Ben Guneratne PYP382

University of Salford

School of the Built Environment Date: 7th May 2010

Student Name: Nahallage Don R Ben Guneratne

Roll Number: PYP 382

Title of Assignment: Project Processes (Question 1)

Module Name: Project and Process Systems

Programme of Study: Msc in Quantity Surveying

Year of Study: 2010

Full Time/Part Time/Distance Taught: Distance Learning

Declaration
I confirm that this work is mine, I have not plagiarized and there is no hidden collusion. I have read and agree with the Declaration on Conduct of Assessed Work Form on the student intranet, URL: http://intranet.sobe.salford.ac.uk/studentintranet_share/bb_Declaration_Conduct_Assessed_Work.pdf

Ben Guneratne PYP382

The Hilda Lane Project and the Generic Design and Construction Process Protocol

Question 1 – Project Processes

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Ben Guneratne PYP382

Table of Contents
Introduction ……………………………………………………………………………………………04 Hilda Lane Project (HLP)……………………………...………………………………………….06 Analysis of the Project…………………………………………………………………………..…09 Problems Encountered During the Project….………………………………………..…12 Generic Development and Construction Process Protocol..…………………..…15 RIBA Model & Adapting the GDCPP Methodology..………………………………..…17 GDCPP & Hilda Lane Project…………………………………………………………………….19 Conclusion……………………………………………………………………………………………….21 Reference..……………………………………………………………………………………………….22 Appendices….…………………………………………………………………………………………..24

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Sri Lanka achieved independence from British Colonial rule in 1948. Cooper & Aouad. The construction industry in Sri Lanka is the fourth largest sector contributing to the national economy. Lee. Sri Lanka’s construction industry is no stranger to these very same problems however it’s industry not only has the traditional documented problems as noted by much of the literature on the topic but it also has its own domestic issues to contend with. This industry has contributed around 6-7% GDP over the last decade (Central Bank of Sri Lanka.g. On achievement of independence until the devolution of power in 1987 local governments. 4 . This certainly applies to the construction industry and even today much of the construction industry practices are influenced by the British including one of the most important and integral part of the construction industry namely the “contract” is based on the UK legal system. 2000) and has tried at various times to improve the performance through the use of various protocols and models. The UK construction industry is one such country that has documented it’s less than optimum performance (e.Ben Guneratne PYP382 Introduction Construction is often referred to the “barometer of development”. The government of Sri Lanka recognising the importance of this industry and knowing the issues it faces has been increasing pressure on governing bodies such as the Institute of Construction Training and Development (ICTAD) and professional bodies such as The Sri Lanka Institute of Architects (SLIA). Sri Lanka is considered a middle income country however it is still a developing country. Institute of Quantity Surveyors (IQSSL) and other relevant parties to improve efficiency and rectify the underlying problems to get the industry on track. which has a huge impact on the industry. it is often an industry plagued by inefficiencies and delays. Despite the importance of the construction industry to a country’s economic growth. 2005). Sri Lanka has had an on-going civil war that has lasted more than 30 years and this ongoing conflict at the time was considered to be a great hindrance to development and thus had a great impact on the construction industry. this is certainly true for Sri Lanka which has had many impediments to development. much of Sri Lanka’s bureaucratic structures. systems and policies were based on the British systems and to this day continue to be influenced by our colonial past. This is especially true for construction industry which is known for time delays and issues relating to quality. It is important for the reader to understand some of the domestic issues faced by Sri Lanka’s construction industry as it has relevance to the topic to be discussed further on in this paper. As such it is plagued by many of the inefficiencies that developing countries face. Wu.

According to Nissanka. if the Generic Design and Construction Process control (GDCPP) was used.Ben Guneratne PYP382 In December 2004.org/articles/2005/dec2005/sri2-d29. According to Chan. hence the move towards development of process mapping.wsws. et. It will then look at whether it would have been possible to improve the process used.al. This paper will examine a project based on the RIBA plan of work where the Architect took on the lead role in the whole process. Following the Tsunami. thereby adding a new face to the already fragile development ongoing in Sri Lanka. designing. committing funds to assist Sri Lanka.shtml). “Relief. The intensity of the Tsunami was such that the devastation to coastal development was not only costly in terms of lives lost (Sri Lanka alone lost over 35. et. First I will provide the reader a brief introduction to Hilda Lane Project. al. where Government and Non-Government Organizations are the main stakeholders”. 2007). In this backdrop the writer became involved in a recovery project which will be the subject of this assignment. and administering building contract from the inception (client’s requirement) through to post construction.000 lives not to mention over half a million people was displaced. The Hilda Lane Project (HLP) was initiated by a Non government organisation (NGO) named Community Concern Society (CCS). recovery. (2004). the Asian Tsunami hit devastating much of the eastern and western coastline of the country. the nature of procurement methods such as design and build are ever changing and this cause a shift in power from the Architect to the Contractor where the Contractor directly employs the Architect. In line with this policy GOSL signed memorandum of understanding (MoU) with Non Governmental Organisation (NGO) to provide donor driven reconstruction plans where the government to provide land to donors and other utilities. Following the Tsunami there was a great injection of finance to assist in the reconstruction and recovery process with many foreign donors. CCS employed my company Sinquad Construction Pvt Ltd on a Management Contract basis to construct 6 apartment complexes consisting of 96 units for Tsunami survivors at Hilda Lane. but also due to the impact it had on the tourism industry as much of the destruction was to coastal properties such as hotels and services industry properties. (2007). both multilateral and bilateral. Dehiwala Sri Lanka. In Sri Lanka the RIBA Plan of work is used to organise the process of managing. This paper will examine the project construction which used the RIBA plan of work and look at some of the challenges and issues faced. (RIBA. 5 . (http://www. the government of Sri Lanka (GOSL) developed a post Tsunami housing policy to clearly set out how the development should be addressed. rehabilitation and reconstruction are the main activities in rebuilding an affected nation.

