Wind Energy and Wind Power
The earth¶s surface is made up of land and water, which absorbs heat from the sun at different rates .. Winds are caused by the uneven heating of the atmosphere by the sun, the irregularities of the earth's surface, and rotation of the earth. Wind flow patterns are modified by the earth's terrain, bodies of water, and vegetative cover. This wind flow, or motion energy, when "harvested" by modern wind turbines, can be used to generate electricity.. Wind energy is renewable, clean and reduces greenhouse gas emissions. The Earth is unevenly heated by the sun, such that the poles receive less energy from the sun than the equator; along with this, dry land heats up (and cools down) more quickly than the seas do. The differential heating drives a global atmospheric convection system reaching from the Earth's surface to the stratosphere which acts as a virtual ceiling. Most of the energy stored in these wind movements can be found at high altitudes where continuous wind speeds of over 160 km/h (99 mph) occur. Eventually, the wind energy is converted through friction into diffuse heat throughout the Earth's surface and the atmosphere WIND POWER GENERATION The terms "wind energy" or "wind power" describe the process by which the wind is used to generate mechanical power or electricity. Wind turbines convert the kinetic energy in the wind into mechanical power. This mechanical power can be used for specific tasks (such as grinding grain or pumping water) or a generator can convert this mechanical power into electricity to power homes, businesses, schools, and the like. .Wind Turbines Wind turbines, like aircraft propeller blades, turn in the moving air and power an electric generator that supplies an electric current. Simply stated, a wind turbine is the opposite of a fan. Instead of using electricity to make wind, like a fan, wind turbines use wind to make electricity. The wind turns the blades, which spin a shaft, which connects to a generator and makes electricity. Wind turbines today are up to the task of producing serious amounts of electricity. Turbines vary in size from small 1 kW structures to large machines rated at 1.6 MW. A popular sized machine in the U.S. today is a state-of-the-art 750 kW turbine that stands as tall as a 20-story building. With a good wind resource, this size turbine can produce 2 million kWh of electricity each year. That's enough energy to run 200 average American households. Wind energy could theoretically meet global demand yet it provides just about two percent of power consumption. The sector started slowly, but is now one of the most mature of renewable energies.

rising 40 GW on the previous year. . At the same time. But Europe no longer leads the market. Brazil.Worldwide Importance and Future Prospects Growth in wind power is tremendous. which estimates that by 2020 global capacity could reach 1900 GW. In terms of actual electricity output. Even so. compared to just two percent in 2000. equivalent to the total electricity demand of Italy and equaling two percent of global electricity consumption. according to the World Wind Energy Association. annual wind power additions in Europe have exceeded growth of any other power source. Europe and North America are accelerating offshore wind park development: eight new offshore wind farms were connected to the grid in Europe in 2009. Nine percent of Europe¶s electricity demand is now being met by wind power. with capacity more than doubling every three years. global installed wind capacity reached around 160 Gigawatts. In 2009. Further growth will be driven mostly by other rapidly developing countries such as India. and Mexico. global wind power in 2009 generated 340 Terawatt hours per annum. Recent growth has been driven by Asia. Since 2007. with China the main locomotive for the international wind industry followed by the United States. which accounted for 40 percent of new additions in 2009. wind energy still accounts for less than one percent of China¶s electricity supply.

literally hundreds of sail rotor windmills pump water for crops and livestock.C. The grinding stone was affixed to the same vertical shaft. which is often claimed as their birthplace.TIME TRAVEL WITH WIND ENERGY Wind Power's Beginnings (1000 B. is the sail boat.D. The first known documented design is also of a Persian windmill. to heavy.) The history of wind power shows a general evolution from the use of simple. material-efficient aerodynamic lift devices in the modern era. An early sail-wing horizontal-axis mill on the Mediterranean coast. of course. the primary applications were apparently grain grinding and water pumping. Here also. which also featured a wall or shield to block the incoming wind from slowing the side of the drag-type rotor that advanced toward the wind. While the belief that the windmill was invented in China more than 2000 years ago is widespread and may be accurate.D.only verbal accounts -. Vertical-axis windmills were also used in China. the earliest actual documentation of a Chinese windmill was in 1219 A. Grain grinding was the first documented wind mill application and was very straightforward. But it shouldn't be imagined that aerodynamic lift (the force that makes airplanes fly) is a modern concept that was unknown to the ancients. is the extensive use of water pumping machines on the island of Crete.1300 A. The first windmills were developed to automate the tasks of grain-grinding and water-pumping and the earliest-known design is the vertical axis system developed in Persia about 500-900 A. even though they didn't have the physics to explain how or why it worked. . Ancient sailors understood lift and used it every day.D. to the increased use of light. The mill machinery was commonly enclosed in a building. but the exact method of water transport is not known because no drawings or designs -. The earliest known use of wind power. and this technology had an important impact on the later development of sail-type windmills. One of the most scenic and successful applications of windpower (and one that still exists). material-intensive drag devices.are available. by the Chinese statesman Yehlu Chhu-Tshai. this one with vertical sails made of bundles of reeds or wood which were attached to the central vertical shaft by horizontal struts. The first use was apparently water pumping. . Here. light devices driven by aerodynamic drag forces.

may provide part of the answer. This gear was apparently adapted for use on post mills from the horizontal-axis water wheel developed by Vitruvius. As early as 1390.) The first windmills to appear in western Europe were of the horizontal-axis configuration. with separate floors devoted to grinding grain.) show a four.D.bladed mill mounted on a central post (thus. Optimizing windmill energy and power output and protecting the mill from damage by furling the rotor sails during storms were among the windsmith's primary jobs. removing chaff. which had appeared somewhat earlier along the Mediterranean Sea. by pushing a large lever at the back of the mill. These mills used wooden cog-and-ring gears to translate the motion of the horizontal shaft to vertical movement to turn a grindstone. The next spurt of wind power development occurred many thousands of miles to the west. The reason for the sudden evolution from the vertical-axis Persian design approach is unknown.1875 A. The first illustrations (1270 A. which lose up to half of their rotor collection area due to shielding requirements. The Dutch essentially affixed the standard post mill to the top of a multi-story tower. While continuing well into the 19th century. but the fact that European water wheels also had a horizontal-axis configuration -. the use of large tower mills declined with the increased use of steam engines. a "postmill") which was already fairly technologically advanced relative to the Persian mills. A steel-bladed water pumping windmill in the American Midwest (late 1800's) . storing grain. Another reason may have been the higher structural efficiency of drag-type horizontal machines over drag-type vertical machines. and (on the bottom) living quarters for the windsmith and his family.Windmills in the Western World (1300 . the Dutch set out to refine the tower mill design.and apparently served as the technological model for the early windmills -. Both the post mill and the later tower mill design had to be oriented into the wind manually.D.

In the United States.]The multi-bladed wind turbine atop a lattice tower made of wood or steel was. a fixture of the landscape throughout rural America. The most important refinement of the American fan-type windmill was the development of steel blades in 1870 (Figure 4). so that they would fold back like an umbrella in high winds. an action which reduced the rotor capture area to reduce thrust. Steel blades could be made lighter and worked into more efficient shapes. but some were weather-vaning mills that operated downwind of the tower. When fitted with generators and battery banks. the development of the ³water-pumping windmill´ was the major factor in allowing the farming and ranching of vast areas otherwise devoid of readily accessible water. that their high speed required a reduction (slow-down) gear to turn the standard reciprocal pumps at the required speed. the most important application of windmills at the subsistence level has been mechanical water pumping using relatively small systems with rotor diameters of one to several meters. small wind machines provided electricity to isolated farms. These systems were perfected in the United States during the19th century. Speed control of some models was provided by hinging sections of blades. They worked so well. They were followed by mills with thin wooden slats nailed to wooden rims. which are still in use today. Windpumps contributed to the expansion of rail transport systems throughout the world. . beginning with the Halladay windmill in 1854. in fact.Role of Smaller Systems For hundreds of years. Most of these mills had tails to orient them into the wind. and continuing to the Aermotor and Dempster designs. for many years. by pumping water from water wells for the steam locomotives. The first mills had four paddle-like wooden blades.

The further development of wind generator electrical systems in the United States was inspired by the design of airplane propellers and (later) monoplane wings.D. It was the first windmill to incorporate a step-up gearbox (with a ratio of 50:1) in order to turn a direct current generator at its required operational speed (in this case. The Brush postmill in Cleveland. modern. the Dane Poul La Cour developed the first electrical output wind machine to incorporate the aerodynamic design principles (low-solidity. The Brush machine was a postmill with a multiple-bladed "picket-fence" rotor 17 meters in diameter. in 1888 by Charles F.) Despite its relative success in operating for 20 years. lift-type rotor. The first use of a large windmill to generate electricity. The 12 kilowatts produced by its 17-meter rotor pales beside the 70-100 kilowatts produced by a comparably-sized. featuring a large tail hinged to turn the rotor out of the wind. but cheaper and larger fossil-fuel steam plants soon put the operators of these mills out of business. the Brush windmill demonstrated the limitations of the low-speed. the use of 25 kilowatt electrical output machines had spread throughout Denmark. Brush. . the two dominant rotor configurations (fan-type and sail) had both been tried and found to be inadequate for generating appreciable amounts of electricity. 500 RPM. In 1891. Ohio. high-solidity rotor for electricity production applications. 1888. four-bladed rotors incorporating primitive airfoil shapes) used in the best European tower mills.) The first use of a large windmill to generate electricity was a system built in Cleveland. The higher speed of the La Cour rotor made these mills quite practical for electricity generation. By the close of World War I.First Use of Wind for "Large-Scale" Generation of Electricity (1875 -1977 A. Ohio. By 1920.

the more their intermittent operation became a problem. The early success of the Midwest wind turbines actually set the stage for the possibility of more extensive wind energy development in the future. including refrigerators. helped make the situation inevitable. By the mid-1920's. Colorado in 1977. . federal government to stimulate the depressed rural economies by extending the electrical grid throughout those areas. and the Great Depression.L. And the growing demand for electrical power created by the wind generator. being adjusted by a cigarette-puffing M. But the more appliances were powered by the early wind generators.S. and power tools.Small System Pioneers The first small electrical-output wind turbines simply used modified propellers to drive direct current generators. But the farmers who were helped by the new electrical grids would share this feeling. Jacobs at Rocky Flats.) These systems were installed at first to provide lighting for farms and to charge batteries used to power crystal radio sets. the use of mechanical and electrical system continued throughout Europe and in windy. washing machines. While the market for new small wind machines of any type had been largely eroded in the United States by 1950. (A 3-kilowatt Jacobs unit is shown. M. A lot is made of this development and how horrible it was for the government to intervene. combined with the inability of the technology to adapt. freezers. 1 to 3-kilowatt wind generators developed by companies like Parris-Dunn and Jacobs Wind-electric found widespread use in the rural areas of the midwestern Great Plains. Jacobs adjusting the spring-actuated pitch change mechanism on a Jacobs Windelectric in 1977. which spurred the U.L. The demise of these systems was hastened during the late 1930s and the 1940s by two factors: the demand of farmsteads for ever larger amounts of power on demand. But their use was extended to an entire array of direct-current motor-driven appliances. arid climates such as those found in parts of Africa and Australia.

while wind turbine production has expanded to many countries. and Bonus. over six million mostly small (1 horsepower or less) mechanical output wind machines were installed in the U. The largest was the 1. The primary use was water-pumping and the main applications were stock watering and farm home water needs. but failed to result in a practical large electrical wind turbine. apparently as a result of metal fatigue.25 -megawatt wind turbine was one of the engineering marvels of the late 1930's. with capacities of 20±30 kW each."Bulk" Power from Wind The development of bulk-power. The 16-ton stainless steel rotor used full-span blade pitch control to maintain operation at 28 RPM. These early turbines were small by today's standards. Figure 7. generating 200.25 megawatt Smith-Putnam machine. and Great Britain during the period 1935-1970 showed that large-scale wind turbines would work. In 1945. were used to pump water for the steam railroad trains that provided the primary source of commercial transportation in areas where there were no navigable rivers. This machine operated for about two years on the shore of the Caspian Sea. 175-foot diameter rotor oriented down-wind of the tower.S. installed in Vermont in 1941. Denmark. Germany. Since then. utility-scale wind energy conversion systems was first undertaken in Russia in 1931 with the 100kW Balaclava wind generator. alone. they have increased greatly in size. Between 1850 and 1970. Subsequent experimental wind plants in the United States. The modern wind power industry began in 1979 with the serial production of wind turbines by Danish manufacturers Kuriant. with the Enercon E-126 capable of delivering up to 7 MW. France. This horizontal-axis design featured a two-bladed. but the jump in scale was too great for a vailable materials. Palmer Putnam's 1. with rotors up to 18 meters in diameter.000 kWh of electricity.Vestas. Very large windmills. Nordtank. one of the blades broke off near the hub. This is not surprising considering the huge loads that must have been generated in a structure that had a lot in common with a gigantic rotating erector set. . after only several hundred hours of intermittent operation.

