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A physical quantity is a property ascribed to phenomena, objects, or substances that can be quantified. Examples : • angle of refraction—angle is the quantity and refraction is the phenomenon • area of rectangle—area is the quantity and rectangle is the object • pressure of hydrogen gas—pressure is the quantity and hydrogen gas is the substance 3. To quantify a quantity is to measure that quantity and to give it a numerical value. Examples: (i) Length of a string = 2 500 centimeters = 2 500 cm Here the quantity is the length, 2500 is its numerical value and cm is the unit used in the measurement. (ii) Speed of a car = 90 kilometers per hour = 90 km h-1 The quantity here is the speed, 90 is the numerical value and km h-1 is the unit. Scientific Notation and Unit Abbreviations 1 Scientific notation is used for large and small numbers. The general form of a number in the scientific notation is A x 10n where A is a number between 1 to 10 and n is an integer: i) 2 500 cm is written as 2.5 x 103 cm and ii) 0.0000 42 cm is written as 4.2 x 10-5 cm. 2 Examples: 1. l000 m = 103 m = 1 km 2. 2000000 m = 2 x 106 m = 2 Mm 3. 3 000 000 000 m= 3 x 109 m =3 Gm 4. 0.001 m = 1 x 103 m= 1mm 5. 0.000 001 m = 1 x 10-6 m = 1 m 6. l 0000 s = l0 x l03 s= l0 ks 7. 0.000 1 s = 0.1 x 10-3 s = 0.1 ms 8. 3 x l05 Hz = 3 x l02 x l03 Hz = 3 x 102 kHz = 300 kHz
Base and Derived Quantities Base Quantities: Derived Quantities: Quantities which are derived from the base quantities. 1 .
Example: From the formula for calculating velocity: velocity = displacement time = length time as displacement is the base quantity length.3A 2 . Properties of scalars and vectors Worked Example 1. 2. 3. 4. Understanding Scalar and Vector Quantities 1. The unit for velocity is m s-1. Displacement refers to how far an object is from a reference point. The scalar quantity only has magnitude whereas the vector quantity has both magnitude and direction. Distance always refers to how much ground an object has covered.’. .
a distance of 138 km.‘. a distance of 507 km. After that. Accuracy is the degree of closeness of the measurements to the true or accepted value. From Butterworth.1 º north of east.Fauziah travelled from Kuala Lumpur to Kangar.1º Hence Adreen’s final displacement is 5 m from the starting point. Precision and Accuracy Precision (consistency) is the degree of uniformity or reproducibility of the measurements. What is the total distance travelled by Fauziah? What is the final displacement of Fauziah? Solution Total distance traveled = 507 + 138 + 369 Final displacement = 0 km = 1 014 km Adreen walked 3 m due east. 3 . she continued her journey to Butterworth. 53.s = √25 = 5 m tanθ = 4/3 θ = 53. Fauziah then travelled back to Kuala Lumpur. a distance of 369 km. and then 4 m due north. s2 = 32 + 42 = 25 . What is the total distance covered by Adreen? What is the final displacement of Adreen? Solution Total distance covered = 3 + 4 =7m Final displacement = s Using Pythagoras’ theorem.
Figure (a) Azizah’s shots were precise and accurate because all 10 shots were consistently close to each other. The readings The calculated mean value is displaced from are distributed about a mean value that the true or correct value.4 Difference between random and systematic errors Random Errors Systematic Errors Systematic errors tend to shift all Random errors fluctuate from one measurements in a particular way measurement to the next. instrument: Use different instruments to measure the To reduce random errors: same quantity. • Outside disturbances which cannot be taken • Improper use of equipment. or correct value Example of systematic errors: Example of random errors: Zero errors — the starting position of the Parallax errors — this is due to observer pointer is not zero but some other value not reading the scale straight on. Figureb(b) Betty’s shots were precise but not accurate because all her 10 shots were far from the target but through her 10 shots were consistently close to each other. • Forgetting to account for some effects. Systematic errors are due to: Random errors are due to: • Incorrect calibration of equipment. To find out the systematic error in an • Lack of sensitivity of the measuring instruments. into account. Figure (c) Devi’s shots were not precise and not accurate because all her 10 shots were spread far from the target and the spread of the shots was very wide. is close to the true correct value. • Very small changes in the surrounding. Errors in Measurement Table 1. Take many readings of the same quantity and find the mean value. 4 . . . Comparing the data may reveal the The mean value will then be close to the true systematic error of a particular instrument.
