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MODULE CONTENTS

1. Introduction to boring machine


1.1 Functions of boring machines
1.2 Types of boring machines

2. Safety rules and procedures in boring machine


operation
2.1. Personal safety
2.2. Machine safety
2.3. Workshop safety

3. Major parts of boring machine


3.1. Headstock
3.2. column
3.3. column base
3.4. end support Column
3.5 run ways
3.6 table and saddle
3.7 bed
3.8 floor plate
3.9 cross rail
4. Types of Boring machines
4.1 Horizontal boring
4.2 Vertical boring machine
4.3 fine boring machine
4.4 jig boring machine
5 . Cutting tools and accessories

6. determining cutting variables


6.1 Feeds & speeds
6.2 Cutting force and power
6.3 Machining time
7. Boring machine operation
1. Introduction to boring
machine
1.1 Functions of boring machine
Several machines have been developed that are specially
adapted to boring work. The function of boring machine
is to enlarge a hole that has already been drilled or cored.
1.2 Types of boring machines: - boring machines
may be classified according to the operation they perform
Like horizontal boring machine, vertical boring machine,
fine boring machine and jig boring machine
2 Safety rules and procedures
2.1 PERSONAL SAFETY:
• Always wear approved type eye protection
• Do not attempt to use unless all guards and safety devices are in place and securely attached.
• Stop machine before making measurements or work adjustment.
• Remove your watch, rings etc before using the machine.
2.2 MACHINE SAFETY:
• Never attempt to operate a machine until you have been instructed properly.
• Never place a tool on a boring machine before checking it for soundness.
• adjust the cutter and work piece properly before any operation
• start the machine and feed the cutter into the work
• the machine should not be operated at speed higher than specified.
• clean the machine after operation.
2.3 WORKP LACE SAFETY
• keep all tools clear of a work table .
• change coolant fluid before it become contaminated.
• Wipe up all spilled coolants from the floor around the machine right away.
• Put tools and equipments in their proper position.
3. MAJOR PARTS OF Boring Machines.
The Important features of the boring machines are described in the following heads:
3.1 Headstock. This is most important unit of the machine. The entire machine is built around it. It
supports, drives and feeds the tool. It may contain one or two spindles. One spindle is heavy and slow
moving for the heavier operations of boring, or drilling. The other spindle is lighter and faster for
drilling and tapping small holes and end mill work. Spindle rotation is reversible in either case for
backing out tools and for right and left hand cutters.
3.2 Column. The column provides support for the headstock and guides it up and down accurately by
means of ways. It is heavily constructed and is hollow to house the counterweights which balance the
headstock and make it easier to move. Columns are keyed, dowelled, and bolted to bases. Some columns
are stationary whereas others move with their bases.
3.3 The column base. The base supports and secures the column. it houses the various sears and driving
mechanisms.
On floor type machines the column base is mounted so that the spindle is at right angle to
the ways of the run way. On planer type machines, the SpIndle is parallel to the ways of
the run way.
3.4 End support column. For operations involving the use of long Doting bars and
heavy tools, an out board bearing is utilized to support the end of the bar. There is an
open and a closed type of end support. On table and planer type machines, the bearing
block travels in synchronism with the headstock of the machine. When such an end
support is used with floor type machines, it is adjusted separately from the headstock and
aligned by means of an accurate scale and venire.
3.5 Run ways. These arc used on floor or planer type machine to carry the main