Of the several rotors Darrieus designed. Professor Ulrich Hutter developed a series of advanced. Post war activity in Denmark and Germany largely dictated the two major horizontal-axis design approaches that would emerge when attention returned to wind turbine development in the early 1970s.) An airframe holding together the three blades of the "Gedser Mollen. the primary application for these systems was interconnection to the electric power grid. when declining fossil-fuel prices once again made wind energy made uncompetitive with steam-powered generating plants. fixed pitch. the most important one is a rotor comprising slender. were used later by U. . The engineering innovations of the light-weight. horizontal-axis designs of intermediate size that utilized modern. This machine featured a three-bladed upwind rotor with fixed pitch blades that used mechanical windmill technology augmented with an airframe support structure. The development of modern vertical-axis rotors was begun in France by G. curved. This design approach sought to reduce bearing and structural failures by "shedding" aerodynamic loads. such as a teeter hinge at the rotor hub. and aerodynamic controls to reduce some of its shortcomings. Darrieus in the 1920s. improved aerodynamic design." Fiberglass later eliminated this design requirement. airfoil-section blades attached at the top and bottom of a rotating vertical tube.European Development European developments continued after World War II. The Danes refined the simple. One of the most innovative load-shedding design features was the use of a bearing at the rotor hub that allowed the rotor to "teeter" in response to wind gusts and vertical wind shear. rather than "withstanding" them as did the Danish approach. In fact. As in the United States. when temporary shortages of fossil fuels led to higher energy costs. airfoil-type fiberglass and plastic blades with variable pitch to provide light weight and high efficiencies.S. designers. higher efficiency German machines.J. the 200 kW Gedser Mill wind turbine operated successfully until the early 1960s. Major development work on this concept did not begin until the concept was reinvented in the late 1960s by two Canadian researchers. In Denmark.M. it was not that far removed from Poul La Cour's 1920-era windmill (a fact that worked to its advantage. The design was much less mechanically complex than the Smith-Putnam design. In Germany. Hutter's advanced designs achieved over 4000 hours of operation before the experiments were ended in 1968. utilizing advanced materials. Gedser Mill design.

efforts with the Darrieus concept at SANDIA NATIONAL LABORATORIES began after the 1973 oil embargo. The mechanism used to turn the rotor into the wind and the windows of the first floor living quarters are easily seen. like other German devices of the mid -20th century. Hutter's wind turbines.U. with the entry of the U. Federal Wind Energy Program into the cycle of wind energy development.S. were advanced for th An operating Dutch windmill (1994) that features leading edge airfoil sections (at top right).S. .

spoilers. windmill sails had all the major features recognized by modern designers as being crucial to the performance of modern wind turbine blades. paints and dyes. Some models also featured aerodynamic brakes. The process of perfecting the windmill sail. and the processing of other commodities such as spices. took 500 years. grain-grinding (again. including 1) camber along the leading edge. 2) placement of the blade spar at the quarter chord position (25% of the way back from the leading edge toward the trailing edge). and flaps. The machine shown in Figure 10 (which was operating with two of its buddies pumping water about one meter up from one irrigation pond to another in the Netherlands in 1994) featur es leading edge airfoil sections. and tobacco. which also allowed for superior grinding and pumping action. 1977). saw-milling of timber. Applications were diverse. . cocoa. ranging from the common waterwell. This feature provided improved rotor efficiency compared with the Persian mills by allowing an increase in rotor speed. or drainage pumping using a scoop wheel (single or tandem). using single or multiple stones). and 4) nonlinear twist of the blade from root to tip (Drees. These mills were the "electrical motor" of pre-industrial Europe. irrigation. By the time the process was completed. making incremental improvements in efficiency. 3) center of gravity at the same 1/4 chord position.A primary improvement of the European mills was their designer's use of sails that generated aerodynamic lift.

In California. these turbines had a collected rating of over 1. .S. Despite some promising pilot projects. then 500-kW and now 1. with over 2000 megawatts of new capacity planned for 2001 in the U. the commercial wind turbine market evolved from domestic and agricultural applications of small machines in the 1 to 25 kilowatt size range to utility interconnected wind farm applications of intermediate-scale machines of 50 to 600 kilowatts.000. and significant commitments from several wind turbine manufacturers and U. Wind farms in California made up the majority of wind turbine installations until the early 1990s. on the other hand. wind energy development resumed in 1999. then 100-kW.000 megawatts of European wind capacity has helped support a thriving private wind turbine development and manufacturing industry. There's a sense that the industry is finally on the move again. but stable. with a much broader geographical base. enough (at peak output) to power a city of 300. The installation of over 10. most market activity shifted to Europe and Asia. Renewal was needed. The higher cost of electricity and excellent wind resources in northern Europe created a small.U. and -. a number of plants in the upper midwest. Denmark. were installed in wind farms between 1981 and 1990. a wind plant of 46 Vestas machines planned for Big Spring. A large international market has long been predicted for small village power or "wind-hybrid" installations. and the "re-powering" of some projects in California. under-priced natural gas imported from Canada) and threatened deregulation of the utility industry virtually strangled wind energy development.S. this contrasted with the United States where low utility rates (primarily due to abundant.Finally Time for Wind? (1977 TILL NOW) During the years 1977-1986. alone.S. a 10-megawatt wind plant in Northern Colorado. Texas and elsewhere -. Existing and planned U. And much of the existing inventory of 1980's wind turbines were really an albatross around the wind industry's neck.700 megawatts and produced over 3 million megawatt hours of electricity. At the height of development. Until recently. and Germany has been particularly impressive. the California wind farm market began to be affected by the expiration or forced renegotiation of attractive power purchase contracts with the major California utilities: Southern California Edison and Pacific Gas and Electric. Texas. Some of these involve foreign machines manufactured in the U. projects can be explored using the wind project map maintained by the American Wind Energy Association. A variety of new wind projects were installed in the U. in the late '90s.S. Driven by high utility power purchase rates.5 megawatt wind turbines by cooperatives and private landowners in the Netherlands. then 200-kW. cooperative-owned wind turbines and small clusters of machines. research laboratories (including SANDIA NATIONAL LABORATORIES and the NATIONAL RENEWABLE ENERGY LABORATORIES) this market has yet to emerge. including a cluster of ZOND Z-40 TURBINES operated for a utility in southwest Texas. The World Market Catches Up In northern Europe and Asia. wind turbine installations increased steadily through the 1980s and 90s. In the 1990s. After 1990. over 17.bouyed by "green power" initiatives in Colorado. the installation of 50-kW.S. ranging in output from 20 to 350 kilowatts.S. the apparent interest of many countries and of many non-governmental organizations (NGOs). market for single.000 machines.

But that wind resource is constant for the life of the machine and is not subject to manipulation or cost increases. and is projected to plummet to $0. with the purchase of Zond Systems by Enron (a nowdefunct gas mining and distribution company). One reason why fossil fuels are so popular with investors is that many of the risks are passed on to consumers.S. (This fact should be remembered by those doubting the achievability of recently refigured cost goals--which are now closer to $0. Low installed-cost-per-kilowatt figures for wind turbines are somewhat misleading because of the low capacity factor of wind turbines relative to coal and other fossilfueled power plants. and other innovations such as variable speed operation.) Capacity factors of successful wind farm operations range from 0.60 for some of the new gas turbines.20 to 0. If a big oil coal or gas company could start charging for the wind. the subsequent purchase of what was one of the only viable Enron divisions by GE Energy in 2003 maintained U. In late 1996.025/kWh. That means that the wind energy cost goals of 1980 --which seemed daunting or impossible at the time--have been met many times over. shedding of fatigue loads provided by teetered hubs and flexible structures. . However. but by the time they get there.S. But reduced weight and material usage and high reliability are perhaps more important factors in the cost equation. despite inflation. the use of "capacity factor" is also misleading because wind has a "rubber" capacity factor that varies with the density of the wind resource.S. ( "Capacity factor" is simply the ratio of actual energy produced by a power plant to the energy that would be produced if it operated at rated capacity for an entire year.35.) Lowering the Cost-of-Energy Bar Since the late 1970's the U. The hardware costs of these wind turbines have dropped below $800 per installed kilowatt in the past five years.40 can be achieved.The cost of energy from larger electrical output wind turbines used in utility-interconnected or wind farm applications has dropped from more than $1.05 per kWh in 1998. It's difficult to accurately compare the costs of wind plants and fossil fuel plants because the cost drivers are so different. who are actually rewarded for: 1) speeding the depletion of a nonrenewable resource or 2) not investing enough of their profits in support infrastructure.50 for fossil-fuel power plants and over 0. visibility in the large wind turbine market. Fossil fuel shortages result in an increase in revenues for investors. the possibility of this happening became very real.04 per kilowatt hour. another reduction in the cost of non-renewable fossil fuels has taken place and the bar is lowered further. These can be compared with factors of more than 0. (Even though Enron proved to be a poor steward for the Zond technology. Wind turbines have consistently been able to arrive at that level. they would make sure that wind power development happened.04 or less (in 1998 dollars) are now commonly projected for advanced U.00 per kilowatt-hour (kWh) in 1978 to under $0. wind turbines in 17 mph or better wind regimes. where capacity factors of over 0. cost goals for wind power has continued to be about $0. underpricing the capital costs of almost every other type of power plant.025 per kWh when new large wind plants come on line in 2001 and 2002. Cost per kilowatt hour figures of $0. which (as we have seen in 20002001) drives up prices.) The lower cost of energy from these advanced turbines is partly a result of higher efficiencies and rotor loading made possible by improved rotor design.

with installed costs from $2000 to $3000 per installed kilowatt. As recent as 1995. Denmark's Riso Laboratories touting its new wind turbine airfoil designs (modeled closely after pioneering activities in the U.Costs of smaller systems vary widely. Micon. technology.S. there is really very little difference between European and U. such innovations may not be necessary for wind to meet its cost goals for several years. The last remaining major area of controversy is the issue of two versus three blades for . In 2001. The result of recent mergers is that. and Enercon have commercialized turbines with more conventional rotors. This configuration has been tested at Riso and promises substantial reductions in rotor and drive-train loads and in control system costs. market.S. and the U. low speed "ring" generato r Worldwide. with its merger of the technical expertise of Zond and Tacke.S. there are 10 to 12 manufacturers of large. Department of Energy Advanced Turbine Program.. Vestas. in 2001. company Enron marketing machines from both the U.S.0 MW systems of various configurations.S.S. The German Enercon features a huge.THE WINDPOWER MONTHLY. Recently. pundits like Paul Gipe could claim that the Europeans' use of smaller machines with conventional aircraft airfoils meant that low tech had beaten high tech in the wind business. Energy costs for small turbines of $0. but featuring such important innovations as low speed generators and complete variable speed systems incorporating advanced power electronics. GE Energy (which purchased the wind division of defunct Enron) has adopted the European design philosophy in the U. stall control machines with teetering hubs. marketing 200kW to 3. there is a virtual internationalization of the wind turbine industry and research community.20 are still the norm in the U. News on these developments is available from the major industry magazine. allowing the turbine to "nod" up and down in response to turbulence and wind shear (the difference in wind speed at the top and bottom of the rotor disk). including three-bladed machines with full-span pitch control and two-bladed.S.). utility-scale systems. A model intended for commercial development operated in California for several years and has been investigated by the National Wind Technology Center.S.12 to $0. European manufacturers like Tacke. The more advanced configurations (from an aerodynamic standpoint at least) have been developed under the U. One of the latest innovations being investigated in the U. However. with European wind turbine power ratings pushing 2 megawatts. and Europe. and Europe is the addition of a hinge at the nacelle-tower attachment.

AWT 26 -meter machine was a contemporary expression and refinement of the Hutter design philosophy. . One can guess (based on experience with other technologies) that the eventual push to full commercialization and deployment of the technology will happen in a manner that no one can imagine today. But considerable refinements are still needed to offset the greater stability and lower per-blade loads of three-bladed designs. the 2-bladed. The actual life cycle cost of fossil fuels (from mining and extraction to transport to use technology to environmental impact to political costs and impacts. etc.will result in postponed actual costs that would be unacceptable by present standards. In fact. or a "killer application" somewhere that will put several key companies or financial organizations in a position to profit. The major technology developments enabling wind power commercialization have already been made. wind energy will be the most cost effective source of electrical power. Based on the mid-1980's ESI-80.large wind turbines. And the optical illusion of speed fluctuations and out-of-plane rotation associated with two-bladed machines makes them less attractive to some onlookers. The Future Is Now In the near future. And this doesn't even consider the environmental and political costs of fossil fuels use that are silently and not-so-silently mounting every day. There will be a "weather change" in the marketplace. a good case can be made for saying that it already has achieved this status. the political and economic climate. but it is certainly far more than the current wholesale rates. The eventual depletion of these energy sources will entail rapid escalations in price which -. There will be infinite refinements and improvements. Whether or not such designs will ever be widely commercialized is uncertain . a two-bladed machine should be less expensive and more efficient than a three-bladed one. of course.averaged over the brief period of their use -. Time will tell if one design will win out or if both will be able to exist in specific applications. They will take advantage of public interest. Theoretically. and emotional or marketing factors to position wind energy technology (developed in a long lineage from the Chinese and the Persians to the present wind energy researchers and developers) for its next round of development.) is not really known.

which contribute to good reliability. These have high tip speeds of over 320 kilometres per hour (200 mph). with unique 2 part blades. Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines: (HAWT) Horizontal-axis wind turbines (HAWT) have the main rotor shaft and electrical generator at the top of a tower. Downwind machines have been built. because they don't need an additional mechanism for keeping them in line with the wind. Most large modern wind turbines are horizontalaxis turbines. like the eggbeater-style Darrieus model.5 MW E126 Estinnes Windfarm. named after its French inventor. high efficiency. Small turbines are pointed by a simple wind vane. and low torque ripple. while large turbines generally use a wind sensor coupled with a servo motor. Additionally. despite the problem of turbulence (mast wake). the blades are placed a considerable distance in front of the tower and are sometimes tilted forward into the wind a small amount.TYPES OF WIND TURBINE Modern wind turbines fall into two basic groups. which turns the slow rotation of the blades into a quicker rotation that is more suitable to drive an electrical generator. Turbine blades are made stiff to prevent the blades from being pushed into the tower by high winds. one month before completion. and because in high winds the blades can be allowed to bend which reduces their swept area and thus their wind resistance. the turbine is usually positioned upwind of its supporting tower. July 2010. and the VERTICAL-AXIS design. The blades are usually colored light gray to blend in with the clouds and range in length . Modern wind turbines Turbines used in wind farms for commercial production of electric power are usually three-bladed and pointed into the wind by computer-controlled motors. like the traditional farm windmills used for pumping water. 11 x 7. Since a tower produces turbulence behind it. Since cyclical (that is repetitive) turbulence may lead to fatigue failures. Most have a gearbox. the HORIZONTAL-AXIS variety. and must be pointed into the wind. Belgium. most HAWTs are of upwind design.