00. contractors etc. This becomes very relevant in the case of the HLP particularly when looking at the type of challenges faced by the Management Contractor (MC) and will be discussed later on. al. the government together with construction industry professionals had come up with a total cost of construction for low cost housing for Tsunami Survivors. donors and tsunami survivors to construct housing quickly and at a low cost. It is also important for the reader to understand that this was not a traditional construction project.000. The costing mentioned above took in to account the industry advice on the subject. this project also included several other stakeholders to manage such as donors and the recipients who also had a stake in the project. According to Sathyendrakajan. The project intended to provide housing for 96 families displaced by the Tsunami who had been working with the Non Government Organisation (NGO) in an area close to Colombo. each block had 4 floors with 4 apartments on each level) to be developed in 9 months with a cost of construction USD 850. The ability to implement a process that streamlines construction in an efficient way would have been welcome by many in the construction industry at that time. (2007) a major factor (post Tsunami) attributed to delays was the inability of contractors to meet the huge demand generated by the need to build tsunami housing quickly and at a low cost especially when looking at the nature of sub constructing. et. given the huge pressure by the government. The housing was to be provided in a location just outside of Colombo called Dehiwala. consultants. As mentioned above. The objective of the project was to provide low cost housing to these 96 families with minimum disruption to their livelihood which was very much locationally determined.Ben Guneratne PYP382 The Hilda Lane Project (HLP) The project commenced just after the Tsunami in 2005. HLP involved developing 96 units of apartments (6 buildings with 16 apartments each. The project scope included building 6 apartment blocks consisting of 96 apartments units. 00 was an important figure as the MC and the other consultants had to ensure that the project remained within the budget. 000. The costing of USD 850. This costing with some modification was used in the cost plan. As a result of the tsunami. 6 . It is important to note that as a reaction to the need for low cost housing some of the professional bodies involved in construction industry had been requested to come up with a figure for a single story house as a benchmark within which donors and other development practitioners could work with when coming up with housing costs. tsunami housing construction costs and the construction industry culture. Apart from the normal stakeholders such as client.

However many tsunami survivors including hoteliers had built premises right on the shore this proved to be a big issue as many were unable to re-build on the land they had owned previously as result the GOSL stepped in and pledged to help NGO’s obtain land for development. With the help of the UDA and DS. unlike in a traditional construction project this tsunami development project involved a number of clients. the ability to manage the flow of information becomes important especially when the number stakeholders are more than a traditional construction project. • Parties Involved o Donors – Various parties from the Netherlands donated money to build the dwellings o Donors – Land was provided by the Urban Development Authority (UDA) o Donors – Water and Electricity was provided by the Divisional Secretariat of Dehiwala area (DS) o Client – Community Concern Society (CCS) (NGO) o Architect – R Susil Weddikkara Associates (RSWA) o Cost consultant – Qserve Pvt Ltd (QSPL) o Contractor – Sinquad Construction Pvt Ltd (SCPL) o Sub contractors – 6 package subcontractors. CCS was one of the first NGO’s in Sri Lanka who managed to obtain such land for development. The funds to construct the 96 units were provided by CCS by pledging support from various families in the Netherlands and other parts of the world whom CCS has worked before.Ben Guneratne PYP382 In the context of using a system such as the GDCPP.one was that re-construction could not take place with 100-200 meters of the coastline. As mentioned above. Many NGO’s signed MOU’s with the GOSL and were able to obtain land. One of the major challenges was the scarcity of land for re-development. CCS was the main party who initiated the project with the help of 7 . 1 plumbing and 1 electrical contractor Just after the Tsunami the GOSL set out a policy on the redevelopment of the affected areas. Not to mention that the government wanted to take part in the project for political reasons. CCS obtained land and the necessary electricity and water connection required for construction. One reason for this scarcity was that the government had come up with a rule regarding reconstruction on coastal properties. For the benefit of the reader I have provided a list of the stakeholders involved below to give an idea about the complexity of managing information and feedback.

With the help of the UDA. 8 .607 hectares) land off a major highway close to Colombo. just 6 months after the Tsunami devastation. CCS was one of the many NGO’s that signed a MoU with the GOSL where land was to be provided by the Urban Development Department (UDA) and other services by the Divisional Secretariat (DS).Ben Guneratne PYP382 funding given by various individuals from the Netherlands. Bearing in mind UDA and DS are government entities where work done by these entities are displayed as projects completed by the politicians in power in the respective areas hence whilst meeting the need to house tsunami displaced people there was a need to please politicians to help them get re elected. Once the initial requirement was finalised by CCS they approached RSWA (Architectural firm) and QSPL (Quantity Surveying firm) to discuss the initial designs. which otherwise would have been an impossible task. The next section of this paper will provide an analysis of the project execution and the focus of my involvement. UDA and DS prior to finalising a design to minimise the construction cost. procurement methods etc. CCS managed to procure a 1. The project was based on a low budget housing model and several designs were discussed with CCS.5 acres (0. cost plans. This Tsunami development was one of the very few donor driven projects that managed to obtain land and start construction in June 2005.

