leather. A cowhide or kidskin boot will become softer with wear, molding to the wearer's foot. That is why it is recommended to select a snug size because the boot will eventually "break in" and a loose fitting boot at the time of purchase will become sloppy. However, some individuals also are unaccustomed to the slight slippage of the heel in a new, non-laced cowboy boot, particularly with a cowboy heel, and buy a too-small boot in an attempt to stop this slippage. But a small amount of slippage is also normal at first. As the boot breaks in, the slippage will stop.
Boot hooks and a boot jack may assist the process of putting on and taking off cowboy boots.
Boot hooks are often required to put on a new pair of boots until they soften in the arch and break in. A boot jack is recommended for removal, though care must be taken not to damage the heel of the boot when using a jack.
A kitten heel is a short, slender heel, usually from 3.5 centimeters (1.5 inches) to 5 centimeters (2 inches) high with a slight curve setting the heel in from the edge of the shoe. The style was popularized by Audrey Hepburn. It is particularly common on sandals. They are sometimes
Definition A kitten heel is a stiletto heel of 5 centimeters or less in height. that turns it into a sexual accessory. Other periods of popularity include the 1860s and the 1950s. some are as low as 3 centimeters. They were sometimes referred to as "trainer heels" in the USA indicating their use in getting young girls used to wearing high heels. however short. so resembling a cotton reel..5 centimeters high would normally be considered a flat shoe. ManoloBlahnik has added kitten heeled shoes to his collection. particularly when teamed with a sharp pointed toe or long 'winklepicker' toe.i. saying that his famous high stilettos have been so often copied that he was inspired to create a heel at a new. However by the early 1960s they became fashionable for older teenagers and eventually for women of all ages until the demise of the stiletto heel in the late 1960s. They are classified as stiletto heels and despite their lack of height are generally classified as 'high heels' because of their sex appeal.e. thick at both ends and thin in the middle. Spool heels were fashionable in Europe during the Baroque and Rococo periods. who want the curve and sex appeal of a high heel. They emerged again in the 1980s and have become once again fashionable since 2003. Spool heels are characterized by sand-clock shaped heel . shorter height Spool heel A spool heel is a heel that is wide at the top and bottom and narrower in the middle. History They were introduced in the late 1950s as formal fashion attire for young adolescent teenage girls as higher heels would have been considered unseemly for girls as young as 13 because of the sexual connotations and unease of walk. but not the added height.worn by women who are especially tall. it is the addition of a stiletto heel. Stiletto heel . This is an anomaly because a shoe with regular wide heels of 3.
but he is probably the first firmly documented designer of the high. the phrase being first recorded in the early 1930s. moulded plastic with an internal metal tube for reinforcement. The stiletto heel came with the advent of technology using a supporting metal shaft or stem embedded into the heel. slim heel. It is named after the stilettodagger. The more usual method of mass-producing high shoe heels. usually for women. The extremely slender original Italian-style stiletto heels of the late 1950s and very early 1960s were no more than 5mm in diameter for much of their length. weaker materials that required a wide heel. and are sometimes defined as having a diameter at the ground of less than 1 cm (slightly less than half an inch). The design of the stiletto heel originally came from the late Kristin S. does not achieve the true stiletto shape. stiletto heels became known more for their erotic nature than for their ability to make height. Its usage in footwear first appeared in print in the New Statesman magazine in 1959: "She came .forward. Firm photographic evidence exists in the form of photographs of Parisian singer Mistinguett from the 1940s. This revival of the opulent heel style can be attributed to the designer Roger Vivier and such designs became very popular in the 1950s.A boot with a stiletto heel A stiletto heel is a long. As a fashion item. thin. These shoes were designed by Andre Perugia.. As time went on. meaning a pin or stalk. High heel shoes were worn by men and women courtiers.e. their popularity was . as numerous fetish drawings attest. who began designing shoes in 1906.. The word stiletto is derived from stylus. although the heel sometimes flared out a little at the top-piece (tip). A real stiletto heel has a stem of solid steel or alloy. instead of wood or other. Stiletto heels are a common fetish item. i. It seems unlikely that he invented the stiletto. her walk made lopsided by the absence of one heel of the stilettos". History A pair of shoes with 12 cm stiletto heels Relatively thin high heels were certainly around in the late 19th century.5 centimetres (1 inch) to 25 cm (10 inches) or more if a platform sole is used. Stiletto heels may vary in length from 2. such slender heels were difficult to find until recently due to changes in the way heels were mass-produced. Wagner but would not become popular until the late 1950s. Stiletto-style heels 5 cm or shorter are called kitten heels. After their demise in the mid-late 1960s. Not all high slim heels merit the description stiletto. high heel found on some boots and shoes.