column, end-support column, and in some cases, a rotary table. When the column base,
column and headstock are traversed as a complete unit, the member upon which it travels
is called a run way and not a bed.
3.6 Table and saddle. The chief function cf the table is to provide a support for holding
the work piece. It also provides a means of locking and clamping the work. It is equipped
with suitable ranges of feeds as well as rapid traverse. The table usually traverses at right
angles to the axis of the spindles unless provided with saddle. The function of the saddle
is to provide a compound movement of the table, so that it can move axially as well as
transversely to the spindle.
3.7 Bed. It may be cast in one or several pieces. It serves to support the column and
headstock, the end supports, the table, the saddle and the various feed and cont-ol shafts.
It contains alt the necessary feeding mechanisms for the table as well as a coolant tank.
3.8 Floor plate. Floor-plates are made up of several sections keyed and dowelled together
to form a continuous surface for fastening work. The floor plates are mounted on a
foundation and arc not adjustable after leveling into position. T-slots are provided for
work-clamping,
3.9 cross rail. It is used only on the multiple-head machine,
. Machine Size. The size of horizontal boring mill is given by the size of the
largest bar the machine can handle. An average machine may be expected to take a 75
mm bar, although machines up to 150 mm in size may be purchased. The spindle speed
and horse power arc of the order of 22 to :600 r.p.m. and JO to 80 h.p. respectively.
While specifying capacity of the machine, one should mention the following points also
in addition to the above points ; column height, table size. floor area and weight of the
job
4. TYPES OF BORING MACHINES
There are several types of machines developed for enlarging the holes and for closely allied
operations such as facing and tapping
4.1 Horizontal Boring Machine
The horizontal boring mill is also known as horizontal boring drilling and milling machine, and is
intended to perform operations
on relatively large pieces which cannot be rotated easily, are irregular and unsymmetrical, and
require operations on many surfaces.
Fig 1827 shows the main features of a horizontal bori1 machine. It also indicates the relative
movements of its sliding
and rotating elements. It may be noted that the main spindle c be rotated in either direction. It is
possible to feed the main spindle axially. The work table can be traversed along and across
machine bed.
It is possible to machine a flat surface square with bored hole in one setting of work piece by
mounting facing head over the spindle.
Horizontal Boring Machine
The four basic types of machines are described below.
Table-type machine. It is perhaps the most familiar machine and consists of
headstock, column, base, table, saddle, end support and bed. The headstock can be
raised and lowered, the spindle moved in and out, and the out board bearing moved
up and do The table and its saddle can be moved in two directions, so as
position the work conveniently. The end-support column can be positioned along the
bed towards or away from the headstock.
Floor-type machine, it consists of headstock, column, column base, run way, end
support, end support runway and floor plate The chief difference between this and
the table-type machine is the spindle movement. The machine is used for heavier
work. During the operation, the work is Stationary and the spindle end support
traversed along the run-way past the work.
Planer type machine, It Consists of headstock, column, run Way, end support, end
support run-way, table and bed. This type resembles with the table-type, but the
work supporting mechanisP1 18 different. It has a reciprocating table very similar to
the plane” which makes it most suitable for big and long jobs.

