© Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.

03
Page 1
UMTS/UTRAN
Introduction
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.03
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Introduction to UMTS
Table of contents
1. Introduction
2. Services Provided
3. UMTS system description
4. WCDMA for UMTS
5. UTRAN (Release 1999)
Appendix
Related Documentation
Abbreviations and acronyms
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.03
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1.
Introduction
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.03
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1.Introduction
Definition
Universal
Mobile
Telecommunication
System
“UMTS is one of the major new third generation mobile
communications systems being developed within the
framework which has been defined by the ITU and known as
IMT-2000”
UMTS Forum
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.03
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1. Introduction
1.1 Context
1.2 Standardization
1.3 UMTS goals
1.4 UMTS technical overview
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.03
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1.Introduction/1.1 Context
Past mobile systems (1)
First Generation (1G)
In the early 80‟s, analog systems
e.g Radiocom 2000, C-Netz…
Service:
speech
Limitations of 1G:
•poor spectrum efficiency
•expensive and heavy user equipment
•mobility only in a small area
•no security of communications
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.03
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1.Introduction/1.1 Context
Past mobile systems (2)
Second Generation (2G)
In the early 90‟s, digital systems
Europe : GSM
US : IS-95 (also called cdmaOne), IS-136 (TDMA system)
Japan : PDC
Services: Speech and low data rate
Limitations of 2G:
• Congestion
more than 300 million wireless subscribers worldwide -->need to increase system
capacity
• Limited mobility around the world -->need for a global standardisation
• Limited offer of services
more than 200 million internet users--> Need for new multimedia services and
applications (video telephony, e-commerce...)
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1.Introduction/1.1 Context
Technical solutions
Two types of solutions were possible :
• enhancement of 2G system --> 2,5G
low cost but short term
e.g.: HSCSD, GPRS, EDGE for GSM evolution
• design of a complete new standard --> 3G
high cost, long term, but great amount of new potential services
e.g: UMTS
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1.Introduction/1.1 Context
GSM evolution (1)
HSCSD (High Speed Circuit Switched Data)
Principle: to enhance channel coding scheme and to bundle GSM time
slots on a circuit-switched basis.
Performance: up to 115,2 kbps
Already implemented but not all operators/manufacturers have made this
choice.
GPRS (General Packet Radio Service)
Principle: to enhance channel coding scheme and to bundle GSM time
slots on a packet-switched basis (the allocation of time slots is performed
dynamically at the initialisation and during the connection)
Performance: up to 171,2 kbps
1999/2000 : deployment phase
2002 : service offers for most operators
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1.Introduction/1.1 Context
GSM evolution (2)
EDGE (Enhancement Data rates for GSM evolution)
Principle: new modulation scheme (8PSK instead of GMSK)
Performance: up to 384 kbps
Implementation is yet to come (foreseen for 2003)
EDGE might be a good alternative to 3G systems in certain areas or for
operators who do not have 3G licences, although the 3G brings more in
terms of new multimedia services.
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1.Introduction/1.1 Context
Let’s take some examples!
 A 2 1/2 minutes MP3 music
file (2.4 MBytes)
GSM 34 mn
GPRS 7 mn
EDGE 128 s
UMTS 10 s
 Audio and Video
streaming
Streaming with all
technologies
except with GSM
 Downloading a map (50
KBytes)
GSM 42 s
GPRS 8 s
EDGE 3 s
UMTS 0.2 s
 Downloading a Word document
(500 KBytes)
GSM 7 mn
GPRS 82 s
EDGE 27 s
UMTS 2 s
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1.Introduction
1.1 Context
1.2 Standardization
1.3 UMTS Goals
1.4 UMTS technical overview
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1.Introduction/1.2 Standardization
IMT-2000: definition
IMT-2000 is a framework for third generation mobile systems (3G) which is
scheduled to start service worldwide around the year 2000 subject to
market considerations.
IMT-2000 should use the frequencies around 2 GHz all over the world.
IMT-2000 is defined by a set of interdependent ITU Recommendations*.
IMT-2000 main requirements are :
- wide range of high quality services
- capability for multimedia applications
- worldwide roaming capability
- compatibility of services within IMT-2000 and with the fixed networks
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.03
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1.Introduction/1.2 Standardization
IMT-2000: main participants
Europe: ETSI
Japan: ARIB
USA: TIA, T1
South Korea: TTA
China: CWTS
ITU: International
Telecommunication Union
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1.Introduction/1.2 Standardization
IMT-2000: terrestrial
radio interfaces
IMT-TC (Time Code)
TD-CDMA
UMTS TDD
IMT-DS (Direct Spread)
W-CDMA
UMTS FDD
IMT-MC (Multi Carrier)
CDMA2000
FDD MC
IMT-SC (Single Carrier)
TDMA Single Carrier
UWC-136
EDGE/ERAN
IMT-FT (Frequency Time)
TDMA Multi-Carrier
DECT
Radio/Network
Connection
Evolved IS-41
Core Network
Evolved GSM
Core Network
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1.Introduction/1.2 Standardization
2G terrestrial radio interfaces
1999 Market Share:
GSM 48 %
CDMA 28 %
TDMA 15 %
PDC 9 %
Western Europe:
Japan:
Rest of the World :
US & Canada :
GSM
(100%)
GSM
(87%)
CDMA
(13%)
PDC
(64%)
CDMA
(36%)
GSM
(12%)
CDMA
(49%)
TDMA
(39%)
GSM
(41%)
CDMA
(35%)
TDMA
(24%)
China :
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.03
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1999 Market Share:
GSM 48 %
CDMA 28 %
TDMA 15 %
PDC 9 %
UMTS
CDM
A
2000
EDG
E
IMT2000
1.Introduction/1.2 Standardization
3G terrestrial radio interfaces
Western Europe:
Japan:
Rest of the World :
US & Canada :
GSM
(100%)
GSM
(87%)
CDMA
(13%)
PDC
(64%)
CDMA
(36%)
GSM
(12%)
CDMA
(49%)
TDMA
(39%)
GSM
(41%)
CDMA
(35%)
TDMA
(24%)
CDM
A
2000
UMTS
UMTS
UMTS
UMTS
EDG
E
EDG
E
CDM
A
2000
CDM
A
2000
UMTS
UMTS
CDM
A
2000
EDG
E
China :
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.03
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1.Introduction/1.2 Standardization
3GPP: joint organization
for UMTS standardization
Affiliated organizations:
ETSI (Europe) ARIB/TTC (Japan)
T1 (USA) TTA (South Korea)
CWTS (China)
Other members involved: manufacturers and operators
System Specification:
Access Network
WCDMA (UTRA FDD)
TD-CDMA (UTRATDD)
Core Network
Evolved GSM
All-IP
Releases defined for the system specifications:
- Release 99 (called R3 as well)
- Release R4 and R5 (previously known as Release 2000 or R‟00)
In the following material we will only speak about UMTS R99.
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1.Introduction/1.2 Standardization
3GPP organization
WG1
Mobility Management,
Call Control,
Session Management
WG2
CAMEL & MAP
WG3
Interworking with
External Networks
TSG
Core Network
WG1
Radio layer 1 specifications
WG2
Radio layer 2,
Radio layer 3 RR specification
WG3
Iux specifications,
UTRAN & O&M requirements
SMG2 ARC
WG4
Radio performance/protocols,
Base Station conformance
Ad Hoc
ITU internal coordination
TSG
Radio Access Network
WG1
Services
SMG1
WG2
Architecture
SMG12
WG3
Security
WG4
CODEC
WG5
Telecom Management
TSG Service and
System Architecture
WG1
Mobile Terminal
Conformance Testing
WG2
Mobile terminal
services & capabilities
WG3
USIM
TSG
Terminals
WG4
MAP/GTP /BCH/SS
WG5
OSA
TSG
GERAN
GSM/EDGE*
* created in mid 2000
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1.Introduction/1.2 Standardization
3GPP specifications
Series_Id Series_description
21. Requirements
22. Service Aspects
23. Technical Realization
24. Signaling Protocols (UE to network)
25. UTRA aspects
26. CODECs
27. Data
28. (reserved)
29. Signaling Protocols (intra-fixed network)
30. Program management
31. User Identity Module
32. O&M
33. Security Aspects
34. Test specification
35. Security algorithms
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1.Introduction/1.2 Standardization
UMTS Roadmap
EDGE
Commercial
introduction
UMTS R4/R5
UMTS R99
Field Trials
2000 2001 2003 2002
GPRS
implementation
UMTS R99
commercial
System
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1.Introduction
1.1 Context
1.2 Standardization
1.3 UMTS Goals
1.4 UMTS technical overview
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1.Introduction/1.3 UMTS goals
Why UMTS?
“UMTS will be a mobile communication system that offers significant user
benefits including high-quality wireless multimedia services to a convergent
network of fixed, cellular and satellite components.”
It will deliver information directly to users and provide them with access to
new and innovative services and applications.
It will offer mobile personalized communications to the mass market
regardless of location, network and terminal used.”
UMTS Forum 1997
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1.Introduction/1.3 UMTS goals
UMTS vision
Satellite
Macro-Cell
Micro-Cell
Zone 2: Urban
Zone 1: In-Building
Pico-Cell
Zone 4: Global
Zone 3: Suburban
UTRA/ TDD
UTRA/ FDD
MSS
GSM
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1.Introduction
1.1 Context
1.2 Standardization
1.3 UMTS Goals
1.4 UMTS technical overview
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.03
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1.Introduction/1.4 UMTS technical overview
UMTS general architecture
Core network (CN)
it provides support for the network
features and telecommunication
services. It is connected to external
CS networks or PS networks.
Radio Access network (RAN)
it comprises roughly the functions
specific to the access technique.
3 different RANs are foreseen:
•UTRAN (UMTS Terrestrial RAN)
•MSS (Mobile Satellite component)
•BRAN (Broadband RAN)
User Equipment (UE)
It is the mobile phone.
Iu
RAN
UE
Uu
CN Core Network
RAN Radio Access Network
UE User Equipment
CN
CS networks
(PSTN, ISDN..)
PS networks
(Internet…)
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1.Introduction/1.4 UMTS technical overview
UMTS Cellular System
UMTS consists of a set of hierarchical cells, but the multiple access
technique is completely different from GSM.
GSM
Users are separated in frequency
(FDMA) and in time (TDMA)
UMTS
Users are separated with codes
(CDMA)
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.03
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1.Introduction/1.4 UMTS technical overview
UMTS duplex modes
Downlink
Uplink
FDD mode
Code and Frequency
orthogonality
f1
f2
5 MHz channel
15TS
5 MHz channel
TDD mode
Code and Time
orthogonality
Uplink & Downlink
.
.
.
.
.
.
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1.Introduction/1.4 UMTS technical overview
UMTS Frequency allocations
TDD FDD MSS TDD
1900 1980 2010 2025 1920
MSS FDD
2110 2170 2200
FDD: Frequency Division Duplex
TDD: Time Division Duplex
MSS: Mobile Satellite System
Uplink Downlink
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.03
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1.Introduction
QUIZ! (1)
Mark the following answers to the questions A to E by True or False.
A. What are the limits of 2G systems like GSM?
1/ No security of communications
2/ No dynamical allocation of radio resources
3/ Mobility only in a small area
4/ Heavy mobile phones
5/ Limited offer of data services
B. EDGE...
1/ is an evolution of GSM
2/ is sometimes considered as a 3G system
3/ is based on a new modulation scheme
4/ is supposed to reach a bit rate about 40 times greater than the GSM one
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.03
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1.Introduction
QUIZ! (2)
C. Which of these radio interfaces belongs to IMT-2000?
1/ CDMA One 2/ UMTS FDD 3/ UMTS TDD 4/ CDMA 2000 5/ EDGE
D. What is the organisation responsible for UMTS standardization?
1/ 3GPP 2/ 3GPP2 3/ ETSI 4/ ARIB 5/ CWTS
E. What is the bandwidth of a CDMA carrier in UMTS?
1/ 200 kHz 2/ 1 MHz 3/ 5 MHz
F. Are the following statements about UTMS duplex modes True or False?
1/ FDD is similar to the GSM duplex mode
2/ TDD use the same frequencies as FDD
3/ FDD is better suited for asymmetric traffic
4/ TDD will come later
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.03
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2.
Services provided
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2. Services provided
2.1 UMTS service principles
2.2 UMTS Bearer services
2.3 Tele-services
2.4 UMTS Terminals
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2. Services provided/2.1 UMTS service principles
What is a service?
E.g speech,
file transfer,
emails...
E.g data
transfer at
9,6 kbps, in
transparent
mode,
with turbocode
...
UTRAN
CN
CN
Gateway
TE
UMTS Bearer Service External Bearer
Service
UMTS Bearer Service
Radio Access Bearer Service
(RAB)
CN Bearer
Service
Backbone
Bearer Service
Iu Bearer
Service
Radio Bearer
Service
Radio Physical
Bearer Service
Physical
Bearer Service
Uu Iu
Teleservice
...
...
TE/MT
Node
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2. Services provided/2.1 UMTS service principles
Tele-services and
Bearer services
Teleservices
Speech, emergency calls
SMS
Email
Internet Access
Mobile e-commerce
Video Postcards
Information and location
based services
New applications
UMTS Bearer services
Large toolkit for all kinds of services
“Instinctive” service
Basic services
Enhanced services
New services to be provided
by service providers (third party)
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2. Services provided/2.1 UMTS service principles
Third party: service provider
Tele-services will not be standardised so as to differentiate between
operators and providers of applications.
UMTS offer new opportunity for content and service providers
Today‟s 1:1 customer-operator relationship
Tomorrow‟s situation?
Operator
Contracted Content providers
Contracted Service providers
Contracted Service providers
Operator
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2. Services provided/2.1 UMTS service principles
Virtual Home Environment (VHE)
The Virtual Home Environment (VHE) is a portability concept of the PSE
(Personal Service Environment):
• VHE enables the users to carry along its PSE whilst roaming
between networks
• VHE shall be independent of terminal used (in fact the service
configuration is adapted to the terminal capacities)
• "same look and feel" wherever you are
PSE : the user has access to a range of services in its Home Environment.
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2. Services provided/2.1 UMTS service principles
Service Architecture
VHE concept is based on the standard mechanisms of Service Capability
Servers which allow Service Capability Features. The latter are carried
through standard interfaces in order to support Tele-services adapted to the
Service Capabilities of the network and user equipment.
Service Layer
Service Capability Features
SAT CAMEL MExE
Service Capability Servers
GSM/GPRS/UMTS
Standardized
interfaces
Network Layer
Tele-services
(terminal equipment functions,
Operator transmission capabilities)
Bearer Services
Fixed
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2. Services provided/2.1 UMTS service principles
Let’s Look for the nearest
restaurant
Choose your preferences:
- type of restaurant: French
- type of payment: credit card
...
This service is built from the following service capability features:
call set-up & authorisation (CAMEL for services in roaming after
authentication phase with SAT),
Map display on the phone : SAT and MExE
Call the restaurant by Push Service : MExE
Reservation with VISA card number : secured transaction with MExE
Billing of the service : CAMEL
Restaurant Paul Bocuse
69660 Collonges-au-Mont-d'or
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2. Services provided
2.1 UMTS service principles
2.2 UMTS Bearer services
2.3 Tele-services
2.4 UMTS Terminals
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2. Services provided/2.2 UMTS Bearer Services
Bearer services characterization
Bearer services are characterized by a set of end-to-end characteristics
with requirements on QoS, always considered point-to-point.
Bearer services provide the capability for information transfer between
access points and involve only low layer functions.
Each bearer service is characterized by its requirements:
• transfer information: connection oriented or connectionless, traffic
type (guaranteed/constant bit rate, non guaranteed/variable…), traffic
characteristics (uni-directional, bi-directional, multicast…), priority
• quality characteristics: maximum transfer delay, delay variation, bit
error ratio, data rate.
This set of requirements are called QoS parameters.
Example : several active radio bearer services can be handled
simultaneously by the same terminal equipment.
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2. Services provided/2.2 UMTS Bearer Services
Bearer QoS requirements
• negotiable: QoS offer on demand
• provide a wide range of QoS levels
• dynamic behaviour: It shall be possible to negotiate (re-negotiate) the
characteristics of a bearer service at session or connection establishment
(during an on going session or connection).
• support of asymmetric nature between uplink and downlink
• supply of bearer services without wasting resources on the radio and
network interfaces.
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2. Services provided/2.2 UMTS Bearer Services
Bearer Supported bit rates
The only limiting factor for satisfying application requirements shall be the
cumulative bit rate per mobile termination at a given instant in each radio
environment:
-At least 144 kbits/s in rural outdoor radio environment (with a
maximum speed of 500 km/h)
-At least 384 kbits/s in urban or suburban outdoor radio
environments (with a maximum speed of 120 km/h)
•At least 2048 kbits/s in indoor or low range outdoor radio
environment (with a maximum speed of 10 km/h)
Theses performances decrease:
- when the speed of the user increases
- when the load of the network increases
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2. Services provided
2.1 UMTS service principles
2.2 UMTS Bearer services
2.3 Tele-services
2.4 UMTS Terminals
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2. Services provided/2.3 Tele-services
Typology
Location services
• Traffic Conditions
• Itineraries
• Nearest Restaurant,
Cinema, Chemist,
Parking;, ATM ...
Fun
• Games (Hangman, Poker, Quiz, …)
• Screen Saver
• Ring Tone
• Horoscope
• Biorhythm
Media
Always-on
M-commerce
Mobile Office
• Voice (!)
• E-mail
• Agenda
• IntraNet/InterNet
• Corporate Applications
• Database Access
Transportation
• Flight/train Schedule
• reservation
Vertical
application
• Traffic Management
• Automation
• Mobile branches
• Health
Music
• Downloading of
music files or
video clips
News
(general/specific)
• International/National News
• Local News
• Sport News
• Weather
• Lottery Results
• Finance News
• Stock Quotes
• Exchange Rates
Physical
• on-line shopping
• on-line food
Non physical
• on-line Banking
• Ticketing
• Auction
• Gambling
• Best Price
• e-Book
Directories
• Yellow/White Pages
• International Directories
• Operator Services
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2. Services provided/2.3 Tele-services
QoS classes
 4 classes have been identified:
conversational
- AMR speech service
- Video telephony
– CS: H324
– PS: H323
streaming
interactive
- Web-browsing
- location based services
background
- e-mail delivery
- SMS ...
Delay
sensitive
+
-
Data
Integrity
sensitive
-
+
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2. Services provided/2.3 Tele-services
Performance
QoS of teleservices depends not only on UMTS network, but also on
applications, terminals and external networks.
From a user‟s perspective it is more relevant to speak of delay rather than
bit rate:
Error
tolerant
Error
intolerant
Conversational
delay <<1 sec
Interactive
delay<1 sec
Streaming
delay <10 sec
Background
delay >10 sec
Conversational
voice and video
Streaming audio
and video
Fax
E-mail arrival
notification
E-commerce,
WWW browsing
Telnet,
interactive games
FTP, still image,
paging
Voice messaging
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2. Services provided/2.3 Tele-services
Defining charging principles
• How will billing be performed: by time? by volume? by number of
connections?
• If billing is performed by volume, what will be an easy way to explain to
the customer what a “1 Mbyte of data” is?
• What will happen in case of handover between GSM and UMTS?
• What about roaming? Prepaid services?
• QoS depends directly on the load of the network. A trade-off must be
found between users. Customers who pay more might have higher priority
or better QoS (depending of the operator‟s strategies). Billing for a given
service might depend on the QoS.
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2. Services provided/2.3 Teleservices
Location based services
Teleservices will depend on the strategy and on the imagination of
operators and content providers.
The key point is likely to be a fast access to information and an appropriate
filtering of the user location data.
the UMTS killer application is likely be a location based service
Example of location based services : look for an hotel, consult yellow
pages, get local traffic situation or weather report,...
Limitation: location information could be a risk for privacy.
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2. Services provided
2.1 UMTS service principles
2.2 UMTS Bearer services
2.3 Tele-services
2.4 UMTS Terminals
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2. Services provided/2.4 UMTS terminals
User Equipement (UE)
User Equipment (UE)
Cu interface
Mobile
Equipment
(ME)
Mobile
Equipment
(ME)
UICC
USIM
USIM2
1
GSM
access
SIM
GSM
terminal
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2. Services provided/2.4 UMTS terminals
Range of terminals
There will be a wide range of terminals depending of the type of application
(speech, video, games, dual...), the mode (UMTS/GSM, UMTS/DECT...)
Consumer Electronics
Games Audio
Image
Automotive / Telematics
N
e
w