All turbines are equipped with protective features to avoid damage at high wind speeds. although designs may also use direct drive of an annular generator. . by feathering the blades into the wind which ceases their rotation. supplemented by brakes.from 20 to 40 metres (66 to 130 ft) or more. but more energy can be collected by variable-speed turbines which use a solid-state power converter to interface to the transmission system. A gear box is commonly used for stepping up the speed of the generator. The blades rotate at 10-22 revolutions per minute. Some models operate at constant speed. The tubular steel towers range from 60 to 90 metres (200 to 300 ft) tall. At 22 rotations per minute the tip speed exceeds 300 feet per second (91 m/s).

No Yaw device required. the inherently lower power coefficient. Key advantages of this arrangement are that the turbine does not need to be pointed into the wind to be effective. so the rotor experiences higher loads. Less noise than HAWT models. the pulsating torque generated by some rotor designs on the drive train. This is an advantage on sites where the wind direction is highly variable.Vertical Axis Wind Turbines: (VAWT) Vertical axis wind turbines (or VAWTs) have the main rotor shaft arranged vertically. and the difficulty of modelling the wind flow accurately and hence the challenges of analysing and designing the rotor prior to fabricating a prototype. If the height of the rooftop mounted turbine tower is approximately 50% of the building height. The key disadvantages include the low rotational speed with the consequential higher torque and hence higher cost of the drive train. With a vertical axis. the building generally redirects wind over the roof and this can double the wind speed at the turbine. for example when integrated into buildings. such as noise and bearing wear which may increase the maintenance or shorten the service life. this is near the optimum for maximum wind energy and minimum wind turbulence. However. Drawbacks of this configuration include (i) wind speeds are lower close to the ground. the generator and gearbox can be placed near the ground. hence avoiding the need of a tower and improving accessibility for maintenance. Air flow near the ground and other objects can create turbulent flow. Larger swept area than HAWT's with the same radius. Lower wind startup speeds. . the 360 degree rotation of the aerofoil within the wind flow during each cycle and hence the highly dynamic loading on the blade. which can introduce problems associated with vibration. and (ii) wind shear is more severe close to the ground. Higher airfoil pitch angle improves aerodynamics. when a turbine is mounted on a rooftop. It should be borne in mind that wind speeds within the built environment are generally much lower than at exposed rural sites. Features: y y y y y y y No massive tower required so construction costs are lower. so less wind energy is available for a given size turbine. No turning to face the wind so VAWT's are ideal for turbulent conditions.

They are always self-starting if there are at least three scoops. or curved blades may be used. a lower blade speed ratio. The cycloturbi e variety has variable pitch to reduce the torque pulsation and is self-starting. £ ¤¥ ¤ ¢£ ¢ ¢ ¡  Savoni ind turbine These are drag-type devices with two (or more) scoops that are used in anemometers. V. relatively flat torque curve. Straight. and a lower blade speed ratio which lowers blade bending stresses. blades. a higher coefficient of performance. . The advantages of variable pitch are: high starting torque.S B Darri " P S wi t "t i t rbi t i t li l t t ll i t l t t ti t i l lt i t li it t t i t t i t t t t i i l t t i t t i li it i t l i l i i t i i i t l ti t t li ilit l iti l i t t t tt i i t l i l i i t t i t t l t t Giromill A subt of Darri us turbi wit strai t¦ as opposed to curved. and in some high-reliability low-efficiency power turbines. Flettner vents (commonly seen on bus and van roofs). a wide. They sometimes have long helical scoops to give a smooth torque. more efficient operation in turbulent winds.

Advantages of Vertical axis turbine y Omni directional²accepts wind from any direction. Overall poor performance. y Components can be mounted at ground level providing ease in service and establishing lighter weight towers. Can theoretically use less material to capture the same amount of wind. Requires entire rotor to be removed to change the bearings. ¨ Darrie s wind turbine of 30 m in the magdalen Islands § . y Disadvantages of Vertical axis turbine y y y y y y Rotors generally near ground where wind is poorer. Requires support at top of turbine rotor. Poor self starting capabilities. Centrifugal force stresses blades.

Wind Turbine diagram .5 MW wind turbine of a type frequently seen in the United States has a tower 80 meters high.000 kg). and most likely a gearbox (e. The base is 50 feet (15 m) in diameter and 8 feet (2.000 pounds (52. and other equipment. electrical cables. Turbine Components Horizontal turbine components include: y y y y blade or rotor. weighs 115. a drive train. The concrete base for the tower is constructed using 58.000 pounds (22.g. includes the blades for converting wind energy to low speed rotational energy. which is approximately 34% of the wind turbine cost.4 m) thick near the center. which is approximately 15% of the wind turbine cost. the control electronics. The nacelle. y The generator component. which contains the generator component.planetory gearbox. a tower that supports the rotor and drive train. control systems.adjustable-speed drive or continuously variable transmission) component for converting the low speed incoming rotation to high speed rotation suitable for generating electricity. includes the electrical generator. which is approximately 20% of the wind turbine cost. The rotor component. which converts the energy in the wind to rotational shaft energy. Conventional horizontal axis turbines can be divided into three components.000 kg) of reinforcing steel and contains 250 cubic yards of concrete. Aerodynamic modeling is used to determine the optimum tower height. y A 1. and interconnection equipment. number of blades and blade shape. usually including a gearbox and a generator.TURBINE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION Wind turbines are designed to exploit the wind energy that exists at a location. y The structural support component.000 pounds (26. includes the tower and rotor yaw mechanism. Wind turbines convert wind energy to electricity for distribution.000 kg). The rotor assembly (blades and hub) weighs 48. ground support equipment. including controls.

England. Airborne wind turbines have been investigated many times but have yet to produce significant energy. and therefore power ratings. Small units often have direct drive generators. telecommunications dishes. a spacing of 7 times the rotor diameter is often upheld. more costly turbines generally have geared power trains. open for visitors Another turbine of the same type. © Small wind turbines A small wind turbine being used in Australia. . Wind turbine spacing Wind turbines are best spaced 15 to 25 times the rotor diameter apart. also known as a wind farm. below 50 kilowatts. UTILITY. carries an observation deck.Turbine Configurations Wind turbines are often grouped together into a single wind power plant.SCALE turbines range in size from 50 to 750 kilowatts. stands 20 building stories high. Wind turbines which utilise the Magnus effect have been developed. dirct current output. This has been concluded by research conducted by Charles Meneveau of the Johns Hopkins University. aeroelastic blades. Conceptually. and generate bulk electrical power. is located in Swffam.  Small wind turbines may be as small as a fifty-watt generator for boat or caravan use.  Larger.Wind Turbine Size and Power Ratings Wind turbines are available in a variety of sizes. . On most windturbine farms. but this has been shown to be too little. Single small turbines. Electricity from these turbines is fed into a utility grid and distributed to customers. are used for homes. The largest machine has blades that span more than the length of a football field. lifetime bearings and use a vane to point into the wind. or water pumping. with an observation deck. flaps and are actively pointed into the wind. wind turbines may also be used in conjunction with a large vertical solar updraft tower to extract the energy due to air heated by the sun. and produces enough electricity to power 1. Unconventional wind turbines One E-66 wind turbine at Windpark Holtriesm. A small home-sized wind machine has rotors between 8 and 25 feet in diameter and stands upwards of 30 feet and can supply the power needs of an all-electric home or small business. Germany. alternating current output. Direct drive generators and aeroelastic blades for large wind turbines are being researched. just as with conventional power plants.400 homes.

be fed into the network and sold to the utility company. with a small amount of downtime for maintenance. the capacity factor achieved by the wind turbine fleet is shown to be increasing as the technology improves. Capacity factors of other types of power plant are based mostly on fuel cost. and so are run at full output and achieve a 90% capacity factor. producing a retail credit for the microgenerators' owners to offset their energy costs. a 1 MW turbine with a capacity factor of 35% will not produce 8.5 kV). rotor shaft and brake assembly) being lifted into position In a wind farm. The ratio of actual productivity in a year to this theoretical maximum is called the capacity factor.35 MW. Online data is available for some locations and the capacity factor can be calculated from the yearly output. Nuclear plants have low incremental fuel cost. this medium-voltage electric current is increased in voltage with a transformer for connection to the high voltage electric power transmisssion system.S. Department of Energy's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. Transmission systems operators will supply a wind farm developer with a grid code to specify the requirements for interconnection to the transmission grid. This will include power factor. so extensive modelling of the dynamic electromechanical characteristics of a new wind farm is required by transmission system operators to ensure predictable stable behaviour during system faults.Electricity generation Typical components of a wind turbine (gearbox. power collection system and communications network.066 MW·h. often used for wind power. induction generators cannot support the system voltage during faults. Different types of wind turbine generators behave differently during transmission grid disturbances. but only 1 × 0. Typical capacity factors are 20±40%. the capacity factor is limited by the inherent properties of wind. In a 2008 study released by the U. individual turbines are interconnected with a medium voltage (often 34. Doubly-fed machines generally have more desirable properties for grid interconnection. Unlike fueled generating plants. averaging to 0. in some jurisdictions. Gas turbine plants using natural gas as fuel may be very expensive to operate and may be run only to meet peak power demand. with values at the upper end of the range in particularly favourable sites. Plants with higher fuel cost are throttled back to follow load. constancy of frequency and dynamic behavior of the wind farm turbines during a system fault. The surplus power produced by domestic microgenerators can. Capacity factor Since wind speed is not constant.760 MW·h in a year (1 × 24 × 365). unlike steam or hydro turbine-driven synchronous generators.35 × 24 × 365 = 3. For example. a wind farm¶s annual energy production is never as much as the sum of the generator nameplate ratings multiplied by the total hours in a year. The capacity factor achieved by new wind turbines in 2004 and 2005 reached 36%. A gas turbine plant may have an annual capacity factor of 5±25% due to relatively high energy production cost. . In particular. Grid management Induction generators. At a substation. require reactive power for excitation so substations used in wind-power collection systems include substantial capacitor banks for power factor correction.

demand management. Like other electricity sources. Wind power forecasting methods are used. and interconnection to a large grid area export of electricity when needed. Electrical utilities continue to study the effects of large (20% or more) scale penetration of wind generation on system stability and economics. Intermittency and the non-dispatcable nature of wind energy production can raise costs for regulation.Penetration Wind energy "penetration" refers to the fraction of energy produced by wind compared with the total available generation capacity. and have high installation costs. pricing mechanisms. At low levels of wind penetration. Variability and intermittency Electricity generated from wind power can be highly variable at several different timescales: from hour to hour. Because instantaneous electrical generation and consumption must remain in balance to maintain grid stability. Related to variability is the short-term (hourly or daily) predictability of wind plant output. Studies have indicated that 20% of the total electrical energy consumption may be incorporated with minimal difficulty. setting a new record. Pumped-storage hydroelecticity or other forms of grid energy storage can store energy developed by high-wind periods and release it when needed. For example. and other factors. this variability can present substantial challenges to incorporating large amounts of wind power into a grid system. some degree of dispatchable energy. but it is not envisaged that this would apply to a large proportion of wind energy generated. capacity for storage or demand management. Beyond this level. The potential revenue from this arbitrage can offset the cost and losses of storage. Although pumped storage power systems are only about 75% efficient. there can be times where wind power provides a substantial percentage of the power on a grid. At present. but is not as significant. Transmission networks must already cope with outages of generation plant and daily changes in electrical demand. load shedding. Wind power can be replaced by other power stations during low wind periods. Annual variation also exists. but predictability of wind plant output remains low for short-term operation. daily. Germany and the Republic of Ireland (values over 6%). this reserve capacity can also serve to regulate for the varying power generation by wind plants. The limit for a particular grid will depend on the existing generating plants. But even with a modest level of penetration. Stored energy increases the economic value of wind energy since it can be shifted to displace higher cost generation during peak demand periods. Spain and Portugal (values over 11%). wind energy produced covered more than half the electricity demand in Spain. their . there are few technical limits. or storage solutions or system interconnection with HVDC cables. and (at high penetration levels) could require an increase in the already existing energy demend management. the cost of storage may add 25% to the cost of any wind energy stored. incremental operating reserve. There is no generally accepted "maximum" level of wind penetration. An interconnected electricity grid will already include reserve generating and transmission capacity to allow for equipment failures. in the morning hours of 8 November 2009. a few grid systems have penetration of wind energy above 5%: Denmark (values over 19%). and seasonally. Systems with large wind capacity components may need more spinning reserve (plants operating at less than full load). and allows base-load suppliers to run their plant more efficiently. or hydropower with storage capacity. but the economic implications become more significant. wind energy must be "scheduled".These studies have been for locations with geographically dispersed wind farms. The 2 GW Dinorwig pumped storage plant in Wales evens out electrical demand peaks. This was an instance where demand was very low but wind power generation was very high. fluctuations in load and allowance for failure of large generating units requires reserve capacity that can also regulate for variability of wind generation.