A responding variable is also known as dependent variable. The initial reading is +1 gram. The quantity whose values we deliberately choose to change is called the manipulated variable. Interpret the data. A hypothesis is a general statement of the relationship between a manipulated variable and a responding variable in order to explain an event or observation. the scale reading is not zero. Analyze the data. Design and carry out experiments. So when using this machine to weigh any object. 4.13 Zero error.Figure 1. 2. 6. Understanding Scientific Investigations The Scientific Method 1. Identify the variables involved. 8. Form a conclusion. Form a hypothesis connecting the variables and the question. Manipulated variables are also known as independent variables. Identify the problems or questions. This is an example of a systematic error. Those quantities whose values are kept constant throughout the experiment are called fixed variables. 7. The quantity whose values depend on the manipulated variable is called the responding variable. Even though there is nothing on the weighing machine. we need to deduct 1 gram from the reading to obtain an accurate result. 5. Results: Collect the data and tabulate them. 3. NOTE-Suggestion time (30 minutes) 5 .
Derived quantities—quantities derived from the base quantities. electric current. A responding variable (dependent variable) is the quantity whose values depend on the manipulated variable in the experiment. Accuracy is defined as the degree of closeness of the measurements to the true or accepted value. A hypothesis is a general statement of the relationship between manipulated variables and a responding variable in order to explain an event or observation. The calculated mean value is displaced from the true or correct value. length. Any uncertainty in a measurement shows the limitations of the measuring instrument and itself is not a mistake in the reading of the instrument. Random errors fluctuate from one measurement to the next. When we take measurements errors are the mistakes we make in reading the scales. 6 .temperature. Vector quantities have both magnitude and direction. Systematic errors tend to shift all measurements in a particular way.Short Note • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • A physical quantity can be measured or calculated Base quantities—mass. Precision (or consistency) is defined as the degree of uniformity or reproducibility of the measurements. The readings are distributed about a mean value that is close to the true or correct value. Fixed variables (constants) are quantities whose values are kept constant throughout the experiment. The sensitivity of a measuring instrument is the capability of that instrument to respond to physical stimuli or to register small physical amounts or differences in the physical property measured. A manipulated variable (independent variable) is the quantity whose values we deliberately choose to change in an experiment. Scalar quantities only have magnitude. or incorrect use of the measuring instruments. Systematic errors are due to incorrect calibration of the measuring instruments. Errors limit the accuracy of the measurement. time.
5 x 10-6 m3 9.7 x 10-7 m3 2.15 cm 0.0x10-2 m3 6.215 mm 3.Assessments Objective Questions 1 Which of the following quantities is not a derived quantity? A B C 2 Electric current Electric changes Velocity The figure above shows the reading of a micrometer screw gauge obtained by a student from measuring 15 sheets of papers.51 cm 4.23 mm B D 0. 7 . What is the thickness of one sheet of paper? A C 5 0.218 mm 3.18 cm 0.0x10-4 m3 The reading of the vernier calipers shown above is A C 0.28 cm B D 0.28 mm The following are scalar quantities except A C E density power acceleration B D pressure temperature unit 3 Which of the following conversions is true? A B C D 300 mm3 = 650 mm3 = 970 mm3 = 2000 mm3 = 3.
B. 1 Find the derived units for each of the following physical quantities.0 cm x 3. The volume of the wooden block is _______.5 cm. A mass of 45 g is equivalent to ____________________ g. (a) Acceleration: ______________________________________________ (b) Speed: __________________________________________________ (c) Density: _________________________________________________ (d) Momentum: ______________________________________________ 2 Which of the following quantities is not a derived quantity? Answer: ________________________________________________________ 8 .2 cm x 1. (a) (b) (c) (d) 1 km: __________________________________________________ 5 ns: __________________________________________________ 7 MV: __________________________________________________ Choose the longest measurement from the following.I.Structure Questions A. unit. 1 Express each of the following in terms of its base S. Answer: _______________________________________________________________ 2 3 A wooden block measures 5.
[1 mark] [1 mark] Using suitable material and apparatus. Construct one suitable hypothesis for an investigation. state: Aim of experiment Experimental variables List of material and apparatus Arrangement of the apparatus [1 mark] [2 marks] [1 mark] [1 mark] Experiment procedure including how to control the manipulated variable. write one experiment report to test your hypothesis. Mister Potato is looking to a pendulum clock at one of the corner of his house. In your report. how to measure the responding variable and repeat of the experiment [3 marks] Tabulation of the data Data analyse [1 mark] [1 mark] 9 . He find that the speed of the pendulum increases when he shorten the steel that connect the bob and the swinger Based on this observation: a) b) c) i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) vii) State one inference that can be made. Swinger Bob Steel 1.Essay question.
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