i
n
t
e
r
f
a
c
e
s
Data / IT
E-Commerce
Domestic
Integrated approach:
1 handset able to perform all
functions. Most of the concept
phones today.
Distributed approach:
1 handset for voice & WAP, or voice only
and a Bluetooth connection to other
devices (headset, camera...).
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2. Services provided
QUIZ!
A. True or False? The tele-services...
1/ are used for example to make a call, to access yellow pages, on-line banking...
2/ are mapped on bearer services
3/ will be standardized by 3GPP
B. True of False? The VHE...
1/ is a portability concept of 3G mobile systems
2/ will enable to keep the same environment when roaming between mobile and fixed networks
3/ will be adapted to the terminal capabilities
4/ will use proprietary interfaces
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.03
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2. Services provided
QUIZ!
C. True or False? A bearer service can support for one user:
1/ 2 Mbps at a speed of 120 km/h
2/ 2 Mbps in a high loaded cell
3/ 2 Mbps at 3 km away from the base station
4/ Asymmetric traffic
5/ Variable traffic
D. True or False? Location based services...
1/ are services only available in some areas (city centers...)
2/ are services related to the location of the user
3/ can locate the mobile phone with an accuracy of about 50 m
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.03
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2. Services provided
QUIZ!
E. True or False? A UICC (UMTS integrated Circuit Card)...
1/ has the same size as a GSM SIM card
2/ can not be used in a GSM terminal
3/ can be used in an UMTS terminal and provide access to GSM network
4/ is linked with the UMTS terminal via a proprietary interface
5/ may provide access to UMTS networks of different operators
F. UMTS services have been announced to come later than initially scheduled because of
non availability of UMTS terminals in volume: can you find some reasons which makes it
quite complex to design UMTS terminals?
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.03
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3.
UMTS System Description
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.03
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3. UMTS System Description
3 views of the system
Entities
Bearers
Protocol
stacks
Logical architecture
Protocol architecture
Call scenario
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.03
Page 58
3. UMTS System Description
3.1 Logical architecture
3.2 Protocol architecture
3.3 Call scenario
Entities
Bearers
Protocol
stacks
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.03
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3. UMTS System Descript./3.1 UMTS logical
architecture
UMTS logical Architecture
RNS
RNC
RNS
RNC
Core Network
Node B
Iu-CS Iu-PS
Iur
Iub
Iub
Iub Iub
CS-Service
Domain
PS-Service
Domain
Iu-reference
point
Iu-PS Iu-CS
Node_B
Node B Node B Node B
UU
CN
IU
UTRA
N
UE
Uu-reference
point
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.03
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3. UMTS System Descript./3.1 UMTS logical
architecture
CN logical architecture
UMTS Core Network for Release 99
PLMN
PSTN / ISDN
External
IP Network
2G/3G
SGSN
HLR
VHE
GSM BSS
BSC
Iu (PS)
Iu (CS)
2G/3G
MSC
RNC
IP Backbone
2G/3G
GGSN
A
Gb
UTRAN
2G/3G
GMSC
EIR AuC
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.03
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3. UMTS System Descript./3.1 UMTS logical
architecture UTRAN logical
Architecture
RNC
It is the intelligent part of the UTRAN:
- radio resource management (code allocation, congestion control, admission
control)
- radio mobility management
- macro-diversity handling (soft HO)
- control of Node-Bs
Node-B
A Node-B can be composed of several cells and performs:
- radio transmission handling
- macro-diversity handling (softer HO)
RNS
RNC
RNS
RNC
Node B
Iur
Iub
Iub
Iub Iub
Node_B
Node B Node B Node B
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.03
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5
D
S
6
S
2 1
3. UMTS System Descript./3.1 UMTS logical
architecture Soft Handover (1)
Core Network
Iub Iub
Iu
Iub
Iur
Iu
Iub
RNC1 RNC2
NodeB1 NodeB2 NodeB3 NodeB4
3 4
S D
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.03
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3. UMTS System Descript./3.1 UMTS logical
architecture Soft Handover (2)
The role of an RNC (Serving or Drift) is on a per connection basis between
a UE and the UTRAN:
Serving RNC: provide Iu UE-CN connection
Drift RNC: supports Serving RNC by providing radio resources
The recombination of the signal is performed in Serving RNC (in Node B for
softer HO) and in UE using a RAKE receiver.
Soft HO is highly recommended in UMTS system: about 30 to 40% of
mobiles are in macro-diversity mode in IS-95.
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.03
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3. UMTS System Descript./3.1 UMTS logical
architecture UMTS logical Interfaces
Open Interfaces
The functional split for the UMTS components (UE, Node-B, RNC...) are
clearly specified, but the internal architecture and implementation issues
are left open (it is up to the manufacturer).
However all the interfaces (Cu, Uu, Iub, Iur, Iu-CS, Iu-Ps) have been
defined in such a detailed level that the equipment at the endpoints can be
from different manufacturers.
“Open Interfaces” aim at motivating competition between manufacturers.
Physical implementation of Iu interfaces
Each Iu Interface may be implemented on any physical connection using
any transport technology.
ATM will be provided in the R99 release and IP is foreseen in further
releases
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.03
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3. UMTS System Description
3.1 Logical architecture
3.2 Protocol architecture
3.3 Call scenario
Entities
Bearers
Protocol
stacks
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.03
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3. UMTS System Descri./3.2 UMTS protocol
architecture Access stratum and
Non Access Stratum
Interchanges between entities is applied on a peer-to-peer principle.
Each entity provides services to entities of upper layers through Service
Access Points (SAP).
SAP
UTRAN
CN
Access Stratum
(AS)
Non-Access Stratum (NAS)
Uu Iu
Iu
Protocols
(2)
Iu
Protocols
(2)
Radio
Protocols
(1)
UE
Radio
Protocols
(1)
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.03
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3. UMTS System Descri./3.2 UMTS protocol
architecture Non Access Stratum
CM/MM
Iu Protocols
Iu
Protocols
Radio
Protocols
CM/MM
Radio Protocols
MSC
UE
Iu-
CS
Uu
NAS
AS
CS traffic
CS traffic
PS traffic
PS traffic
Iu Protocols
SGSN
Iu-PS
SM/GMM
UTRAN
SM/GMM
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.03
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MAC
RLC
PDCP BMC
3. UMTS System Descri./3.2 UMTS protocol
architecture Access Stratum: radio
protocols
Phys
MAC
RLC
Phys
Uu Iub
ACCESS STRATUM (AS)
UE Node B RNC
PDCP BMC
RRC
NON ACCESS STRATUM (NAS)
RRC
2. Web browsing (from/to Iu-PS)
2
4. User authentication (NAS signalling)
4
1. Speech (from/to Iu-CS)
1
5. Initial access (RRC Connection Establishment)
3. Local
weather
forecast
(SMS
Cell
Broadcast
)
3
Iu
protocols
Iu
protocols
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.03
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3. UMTS System Descri./3.2 UMTS protocol
architecture Access Stratum: Iu
protocols
RNC Node-B
SGSN
MSC
NBAP
Iu-CS
Iu-PS
RNC
Iur
Radio
Network
Layer
Transport
Network
Layer
Physical Layer
Signaling
Bearer(s)
Signaling
Bearer(s)
Data
Bearer(s)
ALCAP
Application
Protocol
Data
Stream(s)
Transport Network
Control Plane
Transport Network
User Plane
Transport Network
User Plane
Control
Plane
User Plane
The same general
protocol model is applied
for all Iu interfaces:
Application Protocol:
- NBAP for Iub
- RNSAP for Iur
- RANAP for Iu-CS
and Iu-PS
Iub
RNSAP
RANAP
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.03
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3. UMTS System Description
3.1 Logical architecture
3.2 Protocol architecture
3.3 Call scenario
Entities
Bearers
Protocol
stacks
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.03
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3. UMTS System Description/3.3 Call Scenario
Radio Access Bearer (RAB)
“The RAB provides confidential transport of signaling and user data
between UE and CN with the appropriate QoS”.
UTRAN
UE
UMTS Bearer
UMTS Bearers
RABs (mapped on Radio & Iu Bearers)
CN-CS
CN-PS
Radio Bearers Iu Bearers
UMTS Bearer
UMTS bearer
services
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.03
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3. UMTS System Description/3.3 Call Scenario
Establishment of a call
Inside the UTRAN
No more distinction between CS and PS part: all data are mapped on RAB.
But the RAB characteristics (delay, bit rate…) may not be the same for CS
and PS part.
UTRAN has the total freedom to configure the radio bearers according to
the required RAB attributes (ie QoS).
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.03
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RANAP Phase
3. UMTS System Description/3.3 Call Scenario
Example : CS call establishment
UE CN
Uu
Iu
UTRAN
RRC Phase
Iu Bearer(s) allocation Radio Bearer(s) allocation
Authentication and ciphering
alert and connect (CS)
PDP context activated (PS)
RAB establishment
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.03
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3. UMTS System Description
QUIZ!
A. Put the correct words in the spaces on the figure below
... ...
...
...
...
... ... ...
...
...
...
...
...
...
CS networks
(PSTN, ISDN)
PS networks
(internet)
...
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.03
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3. UMTS System Description
Quiz!
B. Which of the following statements concerning the soft(er) handover is true of false?
1/ a soft(er) HO consists of two or more simultaneous radio links between the UE and the
UTRAN
2/ a soft HO is under the control of the Drift RNC
3/ a softer HO is performed by Node-B
C. Where is performed the radio mobility management?
1/ in the CN 2/ at the RNC 3/ at the Node-B
D. According to the norm, can the RNC from a given
manufacturer be compatible with:
1/ the CN of another manufacturer?
2/ the RNC of another manufacturer?
3/ the Node-B of another manufacturer?
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.03
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4.
WCDMA for UMTS
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.03
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4. WCDMA for UMTS
4.1 Context
4.2 Spread Spectrum modulation
4.3 Code Division Multiple Access
4.4 Rake Receiver
4.5 Power Control
4.6 Soft Handover
4.7 Typical coverage and capacity values
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.03
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4. WCDMA for UMTS/ 4.1 Context
From military to civil modern
radio-communications
Early 70’s
CDMA developed for military field for its great qualities of privacy (low
probability interception, interference rejection)
1996
CDMA commercial launch in the US
This system called IS-95 or cdmaOne was developed by Qualcomm and
has reached 50 million subscribers worldwide
2000
IMT-2000 has selected three CDMA radio interfaces:
- WCDMA (UTRA FDD)
- TD-CDMA (UTRA TDD)
- CDMA 2000
In the following material we will only refer to WCDMA(UTRA FDD)
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.03
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4. WCDMA for UMTS/ 4.1 Context
Why CDMA?
CDMA is very attractive:
• Better spectrum efficiency than 2G systems
• Suitable for all type of services (circuit, packet) and for multi-services
• Enhanced privacy
• Evolutionary (linked with progress in signal processing field)
BUT:
• Complex system: not easy to configure and to manage
• Unstable in case of congestion
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.03
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4.1 Context
4.2 Spread Spectrum modulation
4.3 Code Division Multiple Access
4.4 Rake Receiver
4.5 Power Control
4.6 Soft Handover
4.7 Typical coverage and capacity values
4. WCDMA for UMTS
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.03
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4. WCDMA for UMTS/ 4.2 Spread Spectrum Modulation
A code as a shell
against noise
The letter „A‟ represents the signal to transmit over the radio interface.
At the transmitter the height (ie the power) of „A‟ is spread, while a color (i.e
a code) is added to „A‟.
At the receiver „A‟ can be retrieved with knowledge of the code, even if the
power of the received signal is below the power of noise due to the radio
channel.
Radio channel
Receiver Transmitter
Spreading
Noise
Despreading
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.03
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4. WCDMA for UMTS/ 4.2 Spread Spectrum
Modulation Spectrum spreading
At the transmitter the signal is multiplied by a code which spreads the
signal over a wide bandwidth while decreasing the power (per unit of
spectrum).
At the receiver it is possible to retrieve the wanted signal by multiplying the
received signal by the same code: you get a peak of correlation, while the
noise level due to the radio channel remains the same, because this is not
correlated with the code.
The spectrum spreading permits transmission of a signal below the noise
level and makes the signal very hard to detect.
Spectrumspreading makes CDMA very secure.
f
P
f
P
f
P
f
P
Noise
level
Radio channel
Spreading
De-spreading
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.03
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4. WCDMA for UMTS/ 4.2 Spread Spectrum
Modulation Transmission Chain
Air Interface
The narrowband data signal is multiplied bit per bit by a code sequence: it
is known as “chipping”.
The chip rate of this code sequence is much higher than the bit rate of the
data signal: it produces a wideband signal, also called spread signal.
At the receiver the same code sequence in phase should be used to
retrieve the original data signal.
Modulator Demodulator
Code Sequence
Data Data
Code sequence
NB-Signal WB-Signal NB-Signal WB-Signal
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.03
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4. WCDMA for UMTS/ 4.2 Spread Spectrum
Modulation Spreading factor
Signal 1 0 0 (bits)
Spreading 1111 0000 0000 (chips)
Code 0101 0101 0101
Tx signal 0101 1010 1010
Rx signal 0101 1010 1010
Code 0101 0101 0101
Despreading 1111 0000 0000
Signal 1 0 0
(In this case, each bit of the signal is spread over 4 chips. The spreading
factor is 4)
Spreading makes CDMA adequate for services with variable bit rates.
Radio channel
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.03
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4. WCDMA for UMTS/ 4.2 Spread Spectrum
Modulation Processing Gain
The Processing Gain is the gain you have at the receiver by the
despreading of the signal (peak of correlation). It enables transmission of
the signal below the noise level.
A high bit rate signal needs more power to cross the noise level by
de-spreading.
f
P
W
Processing
Gain
Rb
De-spreading
|
.
|