FL. 2003: 16).Ben Guneratne PYP382 Analysis of the Project As mentioned in the above narrative. Please see the diagram below Owner Architect/ Engineer Concrete Subcontractor Construction Manager Mechanical Subcontractor Electrical Subcontractor Subconsultants Diagram 1: At Risk Construction management relationship chart (from Bennett. There are two types of construction management – agency construction manager and at risk construction manager. 2003: 17) The above diagram illustrates the at risk construction managers relationship with the various stakeholders involved in the procurement of the project. According to Kwakye (1997). 9 . a construction company is appointed by the client to as a MC to manage and coordinate the process of design and construction of a project alongside with the help of the client’s advisors (273). In the former – the agency construction manager acts as an advisor to the owner/client (for a fee) and the owner engages spate contractor and design organisations (Bennett. The project used a procurement methodology that was a mix between a Management contract (MC) method and Construction Management (CM) methods. FL. The “at risk” contract manager occupies a slightly different role where he/she is positioned between the owner an execution contractors (ibid). I also held a role similar to that of a Management based contract. However my company Sinquad Construction Pvt. the HLP was a complex project involving many stakeholdersmy involvement was in the construction phase of the project. Ltd (SCPL) was a mix between the at risk construction manager in that my role under this procurement methodology was limited to holding the various trade contracts.

The selected contractor was appointed as a Construction Manager after a tender process.Ben Guneratne PYP382 A CM is a similar procurement method to a MC however differs because a construction manager is a consultant appointed by the client in a purely managerial context. they were responsible for appointing the Architectural Consultants (CCS) who designed the buildings. The defining factor between a CM and MC is the appointment of the MC to manage the construction works in return for a lump sum or percentage fee (Ashworth & Hogg. 10 . there was a call for tender from pre-qualified contractors. 2007: 229). The client in the case of the HLP was CCS. Diagram 2 illustrates the relationship SCPL had with the Client/Owner and the rest of the stakeholders involved in the construction process. Diagram 2: Sinquad Construction Pvt Ltd Contractual Modality This mix between the CM and MC methodologies suited the HLP project well given the complex nature of the project. In this methodology the MC “does not employ any of the labour or plant except for the possibility of the work involved in setting up of site and the costs normally associated with preliminary works (Ibid: 230). Once the design and costing was finalised. This was very true in the case of SQCPL where work was undertaken for a fee.

11 .Pre construction planning (See appendix 3 for process Map for stage 3) This was the most vital stage of the process planning where SCPL had four concurrent processes which are integral to the success of any construction project. requirements and gathered required information (rates) visited the site and filled and handed over the tender document with the required bid bonds in time for tender opening. Stage 1: . In addition we prepared pre tender construction plan and a site organisation chart we were well prepared to proceed to the next stage in the event the tender was successful. Stage 3: . This has also been mapped and is provided in the appendices. Once the documentation process was finalised SCPL moved onto Stage 3.Ben Guneratne PYP382 Diagram 2 illustrates the organisation structure of the selected procurement method. I have provided a stage by stage process on how the project was carried from stage 1 onwards below. guarantees and insurance policies prior to formally signing the contract. Once SCPL decided to proceed with the trending the formal process was followed where we scrutinised the documents and summarised the main contractual points. SCPL was responsible for obtaining rates from sub contractor and managing the sub contractors directly under the CM/MC and Consultants supervision. The complex nature of this mixed relationship is discussed extensively by Dononhoe & Brooks (2006) who suggest that although these are separate roles. Payments were directly paid to the sub contractors and material suppliers that was certified by the MC and approved by the Consultant. Once obtained the formal contract was signed and the client extended a Mobilisation Advance which was 20% of the contract sum. The CM/MC was paid a fixed fee as a percentage of the construction cost for his service however in the project the CM/MC was not involved in the design phase. in the presence of the Consultants. In addition the Consultant also was in communication with the sub contracts on technical matters.Bidding for the project (See appendix 1 for process Map for stage 1) SCPL was pre qualified by the consultant and was invited to tender for the project. contracts were signed with the Sub contractors (6 separate sub contractors for the 6 buildings). Once the details were finalised. they do have potential to overlap. Whilst the formalities were occurring with CCS and the design consultants. The sub contracts were required to submit a bank guarantee and a performance bond prior to obtaining a mobilisation advance from SCPL.Documentation (See appendix 2 for process Map for stage 2) Once the tender was successful we were given written notice (award of contract) and were required to obtain the necessary bonds. SCPL was negotiating and finalising rates with sub-contractors. Stage 2: .