Multiple head type. It consists of headstocks (two to or four)


columns ‘to\ bed, tab’e and cross-rails. The machine resembles ihe planer m1lLr. It may
have t’.o, three cr four hcadst.cks, all ofhicli may be saiclled for angular cuts. It is
the only machine that can do verijeal as well as horizontal boring or milling, e.g.,
boriig and milling of V-type diesel engine bloLks.
Figure 22-2 1 View of the workstation of a double-end horizontal precision production boring
machine with tooling for machining ten surfaces on a pump body. (Courtesy Heald Machine Div.
of Cincinnati Milacron, Inc
Figure 19.23 Table type horizontal, boring machine to perform boring drilling and milling
operations
Recalculating ball screw drive is used for feeding to achieve higher positional
accuracy in numerically controlled boring machines.
4.2 Vertical Boring Mill
There are two types of vertical boring machines, viz standard vertical boring
mill and vertical turret lathe. Standard vertical boring mill is the largest of the
machine tools It is used to machine inside and outside diameters and facing
large pieces which are more or less symmetrical such as large ring-gear
blanks, steam turbine castings, water turbine runners, locomotive tires, tables
for machine tools. flanges for large pipes and pressure vessels. The size of
such a machine is given by the diameter of the largest work piece which can
he machined.
Vertical turret lathe is basically a vertical boring mill and has turret
arrangement of holding the tools. It can do essentially the same jobs, but on a
smaller scale. The machine looks like a turret lathe with its head stock
resting on the floor and its axis vertical. The table is usually called a chuck
because of its adjusting jaws for work clamping The distinguishing feature
of the machine, however, its five sided turret, or tool holder mounted on
the cross rail. It has five tool positions which enable successive tools to be
brought into position without demounting. The typical jobs which can be
machined include boring and turning rail road wheels, locomotive cross.
heads, large pistons, rings and gear blanks, howls and many other similar
round and symmetrical pieces.
Figure 22-22 Vertical four-spindle production boring machine. Semi finish
boring of four cast-iron cylinder liners is done simultaneously.
Stock removal is 6 mm ( in.) on the diameter at a rate of 40.5
pieces lhr at 75% efficiency.
(Courtesy Heald Machine Div. of Cincinnati Milacron, Inc.)
4.3 Fine Boring Machines
These are precision boring machines designed for high accuracy and surface
finish. Boring spindle is very precisely supported on ball, roller, hydrostatic or
air bearings. Often, diamond tools are used These are available in horizontal
(single end or double end type) and vertical spindle fashions. Axial feed is
given by cam or hydraulic cylinder
4.4 Jig boring machines
Jig borers are the ultimate in machine tools. They are used for locating accurately
and making the numerous holes necessary for jigs, fixtures, gauges and other
precision parts. Although the single-point boring bar is the most important tool used
in jig borers, yet drills, reamers and counter borers are also used. The jig boring
machine is developed from a locating machine and is relatively a new type of
machine. This machine is rugged enough for heavy cuts and sensitive enough for
light cuts.
A jig borer has the essential element of a vertical-spindle milling machine. For the
sake of attaining high accuracy, it is generally built lower to the floor and is much
more rigid and of accurate construction. On the base of it, a saddle is supported
which moves In and out from the operator to the column. To supplement the saddle
movement, a table is provided on it, which can move to right or left. It has a massive
column which supports the spindle housing and is capable of moving up and down
the column ways. Thus the third position adjustment is also achieved.
The spindle moves inside a quill and is supported by the housing or spindle head. In
order to add to the rigidity of the machine tool, the quill is made capable of moving
up and down inside the housing thus giving a telescope mechanism. In order to
eliminate the lost motion for purpose of high accuracy and precision, the spindle,
quill, and housing are manufactured under extremely careful and exacting conditions
and to minimize the errors due to expansion, the housing is made of invar cast iron.
The spindle is hardened, ground, stabilized, and lapped, and pre-loaded ball bearings
are used. The driving mechanism provided is capable of giving speeds ranging from
about 30 to 1500 R.P.M. so that best cutting speed is available for each size of hole.