\
|
=
b R
W
Log10 10 Gain Processing
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.03
Page 86
4.1 Context
4.2 Spread Spectrum modulation
4.3 Code Division Multiple Access
4.4 Rake Receiver
4.5 Power Control
4.6 Soft Handover
4.7 Typical coverage and capacity values
4. WCDMA for UMTS
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.03
Page 87
4. WCDMA for UMTS/ 4.3 Code Division Multiple
Access One-cell reuse
The area is divided into cells, but the entire
bandwidth is reused in each cell (frequency reuse
of one)
> Inter-cell interference
> Cell orthogonality is achieved by codes
The entire bandwidth is used by each user at the
same time
> Intra-cell interference
> User orthogonality is achieved by codes
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.03
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4. WCDMA for UMTS/ 4.3 Code Division Multiple
Access Multiple access (1)
All the users transmit on the same 5 MHz carrier at the same time and
interfere with each over.
At the receiver the users can be separated by means of (quasi-)orthogonal
codes.
Transmitter 2
Spreading 1
Spreading1
Spreading 2
Receiver
Radio Channel
Transmitter 1
The receiver aims at receiving Transmitter 1 only.
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.03
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4. WCDMA for UMTS/ 4.3 Code Division Multiple Access
Multiple access (2)
If a user transmits with a very high power, it will be impossible for the
receiver to decode the wanted signal (despite use of quasi-orthogonal
codes)
CDMA is unstable by nature and requires accurate power control.
Transmitter 2
Receiver
Radio Channel
Transmitter 1
The receiver aims at receiving Transmitter 1 only.
Spreading 1
Spreading1
Spreading 2
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.03
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4. WCDMA for UMTS/ 4.3 Code Division Multiple Access
Spreading:
Channelization and scrambling
2
ch
c
3
ch
c
1
ch
c
scrambling
c
The channelization code (or spreading code) is signal-specific: the code
length is chosen according to the bit rate of the signal.
The scrambling code is equipment-specific.
air
interface
Modulator
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.03
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4. WCDMA for UMTS/ 4.3 Code Division Multiple Access
Channelization codes
(spreading codes)
The channelization codes are OVSF (Orthogonal Variable Spreading
Factor) codes:
• their length is equal to the spreading factor of the signal: they can match
variable bit rates on a frame-by-frame basis.
• orthogonality enables to separate physical channels:
Uplink: separation of physical channels from the same terminal
Downlink: separation of physical channels to different users within one cell
SF = 1
C
ch,1,0
= (1)
C
ch,2,0
= (1,1)
C
ch,2,1
= (1,-1)
C
ch,4,0
=(1,1,1,1)
C
ch,4,1
= (1,1,-1,-1)
C
ch,4,2
= (1,-1,1,-1)
C
ch,4,3
= (1,-1,-1,1)
SF = 4 SF = 2 SF = 8
The code tree is shared by several
users (usually one code tree per
cell)
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.03
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4. WCDMA for UMTS/ 4.3 Code Division Multiple Access
Scrambling codes
The scrambling codes provide separation between equipment:
• Uplink: separation of terminals
No need for code planning (millions of codes!)
There are 2
14
long and 2
14
short scrambling codes in uplink
• Downlink: separation of cells
Need for code planning between cells (but trivial task)
There are only long scrambling codes in downlink (512 to limit the code
identification during cell search procedure)
The long scrambling codes are truncated to the 10 ms frame length.
Only one downlink scrambling code should be used within a cell.
Another scrambling code may be introduced in one cell if necessary
(example : shortage of channelization code), but orthogonality between
users will be degraded.
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.03
Page 93
4. WCDMA for UMTS
4.1 Context
4.2 Spread Spectrum modulation
4.3 Code Division Multiple Access
4.4 Rake Receiver
4.5 Power Control
4.6 Soft Handover
4.7 Typical coverage and capacity values
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.03
Page 94
4. WCDMA for UMTS/ 4.4 Rake Receiver
Rake Receiver principle (1)
In a CDMA system there is a single carrier which contains all user signals.
Decoding of all these signals by one receiver is only a question of signal
processing capacity.
A Rake receiver is capable to decode several signals simultaneously in the
so called “fingers” and to combine them in order to improve the quality of
the signal or to get several services at the same time.
A Rake receiver is implemented in mobile phones and in base stations.
A Rake receiver can provide:
- multi-service (via handling of multiple physical channels that are carrying
the services)
- soft handover
- path diversity
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.03
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4. WCDMA for UMTS/ 4.4 Rake Receiver
Rake receiver principle (2)
The components of the multi-code signal are demodulated in parallel each
in one “finger” of the Rake Receiver.
The outputs of the fingers:
• can provide independent data signals
• can be combined to provide a better data signal(s)
Delay 1
Code Sequence 1
Code Sequence 2 or 3
Code Sequence 2
Delay 2
Delay 3
Data 2
1st
Finger
2nd
Finger
3rd
Finger
Data 1
Multi-code
signal
Delay Adjustment
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.03
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4. WCDMA for UMTS/ 4.4 Rake Receiver
Rake receiver
and multi-service
As a first approach, we can say:
One service, one code! (*)
Multimedia receiver Transmitter
Spreading 1 Despreading 1
Radio Channel
Spreading 2
Despreading 2
>> Which codes make it possible to
separate the two signals at the receiver?
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.03
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4. WCDMA for UMTS/ 4.4 Rake Receiver
Rake Receiver
and soft handover
Soft handover is possible, because the two mobile stations use the same
frequency band. The mobile phone need only one transmission chain to
decode both simultaneously.
Base Station 2
Spreading 1
Despreading 1&2
Spreading 2
Mobile phone
Radio Channel
Base station 1
>> Which codes make it possible to
separate the two signals at the
receiver?
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.03
Page 98
4. WCDMA for UMTS/ 4.4 Rake Receiver
Rake Receiver
and path diversity (1)
Natural obstacles (buildings, hills…) cause reflections, diffractions and
scattering and consequently multipath propagation.
The delay dispersion depends on the environment and is typically:
• 1 µs (300 m) in urban areas
• 20 µs (6000 m) in hilly areas
The delay dispersion should be compared with the chip duration 0,26 µs
(78 m) of the CDMA system.
If the delay dispersion is greater than the chip duration, the multipath
components of the signal can be separated by a Rake Receiver.
In this case, CDMA can take advantage of multipath propagation.
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.03
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4. WCDMA for UMTS/ 4.4 Rake Receiver
Rake Receiver
and path diversity (2)
Dispersion > Chip duration
The Rake Receiver can provide path diversity to improve the quality of the signal.
Receiver Transmitter
Spreading
Despreading
Direct path
Reflected path
Receiver Transmitter
Spreading Despreading
Direct path
Reflected path
Dispersion <Chip duration
The Rake Receiver cannot provide path diversity.
>> Which codes make it
possible to separate the two
signals at the receiver?
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.03
Page 100
4. WCDMA for UMTS
4.1 Context
4.2 Spread Spectrum modulation
4.3 Code Division Multiple Access
4.4 Rake Receiver
4.5 Power Control
4.6 Soft Handover
4.7 Typical coverage and capacity values
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.03
Page 101
4. WCDMA for UMTS/ 4.5 Power Control
Why Power Control?
> Need for very efficient and very fast Power Control on UL
> Power Control is also used in DL to reduce interference and
consequently to increase the system capacity.
Node
B
MS2
MS1
Near-Far Problem
on the uplink way an overpowered mobile phone near the base station can
jam any other mobile phones far from the base station.
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.03
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4. WCDMA for UMTS/ 4.5 Power Control
Open Loop
If UE receives a STRONG DL signal,
then UE will speak low.
Node
B
Node
B
1
2
1
2
If UE receives a weak DL
signal,
then UE will speak LOUD.
Problem:
fading is not correlated on UL and DL due to separation of UL and DL band.
Open loop Power Control is inaccurate.
Open loop power control
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.03
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4. WCDMA for UMTS/ 4.5 Power Control
Closed Loop
The Node-B controls the power of the UE (and vice versa) by performing a
SIR estimation (inner loop).
The RNC controls parameters of the SIR estimation (outer loop).
This SIR estimation is performed each 0,66 ms (1500 Hz command rate).
Closed loop Power Control is very fast.
Node
B
Closed loop power control
...
”Power down”
”Power up”
”Power down”
”Power ...”
SIR estimation
SIR
estimation
SIR
estimation
SIR
estimation
RNC
SIR
target
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.03
Page 104
4.1 Context
4.2 Spread Spectrum modulation
4.3 Code Division Multiple Access
4.4 Rake Receiver
4.5 Power Control
4.6 Soft Handover
4.7 Typical coverage and capacity values
4. WCDMA for UMTS
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.03
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4. WCDMA for UMTS/ 4.6 Soft Handover
Soft Handover (1)
Node
B
Node
B
Soft
HO
Softer HO
RNC
Node
B
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.03
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4. WCDMA for UMTS/ 4.6 Soft Handover
Soft Handover (2)
Why do we need soft HO?
Imagine that a UE penetrates from one cell deeply into an adjacent cell:
> it may cause near-far problem
> hard HO is not a good solution, because of the need for the hysteresis
mechanism
Additional resources due to soft HO:
- Additional rake receiver in Node-B
- Additional Rake Fingers in UE
- Additional transmission links between Node-Bs and RNCs
Soft HO provides Diversity (also called Macro-Diversity), but requires
more network resource.
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.03
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4. WCDMA for UMTS/ 4.6 Soft Handover
Soft Handover (3)
 Soft Handover execution:
Soft Handover is executed by means of the following procedures
- Radio Link Addition (FDD soft-add);
- Radio Link Removal (FDD soft-drop);
- Combined Radio Link Addition and Removal.
The cell to be added to the active set needs to have information
forwarded by the RNC:
- Connection parameters (coding scheme, layer 2 information, …)
- UE ID and uplink scrambling code,
- Timing information from UE
The UE needs to get the following information
- Channelization & scrambling codes to be used
- Relative timing information (Timing offset based on CPICH synchro)
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4. WCDMA for UMTS
4.1 Context
4.2 Spread Spectrum modulation
4.3 Code Division Multiple Access
4.4 Rake Receiver
4.5 Power Control
4.6 Soft Handover
4.7 Typical coverage and capacity values
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4. WCDMA for UMTS/ 4.7 Typical coverage and capacity
values
Radio dimensioning process: What’s
new?
Market perspective
Mobile data market forecast
Marketing inputs
Multi-service environment
Voice+data
Variable bit rate
Different QoS
Asymmetric traffic
New radio technology
W-CDMA
Capacity
Coverage
Quality
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4. WCDMA for UMTS/ 4.7 Typical coverage and capacity
values
Concentric coverage
Service Speech
12 kbit/s
Packet data
144 kbit/s
Packet data
384 kbit/s
Cell radius
(uplink limited)
The coverage is determined by the uplink range, because the transmission
power of the terminal is much lower than that of the base station.
UE Transmit Power
21 dBm (126 mW)
24 dBm (251 mW)
~ 3 km ~ 2 km ~ 1,5 km
in suburban area
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4. WCDMA for UMTS/ 4.7 Typical coverage and capacity values
Ways of improving coverage
AMR speech Codec
it enables to switch to a lower bit rate if the mobile is moving out of the cell
coverage area: it is a trade-off between quality and coverage.
Multipath diversity
it consists of combining the different paths of a signal (due to reflections,
diffractions or scattering) by using a Rake Receiver.
Multipath diversity is very efficient with W-CDMA.
Soft(er) handover
the transmission from the mobile is received by two or more base stations.
Receive antenna diversity
the base station collects the signal on two uncorrelated branches. It can be
obtained by space or polarization diversity.
Base stations algorithms
e.g. accuracy of SIR estimation in power control process
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4. WCDMA for UMTS/ 4.7 Typical coverage and capacity values
Soft capacity
The capacity is determined by the downlink direction, because:
- better receiver techniques can be used in the base station than in the
mobile station (but requiring more CPU power).
- the downlink capacity is expected to be more important than the uplink
capacity because of asymmetric traffic.
The downlink capacity has two limitations:
- the amount of interference in the air interface
Adjacent cells share part of the same interference: there is an additional
capacity in a cell, if the number of users in the neighboring cells is smaller.
- the loss of code orthogonality
The downlink codes originate from a single point and can be synchronized.
But, after transmission over multipath channel, part of orthogonality is lost.
It is a soft capacity, because it is not limited by the hardware equipment.
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4. WCDMA for UMTS/ 4.7 Typical coverage and capacity values
Parameters influencing capacity
The capacity depends on:
- the radio environment (rural, suburban, indoor)
- the terminal speeds
- the distribution of the terminals
- the load of the cell: trade-off capacity/coverage (breathing cells)
High loaded cell
High DL interference level
DL data throughput 660 kbps
(per carrier per sector)
High loaded cell
Low DL interference level
DL data throughput 1440 kbps
(per carrier per sector)
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4. WCDMA for UMTS
QUIZ!
A. True or False? Spreading...
1/ consists of increasing the power while decreasing the frequency bandwidth
2/ allows to transmit a signal with a S/N (Signal-to-Noise ratio) smaller than one
3/ enables to retrieve the coded signal at the receiver by using the same code in phase
4/ is used in FDMA system
B. Signal 1 has a bit rate of 12 kbps and a coding rate of 1/3, signal 2 has a bit rate of 384
kbps and a coding rate of 1/2:
1/ Which spreading factor should be chosen for each of these signals?
2/ What is the processing gain for each of these signals?
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.03
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4. WCDMA for UMTS
QUIZ!
C. True of false? WCDMA...
1/ is also called UMTS FDD or UTRA FDD
2/ uses a 1 MHz bandwidth carrier
3/ has a chip rate of 3,84 Mchips/s
D. How many carriers are there per operator for WCDMA?
1/ 124 carriers 2/ 62 carriers 3/ 1 to 3 according to the country
E. True or false? A Rake Receiver
1/ can separate simultaneously two signals only if their codes are perfectly orthogonal
2/ can separate simultaneously several signals of 2 different WCDMA carriers
3/ can take advantage of multipath propagation
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4. WCDMA for UMTS
QUIZ!
F. True or false? In WCDMA, power control
1/ is used in uplink and in downlink
2/ is crucial in downlink because of near-far problem
3/ is composed of the open loop and the closed loop
4/ may be performed each WCDMA time slot (1500 Hz command rate)
G. True or false? Soft handover...
1/ is highly desirable in WCDMA
2/ require use of more frequencies
3/ require use of more power in uplink
4/ require additional signal processing equipment such as Rake Receiver
5/ require additional transmission links
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.03
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5.
UMTS Terrestrial
Radio Access Network
(FDD mode, Release 1999)
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.03
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5. UTRAN
UTRAN role and principles
• To transfer traffic and control channels between UE and CN
- Common handling of packet-switched and circuit-switched data
- Protection of the user data on the air interface (providing of ciphering)
- Independence from the applied transport technology on the Iu interface
• To manage the radio mobility of the user
Full control of UE radio mobility with the use of the Iur interface which makes it
possible to perform soft HO even with 2 cells/Node-Bs belonging to different RNCs.
• To make efficient use of limited radio resources
Support of WCDMA specific Radio Resource Management (RRM) algorithms.
Layer 3
Layer 2
Layer 1
UE RNC Node B
Uu Iub
CN
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5. UTRAN
5.1 From Radio Bearers to transport channels
5.2 Radio Protocols
5.3 Iu Protocols
5.4 UE identifiers and UE states
5.5 Signalling procedures
5.6 The Physical Layer (on the air interface)
5.7 Radio Resource Management (RRM)
5.8 Mobility management
Layer 3
Layer 2
Layer 1
UE RNC Node B
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5. UTRAN/5.1 From Radio Bearers to transport
channels
Situation
UTRAN
CN
CN
Gateway
UE
UMTS Bearer Service External Bearer
Service
UMTS Bearer Service
Radio Access Bearer Service
(RAB)
CN Bearer
Service
Backbone
Bearer Service
Iu Bearer
Service
Radio Bearer
Service
Radio Physical
Bearer Service
Physical
Bearer Service
Uu Iu
Teleservice
... ...
UE
Node
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5. UTRAN/5.1 From Radio Bearers to transport channels
Radio Bearers, logical and transport
channels
Control plane User plane
Transport Channels
(Iur)/Iub/Uu
Control
Logical
Channel
s
User plane
Radio
Bearers
RRC
RLC
MAC MAC
Phys. Phys.
PDCP BMC
Traffic
Logical
Channels
Signalling
Radio
Bearers
NAS signalling
Telephony
speech
Web browsing
SMS Cell
Broadcast
RRC
connection
establishment
Transport Channels
...
UTRAN UE
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.03
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5. UTRAN/5.1 From Radio Bearers to transport
channels
Radio Bearers
Signalling Radio Bearers (SRB)
SRBs can carry:
- layer 3 signalling (e.g. RRC connection establishment)
- NAS signalling (e.g location update)
There can be up to 4 SRBs per RRC connection (one UE has one RRC
connection when connected to the UTRAN).
User Plane Radio Bearers
RABs are mapped on user plane RBs.
One RAB can be divided on RAB sub-flows and each sub-flow is mapped on
one user plane RB.
e.g the AMR codec encodes/decodes speech into/from three sub-flows; each
sub-flow can have its own channel coding.
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5. UTRAN/5.1 From Radio Bearers to transport
channels
Logical Channels (1)
Control Channels (CCH)
Broadcast Control Channel (BCCH)
Traffic Channels (TCH)
Paging Control Channel (PCCH)
Dedicated Control Channel (DCCH)
Common Control Channel (CCCH)
Dedicated Traffic Channel (DTCH)
Common Traffic Channel (CTCH)
UTRAN
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5. UTRAN/5.1 From Radio Bearers to transport
channels Logical Channels (2)
UL ( )
/
DL ( )
What type of information?
BCCH System control information
e.g cell identity, uplink interference level
PCCH Paging information
e.g CN originated call when the network does not know the
location cell of the UE
CCCH Control information
e.g initial access (RRC connection request), cell update
DCCH Control information (but the UE must have a RRC connection)
e.g radio bearer setup, measurement reports, HO
DTCH Traffic information dedicated to one UE
e.g speech, fax, web browsing
CTCH Traffic information to all or a group of UEs
e.g SMS-Cell Broadcast
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5. UTRAN/5.1 From Radio Bearers to transport
channels Why Transport Channels?
A transport channel offers a flexible pattern to arrange information on any
service-specific rate, delay or coding before mapping it on a physical
channel:
• it provides flexibility in traffic variation
• it enables multiplexing of transport channels on the same physical channel
Transport channels provide an efficient and fast flexibility in radio
resource management.
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5. UTRAN/5.1 From Radio Bearers to transport channels
Structure of a Transport Channel (1)
168
168
168
168
168
360
360 bits
10 ms
Time Transmission
Interval (TTI): periodicity
at which a Transport Block
Set is transferred by the
physical layer on the radio
interface
10 ms
Transport Block: basic
unit exchanged over
transport channels.
Transport Format (TF): it may be changed every TTI.
Each TF must belong to the Transport Format Set (TFS) of
the transport channel
168
168
>> The system delivers one Transport Block Set to the
physical layer every TTI: what is the delivery bit rate of the
transport blocks to the physical layer during the first TTI?
10 ms
10 ms
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5. UTRAN/5.1 From Radio Bearers to transport channels
Structure of a Transport Channel (2)
Transport Format (TF)
• Semi-static part (can be changed, but long process)
Transmission Time Interval (TTI),
Coding scheme...
• Dynamic part (may be changed easily)
Size of transport block,
Number of transport blocks per TTI
Transport Format Set (TFS)
It is the set of allowed Transport Formats for a transport channel, which is
assigned by RRC protocol entity to MAC protocol entity.
MAC chooses TF among TFS.
MAC may choose another TF every TTI without interchanging with RRC
protocol (fast radio resource control).
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5. UTRAN/5.1 From Radio Bearers to transport channels
Example
576
576
576
576
576
576
576 bits
576
576
40 ms
3. How many Transport Format(s) may be chosen for this transport channel?
4. Can you imagine why the transfer has been interrupted during the third TTI?
Static Part
TTI ?
Coding scheme Turbo coding, coding rate= 1/ 3
CRC 16 bits
Dynamic Part
Transport Block Size ?
Transport Block Size Set 576*B (B= 0,1,2,3,4)
1. Complete the table
2. What is the delivery
bit rate of the transport
blocks to the physical
layer during the first
TTI?
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5. UTRAN/5.1 From Radio Bearers to transport channels
Transport Channels
Common Channels
Broadcast Channel (BCH)
Dedicated Channels
Paging Channel (PCH)
Random Access Channel (RACH)
Forward Access Channel (FACH)
Dedicated Channel (DCH)
Common Packet Channel (CPCH)
Downlink Shared Channel (DSCH)
UTRAN
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5. UTRAN/5.1 From Radio Bearers to transport channels
Common Transport Channels (1)
BCH: Broadcast Channel
A downlink transport channel that is used to carry BCCH. The BCH is
always transmitted with high power over the entire cell with a low fixed bit
rate.
>> The BCH is the only transport channel with a single transport format (no
flexibility). Can you explain why?
PCH: Paging Channel
A downlink transport channel that is used to carry PCCH. It is always
transmitted over the entire cell.
>> Is it possible to carry all types of information on the PCH?
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5. UTRAN/5.1 From Radio Bearers to transport channels
Common Transport Channels (2)
FACH: Forward Access Channel
A downlink transport channel that is used to carry control information. It may also
carry short users packets. The FACH is transmitted over the entire cell or over only
a part of the cell using beam-forming antennas. The FACH uses open loop power
control (slow power control).
>> In which case is it interesting to use beam-forming antennas? would it also be
relevant to implement this feature for PCH?
RACH: Random Access Channel
An uplink transport channel that is used to carry control information from the mobile
especially at the initial access. It may also carry short user packets. The RACH is
always received from the entire cell and is characterized by a limited size data field,
a collision risk and by the use of open loop power control (slow power control).
>> Why is it interesting to carry short user packets on RACH in spite of limited data
field and collision risk (instead of using a dedicated channel)?
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5. UTRAN/5.1 From Radio Bearers to transport channels
Common Transport Channels (3)
DSCH: Downlink Shared Channel
A downlink transport channel shared by several UEs to carry dedicated
control or user information. When a UE is using the DSCH, it always has an
associated DCH, which provides power control.
CPCH: Common Packet Channel
An uplink transport channel that is used to carry long user data packets and
control packets. It is a contention based random access channel. It is
always associated with a dedicated channel on the downlink, which
provides power control.
¬Transfer of signalling and traffic on a shared basis
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5. UTRAN/5.1 From Radio Bearers to transport channels
Dedicated Transport Channels
DCH: Dedicated Channel
A downlink or uplink transport channel that is used to carry user or control
information. It is characterized by features such as fast rate change (on a
frame-by-frame basis), fast power control, use of beam-forming and
support of soft HO.
>> Two features are only applied on DCH: can you guess which?