At this planning stage SCPL finalised the cost estimates and the resource schedule. Bearing in mind donors have committed a limited amount of money for the construction of the project and any cost overruns mean that CCS would need to seek additional funding. At site level SCPL implemented a stores management system on receipt and issuance of material to the site from stores. Mobilisation at site – at this stage SCPL formally took over the site and moved into site. This enabled the project to minimise any adverse price fluctuation that could result in cost overruns. Cost Management – As mentioned above in item 3.Ben Guneratne PYP382 1. Procurement Management – SCPL finalised and locked in the prices of materials from various suppliers most importantly cement. 1993: 54). In addition the client paid advances for items such as roof tiles.A work breakdown structure (WBS) was developed based on the project scope. Staff were identified from SCPL to work on site at the site office. this project was a low cost housing development hence it was paramount that the cost of the construction was kept within the budget. electrical wiring where the supplier (manufacture in relevant cases) locked in the price for the period agreed upon. A Work Break Down Structure (WBS) divides a project in to identifiable parts that can be managed (Oberlender. 3. plumbing equipment. A resource schedule is a detailed document that lists out what materials. 2. sand and metal. Processes and procedures were set in place to monitor and control costs during the construction period. based on this SCPL was able to properly forecast the cash flow requirements to keep the project running at a constant pace. stores and toilets were set up for the project. timber. labour is required at different stages. 12 . Project Planning . The site was secured with fencing. A projected cash flow for the project together with a construction plan (based in MS Project) was finalised and submitted to the Consultant for approval of the planned work. 4. Finally with the services of a land surveyor and under the supervision of the consultant the site was set out to build 6 blocks of apartment units. required offices. SCPL informed the client of the cash flow requirement so the client was on track to disburse the monies when required.

SCPL commenced construction on the decided date. At this time SCPL has formally finished all obligations under the contract it signed with CCS and RSWA. Throughout the project the consultant made sure the client was aware of any changes to the design (scope) as this meant extra costs to the client and required additional commitments from donors. Once the defects were rectified under the consultant’s recommendation CCS released the retention money held and SCPL in turn released the retention held form labour gangs.Ben Guneratne PYP382 Stage 4 – Construction (See appendix 4 for process Map for stage 4) The construction stage was a complex stage with a series of interrelated activities especially considering 6 apartment blocks were required to be built concurrently whilst managing 6 different sub-contractors. At pre determined stages SCPL submitted bills to the Consultant clearly giving break downs of the material and labour components where the certified bills could be paid directly by the client as a reimbursement for material purchases and labour payments directly to the labour gangs. SCPL together with the consultant updated and finalised the project program and reviewed the milestones and deliverable at decided stages. 13 . The proper rectifications were made using the same labour gangs employed during the construction project where these labour gangs were withheld of a retention payment. After careful planning. Stage 5: -Post Construction (See appendix 5 for process Map for stage 5) At the end construction and during the defects liability period SCPL together with the consultant inspected the site and identified defects liable for correction by the contractor (SCPL). At the end of construction a hand over report was completed and the building was formally handed over to the client under the supervision of the consultant. Regular meetings were held to keep track of the progress and technical meetings were held weekly to clarify any technical issue related to the program. A health and safety officer was appointed as required by the contract to keep a risk register and to mitigate any safety issue that may arise during construction.

4. This increased the cost of the preliminaries as it was duplicated by the MC and the sub contractor. Delays in obtaining the site: even though CCS signed a MOU with the GOSL there were delays experienced in getting the land required. 3. 14 . In these instances there were problems with billing.Ben Guneratne PYP382 Problems Encountered during the Project: Upon reading the above. This caused unnecessary wastage of resources. Hence when there were delays in payment the sub contractors reacted by delaying work which was responsibility of the MC. During the initial site visits by SCPL it was promised that the people will vacate the premises however this did not take place. 1. Once the land was obtained SCPL was given the site for mobilisation and construction however further delays were experienced as the land had been given as temporary housing and people were living on the land. As sub contractors came under the MC and was given a mobilisation advance MC required a bonds and guarantees for this purpose. Some of the key issues are highlighted below. it appears that the HLP had no problems however there were several serious issues that may have benefitted from GDCPP methodology. Costs of preliminaries were high due to the back to back bond requirement from sub contractors as well as CM/MC. There was a lot of paperwork that required sorting out to ensure that appropriate payment was made this required a lot of repetitious procedures to be put in place to sort out which party paid for the material. Payment for material purchases were paid directly by the client. One subcontractor abandoned site due to inability to manage his cash flow. However there were no contractual arrangement between the sub contractors and the client. 2. however there we many instances the MC paid for supplies and got a reimbursement from the Client. (Appendix 2: B7 & B8). Payment was made directly by the client once the bills were certified by the consultant. This delayed the program by about 6 weeks.