by Russell and Bromley and by smaller boutiques. In fact. After an initial wave of popularity in the 1950s. making it impractical for outdoor wear on grass. their popularity remains undiminished . "people say they're bad for the feet but they're good for the mind. A version of the stiletto heel was reintroduced as soon as 1974 by ManoloBlahnik. Despite their impracticality. Subsequently. when the toes of the shoes which bore them became as slender and elongated as the stiletto heels themselves. Stiletto heels are no exception.as Terry DeHavilland (UK shoe designer) has said. when young women adopted the style for dressing up office wear or adding a feminine touch to casual wear. Image Stilettos give the optical illusion of a longer. What's more important?" Stiletto heels concentrate a large amount of force into a small area. were frequently worn at the office with wide-shouldered power suits. who dubbed his "new" heel the Needle. round-toe shoes with slightly thicker (sometimes cone-shaped) semi-stiletto heels.) can cause damage to carpets and floors. They also alter the wearer's posture and gait. when professional and college-age women took to wearing shoes with thick. unsold stocks of pointed-toe stilettos. not just the heel. they are safer to wear than the other extreme of high heel fashion. Disadvantages All high heels counter the natural functionality of the foot. They are often considered to be a seductive item of clothing. a smaller foot. often very high in an attempt to convey slenderness (the best example of this being the shoes sold in London by Derber). the slender stiletto heel staged a major comeback after 2000. and making the bust and buttocks more prominent. Old. The style survived through much of the 1980s but almost completely disappeared during the 1990s. the platform shoe.changing over time. However. and often feature in popular culture. and contemporary efforts to replicate them (lacking the true stiletto heel because of changes in the way heels were by then being mass-produced) were sold in street fashion markets and became popular with punks. but some people assume that because they are thinner they must be worse for you. slimmer leg. The great pressure under such a heel (greater than that under the feet of an elephant. it was customary for women to refer to the whole shoe as a "stiletto". Similar heels were stocked at the big Biba store in London. Although they officially faded from the scene after the Beatle era began. and women stubbornly refused to give them up even after they could no longer readily find them in the mainstream shops. like jeans. via synecdoche (pars pro toto). their popularity continued at street level. The stiletto heel will also sink into soft ground. flexing the calf muscles. they reached their most refined shape in the early 1960s. and a greater overall height. which can create skeleton/muscular problems if they are worn excessively. Clear heels . As a result of the overall sharpness of outline. Stiletto heels are particularly associated with the image of the femme fatale. and with other fashion "tribes" of the late 1970s until supplies of the inspirational original styles dwindled in the early 1980s. block heels.
 The association with erotic performers has led to criticism of celebrities for wearing the trend. Thigh-high boots Thigh-high boots. Other synonyms include over-the-knee boots (OTK boots). liquids or even fish. notably in Milan at Dsquared2.An example of "Clear heels" with a 6 inch heel. Pole dancers prefer heels of four to seven inches in height. Popular brands include Pleaser and Luscious. Clear heels. Alternatively the transparency may be used deceptively with a ballerina style to give the flattering appearance of standing on tiptoe or en pointe. They may be used to contain novelty items such as flashing lights. Lucite and acrylic resin. Prada. the style may be overtly erotic and they are worn by pole dancers. New York Magazine indicated that the style was "on trend" for the Spring 2010 shows. The style may be used to evoke Cinderella's glass slipper when worn at a formal ball such as a prom. Lucite heels. are boots that extend above the knees. As high heels. PVC. In an interview teenage actress and singer Taylor Momsen noted she liked performing in a pair that had a slot for tips. In 2009. Lengths vary from reaching just over the knee to reaching almost to the crotch (referred to as crotch boots). and Fendi. so now they are filled with tons of bills". and especially when cuffed. . The materials which may be used for these include polycarbonate. sometimes referred to as stripper shoes are high-heeled footwear made from a transparent material. "fans started putting money in them. pirate boots. known also as thigh-length boots or simply thigh boots. striptease artistes and pornographic actresses.