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5. UTRAN/5.1 From Radio Bearers to transport channels
Mapping
Logical·Transport Channels
Control Logical Channels
BCCH PCCH CCCH DCCH
Traffic Logical Channels
DTCH CTCH
BCH PCH RACH FACH DSCH CPCH DCH
Common Transport Channels
Dedicated
Transport
Channels
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.03
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5. UTRAN/5.1 From Radio Bearers to transport channels
Mapping
Logical ·Transport Channels
Control Logical Channels
BCCH PCCH CCCH DCCH
Traffic Logical Channels
DTCH CTCH
BCH PCH RACH FACH DSCH CPCH DCH
Common Transport Channels
Dedicated
Transport
Channels
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.03
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5. UTRAN/5.1 From Radio Bearers to transport channels
Complete the gaps!
(1) … channels
are defined by what type of information (e.g user data, signalling, system
information...) is transported over the radio interface.
(2) … channels
are defined by how and with what characteristics (e.g type of coding,
required transfer delay, required BER... ) data are transferred over the radio
interface.
(3) … channels
are defined by the mechanisms (e.g frequency, code, power, framing...)
with which the data are transferred over the physical resources of the air-
interface.
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.03
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5. UTRAN/5.1 From Radio Bearers to transport channels
Complete the table!
Traffic
class
Logical
Channel
Transport
Channel
Signalling
1. … - BCCH BCH, FACH
2. … - PCCH PCH
3. … - CCCH UL: RACH, DL: FACH
4. … - DCCH RACH, DCH
User information
5. … Conversational
3
DTCHs
UL: 3 coordinated DCHs
DL: 3 coordinated DCHs
6. … Interactive DTCH UL: RACH, DL: FACH
7. … Interactive DTCH
UL: CPCH, DCH
DL: DSCH,DCH
8. … Streaming DTCH
UL: CPCH, DCH
DL: DSCH,DCH
9. … Background DTCH
UL: CPCH, DCH
DL: DSCH,DCH
10. … Background CTCH FACH
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.03
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5. UTRAN
Layer 3
Layer 2
Layer 1
UE RNC Node B
5.1 From Radio Bearers to transport channels
5.2 Radio Protocols
5.3 Iu Protocols
5.4 UE identifiers and UE states
5.5 Signalling procedures
5.6 The Physical Layer (on the air interface)
5.7 Radio Resource Management (RRM)
5.8 Mobility management
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.03
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5. UTRAN/5.2 Radio Protocols
Radio protocol stack
Layer 3
Control plane User plane
Layer 2/MAC
Layer 1
Transport Channels
Bearers (called
RAB in user plane)
Access Stratum
SAP
Non Access Stratum
c
o
n
t
r
o
l
c
o
n
t
r
o
l
c
o
n
t
r
o
l
PHY
MAC
RRC
Logical Channels
Layer 2/RLC
Radio Bearers
RLC
RLC
RLC
RLC
RLC
RLC
RLC
RLC
PDCP
PDCP
BMC
c
o
n
t
r
o
l
control
Layer 2/PDCP
Layer 2/BMC
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5. UTRAN/5.2 Radio Protocols
Radio Resource Control (RRC)
c
o
n
t
r
o
l
c
o
n
t
r
o
l
c
o
n
t
r
o
l
PHY
MAC
RRC
RLC
Bearers
Call management
Radio mobility management
Measurement control and reporting
Outer loop power control
Radio Bearers
(control plane)
RRC is the brain of the radio interface protocol stack.
Layer 3
c
o
n
t
r
o
l
c
o
n
t
r
o
l
PDCP
BMC
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5. UTRAN/5.2 Radio Protocols
PDCP and BMC protocols
PDCP (Packet Data Convergence Protocol)
- in the user plane, only for services from the PS domain
- it contains compression methods
In R99 only a header compression method is mentioned (RFC2507).
Why is header compression valuable?
e.g a combined RTP/UDP/IP headers is at least 60 bytes for IPv6, when IP
voice service header can be about 20 bytes or less.
BMC (Broadcast/Multicast Services)
- in the user plane
- to adapt broadcast and multicast services from NAS on the radio interface
In R99 the only service using this protocol is SMS Cell Broadcast Service
(directly taken from GSM).
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5. UTRAN/5.2 Radio Protocols
Radio Link Control (RLC)
Traffic
Logical
Channels
Radio Bearers
(user plane)
Radio Bearers
(control plane)
RLC
RLC
RLC
RLC
RLC
RLC
RLC
RLC
Control
Logical
Channels
Segmentation
Buffering
Data transfer with 3
configuration modes:
- Transparent (TM)
- Unacknowledged (UM)
- Acknowledged (AM)
Ciphering
RLC provides segmentation and (in AM mode) reliable data transfer.
Layer 2/
upper part
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5. UTRAN/5.2 Radio Protocols
Medium Access Control (MAC)
Transport
Channels
(common and
dedicated)
Basic data transfer
Multiplexing of logical channels
Priority handling/Scheduling
(TFC selection)
Reporting of measurements
Ciphering
MAC can switch a common channel into a dedicated channel if higher bit rate
is required (on request of L3-level).
MAC can change dynamically Transport Format (bit rate…) of each transport
channel on a frame basis (each 10 ms) without interchanging with L3-level.
MAC provides flexible data transfer.
Traffic
Logical
Channels
Control
Logical
Channels
MAC
Layer 2/
lower part
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.03
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5. UTRAN/5.2 Radio Protocols
TFC selection in MAC protocol
Several transport channels can be time-coordinated to
be multiplexed on a CCTrCH before mapping on one
physical channel (or more if necessary).
e.g. DCH1 = {244}
DCH2 = {0 ; 148}
DCH3 = {0 ; 148}
TFCS = { {244 ; 0 ; 0} , {244 ; 148 ; 0} , {244 ; 0 ; 148} }
MAC selects TFC inside TFCS.
There is one TFCS per CCTrCH.
>> Why is the combination {244 ; 148 ; 148} not possible?
TrCH multiplexing
DCH1 DCH2 DCH3
CCTrCH
Physical channel
Mapping
Physical Channel(s)
MAC
L1
TFC selection
Transport Format (TF)
Transport Format Set (TFS)
Transport Format Combination (TFC)
Transport Format Combination Set (TFCS)
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5. UTRAN/5.2 Radio Protocols
The Physical Layer
Dedicated
Physical
Channels
Multiplexing of transport ch.
Spreading/modulation
RF processing
Power control
Measurements
Physical layer
Dedicated
Transport
Channels
The physical layer provides multiplexing and radio frequency
processing with a CDMA method.
Air Interface
Common
Transport
Channels
Common
Physical
Channels
Layer 1
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.03
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CCCH PCCH BCCH CTCH DTCH DCCH DTCH
5. UTRAN/5.2 Radio Protocols
Exercise: MAC protocol (1)
BCCH
FACH RACH DSCH
Iur or local
DCH DCH
MAC-d
MAC-c/sh
CPCH FACH PCH
MAC
Control
DSCH
Look at this figure and answer the questions on the following pages.
MAC-b
BCH
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.03
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5. UTRAN/5.2 Radio Protocols
Exercise: MAC protocol (2)
1. On which logical/transport channels will be mapped:
- system information broadcasting
- paging
- telephony speech
- internet browsing at a high bit rate
- internet browsing at a low bit rate
Can you imagine a situation where the UE will use 2 DTCHs (or more) at the same time?
2. Guess the meaning of “MAC-b” “MAC-c/sh” and “MAC-d”.
3. Why is there one MAC-d entity on the UE side and several MAC-d entities on the UTRAN
side?
4. What is the link between MAC-c/sh and MAC-d for?
5. What are the 4 main functions of MAC protocol?
6. MAC can multiplex logical channels only if they require the same QoS: true or false?
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5. UTRAN/5.2 Radio Protocols
Exercise: MAC protocol (3)
7. RNTI (Radio Network Temporary Identity) is an UE identity assigned by UTRAN, when the
UE is connected to the UTRAN . The parameter RNTI is included in the header of each
transport blocks in MAC-c/sh, but not in MAC-d : can you explain the reason?
8. The system can also multiplex transport channels: where does that take place?
9. What is the name of the channel on which several time-coordinated transport channels can
be multiplexed?
10. Which entity is responsible for TFC selection? TFCS allocation?
11. Is it possible to multiplex 2 FACHs (or more)? 2 DCHs (or more)? a FACH and a DCH?
12. Will the physical channel configuration be changed (e.g modification of spreading factor)
when MAC selects a new TFC inside TFCS?
13. MAC makes measurement reports to RRC: why is it necessary?
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5. UTRAN
Layer 3
Layer 2
Layer 1
UE RNC Node B
5.1 From Radio Bearers to transport channels
5.2 Radio Protocols
5.3 Iu Protocols
5.4 UE identifiers and UE states
5.5 Signaling procedures
5.6 The Physical Layer (on the air interface)
5.7 Radio Resource Management (RRM)
5.8 Mobility management
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.03
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5. UTRAN/ 5.3 Iu protocols
General model
The same general protocol model is applied for all Iu interfaces:
Application Protocols:
Radio
Network
Layer
Transport
Network
Layer
Physical Layer
Signaling
Bearer(s)
Signaling
Bearer(s)
Data
Bearer(s)
ALCAP
Application
Protocol
Data
Stream(s)
Transport Network
Control Plane
Transport Network
User Plane
Transport Network
User Plane
Control
Plane
User Plane
- NBAP for Iub interface
- RNSAP for Iur interface
- RANAP for Iu-CS and Iu-PS interfaces
1. What is the
purpose of the
separation between
the Radio Network
Layer and the
Transport Network
Layer?
2. Why is ALCAP
protocol
necessary?
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5. UTRAN/ 5.3 Iu protocols
Iub protocols
ATM
Radio
Network
Layer
Transport
Network
Layer
Physical Layer
AAL5 AAL2
ALCAP
NBAP
Frame
Protocols
(IubFP)
Control Plane User Plane
RNC
Node B
AAL5
RRC Connection
Establishment*
Radio Link
Establishment
RABs*
NAS signalling*
* at this stage these data streams have been mapped on
transport channels by MAC protocol
Transport Network
Control Plane
Transport Network
User Plane
Transport Network User
Plane
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5. UTRAN/ 5.3 Iu protocols
Iur protocols
ATM
Radio
Network
Layer
Transport
Network
Layer
Physical Layer
...
AAL5 AAL2
ALCAP
RNSAP
Frame
Protocols
(Iur FP)
Control Plane User Plane
SRNC
DRNC
AAL5
RRC Connection
Establishment*
Establishment of
an additional radio
link to an UE
(for soft HO)
RABs*
NAS signalling*
* at this stage these data streams have been mapped on
transport channels by MAC protocol
Transport Network
Control Plane
Transport Network
User Plane
Transport Network User
Plane
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5. UTRAN/ 5.3 Iu protocols
UTRAN protocols:
general recap
AAL5 AAL5 AAL5 AAL5
ATM/Physical layer
... ...
NBAP ALCAP
... ...
ALCAPRNSAP
MAC
RLC
RRCPDCPBMC
AAL5 AAL2 AAL2 AAL5 AAL5 AAL5 AAL5 AAL5 AAL2
Phy.
(air)
Phy.
(air)
ATM/Physical layer
ATM/Physical layer
... ...
NBAP ALCAP
... ...
NBAP ALCAP
Soft combining
... ...
ALCAPRNSAP Iub-FP Iur-FP
MAC
RLC
RRC
PDCPBMC
Soft(er) combining
MAC
RLC
RRC
PDCPBMC
UE Node-B
SRNC
DRNC
Softer
combining
Iub
Iur
Iub-FP
Iub-FP Iur-FP
AAL2 AAL2
Uu
Radio Protocols
Iu Protocols (Radio Network Layer)
Iu protocols (Transport Network Layer)
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5.1 From Radio Bearers to transport channels
5.2 Radio Protocols
5.3 Iu Protocols
5.4 UE identifiers and UE states
5.5 Signalling procedures
5.6 The Physical Layer (on the air interface)
5.7 Radio Resource Management (RRM)
5.8 Mobility management
5. UTRAN
?
?
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5. UTRAN/5.4 UE identifiers and UE states
UE identifiers
2 types of UE identification on the radio interface:
• NAS identifiers
- IMSI: International Mobile Subscriber Identity
- TMSI: Temporary Mobile Station Identity
They are used in the initial access CCCH message
• UTRAN identifier
- RNTI: Radio Network Temporary Identity
This is allocated by the UTRAN for each UE in connected mode and used
for inband identification in common transport channels (e.g FACH). The
RNTI is not used outside the UTRAN.
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5. UTRAN/5.4 UE identifiers and UE states
UE states (1)
UE
detached
UE
in idle mode
UE
in connected
mode
RRC Connection Release
RRC Connection Establishment
out of coverage
“just after switch on” process
Including Cell search procedure
Why is the idle mode necessary?
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.03
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5. UTRAN/5.4 UE identifiers and UE states
UE states (2)
RRC Connection Establishment procedure
RNC
CCCH
RNC
CCCH
DCCH
RNC
DCCH
1
- UE in idle mode,
- a Common Control Channel (CCCH) is
used to initiate the procedure
2
- Setup of a Dedicated Control Channel
(DCCH)
3
- UE in connected mode
- The DCCH is used during the whole
time of the RRC connection to carry
signalling dedicated to this particular UE
Which type of transport channel are used
to carry CCCH? DCCH?
UE
detached
UE
in idle mode
UE
in connected
mode
RRC Connection Release
RRC Connection Establishment
out of coverage
“just after switch on” process
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.03
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5. UTRAN/5.4 UE identifiers and UE states
UE states (3)
Cell DCH
Cell FACH
URA PCH
Cell PCH
UE
in idle
mode
UE in connected
mode
Cell_DCH state
Signalling and traffic data
dedicated to the UE (mapped
on DCCH and DTCH
respectively) are carried on
DCH transport channel
Cell_FACH state
Signalling and traffic data
dedicated to the UE (mapped
on DCCH and DTCH
respectively) are carried on
RACH (uplink) and FACH
(downlink) transport channels
Cell_DCH ¬Cell_FACH
No traffic UL/DL at expiry of timer 1
Cell_FACH ¬Cell_DCH
Traffic volume UL/DL too large
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5. UTRAN/5.4 UE identifiers and UE states
UE states (4)
Cell DCH
Cell FACH
URA PCH
Cell PCH
UE
in idle
mode
UE in connected
mode
Cell_PCH state
No transmission of signalling and
traffic data dedicated to the UE (no
DCCH and no DTCH)
But the RRC connection is still
active (UTRAN keeps RNTI for UE)
and UE location at a cell level.
- a DCCH (and possibly a DTCH)
can be reestablished very quickly
(this procedure is initiated by
sending a paging signal PCH)
URA_PCH state
Very similar to cell_PCH state
UTRAN keeps the location of the UE at
the URA level (set of UMTS cells)
Cell_PCH ¬Cell_FACH ¬URA_PCH
Too many cell reselections
Cell_FACH ¬Cell_PCH
No traffic UL/DL at expiry of timer 2
Cell/URA_PCH ¬Cell_FACH
Incoming DL or UL traffic
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5. UTRAN/5.4 UE identifiers and UE states
UE identifiers and UE states:
complete the table!
CN UTRAN
UE States
UE Identifiers UE Location UE Identifier UE Location
idle mode IMSI, TMSI LA, RA
cell_DCH
cell_FACH
cell_PCH
connected
mode
URA_PCH
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.03
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5.1 From Radio Bearers to transport channels
5.2 Radio Protocols
5.3 Iu Protocols
5.4 UE identifiers and UE states
5.5 Signaling procedures
5.6 The Physical Layer (on the air interface)
5.7 Radio Resource Management (RRM)
5.8 Mobility management
5. UTRAN
Layer 3
Layer 2
Layer 1
UE RNC Node B
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.03
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5. UTRAN/5.5 Signaling procedures
List of basic signaling
procedures
A. Broadcast of system information
B. Paging
B1. Paging Type 1 (in idle mode or in cell_PCH or in URA_PCH states)
B2. Paging Type 2 (in cell_FACH or cell_DCH states)
C. RRC Connection
C1. RRC Connection Establishment (to cell_FACH and to cell_DCH states)
C2. RRC Connection Release (in cell_DCH states)
D. Radio Link establishment
E. Direct Transfer
F. Control of RAB, RB, Transport Channel and Physical Channel
F1. RAB Establishment
F2. Physical Channel Reconfiguration
G. Soft HO (Radio Link Addition)
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5. UTRAN/5.5 Signaling procedures
How to read call scenario diagrams
Initial UE identity, Establishment cause, Initial
UE capability
UE
RNC
1. RRC Connection Request (CCCH:RACH)
RRC RRC
Name of the message
Logical channel
Transport channel
Parameters of the message
Protocol entity
Network entity
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5. UTRAN/5.5 Signaling procedures
A. System Information
Broadcasting (1)
The broadcast system information:
- may come from CN, RNC or Node-B.
- contains static parameters (Cell identity, supported PLMN types...) and
dynamic parameters (UL interference level...).
- is arranged in System Information Blocks (SIB), which group together
elements of the same nature.
- can be carried on BCH which is transmitted permanently over the entire
cell.
>> Do you think the UE needs to read all the SIBs each time a broadcast is
repeated?
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5. UTRAN/5.5 Signaling procedures
A. System Information
Broadcasting (2)
System Information
Update Request
Master/Segment Info
Block(s), BCCH
modification time
Master/Segment Info Block(s)
System Information (BCCH:BCH)
UE
Node-B
RNC
RRC RRC
NBAP
CN
Master/Segment Info Block(s)
System Information (BCCH:BCH)
RRC RRC
Master/Segment Info Block(s)
System Information (BCCH:BCH)
RRC RRC
System Information
Update Response
NBAP NBAP
>> Why does RRC protocol
terminate at Node-B for BCH
(not at RNC)?
NBAP
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5. UTRAN/5.5 Signaling procedures
B. Paging
Paging is typically used at core network-originated call.
UE in idle mode
The network will page the UE in LA (CS domain) or RA (PS domain)
UE is in connected mode
The network will page the UE:
- in the cell (in cell_PCH, cell_FACH, cell_DCH states)
- in the URA (in URA_PCH state)
Paging Type 1: mapped on PCCH/PCH
Paging Type 2: mapped on DCCH/FACH or DCCH/DCH
>> Can you guess which Paging Type will be use in idle mode? in cell_PCH
state? in cell_FACH state? in cell_DCH state? in URA_PCH state?
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.03
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5. UTRAN/5.5 Signaling procedures
B1. Paging Type 1
UE 1 Node-B
1
CN
RNC 1 RNC 2 Node-B
2
RRC RRC
2. Paging Type 1 (PCCH:PCH)
RRC RRC
2. Paging Type1 (PCCH:PCH)
RANAP RANAP
1. Paging
CN Domain Indicator, UE
identity, Paging cause
RANAP RANAP
1. Paging
Idem
UE 2
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5. UTRAN/5.5 Signaling procedures
B2. Paging Type 2
UE
CN
SRNC Node-B
RANAP RANAP
1. Paging
CN Domain Indicator, UE
identity, Paging cause
RRC RRC
2. Paging Type 2 (DCCH:FACH or DCH)
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5. UTRAN/5.5 Signaling procedures
C. RRC connection
RRC connection is established at the initial access
(after cell search procedure when the UE is camping on a cell).
After RRC connection establishment:
- UE will switch from idle mode to cell_FACH or cell_DCH states.
- UE will have a signalling link with UTRAN (on DCCH)
UE needs to establish a RRC connection prior to making :
- voice call
- location update
- measurement reporting
...
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5. UTRAN/5.5 Signaling procedures
C1. RRC Connection
Establishment
Initial UE identity, Establishment cause, Initial UE capability
1. RRC Connection Request (CCCH:RACH)
UE
Node-B
RNC
RRC RRC
3. Radio Link Establishment (see Procedure D)
Initial UE identity, RNTI, capability update requirement, TFS, TFCS, frequency, UL
scrambling code, power control info
4. RRC Connection Setup (CCCH:FACH)
RRC RRC
Integrity information, ciphering information
5. RRC Connection Setup Complete (DCCH:RACH or DCH)
RRC RRC
2. Allocate RNTI, Select
Level 1 and Level 2
parameters (e.g. TFCS,
scrambling code)
>> Can the UE send user information (e.g voice call) after completing this stage?
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5. UTRAN/5.5 Signaling procedures
C2. RRC Connection Release
(in cell_DCH state)
UE Node-B
of DRNC
CN
DRNC SRNC Node-B
of SRNC
RRC RRC
4. RRC Connection Release (DCCH:DCH )
Cause
RANAP RANAP
1. Iu Release
Command
Cause
RANAP RANAP
2. Iu Release
Complete
-
3. ALCAP Iu Bearer Release
RRC RRC
5. RRC Connection Release Complete (DCCH:DCH )
-
6. Radio Link Deletion
7. Radio Link Deletion
8. Radio Link Deletion
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5. UTRAN/5.5 Signaling procedures
D. Radio Link (RL) Establishment
for a DCH
Cell id, TFS, TFCS, frequency, UL scrambling
code, power control info
Node-B
RNC
Radio Link Setup Request
NBAP NBAP
Signalling link termination, transport layer
addressing info
Radio Link Setup Response
NBAP NBAP
Downlink synchronisation
Iub-FP Iub-FP
Uplink synchronisation
Iub-FP Iub-FP
Start RX
Start TX
ALCAP Iub Data Transport Bearer Setup
>> Are NBAP, ALCAP and RRC messages carried on the same transport bearers on Iub?
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.03
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5. UTRAN/5.5 Signaling procedures
E. Direct Transfer
The mechanism to transfer signalling from higher layers (NAS signaling)
through messages of RRC protocol is called Direct Transfer.
UE
CN
SRNC Node-B
RANAP RANAP
1. Direct Transfer
CN Domain Indicator,
NAS PDU
RRC RRC
2. Downlink Direct Transfer
(DCCH:FACH or DCH)
NAS message
RANAP RANAP
2‟. Direct Transfer
CN Domain Indicator,
NAS PDU
RRC RRC
1’. Uplink Direct Transfer
(DCCH:RACH or DCH)
CN node indicator, NAS message
>> Can you mention some
examples of use of
Direct Transfer?
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5. UTRAN/5.5 Signaling procedures
F. Control of RAB, RB, Transport
and Physical Channels
These procedures take place after RRC connection establishment: the UE
is either on cell_FACH or cell_DCH state.
A RAB is mapped on one or more RB(s).
A RB establishment consists of:
- performing admission control (see RRM: Radio Resource Management)
- setting parameters describing RB processing in layer 2 (e.g TFS, TFCS)
and in layer 1 (codes, power control)
RAB and RB can be reconfigured during an active connection.
The transport channels and physical channels parameters are included in
the RB but can also be reconfigured separately with transport and physical
channel dedicated procedures (Transport Channel Reconfiguration and
Physical Channel Reconfiguration).
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5. UTRAN/5.5 Signaling procedures
F1. RAB Establishment
UE
CN
RNC Node-B
RANAP RANAP
1. RAB Assignment
Request
RAB parameters, User plane
mode, Transport Address, Iu
Transport association
2. ALCAP Iu Data Transport Bearer Setup
3. Radio Link Establishment
(see Procedure D)
RRC RRC
4. RB Setup (DCCH:FACH or DCH )
TFS, TFCS...
RRC RRC
5. RB Setup Complete (DCCH:RACH or DCH )
-
RANAP RANAP
6. RAB Assignment
Response
-
>> Can the UE send user information (e.g voice call) after completing this stage?
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5. UTRAN/5.5 Signaling procedures
F2. Physical Channel
Reconfiguration
UE Node-B
of DRNC
DRNC SRNC
RRC RRC
6. Physical Channel Reconfiguration (DCCH:DCH )
DL scrambling code
NBAP NBAP
1. RL Reconfig. Prepare
DL scrambling code
RNSAP RNSAP
3.
DL scrambling
code
RRC RRC
7. Physical Channel Reconfiguration Complete (DCCH:DCH )
-
NBAP NBAP
2. RL Reconfig. Ready
-
NBAP NBAP
5. RL Reconfig. Commit
RNSAP RNSAP
4.
>> What is the difference between NBAP and RNSAP?
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5. UTRAN/5.5 Signaling procedures
G. Soft HO
(Radio Link Addition)
UE Node-B
of DRNC
DRNC SRNC
RRC RRC
6. Active Set Update (DCCH:DCH )
-
RNSAP RNSAP
2. RL Setup Request
-
RRC RRC
7. Active Set Update Complete (DCCH:DCH )
-
RNSAP RNSAP
5. RL Setup Response
-
1. Decision to setup
new RL
3. Radio Link Establishment
(see Procedure D)
4. ALCAP Iur Data Transport Bearer Setup
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5. UTRAN/5.5 Signaling procedures
EXERCICE
 Please complete the procedure diagrams on the following
slides by using the elementary procedure previously
described
 Duration :
10 minutes
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.03
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5. UTRAN/5.5 Signalling procedures
Location Update
Find the missing procedure names!
UE
CN
RNC Node-B
1. ...
2. ...
MM: Location Updating Request
MM: Authentication Request
MM: Authentication Response
3. Security procedures
5. ...
4. ...
MM: Location Updating Accept
0. “Just after switch on” process
UE in idle mode
UE detached
UE in connected mode
UE in idle mode
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5. UTRAN/5.5 Signalling procedures
Mobile terminated call
Find the missing procedure names!
UE
CN
RNC Node-B
1. ...
2. ...
3. ...
RR: Paging Response
MM: Authentication Request
MM: Authentication Response
4. Security procedures
6. ...
7. ...
CC: Alerting
CC: Connect
CC: Connect Acknowledge
5. ...
CC: Setup
CC: Call Confirm
0. “Just after switch on” process
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.03
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5.1 From Radio Bearers to transport channels
5.2 Radio Protocols
5.3 Iu Protocols
5.4 UE identifiers and UE states
5.5 Signalling procedures
5.6 The Physical Layer (on the air interface)
5.7 Radio Resource management (RRM)
5.8 Mobility management
5. UTRAN
Layer 3
Layer 2
Layer 1
UE RNC Node B
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.03
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5. UTRAN/5.6 The Physical Layer
Physical Layer Process
Convolutional coding,
Turbo coding
10 ms frame duration
15 time slots
CCtrCH
DPDCH, DPCCH, PRACH...
Channelization codes
Scrambling codes
QPSK
Channel Coding
Radio Frame Segmentation
Transport Channel Multiplexing
Physical Channel Mapping
Spreading
Modulation
Transport Channels
Physical Channels
spread over 5 MHz bandwidth
Layer 1
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.03
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5. UTRAN/5.6 The Physical Layer
Radio Frame Structure
The bit rate may be changed for each frame (10 ms).
Fast power control may be performed for each time slot (0,666 ms).
= N bits
(according to the bit rate after channel coding)
= M chips
(M is equal to the spreading factor)
= 15 Time Slots