The linear nature of the RIBA model. the RIBA model is the standard operating procedure in this country. documentation and procedures that provides the basis to allow a wide range of organisations involved in a construction project to work together seamlessly” (http://www. consultant or contractor. 1998). cost and with a high level of quality. wastage of material and cost. The most important factors for any client is that the product is built within the required time period.Ben Guneratne PYP382 Generic Design and Construction Process Control (GDCPP) The Generic Design and Construction Process Control (GDCPP) is based on the achievement of “a common set of definitions. Therefore often there is an imbalance of power which can lead to advantages and disadvantages depending on perspective of client. The RIBA model and the GDCPP aim to fulfill this goal by improving the systems and processes employed by construction industry professionals. and it has become widely accepted as the operational model throughout the building industry (Kagioglou et al. The construction industry in general is plagued by inefficiencies to do with time. The RIBA model although used widely in Sri Lanka. 1999). However for want of another model. Here. The GDCPP was developed with idea of improving the design and construction process particularly aiming at the RIBA (Royal Institute of British Architects) Plan of Work and the BPF (British Property Federation) models (Nelson et al. is argued to be a model designed from an Architectural perspective and tends to be rigid in its application. As result various models have been developed to address such situations. in an industry dominated by construction industry professionals and contractors particularly sub contractors who are generally not educated in construction industry techniques and methodologies such methodologies often become a non-entity to those “working in the trenches”.com). The Plan of Work (RIBA. 1997) was originally published in 1963 as a standard method of operation for the construction of buildings. prevents looking at the construction process as a whole and often compartmentalize the different stages of construction causing stages of constructions to be viewed in isolation.processprotocol. If we look at the Sri Lankan context the construction industry is particularly unique. 15 . These models become doubly important in countries that have inefficient construction industries especially in developing countries such as Sri Lanka.

8 & 9 and partially in the Pre Construction stage particularly in Phase 6. In the next part of the paper I will examine some of the issues faced during these phases and examine whether these issues would have been avoided or mitigated had I used the GDCPP methodology. Therefore for the purpose of this assignment I will only look at the HLP in context of the above 4 stages. However it is interesting to note that Chan et al (2004) suggests that although process protocols such as the GDCPP were designed with intension of integrating participants across client and consultant organizations often this does not happen due to various reasons ( 5). the likely success of integrating the various parties. Therefore it would be interesting to see whether in fact in a “multi client” project with various stakeholders. This is particularly relevant in the Sri Lankan context where often the RIBA model fails to consider issues such as communication with all stakeholders throughout the life of a project.Ben Guneratne PYP382 The GDCPP provides an opportunity for an alternate modality to the standard as it looks at the construction process in its totality and allows and the stages of construction are not looked at in isolation. My involvement in the HLP comes in at the Construction stage which includes phases 7. Construction Stage including phases 7 & 8 and Post Completion stage. one. GDCPP divides the design and construction process to 4 broad stages: Pre project stage which include phases zero. two and three. pre-construction stage which includes phases 4-6. 16 .

Whereas the GDCPP being a generic model. does not favour one actor or process more than the other and is perhaps better suited to serve as model of process for the construction industry. The overall communication strategy and methodology of feedback provided in the GDCPP model would have been an excellent modality for stakeholders to communicate and be involved at all stages of construction. it is designed from one angle. The need for identification of risk is necessary in any type of project and especially true for the construction industry in Sri Lanka which fraught with risk. That is although this model was developed for the construction industry. A key component to me in the GDCPP system is the “risk log” where risks are identified and updated at each stage and phase. coordination and feedback are principles by which the GDCPP model operates. the use of the phase review process would have definitely benefited the HLP. it is important to note that HLP used Microsoft project as a project management system which is quite a simplistic project planning tool. the nature of the construction industry personnel in Sri Lanka with many sub-contractors computer illiterate and unable to follow even a simple Microsoft project plan. However having said that. Of course. GDCPP is based on a manufacturing process which can be quite mechanical at times where as the construction industry is filled with a rich variety of construction industry professionals where many of the processes cannot be viewed with a “mechanical eye”.Ben Guneratne PYP382 RIBA Model and Adapting the GDCPP Methodology The RIBA model which was followed during this project and the project management system used failed to anticipate many of the issues faced by the CM/MC. perhaps mitigation strategies could have been 17 . has been designed with Architects in mind. However it is important to keep in mind. This identification of “identification risk” was solely lacking in the methodology employed during the HLP. As discussed above the RIBA model although widely used in Sri Lanka. This was particularly true for the HLP which had a very tight deadline and budget and had the added pressure of being necessary for those survivors of the tsunami who had no fixed abode due to the loss of their original home. The key principles of stakeholder involvement/teamwork. If a risk log had been developed.that is the Architectural perspective. Therefore this model does not take in to account the various actors and processes encountered in the construction process and therefore do not provide an efficient model to follow.

e. labour shortages were experienced and material shortages such as cement. The subcontractor simply left one evening without telling the CM/MC. within a very low cost keeping in mind the nature of the construction industry post tsunami. In case of the cement. the MC managed to obtain a steady supply by coming in to an agreement with a supplier and the client and pre-paying the cement in advance. It was later discovered that he was not managing his own labour effectively and he was having a cash flow problem. The risk log would have been immensely beneficial to this project as the project required completion in 9 months. One of the problems faced as mentioned above was a sub contractor abandoning his site mid construction. Update communication strategy) this may not have occurred. However none of the stakeholders listed above. many sub contractors are not educated and in fact have no formal qualification. This particularly true for the construction industry in Sri Lanka so providing assistance to such persons would have been well within the interests of the CM/MC had he created such a log. As mentioned above the preliminaries were duplicated as both the subcontractor and MC were required to be obtained by both groups. once one stage was completed no-one really looked back or for that matter forward. anticipating a shortage. As mentioned earlier on. However this was only in one case. this may have been one of the problems identified and mitigation strategies could have been implemented such as providing assistance with money management. there was a huge demand for contractors and subcontractors. For example. Many donors were throwing money at the country with various construction projects being planned not to mention the GOSL reconstruction and recovery effort. the client could have paid the advance directly to the subcontractor and obtaining the bonds and guarantees directly from this party. In the initial stages if a risk log had been kept. The pressure to complete projects well ahead of time was of immense importance however. had identified this prior to the contract being awarded and due to the linear nature of the RIBA model. consultant and MC had communicated this through a formal means as set out in the GDCPP system (i.Ben Guneratne PYP382 developed for the problems encountered. 18 . That is post tsunami. However if the client.