high pressure areas tend to bring clear skies and low surface winds.low running costs and ability to reduce the required electrical base-load can save both fuel and total electrical generation costs. wind. In particular geographic regions. but it does not make the grid unmanageable. can be quantified Capacity credit and fuel saving Many commentators concentrate on whether or not wind has any "capacity credit" without defining what they mean by this and its relevance. widespread adoption of this technology would better match electricity demand to wind availability in areas with hot summers and low summer winds. Another option is to interconnect widely dispersed geographic areas with an HVDC ³Super grid´. which are modest. In the UK. solar energy typically peaks in summer. In the USA it is estimated that to upgrade the transmission system to take in planned or potential renewables would cost at least $60 billion. demand for electricity is higher in winter than in summer. This means that reserve capacity on a system equal in MW to 20% of added wind could be retired when such wind is added without affecting system security or robustness. baseload electric power. worth 5 times the capacity credit value) is its fuel and CO2 savings. equal to about 20% of its rated output (but this figure varies depending on actual circumstances). to reduce electricity demand during the summer months by making air conditioning up to 70% more efficient. Three reports on the wind variability in the UK issued in 2009. In the US states of California and Texas. interconnecting ten or more wind farms can allow an average of 33% of the total energy produced to be used as reliable.Solar power tends to be complementary to wind. whereas low pressure areas tend to be windier and cloudier. Thus the intermittencies of wind and solar power tend to cancel each other somewhat. On daily to weekly timescales. But the precise value is irrelevant since the main value of wind (in the UK. The Institute for Solar Energy Supply Technology of the Uneversity of Kassel pilot-tested a combined power plant linking solar. Electrical grids with slow-responding thermal power plants and without ties to networks with hydroelectric generation may have to limit the use of wind power. and so are wind speeds. and the additional costs. peak wind speeds may not coincide with peak demand for electrical power. On seasonal timescales. hot days in summer may have low wind speed and high electrical demand due to air conditioning. entirely from renewable sources. biogas and hydrostorage to provide load-following power around the clock. using a widely accepted and meaningful definition. According to a 2007 Stanford University study published in the Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology. Some utilities subsidize the purchase of geothemalheat pumps by their customers. for example. . Wind does have a capacity credit. A report on Denmark's wind power noted that their wind power network provided less than 1% of average demand 54 days during the year 2002. as long as minimum criteria are met for wind speed and turbine height. Wind power advocates argue that these periods of low wind can be dealt with by simply restarting existing power stations that have been held in readiness or interlinking with HVDC. generally agree that variability of wind needs to be taken into account. whereas in many areas wind energy is lower in summer and higher in winter.

with the flattest side facing the oncoming air flow or wind. with the edges bounded by the leading edge.THE AERODYNAMICS OF THE WIND TURBINE The three bladed rotor is the most important and most visible part of the wind turbine. Some wind turbine blade have moveable blade tips as air brakes. . It is through the rotor that the energy of the wind is transformed into mechanical energy that turns the main shaft of the wind turbine. the blade tip and the blade root. and one can often see the distinct line separating the blade tip component from the blade itself.The front and rear sides of a wind turbine rotor blade have a shape roughly similar to that of a long rectangle. BASIC THEORY Aerodynamics is the science and study of the physical laws of the behavior of objects in an air flow and the forces that are produced by air flows. one would see that the cross section has a streamlined asymmetrical shape. If a blade were sawn in half. The radius of the blade is the distance from the rotor shaft to the outer edge of the blade tip. the trailing edge. This shape is called the blade¶s aerodynamic profile. The blade root is bolted to the hub.

and has good all-round properties. grime and insect deposits may impair and reduce performance for longer periods. but drops under operation at higher wind speeds. Likewise this profile is more sensitive with regard to surface dirt. The LM 19 blades. The NACA 44 series profiles were used on older Bonus wind turbines (up to and including the 95 kW models). For this reason blade profiles were previously chosen from a widely used catalogue of airfoil profiles developed in wind tunnel research by NACA (The United States National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics) around the time of the Second World War. This profile was developed during the 1930¶s. It is not easy to fully understand how the direction of the air flow around the blade is dependent on the rotation of the blade. used on the Bonus 500 kW. . The LM blades used on newer Bonus wind turbines (from the 150 kW models) use the NACA 63 profiles developed during the 1940¶s. The blade is tolerant of minor surface imperfections. This is not so important in Denmark. and further developed and wind tunnel tested by FFA (The Aerodynamic Research Institute of The Swedish Ministry of Defence). but in certain climate zones with little rain. specifically developed for wind turbines. have completely new aerodynamic profiles and are therefore not found in the NACA catalogue. THE AERODYNAMICS OF A MAN ON A BICYCLE To fully describe the aerodynamics of a wind turbine blade could appear to be rather complicated and difficult to understand. Therefore a blade designer does not merely sit down and outline the shape when designing a new blade. Even minor alterations in the shape of the profile can greatly alter the power curve and noise level. These blades were developed in a joint LM and Bonus research project some years ago. Fortunately for us. air constantly flows around everyday objects following these very same aerodynamic laws. These have slightly different properties than the NACA 44 series. such as dirt on the blade profile surface. The shape must be chosen with great care on the basis of past experience. The power curve is better in the low and medium wind speed ranges. Therefore we can start with the aerodynamics of an air flow that most of us are much more familiar with: A cyclist on a windy day.THE AERODYNAMIC PROFILE The shape of the aerodynamic profile is decisive for blade performance. giving a good power curve and a good stall. accumulated dirt.

The diagrams are perhaps rather sketchy. the faster one travels the more wind resistance one experiences. as any experienced cyclist unfortunately knows. We can therefore calculate the speed of the resulting wind ³w´ striking the cyclist. still with a side wind µv´ of 10 m/s.The diagrams (next page) show a cyclist as seen from above. 10 N is about 1kg/force (Multiply by 0. unused to cycling. Newton. then the force F from the pressure of the wind will be 0.6 square meters. equivalent to about 6 meters/second. The wind itself has not turned. Perhaps. This gives a total wind pressure of 100 N/m2. could the wind have possibly changed its direction? ³ But no. and the force ³Fm´ along the axis of travel gives a resistance that slows down the cyclist¶s forward motion. 50 N/m2. The right angled force ³Fv" will attempt to overturn the cyclist. whether we run. illustrates a situation. . may wonder why the wind has changed direction and a head wind is felt on reaching speed. If we consider that a normal sized cyclist has a side area facing the wind of about 0.6 x 80 N =app. is the unit for force used in technical calculation. This beginner might well ask ³ How can it be that I felt a side wind when I was at rest and standing still. The wind pressure will attempt to overturn the cyclist. but with a good will one can visualize what they represent. that if elected he would insure favorable tailwinds on the cycle-paths. cycle or go skiing. The head wind is a result of speed. things may change in the future. head wind is an integral component of movement itself. or N for short.2248 to obtain lbf. as a famous Danish politician once promised his voters. during which a cyclist is stationary and can feel a side wind ³v´ of 10 meters per second (m/s) or roughly 22 mph (this is known as a fresh breeze). In the right hand drawing (C) the force of the wind pressure ³F´ is now separated into a component along the direction of the cyclist¶s travel and into another component at a right angle to the direction of travel. The diagram (A) on the left. The size of ³Fm´ is about 30 N/m2.). and this will give a force ³F¶ on the cyclist of about 60 N/m2. The direction of the force of the wind pressure is in line with the wind flow. In the center drawing (B) our cyclist has started out and is traveling at a speed ³u´ of 20 km/hour. A beginner. either mathematically or by measurement on the diagram as 12 m/s. This is the resistance force that the cyclist must overcome. We can calculate the pressure of the wind on the windward side of the cyclist as roughly 80 Newton per square meter of the total side area presented by the cyclist against the wind. However we others have learnt to live with the head winds resulting from our own forward movement. The direction of the wind pressure is now in line with the resulting wind.

and partly how far out on the blade one is from the shaft. The other important difference between a wind turbine blade and a cyclist is that the force on the blade is almost at a right angle to the resulting wind striking the profile. the blade encounters a head wind from its own forward movement in exactly the same way as the cyclist does. The force ³F´ will not be in the direction of the resulting wind. but almost at a right angle to the resulting wind. When the rotor is stationary. then these vector arrows of a wind turbine in operation would have been 20 times the size of the vector arrows of the same wind turbine at rest. the wind has a direction towards the blade. We may notice two very important differences between the forces on the blade in these two different situations and forces on the cyclist in the two corresponding situations. while the force ³Fd´ points in the direction of rotation and provides the driving torque. many times the wind speed of 10 m/s when the wind turbine is at rest. however head wind is of far greater importance on a wind turbine blade than for a cyclist in motion. we can observe the aerodynamic and force diagrams in two different situations. The wind speed of 10 m/s will produce a wind pressure of 80 N/m2 of blade surface. when the wind turbine is stationary and when it is running at a normal operational speed. The wind pressure is roughly in the same direction as the wind and is also roughly perpendicular to the flat side of the blade profile. One difference is that the forces on the blade become very large during rotation. as is shown in the center diagram (B). . just like the effect on our cyclist. the head wind ³u´ near the tip of the 450 kW wind turbine is about 50 m/s. The ³meteorological´ wind ³v´ of 10 m/s will thus give a resulting wind over the profile of about 51 m/s. while the smaller part of the wind pressure blowing in the direction of the rotation of the blades produces a torque that attempts to start the wind turbine. at a right angle to the plane of rotation. just as in the situation for the cyclist. as shown in drawing (A) below. This large difference is due to the resulting wind speed of 51 m/s striking a blade during operation. We will use as an example the cross section near the blade tip of a Bonus 450 kW Mk III operating in a wind speed ³v´ of 10 m/s. which is the area swept by the rotor during the rotation of the blades. If vector arrows illustrating the forces in the diagrams were drawn in a scale that was indicative of the sizes of the different forces. at the normal operating speed of 30 rpm. the blade encounters head wind resulting from its own movement. The part of the wind pressure blowing in the direction of the rotor shaft attempts to bend the blades and tower. Just like the cyclist. In the drawing on the right (C) the force of the wind pressure ³F´ is again split up into a component in the direction of rotation and another component at a right angle to this direction. This force is known as the lift and also produces a small resistance or drag. . The force ³Fa´ at a right angle to the plane of rotation attempts to bend the blade back against the tower. The strength of head wind ³u´ at any specific place on the blade depends partly on just how fast the wind turbine blade is rotating. The direction of this lift force is of great importance.WIND TURBINE BLADES BEHAVE IN THE SAME WAY Returning to the wind turbine blade. Once the turbine is in operation and the rotor is turning. In our example. This resulting wind will have an effect on the blade surface with a force of 1500 N/m2.

The change from slow to fast acceleration is a sign that the blade¶s aerodynamic shape comes into play. The wind turbine blade experiences both lift and drag. One can easily convince oneself that this is so by making a small experiment. and that the lift greatly increases when the blade meets the head wind of its own movement.A cyclist only feels the wind resistance as a burden. There is also a contribution resulting from a small over-pressure on the front side of the blade. This law is counter to what most people experience from walking or cycling in a head wind. The aerodynamic profile is formed with a rear side. while a cyclist only experiences drag. The reason for this difference is due to the blades streamlined profile. Two portions of air molecules side by side in the air flow moving towards the profile at point A will separate and pass around the profile and will once again be side by side at point B after passing the Profile¶s trailing edge. Just try for yourself and see. Compared to an idling blade the aerodynamic forces on the blade under operational conditions are very large. so therefore the pressure inside is lower and according to Bernoulli¶s Law the papers will be sucked in towards each other. The speed of the air is higher in between these two pieces of paper than outside (where of course the air speed is about zero). which behaves aerodynamically completely differently as compared to the irregular shaped profile of a man on a bicycle. but in reality the opposite occurs. Take two small pieces of paper and bend them slightly in the middle. that clearly demonstrates a physical phenomenon that has a completely different result than what one would expect. at least in the normal blade rotational speed range. but it is not the case when air is flowing over a surface. This is also true when one sees an air flow blowing directly against a surface. LIFT Lift is primary due to the physical phenomena known as Bernoulli¶s Law. As the rear side is more curved than the front side on a wind turbine blade. However with a wind turbine blade this extra wind resistance will act as a kind of power booster. where normally one feels that the pressure increases when the wind also increases. Then hold them as shown in the diagram and blow in between them. This is an interesting little experiment. that is much more curved than the front side facing the wind. Greater velocity produces a pressure drop on the rear side of the blade. . The blade is almost sucked forward by the pressure drop resulting from this greater front edge speed. but as it gathers speed it begins to accelerate faster and faster. One would expect that they would be blown away from each other. and it is this pressure drop that produces the lift. The wind turbine will start to rotate very slowly at first. Most wind turbine owners have surely noticed these forces during a start-up in good wind conditions. requiring him to push down extra hard on the pedals. Therefore this air flow over the rear side must have a higher velocity if these two different portions of air shall be reunited at point B. this means that the air flowing over the rear side has to travel a longer distance from point A to B than the air flowing over the front side. This physical law states that when the speed of an air flow over a surface is increased the pressure will then drop. The highest speed is obtained at the rounded front edge of the blade.