10ms
….
0.6666 ms
..
1 Radio Frame :
1 Time slot :
1 Bit :
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.03
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5. UTRAN/5.6 The Physical Layer
Transport Channel Multiplexing
Two transport channels can be mapped onto the same physical channel
(for one user).
DCH 1 DCH 2
Transport Channel Multiplexing
Physical Channel Mapping
One Physical Channel (or more if necessary)
Channel Coding Channel Coding
CCTrCH
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.03
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5. UTRAN/5.6 The Physical Layer
Physical channels
Physical channels
are defined by the mechanisms (e.g frequency, code, power, framing...) with which
the data are transferred over the physical resources of the air-interface.
• Physical channels are defined mainly by:
- a specific carrier frequency
- a scrambling code
- a channelization code
- start & stop instants (giving a time duration, measured in integer multiples
of chips)
• Physical channels are sent continuously on the air interface between start
and stop instants.
• Physical channels are separated by means of quasi-orthogonal codes (2
physical channels shall not have the same channelization code / scrambling
code combination).
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.03
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5. UTRAN/5.6 The Physical Layer
Uplink Physical Channels
Common Channels
Dedicated Channels
Physical Random Access Channel (PRACH)
Dedicated Physical Control Channel (DPCCH)
Physical Common Packet Channel (PCPCH)
Dedicated Physical Data Channel (DPDCH)
Mapped on Transport
Channels
Mapped on Transport
Channels
NOT mapped on
Transport Channels
Node
B
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.03
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5. UTRAN/5.6 The Physical Layer
e.g. Uplink DPDCH/DPCCH
Slot #0 Slot #1 Slot #i
Slot #14
T
f
= 10 ms
1 Radio Frame
DPDCH carries the dedicated data generated at layer 2 (ie the Dedicated
Transport Channel DCH).
DPCCH carries the dedicated signalling of the physical layer, which is
required to convey DPDCH. DPCCH is not visible above the physical layer,
it is not carried by any transport channels.
Under long scrambling code.
Pilot
N
pilot
bits
TPC
N
TPC
bits
Data
N
data
bits
T
slot
= 2560 chips, 10*2
k
bits (k=0..6)
DPDCH
DPCCH
FBI
N
FBI
bits
TFCI
N
TFCI
bits
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.03
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5. UTRAN/5.6 The Physical Layer
e.g. Uplink PRACH
#0 #1 #2 #3 #4 #5 #6 #7 #8 #9 #10 #11 #12 #13 #14
5120 chips
radio frame: 10 ms radio frame: 10 ms
Access slot #0 Random Access Transmission
Random Access Transmission
Random Access Transmission
Random Access Transmission
When attempting to access the network, the mobile has no dedicated code
yet and must choose randomly a code in a set of codes.
Collisions may occur between two mobiles.
The PRACH has a Random Access Transmission to limit risk of collision.
It is based on a Slotted ALOHA approach with fast acquisition indication.
A mobile can only begin to
transmit at a certain access slot
(slotted ALOHA).
15 access slots have been
defined (nothing to do with the
time slots of the radio frame!).
Access slot #1
Access slot #7
Access slot #8
Access slot #14
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.03
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5. UTRAN/5.6 The Physical Layer
Downlink Physical Channels
Common Channels
Dedicated Channels
Primary Common Control Physical Channel (P-CCPCH)
Secondary Common Control Physical Channel (S-CCPCH)
Physical Downlink Shared Channel (PDSCH)
Synchronisation Channel (SCH)
Page Indicator Channel (PICH)
Common Pilot Channel (CPICH)
Acquisition Indication Channel (AICH)
Dedicated Physical Control Channel (DPCCH)
Dedicated Physical Data Channel (DPDCH)
Mapped on Transport
Channels
NOT Mapped on
Transport Channels
Mapped on Transport
Channels
NOT mapped on
Transport Channels
Node
B
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.03
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5. UTRAN/5.6 The Physical Layer
e.g. Downlink DPDCH/DPCCH
Similar to uplink, but DPDCH and DPCCH are time-multiplexed.
The SF may range from 256 to 8.
One radio frame, T
f
= 10 ms
TPC
N
TPC
bits
Slot #0 Slot #1 Slot #i Slot #14
T
slot
= 2560 chips, 10*2
k
bits (k=0..7)
Data2
N
data2
bits
DPDCH
TFCI
N
TFCI
bits
Pilot
N
pilot
bits
Data1
N
data1
bits
DPDCH DPCCH DPCCH
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.03
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5. UTRAN/5.6 The Physical Layer
e.g. Downlink PCCPCH
The Primary CCPCH carries the BCH, which provides system- and cell-
specific information (e.g set of uplink scrambling codes)
The P-CCPCH is a fixed rate (30 kbps, SF=256) DL physical channel, which
provide a timing reference for all physical channels (directly for DL, indirectly
for UL).
CCPCH is scrambled under the Primary Scrambling code.
Data
18 bits
Slot #0 Slot #1 Slot #i Slot #14
T
slot
= 2560 chips , 20 bits
1 radio frame: T
f
= 10 ms
( Tx OFF)
256 chips
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.03
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5. UTRAN/5.6 The Physical Layer
e.g. CPICH (pilot)
CPICH (or Pilot or Beacon)
The pilot carries a pre-defined symbol sequence at a fixed rate (SF=256).
It is a reference:
- to aid the channel estimation at the terminal (time or phase reference)
- to perform handover measurements and cell selection/reselection (power
reference)
Pre-defined symbol sequence
Slot #0 Slot #1 Slot #i Slot #14
T
slot
= 2560 chips , 20 bits = 10 symbols
1 radio frame: T
f
= 10 ms
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5. UTRAN/5.6 The Physical Layer
e.g SCH and
the cell search procedure
SCH (Synchronisation Channel)
It can be detected by the UE just after switch on, as the SCH consist of a
256 modulated code sequence which is the same for every cell in the
system.
It is used by the UE in the cell search procedure to get the (downlink)
scrambling code of the cell.
After cell search procedure, the terminal can read system and cell- specific
BCH information.
Primary
SCH
Secondary
SCH
256 chips
2560 chips
One 10 ms SCH radio frame
ac
s
i,0
ac
p
ac
s
i,1
ac
p
ac
s
i,14
ac
p
Slot #0 Slot #1 Slot #14
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.03
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5. UTRAN/5.6 The Physical Layer
Mapping
Transport·Physical Channels
BCH
PCH
FACH
RACH
CPCH
DSCH
DCH
P-CCPCH Primary Common Control Physical Channel
S-CCPH Secondary Common Control Physical Channel
PRACH Physical Random Access Channel
PCPCH Physical Common Packet Channel
PDSCH Physical Downlink Shared Channel
DPDCH Dedicated Physical Data Channel
Physical channels not mapped on transport channels:
DPCCH Dedicated Physical Control Channel (uplink and downlink)
SCH Synchronisation Channel
CPICH Common Pilot Channel
PICH Page Indicator Channel
AICH Acquisition Indication Channel
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5. UTRAN/5.6 The Physical Layer
Example 1: UL 64 kbps data (1)
In this example, a RB (Radio Bearer) is mapped (in RLC) on DTCH which is
mapped (in MAC) on DCH.
The DCH has the TFS (Transport Format Set):
This example can be applied for ISDN service.
640 640 #1 640
40 ms
Transport block size 640 bits
Transport block set size 4*640 bits
CRC 16 bits
Coding Turbo coding, coding rate = 1/3
TTI 40 ms
640 640 #2 640
640 640 #3 640
640 640 #4 640
640
640
640
640
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5. UTRAN/5.6 The Physical Layer
Example 1: UL 64 kbps data (2)
What is the radio
frame length? Can you
deduce the spreading
factor (SF)?
640 16
2624
640 16
7884
Tail
12
#1
1971+N
RM1
#4
To TrCh Multiplexing (see further)
#1 #4
1971 1971
#1
#1
CRC
640
#4
#4
CRC
640
Turbo coding R=1/3
Rate matching
1st interleaving
Tail bit attachment
Radio frame segmentation
Transport block
CRC attachment
TrBk concatenation
1971+N
RM4
7872
7872
Extracted from 3GPP 25.944
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5. UTRAN/5.6 The Physical Layer
Example 2: UL 3,4 kbps data (1)
In this example, a SRB (Signalling Radio Bearer) is mapped (in RLC) on
DCCH which is mapped (in MAC) on DCH.
The DCH has the TFS (Transport Format Set):
Transport block size 148 bits
Transport block set size 0, 148 bits
CRC 16 bits
Coding CC, coding rate = 1/3
TTI 40 ms
>> Assuming that RLC and MAC overhead in a transport block is 12 bits,
can you determine the bit rate of this SRB?
148 148 148
40 ms
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5. UTRAN/5.6 The Physical Layer
Example 2: UL 3,4 kbps data (2)
What is the radio
frame length? Can
you deduce the
spreading factor?
Tail
8*B
#1
To TrCh Multiplexing (see further)
#2 #3 #4
129*B +N
RM1
#2 #3 #4
129*B
#1
Transport block
CRC
148
16
516*B
164*B
148
516*B
129*B 129*B 129*B
129*B +N
RM2
129*B +N
RM3
129*B +N
RM4
TrBks (B =0,1)
164
Tail bit attachment
Convolutional Coding,
CR = 1/3
Rate matching
1st interleaving
Radio frame Segmentation
CRC attachment
TrBks concatenation
Extracted from 3GPP 25.944
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5. UTRAN/5.6 The Physical Layer
UL TrCH multiplexing
of 64 kbps and 3,4 kbps data
>> On which physical channel are the UL 64 kbps data and the UL 3,4 kbps
data? what is the spreading factor mapped? what is the DPDCH bit rate?
>> What is carried on DPCCH ?
#1 #1 #2 #3 #4
UL 64 kbps data UL 3,4 kbps data
#2 #3 #4
?? kbps DPDCH
#1 #1 #2 #2 #3 #3 #4 #4
2nd interleaving
Physical channel mapping
CFN=4N CFN=4N+1 CFN=4N+2 CFN=4N+3
TrCH multiplexing
15 kbps DPCCH
CFN=4N CFN=4N+1 CFN=4N+2 CFN=4N+3
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5.1 From Radio Bearers to transport channels
5.2 Radio Protocols
5.3 Iu Protocols
5.4 UE identifiers and UE states
5.5 Signalling procedures
5.6 The Physical Layer (on the air interface)
5.7 Radio Resource Management (RRM)
5.8 Mobility Management
5. UTRAN
no
yes
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5. UTRAN/5.7 Radio Resource Management (RRM)
RRM purposes
RRM is a set of algorithms to manage radio resources:
• Maximise the amount of radio resources available
Power control algorithms
Handover algorithms
• Allocation of radio resources
Which type of transport channel, transport format should be chosen
to meet QoS requirements?
• Admission Control
In which conditions can a new user be admitted?
• Load Control (congestion control)
What should be done to avoid congestion?
In RRM all layers are involved under RRC control.
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5. UTRAN/5.7 Radio Resource Management (RRM)
RRM functions
 UE dedicated functions, implemented in SRNC and Node B:
Selection of radio bearer parameters according to RAB
requirements
Closed loop power control
Handover control
RRC states management according to UE traffic volume
DL dynamic scheduling on DCH
 UTRAN dedicated functions, implemented in CRNC:
Radio admission control
Code allocation
Radio load control
Open loop power control
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5. UTRAN/5.7 Radio Resource Management (RRM)
Transport channel allocation
strategies
RACH / FACH
low setup time, but
continuous transmission not
maintained
no soft HO and no fast PC
CPCH / DSCH
no guarantee of delay
no soft HO, but fast PC
DCH / DCH
bit rate can be changed
during transmission (TFS)
soft HO and fast PC
UL / DL
Short packets
Bursty traffic to be
sent immediately
Medium packets
Bursty and delay-
insensitive traffic
Long packets
Constant and variable
bit rate traffic with low
delay requirement
(LCD)
High bit rate
Common
channels
Shared
channels
Dedicated
channels
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5. UTRAN/5.7 Radio Resource Management (RRM)
Admission and Load Control
Both procedures are handled by CRNC. They are estimated separately for
uplink and downlink directions.
Admission Control
This algorithm is executed when a radio bearer is to be setup or modified. It is
based on:
•Power transmission criteria (noise increase in UL, transmit capacity in DL)
•Number of active users in the frequency band (code management)
And performed according to:
•The type of required QoS
•The current system load
Load Control (Congestion Control)
This algorithm ensures that the system is not overloaded and remains stable.
In case of congestion some actions can be taken.
But overload situations should normally be exceptional.
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5.1 From Radio Bearers to transport channels
5.2 Radio Protocols
5.3 Iu Protocols
5.4 UE identifiers and UE states
5.5 Signalling procedures
5.6 The Physical Layer (on the air interface)
5.7 Radio Resource Management (RRM)
5.8 Mobility management
5. UTRAN
Layer 3
Layer 2
Layer 1
UE
RNC Node B
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5. UTRAN/5.8 Mobility management
General description (1/2)
The mobility management enables a user to have access to the subscribed
services on the whole coverage of the usual network and possibly visited
networks. It is performed as long as the UE remains switched on. It needs a
lot of radio and network resources.
• UE in idle mode (network mobility)
Wherever the UE is located in the network coverage:
- the UE should have an access point to the network in the uplink
>> Cell reselection mechanisms
- the network should be able to reach the UE in the downlink (paging)
>> Location Area (LA) / Routing Area (RA) update mechanisms
• UE in connected mode (radio mobility management)
A connection to the UTRAN (RRC connection) has been established: this
connection should remain, when the UE moves from one cell to another.
>> Handover (HO) or cell update mechanisms
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5. UTRAN/5.8 Mobility management
General description (2/2)
• UE in idle mode
This mode is entered after “just after
switch on” process.
The UE location is:
- known by the CN at LA or RA level
- not known by the UTRAN
UE
Uu
UTRAN
Idle
mode
Connected
mode
• UE in connected mode
This mode is entered after RRC
connection establishment.
The UE location is:
- known by the CN at a LA or RA level
(furthermore the MSC or the SGSN
knows the SRNC of the UE)
- known by the UTRAN at a cell or
URA level.
“Just after switch on” process
Detached
RRC connection establishment
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5. UTRAN/5.8 Mobility management
UE in idle mode (1/2)
The cell reselection is performed autonomously by the UE, but the network
can influence it by changing the radio parameters used in radio criteria.
These radio parameters are transmitted in the Broadcast Channel (BCH).
?
When moving across the network,
the UE may have to perform a cell
reselection, if the initial cell on which
it is camped is no longer available or
is no longer the best suited.
The cell reselection consists of a
selection of candidate cells and a
ranking of these cells according to
radio criteria.
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5. UTRAN/5.8 Mobility management
UE in idle mode (2/2)
When camping on a cell, the terminal must register its LA and/or its RA.
When the terminal moves across the network, it must update its LA (RA) which is
stored in VLR (SGSN) in the Core Network.
LA (RA) Update is performed periodically or when entering a new LA (RA).
HLR
SGSN VLR
Location Area
(LA)
Routing Area
(RA)
VLR
...
SGSN
...
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5. UTRAN/5.8 Mobility management
UE in connected mode (1/3)