the use of the communication strategy may have had the potential to slow down the process rather create a more efficient business process. However it is also important to highlight that as there were many clients or donors involved. the opportunity for me to be involved from the start of the construction process would have been possible. My involvement at an earlier stage would have allowed me to provide input to the risk register and potentially identify some of possible risks that would be encountered such as the possibility of abandoning of site by sub contractors. it is apparent that if you look at the construction process as a “whole” process as outlined by the model. The benefit of the model is that it provides for the opportunity to anticipate risk and provide mitigation strategies for these potential risks for all actors and the generic nature of the model allows for this to be viewed in a construction neutral way as opposed to the say the RIBA model which is very Architect centric. The diagram in appendix 6 outlines only those areas relevant to the HLP and its entry points to the system and provides a simple identification of where HLP’s process fits in to the GDCPP Although my involvement only emerged at the tail end of Phase 6 and then more prominently in phases 7. Although the project was completed. and risk management process activities.Ben Guneratne PYP382 GDCPP & Hilda Lane Project I tried to highlight above some of the entry-points for HLP to the GDCPP – appendix 6 provides an outline as to where HLP could benefit. The nature of the procurement method used prevented my involvement in earlier stages. perhaps these figures could have been lower had a risk identification register been developed and updated at every stage and mitigation strategies been employed. By using a mix between construction management and management construction as procurement method my position was slightly different than if I was one or the other. This is because I would not be involved until the tender process was finalised. This is especially important in light of the outcome of the project. 19 . In the procurement process identified I was considered as an “at risk construction manager” however if the “agent construction management” process was used instead. In this scenario. it was not completed on time and in fact went over by 6 months and the estimated budget went over by approximately 10%. it would be difficult for me to find an entry point. my entry point would have been much earlier in the process under the GDCPP model and would have allowed for a much more productive involvement. The entry point for the HLP to the GDCPP process is definitely in the communication strategy of the 3 phases and the risk register. 8 & 9.

Especially when you consider that that one stakeholder (such as political entity) can change and influence the whole outcome of a project whether a generic model is implemented to manage the project or a tailor made model is used. 20 . The adaptability of the system makes it a suitable possibility however not necessarily a realistic option. the likelihood of being able to implement such a system in its entirety and obtaining buy-in from all stakeholders is very difficult to assess.Ben Guneratne PYP382 Given the reality of the construction industry in Sri Lanka.

consultants. since the land was occupied. contractors equally can adapt to the GDCPP and create their own process to improve the productivity. but also due to variations and so on. the need and the urgency. This is particularly relevant when looking at activities such as supervision or the very nature of construction workers who do not have technical qualifications and often requires hands on supervision. in fact much of the delays can be attributed to delays in obtaining land. It would be an ideal time for the introduction and implementation of a process system such as GDCPP which is a customisable system which could be adapted to the Sri Lankan market. The project was targeted at 9 months for completion however the reality was that the project went over by 6 months! (Please see appendix 7 for images of the project) The additional 6 months needed to complete the project was not entirely due to the fault of delays on construction. and obtaining a free and clear land also took time. situation in the country and the huge demand on the construction industry. In addition Sri Lanka Clients. efficiency and performance of the construction industry. The HLP could have definitely benefitted from the GDCPP model however would the model have been able to be realistically implemented? The process orientated nature of GDCPP provides a potentially beneficial system of project implementation given the inefficiencies of the Sri Lankan construction industry. The project was complicated due to the various stakeholders involved.Ben Guneratne PYP382 Conclusion The Hilda Lane Project was a challenging construction project due the nature of the project. Given the post war climate in Sri Lanka there is a growing demand in the construction industry. However the implementation of the model would require a top down process of education on the need for the system starting from the Consultants to educate and implement a process such as GDCPP. However some delays were due to the actual construction process. 21 . The cost of the project also increased by approximately 10% possibility due to an unrealistic price for construction attributed by the government and then required by sub contractors to fulfil. Significant investment in IT and educating the work force should be also looked at prior to establishing such a system which could be subsidised by the GOSL.