as the blade is wider at the root. It is important that the sections of the blade near the hub are able to resist forces and stresses from the rest of the blade. so therefore the pressure is likewise not so high and the blade must be made wider in order that the forces should be large enough. is necessary on account of the resulting lower wind speed across the blade. in the direction of rotation. Head wind is not so strong at the blade root. The pressure is once again roughly at a right angle to the flat side of the blade profile. In the stationary situation (A) in the left hand drawing. the aerodynamic behavior of a thick profile is not so effective. The change of the size and direction of these forces from the tip in towards the root. If we once again look at a 450 kW blade in a wind speed of 10 m/s. and as the blade is more twisted at the root. During the operational situation as shown in the center drawing (B). Therefore the root profile is both thick and wide. the wind approaching the profile is once again the sum of the free wind ³v´ of 10 m/s and the head wind ³u´ from the blade rotational movement through the air. The resulting wind has a greater angle in relation to the plane of rotation at the root. than was the case at the tip. that is. In comparison with the blade tip the root section produces less aerodynamic forces during operation. The force ³F´ becomes slightly larger than the force at the tip. On the other hand the force at the root has not so great a torque-arm effect in relation to the rotor axis and therefore it will contribute about the same force to the starting torque as the force at the tip. and the blade driving force ³Fd´ in the direction of rotation. In the drawing on the right (C) fore is broken down into wind pressure against the tower ³Fa´. wind pressure is still 80 N/m2 .The fast acceleration. more of the force will be directed in the direction of rotation. In principle these same conditions apply all over the blade. we will obtain slightly different results as shown in the drawing above. THE CHANGE OF FORCES ALONG THE BLADE The drawings previously studied. however more of these forces are aligned in the correct direction. so the blade must likewise have a greater angle of twist at the root. . partly because the thick broad profile gives a strong and rigid blade and partly because greater width. The head wind near the blade root of a 450 kW wind turbine is about 15 m/s and this produces a resulting wind ³w´ over the profile of 19 m/s. On the other hand. This resulting wind will act on the blade section with a force of about 500 N/m2. as previously mentioned. near the wind turbine¶s operational rotational speed places great demands on the electrical cut-in system that must ³capture and engage ³ the wind turbine without releasing excessive peak electrical loads to the grid. but this time study the situation near the blade root. determine the form and shape of the blade. however the size of the forces and their direction change according to their distance to the tip. mainly illustrate the air flow situation near the blade tip.

but the angle of attack will grow as the wind speed increases. sometimes referred to as ³Pitch´.We will now examine what happens during alterations in the wind speed. it is necessary to understand a little about how lift and drag change with a different angle of attack. the blade is twisted so that it may follow the change in direction of the resulting wind. In the drawing below the angle of attack is called ³a´ and the setting angle is called ³b´. an imaginary line drawn between the leading edge and the trailing edge. As previously mentioned. is called the setting angle. In order to understand blade behavior at different wind speeds. . and therefore the shape of the profile at any given place on the blade is a compromise between the desire for strength (the thick wide profile) and the desire for good aerodynamic properties (the thin profile) with the need to avoid high aerodynamic stresses (the narrow profile). The angle between the plane of rotation and the profile chord. the profile must be made thinner in order to produce acceptable aerodynamic properties. The setting angle has a fixed value at any one given place on the blade. This is the angle between the resulting wind ³w´ and the profile chord.Further out along the blade. WHAT HAPPENS WHEN THE WIND SPEED CHANGES? The description so far was made with reference to a couple of examples where wind speed was at a constant 10 m/s.

To further study these changes. Both lift and drag abruptly change when the angle of attack exceeds 15-20 degrees. we can draw diagrams. After this stalling point is reached. the lift coefficient ³CL´ and the drag coefficient ³CD´. One can say that the profile stalls. as the wind turbine has a constant rotational speed controlled by the grid connected generator (in these situations we do not consider the small generator used on certain small wind turbines). We will not enter into the formulas necessary to calculate these forces. This situation is rather convenient as the setting angle ³b´ near the wing tip is normally 0 degrees. are illustrated in the diagram above used to calculate the strength of these two forces. lift falls and drag increases. The size of ³w´ does not change very much. The free air flow ³v´ has three different values and this gives three different values of the resulting wind ³w´ across the profile. shown to the right. from 50 m/s at a wind speed of 5 m/s to 52 m/s in a 25 m/s wind. These changes of lift and drag with increasing angles of attack. 15 and 25 m/s) from our previous cross section. while drag will always follow in the direction of the resulting wind. illustrating three different wind speeds ³v´ (5. The reason for this relatively minor change is due to the dominating effect of the head wind. The angle of attack changes when the wind speed changes. it is enough to know that there is a direct connection between the size of ³CL´ and the amount of lift. . The head wind from the movement ³u´ is always the same. this time near the blade tip of a 450 kW wind turbine. Lift will always be at a right angle to the resulting wind.The aerodynamic properties of the profile will change when the angle of attack ³a´ changes.

and the resultant force ³F´ points almost vertically at a right angle to the mean relative wind ³w´ y At a wind speed of 15 m/s (B). The lift coefficient is 1. .However. the lift component is 1. Lift is now 3 times greater than drag.01.0 and the component of lift is 0. the angle of attack is 6 degrees. the angle of attack ³a´ between the resulting wind and the chord of the blade changes from 6 degrees at a wind speed of 5 m/s to 16 degrees at 15 m/s to 27 degrees at 25 m/s. the profile is almost about to stall. These changes are of great importance for determining the strength of the aerodynamic forces. y At a wind speed of 25 m/s (C). there is a drop in lift accompanied by an increase in drag.4 and the coefficient of drag is 0. Therefore power output of the wind turbine is greatly increased from 15 kW to 475 kW. The angle of attack is 16 degrees. Lift is now 20 times drag. This lift is even more directed in the direction of rotation. the profile is now deeply stalled. but it is opposed by drag and therefore output will fall slightly to 425 kW.35. y During the change of wind speed from 15 to 25 m/s. the angle of attack is 27 degrees. The lift coefficient is 0. and this increase is directed in the direction of rotation. Lift is therefore 90 times greater than drag.07.9 and the coefficient of drag is 0. Studying the diagram showing the lift coefficient ³CL´ and the drag coefficient ³CD´ we may note the following: y At a wind speed of 5 m/s (A). We can therefore note the following: y During the change of wind speed from 5 to 15 m/s there is a significant increase in lift.

On the other hand. A stall is understood as a situation during which an angle of attack becomes so large that the air flow no can longer flow smoothly. delayed separation can cause continuous excessive power production output. This extra turbulence gives a smoother stall process. From time to time. it is sometimes necessary to actively alter the stall process. and the air flow is separated all over the rear side of the blade at about 20 degrees. fixed on the leading edge. One cannot alter the different angles on the blade itself. Not because the blade tip has any special magical properties. Lift diminishes and drag increases at angles of attack over 15 degrees. but a full stall is first achieved at a somewhat higher angle. the angle of attack cannot be altered very much. . However this is not always the case. Adjusting of the tip angle can therefore be understood as an example of how the angle of the total blade is adjusted. The profile is fully stalled. for instance due to dirt on the leading edges. however. This is normally done by alteration to the leading edge. where the curve illustrating lift starts to fall. The diagrams however do not illustrate the reasons for this stall phenomena. the maximum obtainable lift is not as high as otherwise expected and therefore maximum output is lower. as in all Bonus wind turbines. So we normally talk about calibrating the tip angle.THE STALL PHENOMENA The diagrams showing the components of lift and drag illustrate the result of stall. and strong turbulence occurs. it is important that blades are trimmed correctly. which allows us to make measurements using a theodolite. one can estimate that the separation at the trailing edge starts at about 12 degrees. therefore it is essential that the angle of the blade is set at the correct value. Air looses contact with the rear side of the blade. When separation occurs before expected. or it can be delayed if the air flow over the profile for some reason or other. Accordingly profile types chosen for our blades have stable stall characteristics with little tendency to unforeseen changes. These figures can greatly vary from profile to profile and also between different thicknesses of the same profile. Of importance for power output limitation is also the fact that in practice lift and drag normally behave exactly as would be expected from the theoretical calculations. Separation can often occur before expected. is smoother than usual. but we can place a template at the tip. or a triangular strip. or laminar. before maximum output also changes. once the form. across the profile. With the steep lift curve. When the stall phenomena is used to restrict power output. so the profile gradually becomes semi-stalled at a certain angle of attack. shape and blade molding has been decided upon and fabricated. Turbulence can be created by an area of rougher blade surface. From the diagram showing the lift and drag components. This separation of air masses normally commences progressively from the trailing edge. so that a small well-defined extra turbulence across the profile is induced.

On a wind turbine blade.This stall strip acts as a trigger for the stall so that separation occurs simultaneously all over the rear side. y The lift effect on the blade aerodynamic profile causes the forces of the air to point in the correct direction.5 meter stall strib. it is only necessary to alter the leading edge on a small section of the blade. different air flows over the different profile shapes. the angle of attack increases with increasing wind speed. y The blade aerodynamic profile produces lift because of its streamlined shape. as a rule. and twist is a compromise between the need for streamlining and the need for strength. thickness. In a stall condition the air can no longer flow smoothly or laminar over the rear side of the blade. in step with the grid.The blade width. For example. which controls the stall process all over the 17 meter long blade. the Bonus 450 kW Mk III turbine. The blade stalls when the angle of attack exceeds 15 degrees. . y At constant shaft speed. The rear side is more curved than the front side. interact with each other out along the blade and therefore. SUMMARY The main points as described in this article can be shortly stated in the following: y The air flow around a wind turbine blade is completely dominated by the head wind from the rotational movement of the blade through the air. lift therefore falls and drag increases. is usually equipped with a 0. This altered section will then produce a stall over the greater part of the blade.

if all the wind power available to humankind is harnessed. Wind energy is one of the lowest-priced renewable energy technologies available today. which is roughly another four billion years. Wind energy doesn't pollute the air like power plants that rely on combustion of fossil fuels. the rotation of the earth. The wind will exist till the time the sun exists. Wind energy relies on the renewable power of the wind. such as coal or natural gas. Theoretically. so it's a clean fuel source. wind energy generates no pollution. Advantages y Wind energy is fueled by the wind. in the sense that it is getting cheaper and cheaper to produce wind energy.PROS AND CONS OF WIND ENERGY With the rising costs of traditional energy. and therefore there would be no need of dependence for energy for any country. Also. Wind Energy is also a more permanent type of energy. readily available. Wind energy may be the answer to the globe's question of energy in the face of the rising petroleum and gas prices. Wind turbines don't produce atmospheric emissions that cause acid rain or greenhouse gasses. y y y y y y y y . cheap. Wind is actually a form of solar energy. alternate sources of energy are being looked into. One other advantage of wind energy that it is readily available around the globe. Wind Energy may soon be the cheapest way to produce energy on a large scale. where most of the best wind sites are found. Along with economy. The greatest advantages of Wind Energy are that it is widely distributed. and the earth's surface irregularities. thus benefiting the economy in rural areas. winds are caused by the heating of the atmosphere by the sun. Farmers and ranchers can continue to work the land because the wind turbines use only a fraction of the land. which can't be used up. costing between 4 and 6 cents per kilowatt-hour. there can be ten times of energy we use. Wind costs are much more competitive with other generating technologies because there is no fuel to purchase and minimal operating expenses. Wind Energy is also advantageous over traditional methods of creating energy. depending upon the wind resource and project financing of the particular project. Wind power plant owners make rent payment. Wind Energy is also said to diminish the greenhouse effect. Wind Energy is one such alternative source of energy. Here are some pros and cons of Wind Energy. Wind turbines can be built on farms or ranches. and also reducing toxic gas emissions.

there are some disadvantages for wind energy. the technology requires a higher initial investment than fossil-fueled generators. are far away from places for which wind energy is best suited. it may be a bit impractical. Wind cannot be stored (although wind-generated electricity can be stored. Even though the cost of wind power has decreased dramatically in the past 10 years. Though the costs of creating wind energy is going down. aesthetic (visual) impacts. Wind energy depends upon the wind in an area and therefore is a variable source of energy. and birds and bats having been killed (avian/bat mortality) by flying into the rotors. with the balance being site preparation and installation. Since wind energy will require knowledge of the weather and wind conditions on long term basis. even today a large number of turbines have to be built to generate a proper amount of wind energy. which may put a dampener in its popularity. good wind sites are often located in remote locations far from areas of electric power demand (such as cities). y y y y y y . one cannot depend completely on wind. Wind Energy is non-dispatchable. if batteries are used). If wind generating systems are compared with fossil-fueled systems on a "life-cycle" cost basis (counting fuel and operating expenses for the life of the generator). Many potential wind farms. This may also put a spanner in depending upon wind power as a primary energy supplier. there is some concern over the noise produced by the rotor blades. Even the most advanced machinery may come out a cropper while predicting weather and wind conditions. Further. Therefore. Roughly 80% of the cost is the machinery. The amount of wind supplied to a place and the amount of energy produced from it will depend on various factors like wind speeds and the turbine characteristics. Most of these problems have been resolved or greatly reduced through technological development or by properly siting wind plants. Therefore. and not all winds can be harnessed to meet the timing of electricity demands. Wind can never be predicted. in areas where a large amount of wind energy is needed. Although wind power plants have relatively little impact on the environment compared to fossil fuel power plants.Disadvantages y However. Some critics also wonder whether wind energy can be used in areas of high demand. the economical nature of wind energy may take a beating in terms of costs of new substations and transmission lines. places where wind energy can be produced on a large scale.