MM mechanisms


Effect during the call

hard HO very short cut
Cell_DCH

soft HO no cut
hard HO very short cut
Cell_FACH

cell update suspended

Cell_PCH

cell update suspended

URA_PCH

URA update suspended

Cell update (URA update) consists of updating the MS location information
stored in the SRNC.
A UTRA originated paging message will therefore be sent only in this cell
(this URA) and not in a whole LA or RA.
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5. UTRAN/5.8 Mobility management
UE in connected mode (2/3)
Soft HO
•inter-cell (softer HO, managed by Node-B)
•inter Node-B
•inter-RNC (SRNS relocation)
Hard HO
•intra CDMA-carrier
not recommended for dedicated channels,
but necessary for common channels for which soft HO is not applied
•inter CDMA-carrier
one operator can have two CDMA carriers or more
between two different operators
•inter-mode
FDD-TDD (not provided in R99)
•inter-system
UMTS-GSM: necessary to provide continuous coverage
UMTS-CDMA2000 (in the US?)
Cell reselection
•Inter-system : UMTS/GPRS (inter/intra carrier, inter/intra RNC)
cell 1
cell 2
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5. UTRAN/5.8 Mobility management
UE in connected mode (3/3)
A hard handover consists of forwarding a call on another channel which is
running on a different carrier.
UTRA
cell
GSM
cell
Downlink
10ms
frame
Idle
period
Compressed
frame
- Dual receiver
•simple handover operation, but expensive receiver
- Compressed mode (or slotted mode)
•simple receiver, but complicated handover operation
•the information is compressed time periodically (a few ms), in order to
perform measurements on the other frequencies without losing data
The terminal must make measurements on other
frequencies (FFD, GSM or TDD frequencies) whilst
holding the on-going connection :
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5. UTRAN/5.8 Mobility management
Exercise
The cell reselection is easier than the initial cell selection (performed just
after switch on): can you find the reason?
What is the difference between the cell reselection and the cell update
(performed in cell_PCH state)?
If there were no LA/RA update mechanisms, what would happen?
Is it better to have small or large LA?
Why is soft HO not provided in cell_FACH state?
In which case is it be better for the network to move a UE
to URA_PCH state rather than to cell_PCH state?
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.03
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Appendix
• “Just after switch on” process
• AMR codec
•NBAP elementary procedures
•RANAP elementary procedures
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.03
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Appendix/”Just after switch on” process
PLMN selection
PLMN selection
Cell selection
Attachment
2
1
After switch on, the UE:
- scans the entire frequency bandwidths of UTRAN
FDD and GSM (cell search procedure for UTRAN
FDD )
- monitors the broadcast channels (BCCH for
UTRAN FDD) to get the PLMN identifiers.
Hence the UE can establish a list of PLMNs which
are available in its location.
List of
available
PLMNs
UE
switche
d on
1
In the list of available PLMNs, the UE selects:
- the HPLMN (Home PLMN) if it is available
- otherwise another PLMN (national or
international) according to priority rules possibly
stored in the USIM
Selected
PLMN
2
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Appendix/”Just after switch on” process
Attachment procedure
PLMN selection
Cell selection
Attachment
3
4
In the selected PLMN, the UE:
- selects the best cell according to radio criteria
- initiates attachment procedure on the selected
cell
Attach-
ment
request
3
During the attachment procedure (called IMSI attach
for CS domain, GPRS attach for PS domain), the UE
indicates its presence to the PLMN for the purpose of
using services:
- authentication procedure
- storage of subscriber data from the HLR in the VLR
(or in the SGSN for PS domain)
- allocation of the TMSI (P-TMSI for PS domain)
Attach-
ment
result
4
5
Indication of service
to the UE
The result of the procedure is notified to the UE:
- if successful, the UE can access services
- if it fails, the UE can only perform emergency
calls
5
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Appendix/AMR codec
AMR codec (for CS domain)
The AMR (Adaptative Multirate) speech codec:
- offers 8 AMR modes between 4,75 kbits/s and 12,2 kbits/s
- is capable of switching its bit rate every 20 ms upon command of the RNC
- is located in the UE and in the transcoder (which is located in the CN)
AMR mode Source coding bit- rate
Class
A
Class
B
Class
C
AMR_12.20 12.20 kbit/ s (GSM EFR) 81 103 60
AMR_10.20 10.20 kbit/ s 65 99 40
AMR_7.95 7.95 kbit/ s 75 84 0
AMR_7.40 7.40 kbit/ s (IS-641) 61 87 0
AMR_6.70 6.70 kbit/ s (PDC-EFR) 58 76 0
AMR_5.90 5.90 kbit/ s 55 63 0
AMR_5.15 5.15 kbit/ s 49 54 0
AMR_4.75 4.75 kbit/ s 42 53 0
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Appendix/NBAP elementary procedures
NBAP elementary procedures
•Cell Configuration Management. This function gives the CRNC the possibility to manage the cell configuration
information in a Node B.
•Common Transport Channel Management. This function gives the CRNC the possibility to manage the
configuration of Common Transport Channels in a Node B.
•System Information Management. This function gives the CRNC the ability to manage the scheduling of System
Information to be broadcast in a cell.
•Resource Event Management. This function gives the Node B the ability to inform the CRNC about the status of
Node B resources.
•Configuration Alignment. This function gives the CRNC and the Node B the possibility to verify that both nodes
has the same information on the configuration of the radio resources.
•Measurements on Common Resources. This function allows the CRNC to initiate measurements in the Node B.
The function also allows the Node B to report the result of the measurements.
•Radio Link Supervision. This function allows the CRNC to report failures and restorations of a Radio Link.
•Compressed Mode Control [FDD]. This function allows the CRNC to control the usage of compressed mode in a
Node B.
•Measurements on Dedicated Resources. This function allows the CRNC to initiate measurements in the NodeB.
The function also allows the NodeB to report the result of the measurements.
•DL Power Drifting Correction (FDD). This function allows the CRNC to adjust the DL power level of one or more
Radio Links in order to avoid DL power drifting between the Radio Links.
NBAP Functions (see 3GPP 25.433)
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Appendix/RANAP elementary procedures
RANAP elementary procedures
•Relocating serving RNC. This function enables to change the serving RNC functionality as well as the related Iu
resources (RAB(s) and Signalling connection) from one RNC to another.
•Overall RAB management. This function is responsible for setting up, modifying and releasing RABs.
•Release of all Iu connection resources. This function is used to explicitly release all resources related to one Iu
connection.
•SRNS context forwarding function. This function is responsible for transferring SRNS context from the RNC to
the CN for intersystem forward handover in case of packet forwarding.
•Controlling overload in the Iu interface. This function allows adjusting the load in the Iu interface.
•Sending the UE Common ID (permanent NAS UE identity) to the RNC. This function makes the RNC aware of
the UE's Common ID.
•Paging the user. This function provides the CN for capability to page the UE.
•Transport of NAS information between UE and CN. This function has three sub-classes:
•Controlling the security mode in the UTRAN. This function is used to send the security keys (ciphering and
integrity protection) to the UTRAN, and setting the operation mode for security functions.
•Controlling location reporting. This function allows the CN to operate the mode in which the UTRAN reports the
location of the UE.
•Data volume reporting function. This function is responsible for reporting unsuccessfully transmitted DL data
volume over UTRAN for specific RABs.
RANAP Functions (some of them (see 3GPP 25.413))
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.03
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Appendix/RSNAP elementary procedures
RSNAP elementary procedures
•Radio Link Management. This function allows the SRNC to manage radio links using dedicated resources in a
DRNS;
•Physical Channel Reconfiguration. This function allows the DRNC to reallocate the physical channel resources
for a Radio Link;
•Radio Link Supervision. This function allows the DRNC to report failures and restorations of a Radio Link;
•Compressed Mode Control [FDD]. This function allows the SRNC to control the usage of compressed mode within
a DRNS;
•Measurements on Dedicated Resources. This function allows the SRNC to initiate measurements on dedicated
resources in the DRNS. The function also allows the DRNC to report the result of the measurements;
•DL Power Drifting Correction [FDD]. This function allows the SRNC to adjust the DL power level of one or more
Radio Links in order to avoid DL power drifting between the Radio Links;
•CCCH Signalling Transfer. This function allows the SRNC and DRNC to pass information between the UE and the
SRNC on a CCCH controlled by the DRNS;
•Paging. This function allows the SRNC to page a UE in a URA or a cell in the DRNS;
•Common Transport Channel Resources Management. This function allows the SRNC to utilise Common
Transport Channel Resources within the DRNS (excluding DSCH resources for FDD);
•Relocation Execution. This function allows the SRNC to finalise a Relocation previously prepared via other
interfaces.
RSNAP Functions (some of them (see 3GPP 25.423))
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.03
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Related Documentation
Abbreviations and Acronyms
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.03
Page 222
Related documentation
English
- WCDMA for UMTS, Harri Holma and Antti Toskala, Wiley 2000,
ISBN 0 471 72051 8
- UMTS Mobile communications for the future, Wiley 2001,
ISBN 0 471 49829 7
- Alcatel Telecommunications Review, 1st Quarter 2001 (“Find your way with 3G”)
- 3GPP specifications: ftp://ftp.3gpp.org/Specs/
Francais
- UMTS les réseaux mobiles de troisième génération, Editions Eyrolles 2001 (translation of
“WCDMA for UMTS” )
- UMTS les origines, l'architecture, la norme, Pierre Lescuyer, Editions Dunod 2001,
ISBN 2 10 005195 4
- Revue des Télécommunications d’Alcatel , 1er trimestre 2001 (entièrement consacrée à
la 3G)
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.03
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Abbreviations and Acronyms (1)
AAL ATM Adaptation Layer
ACELP Algebraic Code Excited Linear Prediction
ADN Abbreviated Dialling Number
ALCAP Access Link Control Application Part
AMR Adaptive Multi Rate
ATM Asynchronous Transfer Mode
BCCH Broadcast Control Channel
BCH Broadcast Channel
BHCA Busy Hour Call Attempts
BER Bit Error Rate
BLER Block Error Rate
BMC Broadcast / Multicast Control
BM-IWF Broadcast Multicast InterWorking
Function
BSC Base Station Controller
BSS Base Station (sub)System
BTS Base Transceiver Station
CAMEL Customized Application for Mobile
Enhanced Logic
CC Call Control
CCCH Common Control Channel
CCTrCH Coded Composite Transport Channel
CDMA Code Division Multiple Access
CDR Call Detail Record
CN Core Network
CPCH Common Packet Channel
CRNC Controlling RNC
CS Circuit Switched
CTCH Common Traffic Channel
DCA Dynamic channel Allocation
DCCH Dedicated Control Channel
DCH Dedicated Channel
DHO Diversity HandOver
DHT Diversity HandOver Trunk
DRAC Dynamic Resource Allocation Control
DRNC Drift RNC
DS Direct Sequence
DSCH Downlink Shared Channel
DTCH Dedicated Traffic Channel
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.03
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Abbreviations and Acronyms (2)
EDGE Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution
ERAN EDGE Radio Access Network (all-IP)
FACH Forward Access Channel
FBI FeedBack Information
FDD Frequency Division Duplex
FDD-DS FDD-Direct Sequence (FDD1)
FDD-MC FDD-Multiple Carrier (FDD2)
FER Frame Error Rate
FP Frame Protocol
FTP File Transfer Protocol
GERAN GSM/EDGE Radio Access Network
GGSN Gateway GPRS Support Node
GPRS General Packet Radio Service
GSM Global System for Mobile Communications
GSN GPRS Support Node (ie SGSN or GGSN)
GTP GPRS Tunneling Protocol
GTP-U GPRS Tunneling Protocol-User Plane
HO HandOver
HPLMN Home PLM
IETF Internet Engineering Task Force
IMEI International Mobile Equipment Identity
IMSI International Mobile Subscriber Identity
IP Internet Protocol
IR Incremental Redundancy
ISDN Integrated Services Digital Network
L1,L2,L3 Layer 1, Layer 2, Layer 3
LA Location Area
LCS Location Services
LLC Logical Link Control
LQC Link Quality Control
M3UA SS7 MTP3 User Adaptation layer
MAC Medium Access Control
MBS Multi-standard Base Station
MC Multiple Carrier
MExE Mobile Execution Environment
MM Mobility Management
MSC Mobile-services Switching Center
MSP Multiple Subscriber Profile
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.03
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Abbreviations and Acronyms (3)
MTP3 Message Transfer Part (broadband)
MTP-3B Message Transfer Part level 3
NAS Non Access Stratum
NBAP Node-B Application Part
ODMA Opportunity Driven Multiple Access
OSA Open service Architecture
OTDOA-IPDL Observed Time Difference of Arrival
Idle Period Downlink
OVSF Orthogonal Variable Spreading Factor
PCCH Paging Control Channel
PCH Paging Channel
PDA Personal Digital Assistant
PDC Personal Digital Cellular (2G Japan)
PDP Packet Data Protocol
PDU Protocol Data Unit
PLMN Public Land Mobile Network
PRACH Physical Random Access Channel
PS Packet Switched
QOS Quality Of Service
QPSK Quadrature Phase Shift Keying
RA Routing Area
RAB Radio Access Bearer
RACH Random Access Channel
RAN Radio Access Network
RANAP RAN Application Part
RB Radio Bearer
RL Radio Link
RLC Radio Link Control
RNC Radio Network Controller
RNS Radio Network Sub-System
RNSAP RNS Application Part
RNTI Radio Network Temporary Identity
RRC Radio Resource Control
RRM Radio Resource Management
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.03
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Abbreviations and Acronyms (4)
SAP Service Access Point
SAT SIM Application Toolkit
SDU Service Data Unit
SF Spreading Factor
SGSN Serving GPRS Support Node
SHO Soft HandOver
SIR Signal to Interference Ratio
SMS Short Message Service
SPU Signaling Processing Unit
SRNC Serving RNC
SSCOP Service Specific Connection Oriented
Protocol
SSCP Signaling Connection Control Part
STM Synchronous Transfer Mode
TC Transcoder
TCP Transport Control Protocol
TD-CDMA Time Division & CDMA
TDD Time Division Duplex
TDMA Time Division Multiple Access
TF Transport Format
TFC Transport Format Combination
TFCI Transport Format Combination Indicator
TFCS Transport Format Combination Set
TFS Transport Format Set
TMSI Temporary Mobile Station Identity
TPC Transmission Power Control
UDP User Datagram Protocol
UICC UMTS Integrated Circuit Card
UMTS Universal Mobile Telecommunication
System
USIM UMTS Subscriber Identity Card
USSD Unstructured Supplementary Service
Data
URA UTRAN Registration Area
URAN UMTS Radio Access Network (ETSI)
Universal Radio Access Network (3GPP)
USB Universal Serial Bus
UTRAN UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.03
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Abbreviations and Acronyms (5)
VC Virtual Channel
VHE Virtual Home Environment
VoIP Voice over IP
VP Virtual Path
WAP Wireless Application Protocol
W-CDMA Wideband Code Division Multiple
Access
WIM WAP Identity Module
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.03
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Abbreviations and Acronyms
(Standard Organizations)
3GPP 3rd Generation Partnership Project (WCDMA)
3GPP2 3rd Generation Partnership Project 2 (cdma2000)
3GIP 3rd Generation partnership for Internet Protocol
ANSI American National Standard Institute (USA)
ARIB Association of Radio Industries and Business (Japan)
CWTS China Wireless Telecommunication Standard group
ETSI European Telecommunication Standard Institute
IETF Internet Engineering Task Force
IMT International Mobile Telecommunication
ITU International Telecommunication Union
T1 Committee T1 telecommunication of the ANSI (USA)
TIA Telecommunication Industry Association (USA)
TTA Telecommunication Technology Association (Korea)
TTC Telecommunication Technology Committee (Japan)
UWCC Universal Wireless Communications Committee
W3C World Wide Web Consortium

Introduction to UMTS

Table of contents
1. 2. 3. Introduction Services Provided UMTS system description

4.
5.

WCDMA for UMTS
UTRAN (Release 1999)

Appendix Related Documentation Abbreviations and acronyms
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.03 Page 2

1.
Introduction

© Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.03

Page 3

1.Introduction

Definition

Universal Mobile Telecommunication System
“UMTS is one of the major new third generation mobile communications systems being developed within the framework which has been defined by the ITU and known as IMT-2000”
UMTS Forum
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.03 Page 4

3 Standardization UMTS goals 1.2 1.1.1 Context 1.8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. Introduction 1.4 UMTS technical overview © Alcatel University .03 Page 5 .

Introduction/1.1 Context Past mobile systems (1) First Generation (1G) In the early 80‟s.8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. C-Netz… Service: speech Limitations of 1G: •poor spectrum efficiency •expensive and heavy user equipment •mobility only in a small area •no security of communications © Alcatel University . analog systems e.1.g Radiocom 2000.03 Page 6 .

8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.) © Alcatel University .Introduction/1. e-commerce.1. IS-136 (TDMA system) Japan : PDC Services: Speech and low data rate Limitations of 2G: • Congestion more than 300 million wireless subscribers worldwide -->need to increase system capacity • Limited mobility around the world -->need for a global standardisation • Limited offer of services more than 200 million internet users--> Need for new multimedia services and applications (video telephony. digital systems Europe : GSM US : IS-95 (also called cdmaOne).1 Context Past mobile systems (2) Second Generation (2G) In the early 90‟s.03 Page 7 ...

GPRS.1 Context Technical solutions Two types of solutions were possible : • enhancement of 2G system --> 2.g: UMTS © Alcatel University .g.1.8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. EDGE for GSM evolution • design of a complete new standard --> 3G high cost. but great amount of new potential services e.5G low cost but short term e.Introduction/1. long term.: HSCSD.03 Page 8 .

Introduction/1.1.8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. Performance: up to 115.1 Context GSM evolution (1) HSCSD (High Speed Circuit Switched Data) Principle: to enhance channel coding scheme and to bundle GSM time slots on a circuit-switched basis.03 Page 9 . GPRS (General Packet Radio Service) Principle: to enhance channel coding scheme and to bundle GSM time slots on a packet-switched basis (the allocation of time slots is performed dynamically at the initialisation and during the connection) Performance: up to 171.2 kbps Already implemented but not all operators/manufacturers have made this choice.2 kbps 1999/2000 : deployment phase 2002 : service offers for most operators © Alcatel University .

1.Introduction/1.8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.1 Context GSM evolution (2) EDGE (Enhancement Data rates for GSM evolution) Principle: new modulation scheme (8PSK instead of GMSK) Performance: up to 384 kbps Implementation is yet to come (foreseen for 2003) EDGE might be a good alternative to 3G systems in certain areas or for operators who do not have 3G licences.03 Page 10 . although the 3G brings more in terms of new multimedia services. © Alcatel University .

Introduction/1.Let’s take some examples!  Downloading a map (50 KBytes) GSM 42 s GPRS 8 s EDGE 3 s UMTS 0.03 Streaming with all technologies except with GSM Page 11 .8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.2 s 1.4 MBytes) GSM GPRS EDGE UMTS 34 mn 7 mn 128 s 10 s  Downloading a Word document  Audio and Video (500 KBytes) streaming GSM 7 mn GPRS 82 s EDGE 27 s UMTS 2s © Alcatel University .1 Context  A 2 1/2 minutes MP3 music file (2.

1 Context 1.2 1.8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.Introduction 1.4 UMTS technical overview © Alcatel University .3 Standardization UMTS Goals 1.1.03 Page 12 .

2 Standardization IMT-2000: definition IMT-2000 is a framework for third generation mobile systems (3G) which is scheduled to start service worldwide around the year 2000 subject to market considerations. IMT-2000 main requirements are : . IMT-2000 should use the frequencies around 2 GHz all over the world.1.Introduction/1.03 Page 13 .8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.worldwide roaming capability . IMT-2000 is defined by a set of interdependent ITU Recommendations*.compatibility of services within IMT-2000 and with the fixed networks © Alcatel University .capability for multimedia applications .wide range of high quality services .

1.Introduction/1.2 Standardization IMT-2000: main participants Europe: ETSI Japan: ARIB USA: TIA.8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. T1 South Korea: TTA China: CWTS ITU: International Telecommunication Union © Alcatel University .03 Page 14 .

03 Page 15 .1.2 Standardization IMT-2000: terrestrial radio interfaces IMT-TC (Time Code) TD-CDMA UMTS TDD IMT-MC (Multi Carrier) CDMA2000 FDD MC IMT-SC (Single Carrier) TDMA Single Carrier UWC-136 EDGE/ERAN IMT-FT (Frequency Time) TDMA Multi-Carrier DECT IMT-DS (Direct Spread) W-CDMA UMTS FDD Radio/Network Connection Evolved GSM Core Network Evolved IS-41 Core Network © Alcatel University .Introduction/1.8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.