 Nevertheless. so many people consider them icons of such trades. in any fall fashion season. Like other boots. These boots will typically be marketed at the highest price point for thigh boots and usually for shoes. or latex).p. though at a lower price point. Thigh boots are considered by many to be erotic or kinky.Like all boots. polyurethane. at least one or more designers and retailers will take a chance on their appeal. Heel heights vary. they can also have platform soles. Heel styles vary from metal spikes to chunky. As referenced by several authors. They are used as fetish clothing in boot fetishism and shoe fetishism. they are frequently sold by couture designers. and the price point will be at a premium. to various synthetic materials (vinyl. thigh boots run through cycles in both popularity and design. but some are constructed as pull-on boots. Many are constructed with zippers for ease of entry.A.5 cm). Cheaper thigh boots are often worn by prostitutes and professional dominatrices. Couture fashion designers marketing thigh boots will vary from year to year. In fashion In the world of women's fashion. fashion thigh boots are marketed through several different channels: y y y y y Couture fashion designers Fashion designers Couture shoe designers Boutique brands Fashion and shoe retailers A key differentiator between these channels is the price point and the construction. Because of the latter they are often associated with sadomasochism. Introducing a boot model is typically tied to the designers theme for the line. Nevertheless. A number of couture shoe design houses regularly include thigh boots in their collections. Fashion designers market similarly. to various fabrics (silk. polyester microfiber). Like shoes in general. thigh boots are made of different materials ranging from various leathers.) . but the majority are sold either as flats or with heels greater than three inches (7. perhaps because of the implied eroticism. in general. the popularity of the motion picture Pretty Woman hurt the credibility of thigh boots as wardrobe staples. just as with the couture fashion designers. Example designers include: y y y y y y y Brian Atwood ManoloBlahnik Jimmy Choo Christian Louboutin Sergio Rossi (of Gucci Group) Stuart Weitzman Giuseppe Zanotti (of ViciniS.
the footwear style was shown in two different feature layouts in the September 2009 issue of US Vogue. particularly at retail boutiques.Couture fashion designers regularly use the shoe design houses to design the boots and shoes for their collections. Reaching a wider audience through fashion magazine editorials. with many fashion designers also featuring them in their ready-to-wear collections. and one featured a multi-patterned. . featuring three crotch-length boots with synthetic uppers.g. Some brands are available through eBay sellers and clearance sellers (e. Yoox) at discounted prices. All three had snipped toes and extreme stiletto heels. pierced upper. Right behind her was Stella McCartney.. Numerous high-street fashion stores featured thigh-high boots in their Autumn 2009 collections. thigh-high boots repeated as a fashion highlight from Autumn 2009. but will vary more than for couture designers. Miuccia Prada pushed the margins of fashion with her thigh boots designed after hip boots for fishing. One version even featured garters to suspend the tops from a belt. per her usual animal-friendly practice. Designers and fashion houses who showed them with their designs included the following: y y y Burberry Prorsum Christian Dior Hermès Autumn 2009 The Autumn 2009 fashion season featured thigh-high boots as a key fashion accessory for the season resulting in the style being declared a fashion trend in early 2009. Examples of retailers who regularly market thigh boots in their line include: y y y Aldo bebe Victoria's Secret Autumn 2010 In Autumn 2010. Thigh boots are a regular staple of several Italian boutique brands. The lowest price tier is typically the fashion retailers. Examples of such brands include the following: y y y y y GianmarcoLorenzi Left and Right Le Silla Loriblu Icône The price point for these boots can be very high.