Even though the cost of wind power has decreased dramatically in the past 10 years. The most common method for producing wind turbine blades is fiberglass. the power output of a turbine must be limited to keep the turbine from being overloaded and/or from a catastrophic failure. the technology requires a higher initial investment than fossil-fueled generators. Limitations The limitations are both theoretical and technological. or another way of saying the same thing. which gets into the technological limitations. Although wind power plants have relatively little impact on the environment compared to other conventional power plants. the theoretical maximum amount of energy that can be converted into electricity is 60%.CHALLENGES AND LIMITATIONS Challenges Wind power must compete with conventional generation sources on a cost basis. aesthetic (visual) impacts. 4 m/s). infinite length blades are unrealistic. Also. . Other limitations include the amount of power output a wind turbine can have. Limitations on Structure: At high wind speeds. Good wind sites are often located in remote locations. far from cities where the electricity is needed.e. Of all the wind energy that a wind turbine sees. One of the main reasons for this is the vibrations caused by the high velocities. and sometimes birds have been killed by flying into the rotors. Small imperfections develop in the surface of the blade as the resin cures which can lead to premature failure during operation. Therefore finite blade lengths have to be used. Transmission lines must be built to bring the electricity from the wind farm to the city. Most of these problems have been resolved or greatly reduced through technological development or by properly siting wind plants. the wind speed behind the turbine blades would have to be zero. there is a significant drop-off in the power produced versus moderate wind speeds (i. This means. Because of this. at low wind speeds (i. Wind resource development may compete with other uses for the land and those alternative uses may be more highly valued than electricity generation. is its proportional to the blade length squared. 7 m/s). Some of the technological limitations are: Limitations on Blades: Additional limitations involve the wind turbine blades. This involves cutting multiple sheets of fiberglass to the shape of the blade and molding them with resin between each fiberglass layer. For 100% efficiency. the wind farm may or may not be cost competitive. Clearly. there is some concern over the noise produced by the rotor blades. the power produced is proportional to the swept area. the turbines become unsafe to operate. The power produced by a turbine is proportional to the wind velocity cubed. Depending on how energetic a wind site is.e.

a calm day is a bad thing.Limitations on Transmission: The modern electricity transmission grid is not so modern. This severely limits the practically of wind turbines as main stream power producers since they cannot provide a constant source of electricity. Currently the capability to store extra electricity when it's not needed is virtually zero. . Built for the energy needs 100 years ago. Limitations on Energy Storage: Since wind turbines rely on wind to generate electricity. The problem is that transmission lines and the connections between them are too small for the amount of power companies want to squeeze through them. which are usually required for wind turbines since high wind speeds are often found in less populated areas. the grid is not suited to transport electricity for long distances.

forecasts are needed for the power system management or energy trading. For the last two possibilities.otherwise disturbances in power quality or supply may occur. There are also daily cycles which may be substantial. forecasts can be used for the turbine active control. Finally. Forecasting of the wind power generation may be considered at different time scales. is not easily dispatchable. Fluctuations of wind generation thus receive a great amount of attention.e. For the specific case of offshore wind farms maintenance costs may be prohibitive. These forecasts are called short-term forecasts ‡ for longer time scales (up to 5±7 days ahead). Reason for wind power forecasts In the electricity grid at any moment balance must be maintained between electricity consumption and generation . Variability of wind generation can be regarded at various time scales. forecasts may be considered for planning the maintenance of wind farms. They may serve for deciding on the use of conventional power plants and for the optimization of the scheduling of these plants. Lately. it may be higher in winter in Northern Europe due to low-pressure meteorological systems or it may be higher in summer in the Mediterranean regions owing to strong summer breezes. Regarding the trading application. in contrast to conventional generation systems. wind power production is subject to seasonal variations. or conventional power plants or transmission lines. the temporal resolution of wind power predictions ranges between 10 minutes and few hours (depending on the forecast length). depending on the intended application: ‡ from milliseconds up to a few minutes. mainly due to daily temperature changes. fluctuations are observed at the very short-term scale (at the minute or intra-minute scale). and thus an optimal planning of maintenance operations is of particular importance. by integrating power production over each time interval. i.WIND POWER FORECASTING A wind power forecast corresponds to an estimate of the expected production of one or more wind turbines (referred to as a wind farm) in the near future. Such type of forecasts are usually referred to as very short-term forecasts ‡ for the following 48±72 hours. most of the works for improving wind power forecasting solutions have focused on using more and more data as input to the models involved. The variations are not of the same order for these three different timescales. First. bids are usually required during the morning of day d for day d+1 from midnight to midnight. Wind generation is a direct function of wind speed and. or alternatively on the providing of reliable uncertainty estimates along with the traditionally provided predictions. . Forecasts can also be expressed in terms of energy. By production is often meant available power for wind farm considered (with units kW or MW depending on the wind farm nominal capacity). Managing the variability of wind generation is the key aspect associated to the optimal integration of that renewable energy into electricity grids.

The Transmission System Operator (TSO) is responsible for managing the electricity balance on the grid: at any time. It is a basic concept. the use of production means is scheduled in advance in order to respond to load profiles. TSOs may consider their own power production means. due to power plant failures or to intermittence in the case of wind power installations). an intra-day market is also present. as well as benchmark when evaluating more advanced approaches. thus breaking the traditional situation of vertically-integrated utilities with quasi local monopolies. An auction system permits to settle the electricity spot price for the various periods depending on the different bids. The first group. electricity production has to match consumption. the average wind power penetration over the year is of 16-20% (meaning that 16-20% of the electricity consumption is met wind energy). the instantaneous wind power production compared to the consumption to be met at a given time) may be above 100%.The challenges to face when wind generation is injected in a power system depend on the share of that renewable energy. this naive method might be hard to beat for look-ahead times up to 4±6 hours ahead Advanced approaches for short-term wind power forecasting necessitate predictions of meteorological variables as input. and use the manufacturer's power curve. the wind penetration which allows one to describe the share of wind generation in the electricity mix of a given power system. Depending on the energy lacks and surplus (e. Despite its apparent simplicity. referred to as physical approach. This naive predictor ² commonly referred to as µwhat you see is what you get¶ ² states that the future wind generation will be the same as the last measured value. without making any assumption on the physical phenomena. more and more players appear on the market. General methodology There exists today a wealth of methods for short-term prediction of wind generation. In parallel the second group. in order to take corrective actions. For making up the daily schedule. the TSO determines the penalties that will be paid by IPPs who missed in their obligations. via bilateral contracts or electricity pools.g. which is coordinated by the TSO. which is a country with one of the highest shares of wind power in the electricity mix. In the context of deregulation. The most popular of these reference methods is certainly persistence. Then. They may be considered as reference forecasting methods since they are easy to implement. while the instantaneous penetration (that is. In some cases. if they have any. The second mechanism is the balancing of power generation. The simplest ones are based on climatology or averages of past production values. referred to as statistical approach. The load corresponds to the total electricity consumption over the area of interest. and/or they can purchase power generation from Independent Power Producers (IPPs) and utilities. for proposing an estimation of the wind power output. Two main mechanisms compose electricity markets. Such advanced methods are traditionally divided into two groups. focuses on the description of the wind flow around and inside the wind farm. they differ in the way predictions of meteorological variables are converted to predictions of wind power production. . through the so-called power curve. The first one is the spot market where participants propose quantities of energy for the following day at a given production cost. concentrates on capturing the relation between meteorological predictions (and possibly historical measurements) and power output through statistical models whose parameters have to be estimated from data. For Denmark. Load profiles are usually given by load forecasts which are of high accuracy. Therefore.

From the knowledge of the actual state of the atmosphere.Prediction of meteorological variables Wind power generation is directly linked to weather conditions and thus the first aspect of wind power forecasting is the prediction of future values of the necessary weather variables at the level of the wind farm. Such models are based on equations governing the motions and forces affecting motion of fluids. will be at a series of grid points. There are several reasons why atmospheric models only approximate reality. Many different atmospheric models are available. temperature. velocity. NWP models impose their temporal resolution to short-term wind power forecasting methods since they are used as a direct input. and then the period before forecast delivery is of 4 hours. the initial conditions may contain errors (which in a worse case propagate). This gap is a blind spot in the forecasts from an atmospheric model. and usually is run on a supercomputer. ranging from academic research tools to fully operational instruments. area (several 10. Besides for the very nature of the model (physical processes or numerical schemes) there are some clear distinctive differences between them: time domain (from several hours to 6 days ahead). pressure and humidity. Meteorologists employ atmospheric models for weather forecasts on short and medium term periods. then run the model and checks and distribute the output forecast series. Also. . The temporal resolution is usually between 1 and 3 hours. As an example in the Netherlands. The output consists of the expected average value of physical quantities at various vertical levels in a horizontal grid and stepping in time up to several hours after initiation. the initial conditions age with time . that¶s why it is better to speak about "a" HiRLAM rather than "the" HiRLAM. This is because some time is needed for acquiring and analyzing the wealth of measurements used as input to NWP models. Finally. Predictions of meteorological variables are issued several times per day (commonly between 2 and 4 times per day). Each version is maintained by a national institute such as the Dutch KNMI. And each institute has several versions under her wing. Each computation starts with initial conditions originating from recent measurements. The distance between grid points is called the spatial resolution of the NWPs. Predictions of meteorological variables are provided by meteorological institutes. the system of equations allows to estimate what the evolution of state variables. which is in adequacy with the requirements for the wind power application. abbreviated HiRLAM.g. semi operational and for research purposes. e. horizontal resolution (1 km to 100 km) and temporal resolution (1 hour to several hours). not all relevant atmospheric processes are included in the model. humidity and pressure.they are already old when the computation starts let alone when the output is published.000 km to an area covering half the planet). the Danish DMI or Finnish FMI. Regarding the time axis. temperature and pressure for the period the between 0 and 48 hours after initialization of the atmospheric model Hirlam with measured data. KNMI publishes 4 times per day expected values of wind speed. One of the atmospheric models is the High Resolution Limited Area Model. First of all. This is done by using Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) models. HiRLAM comes in many versions. which is frequently used in Europe. The meteorological variables that are needed as input for wind power prediction obviously include wind speed and direction. The mesh typically has spacing that varies between few kilometers and up to 50 kilometers for mesoscale models. wind direction. the forecast length of most of the operational models today is between 48 and 172 hours ahead. but also possibly temperature. and the output is only available for discrete points in space (horizontal as well as vertical) and time. pre-operational. An atmospheric model is a numerical approximation of the physical description of the state of the atmosphere in the near future. and are available few hours after the beginning of the forecast period. divided into categories such as: operational.

Physical-based forecasting methods consist of several sub-models which altogether deliver the translation from the wind forecast at a certain grid point and model level. Since wind farms are not situated on these nodes. Every sub-model contains the mathematical description of the physical processes relevant to the translation. Here is an example of wind forecasting done in Denmark. considering a full description of the terrain. .Other atmospheric models are UKMO in the UK. and MM5 in the USA. orography and obstacles. Physical approach to wind power forecasting Meteorological forecasts are given at specific nodes of a grid covering an area. and by modeling the local wind profile possibly accounting for atmospheric stability. to use a CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) code that allows one to accurately compute the wind field that the farm will see. to power forecast at the site considered. Knowledge of all relevant processes is therefore crucial when developing a purely physical prediction method (such as the early versions of the Danish Prediktor). it is then needed to extrapolate these forecasts at the desired location and at turbine hub height. The two main alternatives to do so are: (i) (ii) to combine the modeling of the wind profile (with a logarithmic assumption in most of the cases) and the geostrophic drag law for obtaining surface winds. Alladin in France (Alladin and Lokalmodell are also used by some other country¶s within Europe). Lokalmodell in Germany. The core idea of physical approaches is to refine the NWPs by using physical considerations about the terrain such as the roughness.

We then talk about grey-box modeling.When the wind at the level of the wind farm and at hub height is known. but also structural and black-box types of models. Statistical approach to wind power forecasting Statistical prediction methods are based on one or several models that establish the relation between historical values of power. However. even if expertise of the problem is crucial for choosing the right meteorological variables and designing suitable models. the modeling of the function which gives the wind generation from NWPs at given locations around the wind farm is done once for all. Today. i. However. When applying a physical methodology. structural models would be those that include a modeling of the diurnal wind speed variations.e. physical modelers often integrate Model Output Statistics (MOS) for post-processing power forecasts. over a period during which the sole use of meteorological forecast information may not be sufficient for outperforming persistence. This is the case of expert systems. since several studies have shown the interest of using empirically derived power curve instead of theoretical ones. and by a µmeteorological¶ part. as well as historical and forecast values of meteorological variables. that task is carried out with theoretical power curves. the second step consists in converting wind speed to power. as well as on the optimal use of spatially distributed measurement data for prediction error correction. and they are regularly updated during online operation by accounting for any newly available information (i. Concerning wind power forecasting. meteorological forecasts and power measurements). and for which prior knowledge can be injected. Usually. the estimated transfer function is consequently applied to the available weather predictions at a given moment. and wind power measurements. In order to account for systematic forecasting errors that may be due to the NWP model or to their modeling approach. for seizing the persistent behavior of the wind. Statistical models are usually composed by an autoregressive part. which learn from experience (from a dataset). Structural models rely on the analyst¶s expertise on the phenomenon of interest while blackbox models require little subject-matter knowledge and are constructed from data in a fairly mechanical way. Black-box models include most of the artificial-intelligence-based models such as Neural-Networks (NNs) and Support Vector Machines (SVMs). The autoregressive part permits to significantly enhance forecast accuracy for horizons up to 6 ±10 hours ahead. or alternatively for issuing warnings on potentially large uncertainty. Statistical models include linear and non-linear models. Model parameters are estimated from a set of past available data. major developments of statistical approaches to wind power prediction concentrate on the use of multiple meteorological forecasts (from different meteorological offices) as input and forecast combination. or an explicit function of meteorological variable predictions. theoretical power curves are less and less considered. some models are µinbetween¶ the two extremes of being completely black-box or structural.e. The physical phenomena are not decomposed and accounted for. A company is using wind sensors on 300 cell phone towers to predict 95% of the 9GW wind power in Texas with an accuracy of 10 minutes. which consists in the nonlinear transformation of meteorological variable forecasts. . Then.

a single value for each look-ahead time. there will always be an inherent and irreducible uncertainty in every prediction. . This epistemic uncertainty corresponds to the incomplete knowledge one has of the processes that influence future events. For the example of the trading application. More and more research efforts are expected on prediction uncertainty and related topics. in complement to point forecasts of wind generation for the coming hours or days. studies have shown that reliable estimation of prediction uncertainty allows wind power producer to significantly increase their income in comparison to the sole use of an advanced point forecasting method. even by better understanding and modeling both the meteorological and power conversion processes. optimal operation of combined systems including wind.Uncertainty of wind power forecasts Predictions of wind power output are traditionally provided in the form of point forecasts. Other studies of this type deal with optimal dynamic quantification of reserve requirements. Today. uncertainty is expressed in the form of probabilistic forecasts or with risk indices provided along with the traditional point predictions. These efforts may lead to a significant decrease of the level of prediction error. Therefore. i.e. of major importance are to provide means for assessing online the accuracy of these predictions. It can be shown that any decision related to wind power management and trading cannot be optimal without accounting for prediction uncertainty. which corresponds to the expectation or most-likely outcome. a major part of the research efforts on wind power forecasting still focuses on point prediction only. with the aim of assimilating more and more observations in the models or refining the resolution of physical models for better representing wind fields at the very local scale for instance. or multi-area multi-stage regulation. However. In practice today. They have the advantage of being easily understandable because this single value is expected to tell everything about future power generation.