2 Standardization 2G terrestrial radio interfaces China : GSM US & Canada : (87%) Western Europe: CDMA (13%) GSM (12%) GSM CDMA (49%) (100%) TDMA (39%) Japan: PDC (64%) CDMA (36%) Rest of the World : GSM (41%) CDMA (35%) TDMA (24%) 1999 Market Share: GSM 48 % CDMA 28 % TDMA 15 % PDC 9% Page 16 © Alcatel University .03 .Introduction/1.8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.1.

03 Page 17 .1.Introduction/1.2 Standardization 3G terrestrial radio interfaces China : GSM US & Canada : Western Europe: UMTS (87%) GSM (12%) EDG E GSM CDMA (49%) CDM A 2000 UMTS TDMA (39%) EDG E (100%) CDMA (13%) CDM A 2000 Japan: PDC UMTS Rest of the World : (64%) GSM UMTS (41%) CDMA (35%) CDM A 2000 UMTS TDMA (24%) EDG E 1999 Market Share: GSM 48 % UMTS CDMA 28 % CDM EDG TDMA 15A % PDC 9% E IMT2000 CDMA (36%) CDM A 2000 UMTS 2000 © Alcatel University .8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.

© Alcatel University .1.8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.2 Standardization 3GPP: joint organization for UMTS standardization Affiliated organizations: ETSI (Europe) ARIB/TTC (Japan) T1 (USA) TTA (South Korea) CWTS (China) Other members involved: manufacturers and operators System Specification: Access Network WCDMA (UTRA FDD) TD-CDMA (UTRA TDD) Core Network Evolved GSM All-IP Releases defined for the system specifications: .Release R4 and R5 (previously known as Release 2000 or R‟00) In the following material we will only speak about UMTS R99.Release 99 (called R3 as well) .Introduction/1.03 Page 18 .

03 Page 19 . Call Control. Session Management WG2 CAMEL & MAP WG1 Radio layer 1 specifications WG1 Services WG1 Mobile Terminal Conformance Testing SMG1 WG2 Radio layer 2.1.8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. Radio layer 3 RR specification WG2 Architecture WG2 Mobile terminal services & capabilities SMG12 WG3 Interworking with External Networks WG3 Iux specifications. Base Station conformance WG4 CODEC WG5 OSA Ad Hoc ITU internal coordination WG5 Telecom Management * created in mid 2000 © Alcatel University .Introduction/1. UTRAN & O&M requirements WG3 Security WG3 USIM SMG2 ARC WG4 MAP/GTP /BCH/SS WG4 Radio performance/protocols.2 Standardization 3GPP organization TSG Core Network TSG Radio Access Network TSG Service and System Architecture TSG Terminals TSG GERAN GSM/EDGE* WG1 Mobility Management.

2 Standardization 3GPP specifications Series_Id 21. 33. 32. 34. 28. 27. 24. 22. 25.Introduction/1. 29.03 .8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. 30.1. 35. 26. 23. 31. Series_description Requirements Service Aspects Technical Realization Signaling Protocols (UE to network) UTRA aspects CODECs Data (reserved) Signaling Protocols (intra-fixed network) Program management User Identity Module O&M Security Aspects Test specification Security algorithms Page 20 © Alcatel University .

1.Introduction/1.8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.2 Standardization UMTS Roadmap EDGE Commercial introduction UMTS R4/R5 UMTS R99 Field Trials GPRS implementation UMTS R99 commercial System 2000 2001 2002 2003 © Alcatel University .03 Page 21 .

3 Standardization UMTS Goals 1.2 1.Introduction 1.1.1 Context 1.8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.4 UMTS technical overview © Alcatel University .03 Page 22 .

8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.” It will deliver information directly to users and provide them with access to new and innovative services and applications.” UMTS Forum 1997 © Alcatel University .03 Page 23 .3 UMTS goals Why UMTS? “UMTS will be a mobile communication system that offers significant user benefits including high-quality wireless multimedia services to a convergent network of fixed.Introduction/1. It will offer mobile personalized communications to the mass market regardless of location. cellular and satellite components.1. network and terminal used.

Introduction/1.3 UMTS goals UMTS vision Zone 4: Global Satellite Zone 3: Suburban Zone 2: Urban Zone 1: In-Building Macro-Cell Micro-Cell Pico-Cell MSS GSM UTRA/ FDD UTRA/ TDD © Alcatel University .03 Page 24 .8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.1.

2 1.8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.4 UMTS technical overview © Alcatel University .Introduction 1.3 Standardization UMTS Goals 1.1 Context 1.03 Page 25 .1.

8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.. Radio Access network (RAN) it comprises roughly the functions specific to the access technique. ISDN.) PS networks (Internet…) CN Iu Core network (CN) it provides support for the network features and telecommunication services. © Alcatel University .03 Page 26 . 3 different RANs are foreseen: •UTRAN (UMTS Terrestrial RAN) •MSS (Mobile Satellite component) •BRAN (Broadband RAN) RAN Uu UE CN RAN UE Core Network Radio Access Network User Equipment User Equipment (UE) It is the mobile phone.Introduction/1.4 UMTS technical overview UMTS general architecture CS networks (PSTN.1. It is connected to external CS networks or PS networks.

03 Page 27 . but the multiple access technique is completely different from GSM.Introduction/1.1.4 UMTS technical overview UMTS Cellular System UMTS consists of a set of hierarchical cells. GSM Users are separated in frequency (FDMA) and in time (TDMA) UMTS Users are separated with codes (CDMA) © Alcatel University .8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.

.8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. Uplink & Downlink .4 UMTS technical overview UMTS duplex modes 5 MHz channel FDD mode Code and Frequency orthogonality f1 f2 Uplink Downlink 5 MHz channel TDD mode Code and Time orthogonality .03 Page 28 .Introduction/1. 15TS © Alcatel University ... .1.

Introduction/1.03 Page 29 .4 UMTS technical overview UMTS Frequency allocations 2110 2170 2200 FDD 1900 1920 MSS 1980 2010 2025 TDD FDD MSS TDD Uplink Downlink FDD: Frequency Division Duplex TDD: Time Division Duplex MSS: Mobile Satellite System © Alcatel University .1.8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.

Introduction QUIZ! (1) Mark the following answers to the questions A to E by True or False. 1/ is an evolution of GSM 2/ is sometimes considered as a 3G system 3/ is based on a new modulation scheme 4/ is supposed to reach a bit rate about 40 times greater than the GSM one © Alcatel University .1.8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. What are the limits of 2G systems like GSM? 1/ No security of communications 2/ No dynamical allocation of radio resources 3/ Mobility only in a small area 4/ Heavy mobile phones 5/ Limited offer of data services B.03 Page 30 ... A. EDGE.

Are the following statements about UTMS duplex modes True or False? 1/ FDD is similar to the GSM duplex mode 2/ TDD use the same frequencies as FDD 3/ FDD is better suited for asymmetric traffic 4/ TDD will come later © Alcatel University .Introduction QUIZ! (2) C. Which of these radio interfaces belongs to IMT-2000? 1/ CDMA One 2/ UMTS FDD 3/ UMTS TDD 4/ CDMA 2000 5/ EDGE D.8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.03 Page 31 .1. What is the organisation responsible for UMTS standardization? 1/ 3GPP 2/ 3GPP2 3/ ETSI 4/ ARIB 5/ CWTS E. What is the bandwidth of a CDMA carrier in UMTS? 1/ 200 kHz 2/ 1 MHz 3/ 5 MHz F.

8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.2. Services provided © Alcatel University .03 Page 32 .

03 Page 33 .2 2.1 UMTS service principles 2.4 UMTS Terminals © Alcatel University . Services provided 2.2.8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.3 UMTS Bearer services Tele-services 2.

. in transparent mode. Iu Bearer Service .g speech. Services provided/2.03 ... Radio Access Bearer Service (RAB) Radio Bearer Service ...2. file transfer. emails.6 kbps....8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.1 UMTS service principles What is a service? TE/MT UTRAN E.g data transfer at 9. Physical Radio Physical Bearer Service Bearer Service Uu Iu Page 34 © Alcatel University . with turbocode . CN Node CN Gateway TE Teleservice UMTS Bearer Service External Bearer Service CN Bearer Service Backbone Bearer Service E.

emergency calls SMS Email Internet Access Mobile e-commerce Video Postcards Information and location based services New applications “Instinctive” service Basic services Enhanced services New services to be provided by service providers (third party) UMTS Bearer services Large toolkit for all kinds of services © Alcatel University .03 Page 35 . Services provided/2.8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.2.1 UMTS service principles Tele-services and Bearer services Teleservices Speech.

8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.03 Page 36 . Services provided/2.2.1 UMTS service principles Third party: service provider Tele-services will not be standardised so as to differentiate between operators and providers of applications. UMTS offer new opportunity for content and service providers Today‟s 1:1 customer-operator relationship Tomorrow‟s situation? Operator Contracted Content providers Contracted Service providers Contracted Service providers Operator © Alcatel University .

8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.2.1 UMTS service principles Virtual Home Environment (VHE) The Virtual Home Environment (VHE) is a portability concept of the PSE (Personal Service Environment): • VHE enables the users to carry along its PSE whilst roaming between networks • VHE shall be independent of terminal used (in fact the service configuration is adapted to the terminal capacities) • "same look and feel" wherever you are PSE : the user has access to a range of services in its Home Environment. Services provided/2. © Alcatel University .03 Page 37 .

2. The latter are carried through standard interfaces in order to support Tele-services adapted to the Service Capabilities of the network and user equipment.03 Page 38 . © Alcatel University .1 UMTS service principles Service Architecture Tele-services (terminal equipment functions. Operator transmission capabilities) Service Layer Standardized interfaces Service Capability Features Service Capability Servers GSM/GPRS/UMTS CAMEL MExE SAT Bearer Services Network Layer Fixed VHE concept is based on the standard mechanisms of Service Capability Servers which allow Service Capability Features.8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. Services provided/2.

8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.type of payment: credit card .03 Page 39 .. Map display on the phone : SAT and MExE Call the restaurant by Push Service : MExE Reservation with VISA card number : secured transaction with MExE Billing of the service : CAMEL © Alcatel University .. Services provided/2.1 UMTS service principles Let’s Look for the nearest restaurant Choose your preferences: . Restaurant Paul Bocuse 69660 Collonges-au-Mont-d'or This service is built from the following service capability features: call set-up & authorisation (CAMEL for services in roaming after authentication phase with SAT).type of restaurant: French .2.

1 UMTS service principles 2.03 Page 40 . Services provided 2.2.3 UMTS Bearer services Tele-services 2.8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.2 2.4 UMTS Terminals © Alcatel University .

8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. traffic type (guaranteed/constant bit rate. priority • quality characteristics: maximum transfer delay. This set of requirements are called QoS parameters. non guaranteed/variable…). bi-directional. delay variation.2. multicast…). Example : several active radio bearer services can be handled simultaneously by the same terminal equipment. Bearer services provide the capability for information transfer between access points and involve only low layer functions. bit error ratio. traffic characteristics (uni-directional. always considered point-to-point. © Alcatel University .2 UMTS Bearer Services Bearer services characterization Bearer services are characterized by a set of end-to-end characteristics with requirements on QoS. Services provided/2.03 Page 41 . data rate. Each bearer service is characterized by its requirements: • transfer information: connection oriented or connectionless.

8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. • support of asymmetric nature between uplink and downlink • supply of bearer services without wasting resources on the radio and network interfaces. Services provided/2. © Alcatel University .2.03 Page 42 .2 UMTS Bearer Services Bearer QoS requirements • negotiable: QoS offer on demand • provide a wide range of QoS levels • dynamic behaviour: It shall be possible to negotiate (re-negotiate) the characteristics of a bearer service at session or connection establishment (during an on going session or connection).

03 Page 43 .2.when the speed of the user increases .when the load of the network increases © Alcatel University .2 UMTS Bearer Services Bearer Supported bit rates The only limiting factor for satisfying application requirements shall be the cumulative bit rate per mobile termination at a given instant in each radio environment: At least 144 kbits/s in rural outdoor radio environment (with a maximum speed of 500 km/h) At least 384 kbits/s in urban or suburban outdoor radio environments (with a maximum speed of 120 km/h) •At least 2048 kbits/s in indoor or low range outdoor radio environment (with a maximum speed of 10 km/h) Theses performances decrease: . Services provided/2.8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.

Services provided 2.4 UMTS Terminals © Alcatel University .8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.1 UMTS service principles 2.3 UMTS Bearer services Tele-services 2.2.2 2.03 Page 44 .

Vertical application • • • • Traffic Management Automation Mobile branches Health M-commerce Non physical • • • • • • © Alcatel University .3 Tele-services Typology Media Directories Mobile Office • • • • • • Voice (!) E-mail Agenda IntraNet/InterNet Corporate Applications Database Access • Yellow/White Pages • International Directories • Operator Services Always-on Fun • • • • • Games (Hangman.8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. Quiz. Cinema.2.. Chemist.. Poker.03 on-line Banking Ticketing Auction Gambling Best Price e-Book Physical • on-line shopping • on-line food Page 45 . ATM . Parking. Services provided/2.. …) Screen Saver Ring Tone Horoscope Biorhythm Music Transportation • Flight/train Schedule • reservation • Downloading of music files or video clips News (general/specific) • • • • • • • • International/National News Local News Sport News Weather Lottery Results Finance News Stock Quotes Exchange Rates Location services • Traffic Conditions • Itineraries • Nearest Restaurant.

Services provided/2.03 Page 46 .8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. + © Alcatel University .2...3 Tele-services QoS classes  4 classes have been identified:  conversational  AMR speech service  Video telephony – CS: H324 – PS: H323 + Delay sensitive Data Integrity sensitive  streaming  interactive  Web-browsing  location based services -  background  e-mail delivery  SMS .

3 Tele-services Performance QoS of teleservices depends not only on UMTS network.03 Page 47 . Services provided/2. E-commerce. terminals and external networks. still image. From a user‟s perspective it is more relevant to speak of delay rather than bit rate: Error tolerant Conversational Streaming audio Voice messaging and video voice and video Fax FTP.2.8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. but also on applications. WWW browsing paging intolerant interactive games E-mail arrival notification Conversational delay <<1 sec Streaming delay<1 sec Interactive delay <10 sec Background delay >10 sec © Alcatel University . Error Telnet.

what will be an easy way to explain to the customer what a “1 Mbyte of data” is? • What will happen in case of handover between GSM and UMTS? • What about roaming? Prepaid services? • QoS depends directly on the load of the network. Customers who pay more might have higher priority or better QoS (depending of the operator‟s strategies).2. Billing for a given service might depend on the QoS.03 Page 48 .3 Tele-services Defining charging principles • How will billing be performed: by time? by volume? by number of connections? • If billing is performed by volume.8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. A trade-off must be found between users. Services provided/2. © Alcatel University .

2. Services provided/2.3 Teleservices

Location based services

Teleservices will depend on the strategy and on the imagination of operators and content providers. The key point is likely to be a fast access to information and an appropriate filtering of the user location data. the UMTS killer application is likely be a location based service Example of location based services : look for an hotel, consult yellow pages, get local traffic situation or weather report,...

Limitation: location information could be a risk for privacy.

© Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.03

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2. Services provided

2.1

UMTS service principles

2.2
2.3

UMTS Bearer services
Tele-services

2.4

UMTS Terminals

© Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.03

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2. Services provided/2.4 UMTS terminals

User Equipement (UE)

Mobile Equipment Cu interface

UICC USIM 1

USIM 2

GSM access

SIM
(ME) Mobile Equipment (ME)

GSM terminal

User Equipment (UE)

© Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.03

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2. Services provided/2.4 UMTS terminals

Range of terminals

There will be a wide range of terminals depending of the type of application (speech, video, games, dual...), the mode (UMTS/GSM, UMTS/DECT...) Integrated approach:
1 handset able to perform all functions. Most of the concept phones today.

Distributed approach:
1 handset for voice & WAP, or voice only and a Bluetooth connection to other devices (headset, camera...).
Automotive / Telematics New interfaces Domestic Data / IT

E-Commerce Consumer Electronics

Image
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.03

Games Audio
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03 Page 53 . on-line banking. 2/ are mapped on bearer services 3/ will be standardized by 3GPP B.. 1/ is a portability concept of 3G mobile systems 2/ will enable to keep the same environment when roaming between mobile and fixed networks 3/ will be adapted to the terminal capabilities 4/ will use proprietary interfaces © Alcatel University ... Services provided QUIZ! A.2.8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.. True or False? The tele-services. to access yellow pages. 1/ are used for example to make a call. True of False? The VHE...

. True or False? A bearer service can support for one user: 1/ 2 Mbps at a speed of 120 km/h 2/ 2 Mbps in a high loaded cell 3/ 2 Mbps at 3 km away from the base station 4/ Asymmetric traffic 5/ Variable traffic D. True or False? Location based services.. Services provided QUIZ! C. 1/ are services only available in some areas (city centers.8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.03 Page 54 .2.) 2/ are services related to the location of the user 3/ can locate the mobile phone with an accuracy of about 50 m © Alcatel University ...

Services provided QUIZ! E..2.. UMTS services have been announced to come later than initially scheduled because of non availability of UMTS terminals in volume: can you find some reasons which makes it quite complex to design UMTS terminals? © Alcatel University . True or False? A UICC (UMTS integrated Circuit Card).03 Page 55 . 1/ has the same size as a GSM SIM card 2/ can not be used in a GSM terminal 3/ can be used in an UMTS terminal and provide access to GSM network 4/ is linked with the UMTS terminal via a proprietary interface 5/ may provide access to UMTS networks of different operators F.8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.

8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. UMTS System Description © Alcatel University .03 Page 56 .3.

UMTS System Description 3 views of the system Logical architecture Protocol architecture Protocol stacks Entities Bearers Call scenario © Alcatel University .8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.3.03 Page 57 .

UMTS System Description Entities Protocol stacks 3.8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.3.2 Protocol architecture 3.3 Call scenario © Alcatel University .03 Page 58 .1 Logical architecture Bearers 3.

03 Page 59 .3./3.1 UMTS logical architecture UMTS logical Architecture Core Network CN CS-Service Domain PS-Service Domain Iu-CS Iu-PS Iu-PS Iu-CS IU Iu-reference point RNS Iur RNC RNC Iub Node B Iub Node B RNS UTRA N Iub Node_B Node B Iub Node B UU Uu-reference point UE © Alcatel University .8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. UMTS System Descript.

3.1 UMTS logical architecture CN logical architecture UMTS Core Network for Release 99 2G/3G MSC 2G/3G GMSC PLMN PSTN / ISDN GSM BSS BSC Gb A EIR HLR AuC VHE Iu (CS) UTRAN RNC Iu (PS) 2G/3G SGSN IP Backbone 2G/3G GGSN External IP Network © Alcatel University ./3. UMTS System Descript.03 Page 60 .8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.

3. congestion control.radio resource management (code allocation.radio transmission handling .8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.radio mobility management .macro-diversity handling (soft HO) .control of Node-Bs Node-B A Node-B can be composed of several cells and performs: . admission control) .03 Page 61 ./3.1 UMTS logical architecture UTRAN logical Architecture RNS RNC RNS Iur RNC Iub Node_B Node B Iub Node B Iub Node B Iub Node B RNC It is the intelligent part of the UTRAN: .macro-diversity handling (softer HO) © Alcatel University . UMTS System Descript.

3.1 UMTS logical architecture Soft Handover (1) Core Network Iu Iu Iur S RNC1 Iub Iub D RNC2 S Iub Iub NodeB1 NodeB2 NodeB3 NodeB4 1 2 3 4 5 6 © Alcatel University . UMTS System Descript.8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed./3.03 Page 62 .

8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.1 UMTS logical architecture Soft Handover (2) The role of an RNC (Serving or Drift) is on a per connection basis between a UE and the UTRAN: Serving RNC: provide Iu UE-CN connection Drift RNC: supports Serving RNC by providing radio resources The recombination of the signal is performed in Serving RNC (in Node B for softer HO) and in UE using a RAKE receiver./3.3. © Alcatel University .03 Page 63 . Soft HO is highly recommended in UMTS system: about 30 to 40% of mobiles are in macro-diversity mode in IS-95. UMTS System Descript.