. Wu. & Rameezdeen. (2006). “Construction Project Administration in Practice”.. D. Carmichael S. Vol. Blackwell Publishing Bennett. “ Processes. R. M. B (2001). G. and Sexton. R. “Study of Factors Affecting Post Disaster Housing Reconstruction”.Cooper . Ruddock. 701-708 Graham.. “The Management of Construction: A Project Life Cycle Approach”. M. M & Sheath.. Lynn. J. K. Lawrence. D.. & Aouad. British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data Chan P. M. Karunasena.. Aouad. “Willi’s Practice Procedure for the Quantity Surveyor (12th Edition)”. 19. 25. Hinks.. “Final Report: Generic Design and Construction Process Protocol. G. R (2004).. Salford Kwakye. Taylor and Francis Kagioglou. Addison Wesley Longman Lee. 519531. Proceedings of the First International SCRI Symposium. S. New York. Kagioglou. N. John Laing. Donohoe. L. Editors Aouad. A Collection of Research Papers based on a Series of Undergraduate Research Works carried out in Sri Lanka in 2007 22 . Tzortzopoulos P & Cooper. 2000 N. pp 346-355. Cooper. Vol..Ben Guneratne PYP382 References Ashworth. M. R ( 2007). G. G (2000).W. A. Nissanka. 30-31 March 2004. "Beyond process protocol: A Review of the Generic Design and Construction Design Process Protocol to Explore Future Work". Construction Management and Economics. Amaratunga. F (2003).. W. Steve & Brooks. The University of Salford. A. The International Conference of Business Ethics. Sexton. “Reflections on Construction Management Procurement Following Great Eastern Hotel Company v.A (1997). Publishers. " The Process Protocol: A Solution for the Problems of Construction”.. ( 1998).. M & Carr. Allan & Hogg Keith (2007). Maps and Protocols: Understanding the Shape of the Construction Industry”. Post Disaster Recovery Challenges in Sri Lanka. Journal of Construction Management and Economics.C.

Garold. “Capacity of the Construction Industry in Post Disaster Reconstruction”. http://www.processprotocol.org/articles/2005/dec2005/sri2-d29. A Collection of Research Papers based on a Series of Undergraduate Research Works carried out in Sri Lanka in 2007 Sunil.com 23 . “Project Management for Engineering and Construction”. Weddikkara.shtml Oberlender. McGraw-Hill International Editions http://www. D (1993).wsws. . Post disaster recovery challenges in Sri Lanka. “One year after the tsunami.Ben Guneratne PYP382 Sathyendrakajan. WA (2005).. Sri Lankan survivors still live in squalor”. N. G (2007). C & Karunasena.

Incorporation of SCPL Process Map with GDCPP Appendix 7 – Project Pictures 24 .Ben Guneratne PYP382 Appendices Appendix 1 – SCPL Stage 1 Bidding Process Appendix 2 – SCPL Stage 2 Documentation Appendix 3 – SCPL Stage 3 Pre Construction Planning Appendix 4 – SCPL Stage 4 Construction Appendix 5 – SCPL Stage 5 Post Construction Appendix 6 .

Handover tender documents & bid bond by due date & attend tender opening. materials.(A) Bidding for the Project – STAGE 01 Visit site to gather required information (A4) START Prequalified by consultant and was invited to tender (A1) Decide to Bid Yes Obtain tender documents (A2) Examine tender documents & prepare list for required information (A3) Call for quotations from subcontractors (A5) Call for quotations of materials from suppliers (A6) Complete information gathering. (A11) Finalise all rates. machinery & prelims items costs. (A8) No Advice Consultant of intent Determine construction methods/ prepare list of equipment & plant required (A7) Attend the pre bid meeting to clarify any queries / verify scope STAGE 02 (Documentation) Proceed to documentation Yes Tender Won Await tender results. Prelims & fill tender documents (A10) Prepare a pre tender construction plan / site organization chart (A9) No END . (inclusive of labour. plant.Appendix 1 .

(B) – Documentation STAGE 02 START Documentation process Receive written confirmation to proceed (B2) Obtain CAR policy. (B4) Receive mobilization advance (B5) STAGE (03) Pre Construction Planning Negotiate & finalise with sub contractors to commence work (B6) Sign contract with subcontractors and obtain bid bonds for advance payment release (B7) Pay mobilization on advance to subcontractors. (B8) . workmen insurance and . performance bond (B3) Sign formal contract & submit all bonds insurance policies.Appendix 2 .

(C8) Finalise & submit construction program (C9) Procurement Management (C10) Finalise prices with supplies of materials and plant (C11) Setup plant/ machinery maintenance system (C12) CONSTRUCTION (STAGE 04) Organise store management issuance of receipt of materials & plant (C13) Cost Management (C14) Finalise cost estimates & resource schedule (C15) (Cost Budget) Identify and allocate funds based on the WBS(C16) Monitor & Control cost during construction (C17) . stores. hording. toilets (C4) Setout & prepare site for construction (C5) Project Planning (C6) Develop a WBS based on project scope & cash flow (C7) Decide on milestones & deliverables.(C) PRE CONSTRUCTION PLANNING – STAGE 03 START Pre Construction Planning Mobilization at site (C2) Identify staff for project (C3) Erect fencing. office.Appendix 3 .

(D) PRE CONSTRUCTION PLANNING STAGE 04 Start of Construction Update & finalise project program Agree on the finilise project program Review milestone deliverables Appoint HSW office & maintain a risk register (D1) Mobilization & construction (D2) Review progress with milestone schedule & project program Completion of Construction (D3) Rectify & Handover (D5) Yes Identify any defects Prepare & Handover report (D4) No POST CONSTRUCTION STAGE 05 Hand over Project & Submit final accounts (D6) .Appendix 4 .