For aligning the job and centering it, a dial indicator fitted on the spindle is used.
Usually the operator locates the points etc., from either a finished edge or from a
suitable hole while setting up for boring operation. The dial indicator is used to pick
up the surface and then with reference to it the spindle can be zeroed
, over the desired point.
193. types of Jig
Borers
They can be classified according to the method of accurate location of hole.
Accordingly there arc four systems of measurement:
i The precision lead-screw system.
ii The end-measure system.
iii The scale and microscope system.
iv The electromagnetic system.
Each method has its own particular advantages and disadvantages and the selection
depends upon the situation. The various factors to be considered for proper selection
are price, delivery date, availability of spare parts, the size of the workpiece,
preference for a particular type of measuring system desired for standardization etc.
However, much depends upon the operator’s ability and skill as far as accuracy is
concerned.
1931. The precision lead-screw system. In this machine, the feed and other motions are
obtained due to rotation of lead screw just as in lathe. The system has the same
disadvantages as in other cases, i.e. the accuracy of the lead screw is of the order of
0005 mm and it varies from one place of lead-screw to another. The size (length of the
accurate lead-screw is limited (of the order of about 400 mm).
Fig. 192. Jig Borer
Figure 22-23 Open-side jig boring machine with direct dimension measuring
and automatic positioning.
(Courtesy Fosdick Machine Tool Co.)
It has the advantage that the system is very fast and as it is enclosed in the body of the
machine, it is not subjected to variations due to change in room temperature or operator
handling.
1932. The end-measure system. The system used to locate the work accurately with end
measures is the same as for other machines. Tile first step in it is to locate the work
piece from two finished edges 900 apart, one placed to the right of the table and the other
placed to the front of the table. With the help of a dial indicator in the spindle, the edges
are parallel to the table travel, and the work piece is clamped securely without distorting
it. A microscope is then mounted in the spindle and the table moved so that the cross-
hairs are exactly centered over the intersection of the two finished edges or any other
zero point. Next the dimension at which hole is to be located is arranged by having
suitable end measures for whole number and an inside micrometer for dimensional
measurement and placing them together on the trough. The table is then moved till the
built in dial indicator (acting like pressure gauge) resting against the end standard and
inside micrometer reads zero, In the similar manner, the dimension in other plane is set.
It may be noted here that traversing screws for saddle and table have no connection with
the measuring system, and backlash or wear in. them has no effect on the accuracy of
any setting.
The advantage of this system is that it is very simple and easy to set up since the end
measures are simple numbers. There is no particular limit to the size of machine. The
disadvantage of the system is that the end measures rest in an open trough and are,
therefore, subject to dirt and temperature variations due to surrounding temperature and
handling them by operator.
1933. The scale and microscope system. The machine utilises a very accurate and
precise scale fitted on the body of the machine and the microscope to take readings on
the scale. The disadvantage is that it is very dilficult to scribe a very fine line on the
scale and the scale is subjected to surrounding temperature and also its temperature
changes due to the body heat of the operator, due to which the scale precision is lost.
The advantage of the system is that there is no wearing of parts. The readings are not
affected by dirt.
1934. The electromagnetic system. It consists of a solid master bar securely fastened
beneath the worktable. The bar consists of a series of alternate notches about 125 mm
wide and square projections 125 mm wide. The distance between the magnetic centres
of adjacent projections or blocks is exactly 25 mm and the total accumulated error for
the entire bar is not more than O5im.
A electromagnetic head equipped with two balanced coils is fastened to a movable slide
beneath the master bar and is capable of detecting the exact centre of each block (Refer
Fig. 192). The head is further connected to an indicating meter and the movable slide is