Autumn 2005 Karl Lagerfeld showed the Chanel black leather thigh boot with many of his Autumn 2005 designs that actress Anne Hathaway later wore in The Devil Wears Prada. black leather. and was available in black. including black suede and different shades of blue denim. with a western-style thigh boot in black leather. In addition to one heeled thigh boot featuring an elastic cuff just above the knee and two pairs of flat over-the-knee boots in their couture line. The boot was carried by several different retail outlets. Christian Louboutin marketed no less than four different styles in Autumn 2009 ² a front-lacing mid-thigh length with sculpted heel and hidden platform (Supra Fifré). a chunky mid-thigh boot (Contente). and a chunky platform mid-thigh boot. thigh boot with four-inch heel. The boots were finished in a variety of materials. and gray. Autumn 2006 Karl Lagerfeld styled all of his designs in the Autumn 2006 Chanel collection with thigh boots. with a black patent leather model. Jimmy Choo's limited-edition capsule collection for H&M featured a mid-thigh length. brown. that was shown with several pieces from their medieval-knight-inspired line. Spring 2009 Givenchy kicked off the thigh boot trend early in 2009.Other design houses showing thigh boots in their Autumn 2009 lines included the following: y y y y y y y Alexander McQueen Catherine Malandrino Celine Chloé Gucci Halston Louis Vuitton As for the couture shoe designers. taupe. . a crotch-length. Autumn 2008 Fendi supported the thigh boot cause in Autumn 2008 with a chunky suede boot that featured a metallic leather accent around the ankle of the boot and at the top of the heel. Autumn 2007 Burberry Prorsum championed the thigh boot in Autumn 2007. and conspicuously out of season. which made her a fashion icon. The boot featured a four-inch heel and pointed toe. skin-tight boot with hidden platform.
Stars who have worn them in their acts or on album covers include: y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y NamieAmuro Keisha Buchanan Cher Kelly Clarkson Celine Dion Nina Gordon (solo artist.Autumn 2003 NarcisoRodriguez created a stir in Autumn 2003 when almost half the models in his ready-towear show were wearing his thigh boots with his clothing line. Autumn 2001 Roberto Cavalli showed many of his designs in Autumn 2001 with his thigh boots. in addition to the more typical black and brown. The boots featured four-inch heels and pointed toes. including red and green. Phoebe Philo at Chloé showed leather and suede thigh boots in several colors. Pop music costuming Thigh boots are popular with a number of female pop stars as part of their costuming. The boots featured four-inch heels and pointed toes. former member of the band Veruca Salt) AyumiHamasaki Janet Jackson Jennifer Lopez Beyonce Knowles Madonna Katharine McPhee Christina Milian Kylie Minogue Heidi Range Rihanna Gwen Stefani Shania Twain Carrie Underwood Kim Wilde Miley Cyrus Lady Gaga Fetish Black Vinyl Fetish Thigh-high (or thigh-length) Boots .
Similarly. Candy Loving. Corinne Alphen. particularly heel height and platform height. An example line of inexpensive fetish thigh boots is sold under the brand name Pleaser. particularly Christian Louboutin. Two other cobblers. fetish thigh boots tend to be constructed of polyurethane (PU) or vinyl (frequently referred to incorrectly as patent leather). the difference in the two now is more a function of the materials used. Bob Guccione photographed the 1982 Penthouse Pet of the Year. they have been a staple of fetish and adult photography. this trend began to change as couture designers. .Red Vinyl Fetish Thigh Boots as Art Thigh boots as articles of fetish clothing date back at least to the 1950s when Irving Klaw used them in the costuming of the women in his erotic photography. after 40 years of operation. ceased operations in 2005. In the late 2000s. Legendary among these was the London-based Little Shoe Box. began to experiment with more extreme designs with their shoes. however. A select group of European cobblers have specialized in higher-priced thigh boots for the fetish market. fetish thigh boots were generally distinguished from fashion boots by being more extreme in many design dimensions. which crafted both ready-to-wear and custom thigh boots in leather and real patent leather. in white leather over-the-knee boots for her layout Until the 2000s. Dwight Hooker photographed the Playboy 25th Anniversary Playmate. In particular. Also. in a pair of black leather thigh boots for her feature layout. For instance. Consequently. Since that time. The Little Shoe Box. they are generally produced in China and sold at low cost.
Pretty Woman. stylist. Vivian Ward (played by Julia Roberts). wears her black vinyl thigh boots throughout much of the first part of the movie as a symbol of her role as a prostitute.Leatherworks (London). y . and designer Patricia Field. Iconography and symbolism in motion pictures Motion pictures where thigh boots were prominent in an actress's wardrobe include the following: y In the 1990 Silver Screen Partners release. and Jean Gaborit of Paris have continued the tradition of producing higher quality fetish thigh boots. the protagonist. Jean Gaborit also specializes in custom boots. Andy's wardrobe for this scene and the rest of the movie was styled by noted costumer. In the 2006 Fox 2000 Pictures release. The Devil Wears Prada. completes her ugly-duckling-to-swan transformation by strutting confidently into her employer's offices wearing a pair of Chanel black leather thigh boots. Andy Sachs (played by Anne Hathaway). the protagonist. Ltd.