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# Fundamentals of Circuit Theo Ci c it Theory

Chapter 1 Basic Concepts

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Introduction

The purpose of this subject is to learn “how to analyze electrical circuits.” y What is the “electrical circuit” ? electrical circuit What is the concept of “analysis” ? h h f“ l ”

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Modern trains powered by electric motors

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Basic Strategy of Analysis Circuit Analysis A l i .

Introduction Electrical circuit is simply defined as an interconnection of electrical elements Electrical element 5 .

Introduction Electrical circuit is simply defined as an interconnection of electrical elements L R1 R2 vS + - vO TYPICAL LINEAR CIRCUIT C C C LOW DISTORTION POWER AMPLIFIER 6 .

Introduction 7 .

Introduction By the “Analysis of a circuit”. y How does it respond to a given input ? How d the interconnected elements and do h d l d devices in the circuit interact ? 8 . we mean a study of the behavior of the circuit.

RC circuit dt d2 y dy df 4 8 y 3 4 f RLC circuit 9 dt dt dt 2 .DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS FOR THE FIRST PART WE WILL COVER SYSTEMS OF ALGEBRAIC EQUATIONS THE MODELS CAN BE DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS OF THE FORM 12V1 9V2 4V3 8 4V1 16V2 V3 0 2V1 4V2 6V3 20 R circuit 3 dy y f RL. RESISTORS. . SOURCES RESISTORS INDUCTORS CAPACITORS THE MATHEMATICS EQUATIONS of ELECTRICAL CIRCUITS .Introduction THIS COURSE TEACHES THE BASIC TECHNIQUES TO DEVELOP MATHEMATICAL MODELS FOR ELECTRIC CIRCUITS CONSISTING OF SOURCES. and CAPACITORS.LINEAR ALGEBRA. INDUCTORS.

6 Circuit Elements.4 Voltage.Chapter 1 1. Basic terminologies ! 10 .Basic Concepts .3 Current.1 1 1 Systems of Units Units. 1. 1 4 Voltage 1.5 Power and Energy. 1. gy 1.2 Electric Charge. 1.

1.1 System of Units (1) Six basic units for engineering 11 .

1 System of Units (2) The SI prefix 12 .1.

CURRENT AND VOLTAGE RANGES .

The charges that occur in nature are integral multiples of the electronic charge.1. Ch Charge i an electrical property of the atomic particles (for is l i l f h i i l (f example. Thus the algebraic sum of the electric charge in a system does not change.2 Electric Charges Electric charge is the most basic quantity in an electrical circuit. Charge can neither be created nor destroyed. only transferred. (‘law of conservation of charge’) ( law charge ) 14 .602 10-19 C which is called as electronic charge. electrons or protons). The h Th charge e on one electron i negative and equal i l t is ti d l in magnitude to 1. measured in coulombs (C).

1. 15 . El Electric current i d fi d as the time rate of change of i is defined h i f h f charge. The unit of ampere can be derived as q/ p 1 A = 1C/s. opposite direction Electric current i = dq/dt. measured in amperes (A).3 Current (1) One of the important feature of charge is that it is mobile.

An alternating current (ac) is a current that varies sinusoidally with time. By convention the symbol i is used to p represent it.3 Current (2) A direct current (dc) is a current that remains constant with time.1. DC AC 16 . By convention the symbol I is used to represent it.

3 Current (3) Conventional current flow a 3A b a 3A b a 3A b a 3A b .1.

vab d / d w is energy in joules (J) and q is charge in coulomb (C).1. 18 .4 Voltage (1) In order to move the electron in a conductor in a particular direction. ( ) dw dq (volt) By the definition of the voltage. a battery works or supplies energy) Voltage (or potential difference) is defined as the energy required to move a unit charge through an element. (In a previous picture. measured in volts (V). work or energy is required.

is defined always across the circuit element or b t i it l t between t two points i a circuit.1. V represents dc voltage. p Like currents.4 Voltage (2) Electric voltage. i t in i it vab > 0 means the potential of a is higher than potential of b. v represents . p ac voltage. vab < 0 means the potential of a is lower than potential of b. 19 . vab. p g .

4 Voltage (3) V AB 5V VBA 5V V AB VBA .1.

1. dw dw dq vi Mathematical expression: p p dt dq d dt 21 . measured in watts (W).5 Power and Energy (1) Power is defined as the time rate of expending or absorbing energy.

absorbing power). absorbing power supplying 22 power . supplying power).5 Power and Energy (2) How can we distinguish the absorption and supply of the power by each element ? p y Passive sign convention: When th currents enters through Wh the t t th h the positive terminal of an element (p=vi. if the current enters through the negative terminal (p=-vi.1.

1.5 Power and Energy (3) p = + 12 W absorbing power of 12 W p = -12 W supplying power of 12 W 23 .

measured in joules (J) (J).5 Power and Energy (4) • The law of ‘conservation of energy’ p0 The total power supplied to the circuit must balance the total power absorbed.1. • Mathematical expression p w pdt vidt t0 t0 t t 24 . p • Energy is the capacity to do work.

batteries passive elements: resistors. inductors There are two types of elements: passive elements and . and circuit analysis is the process of determining the voltages across (or the current through) the elements of the circuits active elements.1. active elements: sources example: generators. An active elements can generate energy while passive elements can not. capacitors.6 Circuit Elements (1) An electric circuit is simply an interconnection of the elements.

An independent source is an active element that provide a . them There are two kinds of sources: independent and dependent sources.1. specified voltage or current that is completely independent of other circuit elements.6 Circuit Elements (2) The most important active elements are voltage and current sources that generally deliver power to the circuit connected to them.

: VCVS.1. CCVS. CCCS.6 Circuit Elements (3) quantity is controlled by another voltage or current A dependent source is an active element in which the source There are 4 types of dependent sources. VCCS. CCCS .

: CCCS. CCCS VCCS VCVS CCVS . VCCS.1.6 Circuit Elements (4) There are 4 types of dependent sources. CCVS. VCVS.

• They have four different types: VCVS.1. K in i d th signs of dependent sources. VCCS CCCS Keep i minds the CCVS VCCS. CCCS. CCVS.6 Circuit Elements (5) Active Elements Passive Elements • A dependent source is an active element in which the source quantity is i controlled by another voltage or t ll d b th lt current. 29 Independent Dependant sources sources .

1. 30 .6 Circuit Elements (6) Example Obtain the voltage v in the branch for i2 = 1A.

6 Circuit Elements (7) Solution Voltage v is the sum of the current-independent 10 V 10-V source and the current-dependent voltage current dependent source vx. Note that the factor 15 multiplying the control current carries the units Ω.1. v = 10 + vx = 10 + 15(1) = 25 V 31 . Therefore.