Kerala (27. Karnataka (1472.In 2009-10 India's growth rate is highest among the other top four countries.20 MW). and by 2006 had captured almost 7.75 MW).777 MW).WIND POWER IN INDIA The development of wind power in India began in the 1990s. as Indian-owned company. with an annual power production of 8. India has the fifth largest installed wind power capacity in the world.64 MW). India is the world's fifth largest wind power producer. Madhya Pradesh (229. The worldwide installed capacity of wind power reached 157. and has significantly increased in the last few years. and the increasing reliability and performance of wind energy machines has made wind power a favored choice for capacity addition in India. It is estimated that 6.70 MW). Suzlon.37 MW .37 MW).74 MW). Suzlon¶s success has made India the developing country leader in advanced wind turbine technology. West Bengal (1. and it generates 1. Orissa (2MW). Wind power accounts for 6% of India's total installed power capacity. Gujurat (1863. holding some 52 percent of market share in India. .7 percent of market share in global wind turbine sales.896 MW.39 MW). Suzlon is currently the leading manufacturer of wind turbines for the Indian market. Although a relative newcomer to the wind industry compared with Denmark or the US. The short gestation periods for installing wind turbines. USA (35.000 MW of additional wind power capacity will be installed in India by 2012.159 MW).75 MW).104 MW) are ahead of India in fifth position. Germany (25.6% of the country's power.05 MW).149 MW) and China (25.1 MW) And other states (3. Maharashtra (2077. As of 31 Dec 2010 the installed capacity of wind power in India was 13065. Spain (19.899 MW by the end of 2009. Andhra Pradesh (136. mainly spread across Tamil Nadu (4906. emerged on the global scene in the past decade. Rajasthan (1088.

State-level wind power
There is a growing wind energy installations in the number of the states across the India.

Tamil Nadu (4906.74 MW)

India is keen to decrease its reliance on fossil fuels to meet its energy demand. Shown here is a wind farm in Muppandal, Tamil Nadu. Tamil Nadu is the state with the most wind generating capacity: 4906.74 MW at the end of the March 2010. Not far from Aralvaimozhi, the Muppandal wind farm, the largest in the subcontinent, is located near the once impoverished village of Muppandal, supplying the villagers with electricity for work. The village had been selected as the showcase for India's $2 billion clean energy program which provides foreign companies with tax breaks for establishing fields of wind turbines in the area.

Wind turbiness in Tamil Nadu In february 2009, Shriram EPC bagged INR 700 million contract for setting up of 60 units of 250 KW (totaling 15 MW) wind turbines in Tirunelveli district by Cape Energy. Enercon is also playing a major role in development of wind energy in India. In Tamil Nadu, Coimbatore and Tiruppur Districts having more wind Mills from 2002 onwards,specially, Chittipalayam, Kethanoor, Gudimangalam, Poolavadi, Murungappatti (MGV Place), Sunkaramudaku, KongalNagaram, Gomangalam, Anthiur are the high wind power production places in the both districts.

Maharashtra (2077.70 MW)
Maharashtra is second only to Tamil Nadu in terms of generating capacity. Suzlon has been heavily involved. Suzlon operates what was once Asia's largest wind farm, the Vankusawade Wind Park (201 MW), near the Koyna reservoir in Satara district of Maharashtra.

Gujarat (1863.64 MW)
Samana &sadodar in jamanagar district is set to host energy compan like China Light Power ies (CLP) and Tata Power have pledged to invest up to 8.15 billion ($189.5 million) in different projects in the area. CLP, through its India subsidiary CLP India, is investing close to 5 billion for installing 126 wind turbines in Samana that will generate 100.8 MW power. Tata Power has installed wind turbines in the same area for generating 50 MW power at a cost of 3.15 billion. Both projects are expected to become operational by early next year, according to government sources. The Gujarat government, which is banking heavily on wind power, has identifiedSamana as an ideal location for installation of 450 turbines that can generate a total of 360 MW. To encourage investment in wind energy development in the state, the government has introduced a raft of incentives including a higher wind energy tariff. Samana has a high tension transmission grid and electricity generated by wind turbines can be fed into it. For this purpose, a substation at Sadodar has been installed. Both projects are being executed by Enercon Ltd, a joint venture between Enercon of Germany and Mumbai-based Mehra group. ONGC Ltd has commissioned its first wind power project. The 51 MW project is located at Motisindholi in Kutch district of Gujarat. ONGC had placed the EPC order on Suzlon Energy in January 2008, for setting up the wind farm comprising 34 turbines of 1. MW each. Work on the 5 project had begun in February 2008, and it is learnt that the first three turbines had begun production within 43 days of starting construction work. Power from this 308 crore captive wind farm will be wheeled to the Gujarat state grid for onward use by ONGC at its Ankleshwar, Ahmedabad, Mehsana and Vadodara centres. ONGC has targeted to develop a captive wind power capacity of around 200 MW in the next two years.

Karnataka (1472.75 MW)
There are many small wind farms in Karnataka, making it one of the states in India which has a high number of wind mill farms. Chitradurga, Gadag are some of the districts where there are a large number of Windmills. Chitradurga alone has over 20000 wind turbines. The 13.2 MW Arasinagundi (ARA) and 16.5 MW Anaburu (ANA) wind farms are ACCIONA¶S first in India. Located in the Davangere district (Karnataka State), they have a total installed capacity of 29.7 MW and comprise a total 18 Vestas 1.65MW wind turbines supplied by Vestas Wind Technology India Pvt. Ltd. The ARA wind farm was commissioned in June 2008 and the ANA wind farm, in September 2008. Each facility has signed a 20-year Power Purchase Agreement (PPA) with Bangalore Electricity Supply Company (BESCOM) for off-take of 100% of the output. ARA and ANA are Acciona¶s first wind farms eligible for CER credits under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM).

ACCIONA is in talks with the World Bank for The Spanish Carbon Fund which is assessing participation in the project as buyer for CERs likely to arise between 2010 and 2012. An environmental and social assessment has been conducted as part of the procedure and related documents have been provided. These are included below,consistent with the requirement of the World Bank's disclosure policy.

Rajasthan (1088.37 MW)
Gurgaon-headquartered Gujarat Fluorochemicals Ltd is in an advanced stage of commissioning a large wind farm in Jodhpur district of Rajasthan. A senior official told Projectmonitor that out of the total 31.5 mw capacity, 12 mw had been completed so far. The remaining capacity would come on line shortly, he added. For the INOX Group company, this would be the largest wind farm. In 2006 07, GFL commissioned a 23.1-mw wind power project at Gudhe village near Panchgani in Satara district of Maharashtra. Both the wind farms will be grid-connected and will earn carbon credits for the company, the official noted.] In an independent development, cement major ACC Ltd has proposed to set up a new wind power project in Rajasthan with a capacity of around 11 mw. Expected to cost around 60 crore, the wind farm will meet the power requirements of the company's Lakheri cement unit where capacity was raised from 0.9 million tpa t 1.5 million tpa o through a modernisation plan. For ACC, this would be the second wind power project after the 9 -mw farm at Udayathoor in Tirunelvelli district of Tamil Nadu. Rajasthan is emerging as an important destination for new wind farms, although it is currently not amongst the top five states in terms of installed capacity. As of 2007 end, this northern state had a total of 496 mw, accounting for a 6.3 per cent share in India's total capacity.

Madhya Pradesh (229.39 MW)
In consideration of unique concept, Govt. of Madhya Pradesh has sanctioned another 15 MW project to MPWL at Nagda Hills near Dewas. All the 25 WEGs have been commissioned on 31.03.2008 and under successful operation.

Kerala (27.75 MW)
The first wind farm of the state was set up at Kanjikode in Palakkad district. It has a generating capacity of 23.00 MW. A new wind farm project was launched with private participation at Ramakkalmedu in Idukki district. The project, which was inaugurated by chief minister V. S. Achuthanandan in April 2008, aims at generating 10.5 MW of electricity. The Agency for Non-Conventional Energy and Rural Technology (ANERT), an autonomous body under the Department of Power, Government of Kerala, is setting up wind farms on privateland in various parts of the state to generate a total of 600 mw of power. The agency has identified 16 sites for setting up wind farms through private developers. To start with, ANERT will establish a demonstration project to generate 2 mw of power at Ram akkalmedu in Idukki district in association with the Kerala State Electricity Board. The project is slated to cost 21 crore. Other wind farm sites include Palakkad and Thiruvananthapuram districts. The contribution of non -conventional energy in the total 6,095 mw power potential is just 5.5 per cent, a share the Kerala government wants to increase by 30 per cent. ANERT is engaged in the field of development and promotion of renewable sources of energy in Kerala. It is also the nodal agency for implementingrenewable energy programmes of the Union ministry of non-conventional energy sources.

In West Bengal. without taking recourse to the funding available from the Indian Renewable Energy Development Agency (Ireda). private secretary to the power minister.10 MW as there was only 0. power companies are being encouraged to buy power generated by units based on renewable energy. Gon Chaudhuri. At present. the actual utilization of wind power in India is low because policy incentives are geared towards installation rather than operation of the plants. said Gon Chaudhuri. Utili ation Despite the high installed capacity. said the project would be the biggest in West Bengal using wind energy. The generating units are being offered special rates.6% of actual power production in India comes from wind although the installed capacity is 6%. the 50 MW projec would supply grid-quality t power.5 MW addition in 20062007 and none between 2007±2008 and 2008±2009 . there is a composite wind-diesel plant generating 1 MW. generating a total of around 1 MW.10MW) The total installation in West Bengal is just 1. at Frazerganj. Suzlon will invest around 250 crore initially. . S Banerjee. At Sagar Island. for which it is looking at coastal Midnapore and South 24-Parganas districts. According to SP Gon Chaudhuri. chairman of the West Bengal Renewable Energy Development Agency. said this had encouraged the private sector companies to invest in this field. Suzlon experts are looking for the best site.Mega 50 MW wind energy project soon for country Suzlon Energy Ltd plans to set up a large wind-power project in West Bengal Suzlon Energy Ltd is planning to set up a large wind-power project in West Bengal. The government is considering the addition of incentives for ongoing operation of installed wind power plants.West Bengal (1. He said there are five wind-power units in West Bengal. Bengal . who is also the principal secretary in the power department. Suzlon aims to generate the power solely for commercial purpose and sell it to local power distribution outfits like the West Bengal State Electricity Board (WBSEB). This is why only 1.