connected to a precision micrometer screw and dial.
Fig. l92. Principle of Electromagnetic Measuring System.
To obtain basic 25 mm spacing, the table is moved until one of the blocks is exactly
over the electromagnetic head and the indicating micrometer registers zero. Intermediate
settings are obtained by the precision micrometer screw.
For doing any operation, the setting is done as follows: First the centre line of the
machine is centered over either a machined edge or the centre line of the first hole by
means of dial indicator or some other satisfactory means. The micrometer is then set to
zero position and locked. Then the zero-screw is turned until the indicating meter
registers zero and it is then clamped. This finishes ‘zeroing’ of the work piece. Then for
any setting, first the micrometer dial is moved by that amount to the right of the decimal
point. After this the table is rapidly traversed the approximate distance of the remainder
of the setting by using the circular scale and the hand wheel is moved slowly until the
meter reads zero.
Thus an advantage of this system is that the rapid movement from any even 25mm to
another even 25 mm can be taken quickly, making extreme care necessary only with the
final setting. The disadvantage is that checking of accurate zeroing by electric meter is
‘very difficult as compared to mechanical devices.
19’4. Hole-location Procedure
The three fundamental steps in making a hole are: μ
(i) Locating, (ii) Cutting, (iii) Checking or inspection.
Locating. In making any hole by drilling, boring or any other operation, its exact location
at the desired position in the work is utmost. It can be accomplished in the four important
ways discussed below
(a) Lay Out. In this method the lines are scribed on the desired profile and the punch
marks are pricked. The tool is then adjusted so as to move on these marks.
(b Buttoning. This method makes use of tool maker’s buttons, and is used when it is
desired to locate and make holes with greatcr accuracy than is possible by ordinary
layout. The tool maker’s buttons are available in sizes of 7’5, 10 and l25 mm and 25 mm
in diameter and about 125 mm high. Flat washers and machine screws are supplied with
the set.
To locate holes by this method, the centers are first located roughly by scriber, scale and
dividers to an accuracy of about 025 mm and then prick punched. Holes are then drilled
and tapped to receive the screws. Next the buttons are fastened in place with screw and
washers. It is to be noted that the hole in the button is Sufficient for relocation and the
screw is drawn up lightly so that the buttons can be tapped lightly with a hammer into
final position. The buttons are next altered in position by measuring with an accurate
Instrument so that the axes of the buttons will be the fina1 axes of the bored holes. After
checking the distances finally the screws are tightened very hard. The workpiece is then
mounted on the face plate and the axis of one button at a time is made concentric with the
axis of spindle by changing the position of face plate arid observing the movement of
button against a fixed dial indicator. The button and screw are then removed, and the
boring or ration carried out. It may be noted that the original tapped hole does not
influence the accurate location of the final hole. Also the diameter of the button has no
relation to the final size of the hole. Accuracy of this method is of the order of +10μm.
(c) Transfer. In this method a master plate is used having desired holes located in it. This
method is useful when the relative positions of the hole locations are known and not their
dimensions. The master plate is used just like jig and is clamped with the workpiece.
(d) Co-ordinate location. In this method, the holes are located by working to known
dimension with measuring devices extraneous to the work piece.
Cutting The various methods used for removal of metal are single point boring, drilling,
reaming, counter boring, reaming through use of jigs and hardened steel bushing,
grinding, lapping and boring by using diamond charged mandrels for very small holes of
diameter as small as 0075mm.
1943. Checking. After the completion of job, it must be inspected thoroughly for its
dimensional accuracy to ensure that the finished product is within the specified
tolerances.
It is very important for the proper use of jig borer that it is kept in the temperature
controlled room as its overall accuracy is of the order of 1 micron for various operations.
Fig. 193. Section showing the use of button.
5. Boring Tools
Boring tools are held in boring tool holders wliih may be either fixed or rotating type.