(E2) Rectify defects (E3) Post Construction Any Defects No Submit requests to release retention held.Appendix 5 – (E) POST CONSTRUCTION STAGE 05 Yes Post Construction meeting & finalizing pending issues (E1) Commenced of 12 month defects liability period 12 month follow up & checking of building with consultant. (E4) END OF PROJECT Collection of final payments (E6) Signing of final No claim certificate (E5) .

STATUTORY & LEGAL MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT MANAGEMENT Process management / change management DOCUMENT CONTROL ARCHIVE (Feedback and Reports) Feedback Received & Documented at the end of each phase Feeback Liaison with other activity zones Occurred at the end and start of each phase .Appendix 6: Incorporation of SCPL Process Map with GDCPP Pre-Project Phase Liaison with Process Manager PHASE ZERO PHASE ONE PHASE TWO PHASE THREE PHASE FOUR Pre-Construction Phase PHASE FIVE PASE SIX ON WARDS DEVELOPMENT MANAGEMENT PROJECT MANAGEMENT RESOURCE MANAGEMENT DESIGN MANAGEMENT Phases Zero to Five were not in the scope of SCPL as the MC S O F T G A T E H A R D G A T E PRODUCTION MANAGEMENT FACILITIES MANAGEMENT HEALTH & SAFETY.

S STATUTORY & LEGAL O MANAGEMENT F T DEVELOPMENT MANAGEMENT Process management / change management DOCUMENT CONTROL ARCHIVE (Feedback and Reports) Liaison with other activity zones G A T E H A R D G A T E . PROCUREMENT & FULL FINANCIAL AUTHORITY Update project brief Finalise Business Case Update site and environmental issues report DEVELOPMENT MANAGEMENT Revise Risk Management Process Update communicati on strategy Revise Risk Register Revise Project Execution Plan PROJECT MANAGEMENT RESOURCE MANAGEMENT DESIGN MANAGEMENT UPDATE PROCUREMENT PLAN .Pre-Construction Phase Liaison with Process Manager PHASE SIX PRODUCTION DESIGN.Start of Processes of SCPL – invitation to Tender Tender process fo SCPL – A1 to A11 Update Cost Plan PRODUCTION MANAGEMENT FACILITIES MANAGEMENT HEALTH & SAFETY.

Construction Phase Liaison with Process Manager PHASE SEVEN PRODUCTION INFORMATION Finilise Project Brief DEVELOPMENT MANAGEMENT Finilise Site and Enviromental Issues Report Finilise Communication Strategy Prepare Handover Plan PROJECT MANAGEMENT Revise Risk Management Process Update Risk Register RESOURCE MANAGEMENT DESIGN MANAGEMENT Finilise Procurement Plan PRODUCTION MANAGEMENT Process B6 – B8 & C10 – C 13 Finilise Cost Plan Start Enabling Works FACILITIES MANAGEMENT Update Opreational Policy and Maintenance Plan Process C 12 –C13 Finilise Production Model (Production Infomration) Monitoring Cost During Construction (Process C17) S O F T G A T E HEALTH & SAFETY. H STATUTORY & LEGAL A MANAGEMENT R D DEVELOPMENT MANAGEMENT Process management / change management G A T E DOCUMENT CONTROL ARCHIVE (Feedback and Reports) Liaison with other activity zones .

Construction Phase Liaison with Process Manager PHASE EIGHT CONSTRUCTION Update and Implement Handover Plan DEVELOPMENT MANAGEMENT PROJECT MANAGEMENT Revise Risk Management Process Consider Risk Issues RESOURCE MANAGEMENT DESIGN MANAGEMENT Develop as Built Information PRODUCTION MANAGEMENT Manage and Undertake Construction Activities FACILITIES MANAGEMENT HEALTH & SAFETY. S STATUTORY & LEGAL O MANAGEMENT F T DEVELOPMENT MANAGEMENT Process management / change management G A T E Manage Health & Saftey H A R D G A T E Update and Implement Handover Plan DOCUMENT CONTROL ARCHIVE (Feedback and Reports) Liaison with other activity zones .

H STATUTORY & LEGAL A MANAGEMENT R D DEVELOPMENT MANAGEMENT Process management / change management G A T E Update Post Project Review (Process E2) Finilise Process Execution Plan Feedback Entered to Document Control Archive of SCPL DOCUMENT CONTROL ARCHIVE (Feedback and Reports) Liaison with other activity zones Perfrom ongoing review of facilities Lifecycle .Post-Completion Phase Liaison with Process Manager PHASE NINE OPREATIONS AND MAINTENANCE Undertake Post Project Review Undertake Post Project Review (Process E1) DEVELOPMENT MANAGEMENT PROJECT MANAGEMENT RESOURCE MANAGEMENT DESIGN MANAGEMENT PRODUCTION MANAGEMENT Ongoing Update of Opreation Policy & Mainenence Plan FACILITIES MANAGEMENT HEALTH & SAFETY.

Ben Guneratne PYP382 Appendix 7: Pictures Early Stage in Construction (One of 6 buildings) After erection of columns Building shell A near completion building .

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