Poolavadi Shalivahana Green Energy. Subhash Ltd. Muppandal Poolavadi Chettinad Chettinad Cement Corp. Danida India Ltd. Location Satara Dist. Muppandal Madras Madras Cements Ltd.Projects in India India's Largest Wind power production facilities (10MW and greater) Power Plant Vankusawade Wind Park Cape Comorin Kayathar Subhash Ramakkalmedu Muppandal Wind Gudimangalam Puthlur RCI Lamda Danida Chennai Mohan Jamgudrani MP Jogmatti BSES Producer Suzlon Energy Ltd. Kanyakumari State Maharashtra Tamil Nadu Total Capacity (MWe) 259 33 30 25 22 21 20 15 15 14 14 12 11 10 10 10 20. Mohan Breweries & Distilleries Ltd. Ltd. MP Windfarms Ltd. Perungudi Kethanur Wind Farm Kethanur Wind Farm Kethanur Andhra Pradesh State Road Hyderabad APSRTC Hyderabad Transport Corp.4 Kayathar Tamil Nadu Ramakkalmedu Kerala Muppandal Tamil Nadu Gudimangalam Tamil Nadu Andhra Puthlur Pradesh Lamda Gujarat Chennai Dewas Tamil Nadu Madhya Pradesh Karnataka Tamil Nadu Tamil Nadu Andhra Pradesh Tamil Nadu Tamil Nadu Tamil Nadu Chitradurga Dist Perungudi Newam Newam Power Company Ltd. Subhash Ltd. Muppandal Wind Farm Gudimangalam Wind Farm Wescare (India) Ltd. . Aban Loyd Chiles Offshore Ltd. BSES Ltd. Shalivahana Wind Tirupur Ltd.

but the land between the turbines may be used for agricultural or other purposes.* . and cover an extended area of hundreds of square miles. Meteorological wind data alone is usually not sufficient for accurate siting of a large wind power project. At a substation.5 m/s) or greater. A large wind farm may consist of several hundred individual wind turbines. wind generators are able to be used better if wind speed is 10 mph (16 km/h or 4. Doubling the altitude of a turbine. The largest wind farm under construction is the 800 MW Alta Wind Energy Center in the USA.. with a minimum likelihood of sudden powerful bursts of wind.WIND FARMS . 1980. As a general rule. Collection of site specific data for wind speed and direction is crucial to determining site potential in order to finance the project. A wind farm may be located offshore to take advantage of strong winds blowing over the surface of an ocean or lake. The wind blows faster at higher altitudes because of the reduced influence of drag. surface roughness.5 kV) power collection system and communications network. Usually sites are preselected on basis of a wind atlas. Design A wind farm is a group of wind turbines in the same location used for production of electric power. and cover an extended area of hundreds of square miles. this medium-voltage electrical current is increased in voltage with a transformer for connection to the high voltage transmission system. A large wind farm may consist of several hundred individual wind turbines. then. The largest proposed project is the 20. and validated with wind measurements. and upwind obstacles such as trees or buildings. and detailed wind maps constructed before wind generators are installed. The increase in velocity with altitude is most dramatic near the surface and is affected by topography. .5 MW. Many of the largest operational onshore wind farms are located in the USA. Typically. An ideal location would have a near constant flow of non-turbulent wind throughout the year. the Roscoe Wind Farm is the largest onshore wind farm in the world at 781. The world's first wind farm ± consisting of 20 wind turbines rated at 30 kilowatts each ± was installed on the shoulder of Crotched Mountain in southern New Hampshire in December. which predicts that wind speed rises proportionally to the seventh root of altitude. ONSHORE WIND FARMS Onshore wind power refers to the construction of wind farms on land surfaces to generate electricity from wind. A wind farm may also be located offshore. Local winds are often monitored for a year or more.000 MW Gansu Wind Farm in China. As of November 2010. An important factor of turbine siting is also access to local demand or transmission capacity. increases the expected wind speeds by 10% and the expected power by 34%. but the land between the turbines may be used for agricultural or other purposes.* A wind farm is a group of wind turbines in the same location used for production of electric power. the increase of wind speeds with increasing height follows a wind profile power law. followed by the Horse Hollow Wind Energy Center (735.. Individual turbines are interconnected with a medium voltage (usually 34.5 MW).

The additional wind speeds gained in this way can increase the amount of energy produced because more wind is going through the turbines.Onshore turbine installations in hilly or mountainous regions tend to be on ridgelines generally three kilometers or more inland from the nearest shoreline. thus allowing turbines to produce more electricity. This is done to exploit the topographic acceleration as the wind accelerates over a ridge. so offshore wind power¶s contribution in terms of electricity supplied is higher. Much of this potential energy is near major population (and energy load) centers where energy costs are high and landbased wind development opportunities are limited.3 USA USA USA China USA USA USA USA USA Country OFFSHORE WIND FARMS Offshore wind power refers to the construction of wind farms in bodies of water to generate electricity from wind. Offshore wind turbines are being used in a number of countries to harness the energy of the moving air over the oceans and convert it to electricity.5 500 599. Great attention must be paid to the exact positions of the turbines (a process known as micro-siting) because a difference of 30 m can sometimes mean a doubling in output.3 662. .5 585.8 735. Offshore wind turbines²which generate electricity from the typically stronger winds that blow over the seas²figure prominently in the ambitious long-term goals set forth by the German government and industry experts. Better wind speeds are available offshore compared to on land.5 458 781. Offshore winds tend to flow at higher speeds than onshore winds. World's largest onshore wind farms Current capacity Wind farm (MW) Biglow Canyon Wind Farm Buffalo Gap Wind Farm Capricorn Ridge Wind Farm Dabancheng Wind Farm Fowler Ridge Wind Farm Horse Hollow Wind Energy Center Panther Creek Wind Farm Roscoe Wind Farm Sweetwater Wind Farm 450 523.

are also being investigated.Foundations can act as artificial reefs with a resultant increase in fish populations from the new food supply. and blades about 30 to 40 meters long. There the electricity is connected to the onshore electricity grid. Transport of Wind-Generated Energy Undersea collection cables connect multiple turbines in the wind facility and transport the electricity from them to a transformer where the combined electricity is converted to a high voltage for transmission via undersea cables to a substation. Alternative approaches. These increases in fish population may also have stimulating effects on bird populations in the area. Once a suitable place for the wind facility is located. For each turbine. y Migrating birds-. and to provide sheltered access for personnel are attached to the piles. with tower heights greater than 200 feet and rotor diameters of 250 to 350 feet. . increased wind speeds of only a few miles per hour can produce a significantly larger amount of electricity. Offshore wind facilities today are generally developed and operated as follows. y Marine life-. wind direction sensors turn the nacelle (a shell that encloses the gearbox. it is possible that the birds would need to consume more energy to avoid collisions and maintain their orientation when navigating around the turbines. Wind moving over the blades makes them rotate around a horizontal hub connected to a shaft inside the nacelle. powers a generator to convert the energy into electricity. piles are driven into the seabed. a support structure and a tower to support the turbine assembly. Offshore wind turbines are also bigger than onshore turbines (to take advantage of the steadier offshore winds and economies of scale). such as using the wind to produce hydrogen (through the hydrolysis of desalinated seawater). to house the remaining plant components.Because the potential energy produced from the wind is directly proportional to the cube of the wind speed. Environmental Considerations Potential impacts on the environment that may occur during construction. a turbine at a site with an average wind speed of 16 mph would produce 50% more electricity than at a site with the same turbine and average wind speeds of 14 mph. operations. and blade hub) to face into the wind and maximize the amount of energy collected.Besides potential collisions (bird strikes). and decommissioning of offshore wind facilities are highlighted below. A typical onshore turbine installed today has a tower height of about 60 to 80 meters. via a gearbox. Offshore turbines installed today are generally between 2 and 4 MW. Tower illumination may also cause navigational disorientation for birds. which could cause collisions between birds and towers or rotors. For instance. which would be shipped to shore for later use. most offshore wind turbines are at the top end of this range. This shaft. After the turbine (generally a three-bladed rotor connected through the drive train to the generator) is assembled. Turbines of up to 5 MW are being tested. y Interference with navigation for endangered and threatened species Electromagnetic fields -created by the electric cables running from the turbines and underwater noises and vibrations could affect orientation and navigational ability. generator.

and that facilities siting could affect recreation and other sea space uses. rotating turbine blades and navigation and aerial warning lights. pollutants. y Noise impacts from rotating turbine blades . scour-protection materials. y Emissions-. and waste products that result from fossil fuel use. y Visual impacts from towers. and electromagnetic fields could cause a decrease in benthic communities.Underwater support pilings. y Marine traffic. anchoring devices. which will help reduce greenhouses gases. alter natural environments.y Potential alteration of natural environments and diminution of habitats-. and possibly affect migration patterns.It is possible that wind turbine energy plants may disrupt air traffic control and maritime radar systems. and other sea space uses-. recreation.Each unit of electricity generated from the wind that saves a unit generated from fossil fuels.



2010. worldwide nameplate capacity of wind-powered generators was 175 GW. this is all well and good. but in actuality MARS (Magenn Air Rotor System) is a lighter-than-air tethered wind turbine that rotates about a horizontal axis in response to wind. which was only 17. The inflated system uses a three dimensional structure (unlike the two dimensional blades of conventional turbines) kept afloat in the air by helium. except for the fact that electricity generated from wind power can be highly variable at several different timescales: from hour to hour. The mechanism can harness winds at a level of 600 ft to 1000ft and even nocturnal jet streams. Now compare this to total capacity in the year 2000. .4 GW. In response to this type of variation. which is about 2 percent of worldwide electricity usage and has doubled in the past three years. Energy production was 340 TWh by 2010. and even seasonally. MARS ± A wind turbine that is up in air At the first instance. it may look like a giant blimp. now we are looking forth to integrate systems that can harness winds at much higher altitudes. daily. generating clean electrical energy. which says that by the end of July. while the resultant energy captured is transferred down to earth by 1000ft long tether cables. Well. Trends: 1.LATEST TECHNOLOGIES IN WIND ENERGY What¶s happening right now? Wind power has already made its way into the pantheon of renewable energy sources as it¶s clearly exhibited by the following numbers.

Basically a flying platform with an array of wind propellers (much like an aircraft without cockpit). and once steadily deployed in the air. including Earth. narrow air currents found in the atmospheres of some planets. Joby Energy tests high-altitude wind turbine prototype A prototype by Joby Energy epitomizes innovation at its best. but if successful. with more than 400 MW of electricity generation. The system has a capacity of 30 KW. Basically the system calls for energy harnessing kites to be flown high up at an altitude of more than 30. then according to the scientists it can produce ten times more energy as conventional wind turbines. where they can transfer the collected energy from the existing jet streams back to the earth by their tethered cables. the company could even manufacture a 100 KW version. the whole system moves in rapid circular motion.2. Energy starved New York could soon get powered by jet stream winds Jet streams can be described as fast flowing. This motion pattern maximizes the face exposure to wind streams. thus allowing it to collect the energy and transmitting it back to the surface by use of cables.000 ft. 3. Now researchers from Carnegie Institution and California State University have identified New York City as one of those locations that have the potential to immensely benefit from harnessing energy from jet streams. the propellers lift up the contraption to a certain level. . If the system works successfully.

Moreover. under the Land Art Generator Initiative. So in a modest estimate. Kite farm offers parasailing while producing energy for the adventurous sort Imagine you are parasailing over the deep blue sea. but on a different system. robots will fly these kites while enabling them to keep afloat for a longer period. and that is exactly what Colombian landscape architecture studio Paisajes Emergentes plans on doing. . Now that would be good feeling. the whole world is benefiting from your little tryst with adventure.000 ft). to add to that ¶sci-fi¶ flavor. which can be flown at high altitudes of more than 600 m (20. which is enough to power three energy -efficient homes. this innovative µadventure¶ wind farm can power around 600 homes! 5. on a public beach.200 kilowatt hours a year. and with an advanced wind belt generator. The proposition calls for an energy generating kite farm.4. Makani Power to develop energy harvesting kites California-based high altitude wind company Makani Power wants to develop a 1MWprototype of an energy-harvesting kite. each of them (the kites) can produce roughly 6. Such kites can make use of steadier wind velocities to generate more power than conventional wind turbines. There would be around 200 kites tethered across a 60 -meter grid of flexible posts. in Abu Dhabi. with your adrenaline pumping high and the glorious wind waving at your visage.

In order to counter these variations. more persistent. doubling a wind¶s velocity gives us 2×2x2=8 times the power (or thrice velocity gives us 27 times the power). hence assuming other parameters remaining the same. theoretically the power available in wind increases according to the cube of velocity (the velocity-cubed law). as wind at this height becomes steadier. The concept: We have already talked about the variations in magnitude of wind energy that we can come across while harnessing it at surface level. Now considering HAWP technologies are still at their nascent stage. Like California-based HAWP company. However. we have already seen the rise of the capacity of wind power by 10 times in the last 10 years. all of which are generally associated with conventional wind turbines. other than that. once the system advances beyond its present state. wind turbines would not take up earth¶s spaces.6. such technologies would totally forego the usage of comparatively costly. That in effect would also nullify the adverse conditions of noise pollution and even the visual burden on natural landscaping. NASA aerospace engineer Mark Moore believes that the idea in itself has great potential. cumbersome and easily damageable ground wind turbines. many ingeniously conceived technologies look forth to incorporate mechanisms that can harness winds at higher altitudes. the mechanisms involve capturing the power of winds high in the sky and transmitting it back to earth surface by use of tether and cable technology. NASA researchers envisions airborne wind turbines for renewable energy In NASA¶s reverie. but rather µfloat¶ in the free space above earth. Known as high altitude wind power (HAWP). and given their enormous potential. as wind speed is more consistent and its velocity much higher and steadier at higher altitudes. and of higher velocity. The resultant energy can be transmitted back to earth via nanotube cables. Moreover. The impact: Statistically. we certainly have a great chance to witness an exponential increase in wind power output. Makani Power believes that capturing a small fraction of the global high altitude wind energy would be sufficient to power the entire planet! . The advantages: We already know that the wind energy generated at high altitudes can be multiple times the magnitude of the energy generated at ground level.

The installation is designed for Site #2 in Abu Dhabi. . WIND NEST WindNest. Lightweight materials are used throughout the project¶s lifecycle. For the nested elements. Teflon fibers are used for the network. natural materials are used. Wind energy is harnessed by the turbines fitted to windsocks. It¶s equipped with a network of windsock turbines that keep track of the wind movement and thereby energy generation through it. which are UV resistant and light in weight. Carbon rods are used for the foundation in the ground. hand-woven. designed by Trevor Lee and Clare Olsen. WindNest is a multi-stranded structure maintaining the ecological balance all around its vicinity. It¶s partly rooted to the ground and partly floating in the open air.Solar fabric covering the windsock is used to harness solar energy. combines aesthetics with clean energy generation. WindNest was one of the entries in The Land Art Generator Initiative (LAGI) Competition 2010. trapping both the Sun and the wind energy. between Saadiyat Island and Yas Island.7.

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