Fixed holders are used in work-rotating machines and rotating holders in tool rotating
machines. Size of boring bar should be such as to provide maximum rigidity and also
permit sufficient clearance for disposal of chips. NDrrnally boring bar diameter is taken
as O7Xbore diameter. It should have minimum overhang. Various types of boring tool
holders are:
(I) Adjustable boring bars—These are built with cartridges (to hold throwaway type
inserts) adjustable in axial and radial directions by set screws.
(ii) Damped boring bars—In it, dampers are provided at the
feed end to absorb vibrations. :
(iii) Line boring bars-These are used for long bores and can accommodate fly cutters,
tool blocks, cartridges etc. These are supported at the free end in suitable hearings.
(iv) Boring head—It is a more rigid boring tool holder and is used for roughing and
finishing of large bore (10) to 500 mm). Provision to offset cutting axially and radialy
exists. Two cutters can he mounted radially at i 80° to have balanced cutting.
(v) Boring and facing heads. This enables boring of large bores and facing of seating
surfaces at right angles to the bore. Radial tool feeding facility also exists. them far
from satisfactory. Also, in spite of the provision of internal passages to conduct
coolant to the tip, over heating still occurred.
One solution of this problem lies in the use of trepanning, an operation employed
long before for producing large diameter holes in the plate, but it is being only
recently adopted for machining bores in the solid metal. As a guide to the success
of the operation it may be mentioned that, under ordinary production conditions,
an accuracy of 0025 mm per 1000 mm length for taper and ovality is readily
maintained.
Cutting is done with a hollow head shown in Fig. 18 ‘28 carrying one or more
tungsten carbide tools, the head being secured to the end of a long hollow bar.
The tools produce bore of slightly large diameter than that of the head end bar,
and thus there is an annular space between them. In some machines this is used
for feeding high pressure cutting oil to cool the tips and wash the chips away, the
oil and chips return to settling tanks and filters vii the hollow cutter head bar ; on
others the reverse applies, the oil entering along the hollow bar, and the oil and
chips returning along the annular clearance.
To a large extent trepan boring is only possible because of the availability of the
tungsten carbides, because even the best tool steel has a very short life under the
extremely arduous conditions encountered in machining deep holes.
Fig. 1828. Piercing boring process.
Another solution of this problem lies in the use of pierce boring. In most of the respects,
this operation is similar to trepan boring, except that the tool is designed to cut the waste
metal completely into swarf, i.e. no core is produced.
To do this, two cutters shown in Fig. 1828 are arranged to cover th entire radius of the
hole, the width of the inner cutter being such that it slightly overlaps the centre of the
hole and also the inner edge ol’ the other cutter. Also one cutter is slightly in advance
axially of the other. Each cutter has 5 positive top rake and front clearance of 6°. A 05
mm high chip breaking step is provided approximately 1 5 mm behind the cutting edge.
To support and centralise the head, three equally spaced tungsten carbide pads are
provided. The piercing boring process can bore and machine a hole of size 60 mm
diameter and 6.6 metres deep. Another solution of this problem lies in the use of pierce
boring. In most of the respects, this operation is similar to trepan boring, except that the tool is
designed to cut the waste metal completely into swarf i.e. no core is produced.
To do this, two cutters shown in Fig. 1828 are arranged to cover the entire radius of the hole,
the width of the inner cutter being such that it slightly overlaps the centre of the hole and also
the inner edge of the other cutter. Also one cutter is slightly in advance axially of the other.
Each cutter has 5 positive top rake and front clearance of 6°. A 05 mm high chip break jng step
is provided approximately F5 mm behind the cutting edge. To support and centralise the head,
three equally spaced tungsten carbide pads are provided. The piercing boring process can bore
and machine a hole of size 60 mm diameter and 66 metres deep.
18161. Deep hole tools. These are substantially longer than their diameter. These must be
designed to machine in a straightlinewithouttheaidofoutsidesupportandprovide circulatory
channels for coolant. The cylindrical peripheral elements of the tool body behind the cutting tip
-

revolve on a finished surface and confine the direction of travel. Fig. 1829 shows the design of
various types of deep hole tools. The various tools are
______________________
A. Single lipped rifle drill.its cutting edge is ground to lead in the bole and machine in
clockwise rotation. It opens up holes from the solids and also sizes accuratelv in one operation.
It is used for drilling (f)) holes upto 25 mm.
B. Two lip drills. It drills holes of size 25 mm to 75 nun in the solid material. Coolant
circulation to drill is permitted (pr) by provision of clearance
between shank and machined hole. The drill body between flutes is relieved to bring the coolant
to the cutting tip where it flushes the chips back through the flute and into the centre hole of the
drill and shank,
Figure 19.26 Types of boring tools.
A, Light boring tool with bent shank. B, Forged boring tools. C,
Heavy boring tool.
D, Double-ended cutter or boring tool. E, Counterboring tool with
pilot. F, Multiple-cutter boring tool.
6 Determining cutting variables
6.1 Feeds and Speeds. The speed at which a drill, boring tool, or reamer
should be run depends upon the same considerations as for other tools, as
explained in Chap. In general , the proper peripheral cutting speed of a drill is
about the same as for a sing1epoint tool under comparable circumstances.
The feed of a drill is the distance it advances in one revolution. Feeds depend
mostly upon what the drill will stand, determined by its size and the work
material. As a general guide, the Cleveland Twist Drill Co. recommends “a
feed of 0.001 to 0 . 002 in . /rev for drills * to . 0 . 004 to 0 . 007 for drills to
in . , 0 . 007 to 0 . 0 1 5 ccv: thUis. 4 to 1 in. , and 0.015 to 0.025 for drills
larger than 1 in.” This corresponds. to 0.025 to 0.05 mm/rev for drills 3 to 7
mm, O.Th to 2O frr tiWis 3 ic 13 c to 0.40 for drills 13 to 25 mm, and 0.40 to
0.65 for drills over 25 mm in diameter. Alloy and hard steel should generally
be drilled at a lighter feed than given above, while cast iron, brass, and
aluminum may usually be drilled with a heavier feed than given above.
Boring and similar tools are run at about the same speeds and feeds as drills,
sometimes slightly less. As a rule, reaming must be done at low speeds and
high feeds for best results. Speeds of 50 to 75% of drilling speeds and feeds of
200 to 300% of drilling feeds for rose reamers and 300 to 500% for fluted
reamers are recommended.
6.2 Cutting Forces, Power, and Time. The two components of force in
drilling and boring operations are the thrust T in kN (ib) in the axial direction
of the tool and the torque or moment M in Nm (lb-in . ) . Investigations have
shown that these depend upon the feedfin mm/rev (ipr), the drill diameter d in
mm (in.), the chisel edge length C, the material, and the number of teeth.
Simplified formulas for two flute drills with a normal c/d ratio of 0. 18 have
been given by Oxford as
T 2Kf°8d°8 + Ld2 and M = Kf°8d’8 (22-1)
The factor K is 0.6035 (24,000) for 200 Bhn steel, 0.7795 (3 1 ,000) for 300
Bhn steel, 0.8549 (34,000) for 400 Bhn steel, 0. 1760 (7000) for aluminum
and leaded brass,
0. 1006 (4000) for most magnesium alloys, and 0.3520 (14,000) for most
brasses. The value of L is 4. 309 X 1O(625). The factors for SI units are given
first, and those for English units are in parentheses. Similar expressions are
given in reference books and handbooks for hole-enlarging tools.
The horsepower for a drilling operation may be estimated on the basis of P =
MR/63,025, where R is the drill speed in rpm. The power in kW is
MR19549,with M in Nm. An insignificant portion of the power is related to the thrust because the
feed is slow compared to the speed. Power may also be estimated on the basis of the rate of stock
removal as explained for Table 17-3.
The basic relationship that cutting time is equal to the distance the tool is fed in mm (in.) divided by the
rate of feed in mm/mm (ipm) applies to drilling and boring. This may be illustrated by an example. A
hole 25 mm (1 in.) in diameter is drilled through a cast-iron piece 76 mm (3 in.) thick by a H.S.S. drill
with a surface speed of 15 rn/mm (50 fpm). The drill rotates at 190 rpm. With an advance of 0.4
mm/rev (0.016 ipr), the rate of feed is 0.4 X 190 = 76 mm/mm (0.0 16 X 190 = 3 ipm). The distance the
drill is fed in this case is 76 mm (3 in.) plus an assumed overtravel of 3 mm ( in.) plus an approach of
6.5 mm ( in.) (one-fourth of the diameter of a standard drill). Thus the total travel is 85.5mm (3 in.).
The time for the cut is 85.5/76 = 1.13 minutes (3.375/3 = 1.13 minutes).
6.3 Machining Time in Boring with examples
Machining time in boring operation is calculated by the same.
formula as for calculating the machining time in turning operation,
Length of cut minutes.
Time required=: r.p.m. X Feed/rev ‘
.
the lengh of cut in this case is the depth of hole to be bored. Cutting
speeds and feeds for boring are same as for turning. Example 4.
A 10 mm (trilled hole in a casting of 10 mm thickness is to be
brought in alignment by boring. Calculate (lie time taken in
boring operation, assuming cutting speed 30 meters/minute
and feed 0.13 nun/rev.
Solution. R.P.M. ‘N’ = 1000 x Cutting speed —

1000x30 =955r.p.m.
π X Diameter - π x
10

Length of cut 10
Time taken in boring= - r.p.m XFeed/rev.
- 255 x
0.13 minutes.
10 x 60
- 955x0.13
=4.83 seconds
7 BORING OPERATIONS
accuracy of a hole involves both size and location. Accuracy ‘n the tools and the way they are
used. Under average 9racticaI drilling tolerances range from 50 to 0.25 mm (0.01 in.) for 25 to
50 mm ( appreciably better results. A multiblade .imber of holes within 25 to 50 m (0.001 toA

fluted reamer properly used with limited stock


Press boring) is a quick way to produce holes within 25 pin
.
sectioned and round hole with an accuracy of less than
15 m (0.0005 in.) is required, finishing by several cuts with a single-point boring
tool or by grinding, lapping, or honing are the only means of assuring results. The
surface finishes obtainable from drilling and related operations are indicated in Fig.
15-38.
The accuracy required for the location of holes varies from 0.8 mm ( in.)
commonly needed for clearance holes to a few thousandths of a millimeter (ten
thousandth of an inch) for holes in exacting production parts, such as those for
aircraft engines, and many jigs, fixtures, dies, and gages. The method selected to
locate a hole or holes depends upon the accuracy required and the number of pieces
to be made.
The accurate location of holes calls for three steps. The first is to establish the
positions of the holes, the second is to cut the holes, and the third is to check the
results. The position of holes may be established by layout, transfer, buttoning, and
coordinate location; these methods and their merits will be discussed. What has
been said about cutting holes for size applies also to location. Of the abrasive
methods, grinding alone is a way of appreciably correcting positional errors.
Layout consists of drawing lines on a work piece and center punching for the
locations of holes in the manner indicated in Fig. 22-26. A drill, usually one of
small diameter, is started in the center punch marks. A skilled machinist can
evaluate how true a drill is cutting and make compensations to centralize the hole
with the scribed circle. Even so, location within 0.15 to 0.25 mm (0.005 to 0.0 10
in.) is all that can be expected. The method is slow and suited only for rough work
in small quantities.
One form of the transfer method is to drill, and even ream, through the holes
already in a part into a mating part. In this way holes between two parts can be
matched as precisely as in any other way. This is practical for some production
assemblies and for making dies, fixtures, jigs, and gages. An extension of this
method is in the use of jigs, but their cost can be justified only for producing parts
in quantities.
Buttoning is the name of a method using toolmakers’ buttons. These are accurately
sized hollow cylinders with squared ends. A button is clamped by a screw to the
workpiece and adjusted with precision measuring tools to the position desired for a
hole. The work piece is then mounted on the face plate of a lathe with the button
protruding. The workpiece is shifted until a dial indicator shows the button running
true. The work piece is secured, the button removed, and the hole is bored in the
same spot. Holes may be located by this method to within 15 to 25 pm (0.0005 to
0.001 in.) of true location No expensive equipment is needed, but the method is
time consuming and not practical in modern shops.
Figure 22-26 Layout for drilling three holes.
Coordinate location is done by moving a work piece from a
reference point through measured distances along
perpendicular axes. Movements are commonly made through
cross- or lead screws and graduated dials by means of a
positioning table on a drill press or on a milling machine
(Chap. 24), manually or numerically controlled (Chap. 35).
Holes can be located within 25 to 125 pm (0.001 to 0.005 in.)
on such machines without extra attachments. Coordinate
location is ordinarily done on jig boring machines by the
refined methods already described for positioning within 2 to
15 m (0.0001 to 0.0005 in.) and closer at premium cost.
Drilling and Boring Operations Compared with Others.
Drilling machines are best for many jobs, particularly for small holes, because they are simple,
of low cost, easy to set up and manipulate, and can be tooled at moderate cost. Drilling, boring,
and reaming are usually done on other machines, such as lathes or milling machines, for
particular advantages. For instance, a hole may be machined more economically and accurately
on a lathe in the same setup with outside surfaces, especially when concentric or square. The
need to locate holes accurately is often a prime factor; the selection of machines for that purpose
has been discussed in the section on accuracy.
When feasible, punching generally is cheaper than any other way of producing holes. As
demonstrated in Fig. 22-27, more accuracy is achieved only from the use of several tools or
operations in succession. If punching is not practicable, drilling
The setup costs, based on 200 plate quantity (0.l80—in.—thick brass plate 3.50 x 5.00
size) have been included in direct labor costs.
Figure 22-27 Comparative direct and tool costs for various ways of producing holes. (As
reported by Richard C. Johnson, “The Cost of Finishes and Tolerances,” Journal of the
American Society of Naval Engineers, Nov. 1958.)
C
Norma o
l m
Metho co
toleran p
d st
ce mm ar
in. ati
ve

Total Direct labor cost


cost
(%)
(%)

*100
Punch ÷0.004 1
10
(templ —50 0
0
ate) — 0
0.002

+ 80
1
Drill +0.007 30
—50 —
7
(jig) 0
0.002 5

Drill
and
ream +15 2
+0.0006 40
(jig 000 — 2
0
and 0.0000 5
bushin
gs)

B + 10 5 7
+0.0004
or 000 —
4 0
e 0.0000 0 0
(fi ÷5 7 1
+0.0002
xt 000
3 1
ur 0.0000 0 0
e) 0
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