Iub. UMTS System Descript. “Open Interfaces” aim at motivating competition between manufacturers. Physical implementation of Iu interfaces Each Iu Interface may be implemented on any physical connection using any transport technology. Uu.. Iu-CS.1 UMTS logical architecture UMTS logical Interfaces Open Interfaces The functional split for the UMTS components (UE. Node-B. RNC.3. but the internal architecture and implementation issues are left open (it is up to the manufacturer). ATM will be provided in the R99 release and IP is foreseen in further releases © Alcatel University .8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.. Iur.03 Page 64 ./3. Iu-Ps) have been defined in such a detailed level that the equipment at the endpoints can be from different manufacturers.) are clearly specified. However all the interfaces (Cu.

3.3 Call scenario © Alcatel University .1 Logical architecture Bearers 3.03 Page 65 .2 Protocol architecture 3. UMTS System Description Entities Protocol stacks 3.8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.

© Alcatel University .8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. UMTS System Descri.3./3. Each entity provides services to entities of upper layers through Service Access Points (SAP).2 UMTS protocol architecture Access stratum and Non Access Stratum Non-Access Stratum (NAS) Iu Radio Protocols Protocols (2) (1) Radio Protocols (1) Iu Protocols (2) Access Stratum (AS) UE Uu UTRAN Iu CN SAP Interchanges between entities is applied on a peer-to-peer principle.03 Page 66 .

03 Page 67 .2 UMTS protocol architecture Non Access Stratum CS traffic CM/MM CS traffic CM/MM PS traffic SM/GMM Iu Protocols NAS AS Radio Protocols Uu Radio Protocols Iu Protocols IuCS MSC PS traffic UE SM/GMM UTRAN Iu Protocols Iu-PS SGSN © Alcatel University .8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.3. UMTS System Descri./3.

/3.2 UMTS protocol architecture Access Stratum: radio protocols 4.8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. Initial access (RRC Connection Establishment) RLC MAC Iu protocols Phys Phys RLC MAC Iu protocols UE Uu Node B Iub RNC Page 68 © Alcatel University .03 . Speech (from/to Iu-CS) 1 2 4 3 NON ACCESS STRATUM (NAS) ACCESS STRATUM (AS) ) RRC PDCP BMC RRC PDCP BMC 5. Local weather forecast (SMS Cell Broadcast 2. User authentication (NAS signalling) 3. Web browsing (from/to Iu-PS) 1.3. UMTS System Descri.

UMTS System Descri.2 UMTS protocol architecture Access Stratum: Iu protocols Iu-CS Iub Node-B NBAP RNC RNSAP RNC Iur MSC RANAP SGSN Iu-PS The same general protocol model is applied for all Iu interfaces: Radio Network Layer Control Plane User Plane Application Protocol Transport Network User Plane Data Stream(s) Transport Network Control Plane Transport Network User Plane Transport Application Protocol: .8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.RANAP for Iu-CS and Iu-PS © Alcatel University .NBAP for Iub ./3.RNSAP for Iur Network Layer Signaling Bearer(s) ALCAP Signaling Bearer(s) Physical Layer Data Bearer(s) .3.03 Page 69 .

03 Page 70 . UMTS System Description Entities Protocol stacks 3.8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.3.2 Protocol architecture 3.3 Call scenario © Alcatel University .1 Logical architecture Bearers 3.

UMTS System Description/3.03 Page 71 .3.8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.3 Call Scenario Radio Access Bearer (RAB) UMTS Bearers CN-CS UTRAN UE UMTS bearer services UMTS Bearer UMTS Bearer CN-PS Radio Bearers Iu Bearers RABs (mapped on Radio & Iu Bearers) “The RAB provides confidential transport of signaling and user data between UE and CN with the appropriate QoS”. © Alcatel University .

But the RAB characteristics (delay. © Alcatel University . UTRAN has the total freedom to configure the radio bearers according to the required RAB attributes (ie QoS).3. UMTS System Description/3. bit rate…) may not be the same for CS and PS part.3 Call Scenario Establishment of a call Inside the UTRAN No more distinction between CS and PS part: all data are mapped on RAB.8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.03 Page 72 .

3.3 Call Scenario Example : CS call establishment UE RRC Phase UTRAN RANAP Phase CN Authentication and ciphering RAB establishment Radio Bearer(s) allocation Iu Bearer(s) allocation alert and connect (CS) PDP context activated (PS) Uu © Alcatel University .03 Iu Page 73 .8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. UMTS System Description/3.

. ...... ISDN) ...8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. PS networks (internet) .... .. . .. . UMTS System Description QUIZ! A.... . . .... © Alcatel University ......03 Page 74 . . CS networks (PSTN. ...3...... . Put the correct words in the spaces on the figure below .

Where is performed the radio mobility management? 1/ in the CN 2/ at the RNC 3/ at the Node-B D.3.8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. UMTS System Description Quiz! B. can the RNC from a given manufacturer be compatible with: 1/ the CN of another manufacturer? 2/ the RNC of another manufacturer? 3/ the Node-B of another manufacturer? © Alcatel University .03 Page 75 . According to the norm. Which of the following statements concerning the soft(er) handover is true of false? 1/ a soft(er) HO consists of two or more simultaneous radio links between the UE and the UTRAN 2/ a soft HO is under the control of the Drift RNC 3/ a softer HO is performed by Node-B C.

4.03 Page 76 . WCDMA for UMTS © Alcatel University .8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.

8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.4.4 4.2 4.6 Context Spread Spectrum modulation Code Division Multiple Access Rake Receiver Power Control Soft Handover 4.1 4. WCDMA for UMTS 4.7 Typical coverage and capacity values Page 77 © Alcatel University .5 4.3 4.03 .

8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.03 Page 78 .4.WCDMA (UTRA FDD) . WCDMA for UMTS/ 4.CDMA 2000 In the following material we will only refer to WCDMA (UTRA FDD) © Alcatel University .1 Context From military to civil modern radio-communications Early 70’s CDMA developed for military field for its great qualities of privacy (low probability interception.TD-CDMA (UTRA TDD) . interference rejection) 1996 CDMA commercial launch in the US This system called IS-95 or cdmaOne was developed by Qualcomm and has reached 50 million subscribers worldwide 2000 IMT-2000 has selected three CDMA radio interfaces: .

packet) and for multi-services • Enhanced privacy • Evolutionary (linked with progress in signal processing field) BUT: • Complex system: not easy to configure and to manage • Unstable in case of congestion © Alcatel University .4. WCDMA for UMTS/ 4.8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.1 Context Why CDMA? CDMA is very attractive: • Better spectrum efficiency than 2G systems • Suitable for all type of services (circuit.03 Page 79 .

5 4.3 4.1 4.7 Context Spread Spectrum modulation Code Division Multiple Access Rake Receiver Power Control Soft Handover Typical coverage and capacity values Page 80 © Alcatel University .2 4. WCDMA for UMTS 4.03 .6 4.8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.4 4.4.

03 Page 81 . even if the power of the received signal is below the power of noise due to the radio channel.2 Spread Spectrum Modulation A code as a shell against noise Noise Radio channel Spreading Despreading Transmitter Receiver The letter „A‟ represents the signal to transmit over the radio interface. © Alcatel University .8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. At the transmitter the height (ie the power) of „A‟ is spread. WCDMA for UMTS/ 4.4. while a color (i.e a code) is added to „A‟. At the receiver „A‟ can be retrieved with knowledge of the code.

8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. because this is not correlated with the code. while the noise level due to the radio channel remains the same.4. The spectrum spreading permits transmission of a signal below the noise level and makes the signal very hard to detect.2 Spread Spectrum Modulation Spectrum spreading P P P P Radio channel Noise level f f f f Spreading De-spreading At the transmitter the signal is multiplied by a code which spreads the signal over a wide bandwidth while decreasing the power (per unit of spectrum).03 Page 82 . WCDMA for UMTS/ 4. © Alcatel University . Spectrum spreading makes CDMA very secure. At the receiver it is possible to retrieve the wanted signal by multiplying the received signal by the same code: you get a peak of correlation.

2 Spread Spectrum Modulation Transmission Chain Air Interface NB-Signal Data WB-Signal WB-Signal NB-Signal Data Modulator Code sequence Demodulator Code Sequence The narrowband data signal is multiplied bit per bit by a code sequence: it is known as “chipping”. WCDMA for UMTS/ 4.8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. At the receiver the same code sequence in phase should be used to retrieve the original data signal. The chip rate of this code sequence is much higher than the bit rate of the data signal: it produces a wideband signal.03 Page 83 . © Alcatel University .4. also called spread signal.

The spreading factor is 4) Spreading makes CDMA adequate for services with variable bit rates. © Alcatel University .03 Page 84 .8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.2 Spread Spectrum Modulation Spreading factor Signal Spreading Code Tx signal Rx signal Code Despreading Signal 1 1111 0101 0101 0101 0101 1111 1 0 0000 0101 1010 1010 0101 0000 0 0 0000 0101 1010 1010 0101 0000 0 (bits) (chips) Radio channel (In this case. each bit of the signal is spread over 4 chips.4. WCDMA for UMTS/ 4.

WCDMA for UMTS/ 4.8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.4. A high bit rate signal needs more power to cross the noise level by de-spreading. It enables transmission of the signal below the noise level.03 Page 85 .2 Spread Spectrum Modulation Processing Gain P Processing Gain De-spreading W Rb W  Processing Gain  10 Log10   Rb  f The Processing Gain is the gain you have at the receiver by the despreading of the signal (peak of correlation). © Alcatel University .

03 .2 4.6 Power Control Soft Handover 4.3 4.7 Typical coverage and capacity values Page 86 © Alcatel University .5 4.4.4 Context Spread Spectrum modulation Code Division Multiple Access Rake Receiver 4.1 4.8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. WCDMA for UMTS 4.

WCDMA for UMTS/ 4.3 Code Division Multiple Access One-cell reuse The area is divided into cells. but the entire bandwidth is reused in each cell (frequency reuse of one) > Inter-cell interference > Cell orthogonality is achieved by codes The entire bandwidth is used by each user at the same time > Intra-cell interference > User orthogonality is achieved by codes © Alcatel University .03 Page 87 .8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.4.

3 Code Division Multiple Access Multiple access (1) Spreading 1 Transmitter 1 Spreading1 Radio Channel Spreading 2 Receiver The receiver aims at receiving Transmitter 1 only. Transmitter 2 All the users transmit on the same 5 MHz carrier at the same time and interfere with each over.8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. At the receiver the users can be separated by means of (quasi-)orthogonal codes. WCDMA for UMTS/ 4.4. © Alcatel University .03 Page 88 .

WCDMA for UMTS/ 4. © Alcatel University . Transmitter 2 If a user transmits with a very high power.03 Page 89 .4. it will be impossible for the receiver to decode the wanted signal (despite use of quasi-orthogonal codes) CDMA is unstable by nature and requires accurate power control.3 Code Division Multiple Access Multiple access (2) Spreading 1 Transmitter 1 Spreading1 Radio Channel Spreading 2 Receiver The receiver aims at receiving Transmitter 1 only.8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.

WCDMA for UMTS/ 4.4.03 Page 90 .3 Code Division Multiple Access Spreading: Channelization and scrambling cch1 air interface Modulator cch 2 cscrambling cch 3 The channelization code (or spreading code) is signal-specific: the code length is chosen according to the bit rate of the signal.8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. © Alcatel University . The scrambling code is equipment-specific.

-1.1.-1.4.0 ch.2 = (1.8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.-1) C ch.1 = (1.4.1.0 = (1) C C ch.1.-1.2.-1) C ch.3 Code Division Multiple Access Channelization codes (spreading codes) C C ch.1) SF = 1 SF = 2 SF = 4 SF = 8 The channelization codes are OVSF (Orthogonal Variable Spreading Factor) codes: • their length is equal to the spreading factor of the signal: they can match variable bit rates on a frame-by-frame basis.3 = (1.1.0 =(1.4.1. • orthogonality enables to separate physical channels: Uplink: separation of physical channels from the same terminal Downlink: separation of physical channels to different users within one cell © Alcatel University .4.4.-1) The code tree is shared by several users (usually one code tree per cell) = (1.03 Page 91 .2.1) = (1.1 ch. WCDMA for UMTS/ 4.-1.1) C ch.

4. Another scrambling code may be introduced in one cell if necessary (example : shortage of channelization code).8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.3 Code Division Multiple Access Scrambling codes The scrambling codes provide separation between equipment: • Uplink: separation of terminals No need for code planning (millions of codes!) There are 214 long and 214 short scrambling codes in uplink • Downlink: separation of cells Need for code planning between cells (but trivial task) There are only long scrambling codes in downlink (512 to limit the code identification during cell search procedure) The long scrambling codes are truncated to the 10 ms frame length. WCDMA for UMTS/ 4.03 Page 92 . © Alcatel University . Only one downlink scrambling code should be used within a cell. but orthogonality between users will be degraded.

6 4.3 4.1 4.4 4.03 .2 4. WCDMA for UMTS 4.7 Context Spread Spectrum modulation Code Division Multiple Access Rake Receiver Power Control Soft Handover Typical coverage and capacity values Page 93 © Alcatel University .4.8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.5 4.

Decoding of all these signals by one receiver is only a question of signal processing capacity.multi-service (via handling of multiple physical channels that are carrying the services) .soft handover .4. A Rake receiver is implemented in mobile phones and in base stations. A Rake receiver is capable to decode several signals simultaneously in the so called “fingers” and to combine them in order to improve the quality of the signal or to get several services at the same time.path diversity © Alcatel University .03 Page 94 .4 Rake Receiver Rake Receiver principle (1) In a CDMA system there is a single carrier which contains all user signals.8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. WCDMA for UMTS/ 4. A Rake receiver can provide: .

4 Rake Receiver Rake receiver principle (2) Delay Adjustment Multi-code signal 1st Finger 2nd Finger Delay 1 Code Sequence 1 Data 1 Delay 2 Code Sequence 2 3rd Finger Data 2 Delay 3 Code Sequence 2 or 3 The components of the multi-code signal are demodulated in parallel each in one “finger” of the Rake Receiver.03 Page 95 . The outputs of the fingers: • can provide independent data signals • can be combined to provide a better data signal(s) © Alcatel University .4. WCDMA for UMTS/ 4.8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.

03 Page 96 .4. WCDMA for UMTS/ 4.8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. we can say: One service. one code! (*) >> Which codes make it possible to separate the two signals at the receiver? © Alcatel University .4 Rake Receiver Rake receiver and multi-service Spreading 1 Despreading 1 Spreading 2 Radio Channel Despreading 2 Transmitter Multimedia receiver As a first approach.

WCDMA for UMTS/ 4.8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. The mobile phone need only one transmission chain to decode both simultaneously.4. © Alcatel University .03 Page 97 . because the two mobile stations use the same frequency band.4 Rake Receiver Rake Receiver and soft handover Spreading 1 Base station 1 Despreading 1&2 Radio Channel Spreading 2 Mobile phone Base Station 2 >> Which codes make it possible to separate the two signals at the receiver? Soft handover is possible.

4. © Alcatel University . the multipath components of the signal can be separated by a Rake Receiver. WCDMA for UMTS/ 4.26 µs (78 m) of the CDMA system. hills…) cause reflections. The delay dispersion depends on the environment and is typically: • 1 µs (300 m) in urban areas • 20 µs (6000 m) in hilly areas The delay dispersion should be compared with the chip duration 0. CDMA can take advantage of multipath propagation.8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.03 Page 98 . If the delay dispersion is greater than the chip duration. In this case. diffractions and scattering and consequently multipath propagation.4 Rake Receiver Rake Receiver and path diversity (1) Natural obstacles (buildings.

WCDMA for UMTS/ 4.4 Rake Receiver Rake Receiver and path diversity (2) Direct path Spreading Despreading Transmitter Reflected path Receiver >> Which codes make it possible to separate the two signals at the receiver? Dispersion <Chip duration The Rake Receiver cannot provide path diversity.03 Page 99 .8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.4. © Alcatel University . Direct path Spreading Despreading Transmitter Reflected path Receiver Dispersion > Chip duration The Rake Receiver can provide path diversity to improve the quality of the signal.

03 . WCDMA for UMTS 4.4.2 4.1 4.3 4.8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.4 4.7 Context Spread Spectrum modulation Code Division Multiple Access Rake Receiver Power Control Soft Handover Typical coverage and capacity values Page 100 © Alcatel University .5 4.6 4.

4.8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. WCDMA for UMTS/ 4. > Need for very efficient and very fast Power Control on UL > Power Control is also used in DL to reduce interference and consequently to increase the system capacity.5 Power Control Why Power Control? MS2 MS1 Node B Near-Far Problem on the uplink way an overpowered mobile phone near the base station can jam any other mobile phones far from the base station.03 Page 101 . © Alcatel University .

WCDMA for UMTS/ 4. then UE will speak low. then UE will speak LOUD. If UE receives a weak DL signal. © Alcatel University .5 Power Control Open Loop Open loop power control 1 Node B 2 Node B 1 2 If UE receives a STRONG DL signal. Open loop Power Control is inaccurate.8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.4. Problem: fading is not correlated on UL and DL due to separation of UL and DL band.03 Page 102 .

The RNC controls parameters of the SIR estimation (outer loop).. The Node-B controls the power of the UE (and vice versa) by performing a SIR estimation (inner loop).66 ms (1500 Hz command rate).. WCDMA for UMTS/ 4..” ..8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. Closed loop Power Control is very fast.5 Power Control Closed Loop Closed loop power control ”Power down” SIR estimation Node B SIR estimation ”Power down” ”Power up” SIR estimation RNC SIR target SIR estimation ”Power .03 Page 103 . © Alcatel University .4. This SIR estimation is performed each 0.

7 Context Spread Spectrum modulation Code Division Multiple Access Rake Receiver Power Control Soft Handover Typical coverage and capacity values Page 104 © Alcatel University .1 4.4 4.5 4.03 .2 4.3 4.8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.4.6 4. WCDMA for UMTS 4.

WCDMA for UMTS/ 4.4.03 Softer HO Page 105 .8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.6 Soft Handover Soft Handover (1) RNC Node B Node B Node B Soft HO © Alcatel University .

03 Page 106 .6 Soft Handover Soft Handover (2) Why do we need soft HO? Imagine that a UE penetrates from one cell deeply into an adjacent cell: > it may cause near-far problem > hard HO is not a good solution.Additional transmission links between Node-Bs and RNCs Soft HO provides Diversity (also called Macro-Diversity). but requires more network resource. WCDMA for UMTS/ 4.4.Additional Rake Fingers in UE .Additional rake receiver in Node-B . because of the need for the hysteresis mechanism Additional resources due to soft HO: . © Alcatel University .8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.

 Timing information from UE  The UE needs to get the following information  Channelization & scrambling codes to be used  Relative timing information (Timing offset based on CPICH synchro) © Alcatel University . WCDMA for UMTS/ 4. layer 2 information.03 Page 107 .4.  Combined Radio Link Addition and Removal.  Radio Link Removal (FDD soft-drop). …)  UE ID and uplink scrambling code.  The cell to be added to the active set needs to have information forwarded by the RNC:  Connection parameters (coding scheme.8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.6 Soft Handover Soft Handover (3)  Soft Handover execution:  Soft Handover is executed by means of the following procedures  Radio Link Addition (FDD soft-add).

2 4. WCDMA for UMTS 4.7 Context Spread Spectrum modulation Code Division Multiple Access Rake Receiver Power Control Soft Handover Typical coverage and capacity values Page 108 © Alcatel University .5 4.1 4.03 .8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.4.4 4.3 4.6 4.

7 Typical coverage and capacity values Market perspective Mobile data market forecast Marketing inputs Multi-service environment Voice+data Variable bit rate Different QoS Asymmetric traffic New radio technology W-CDMA Radio dimensioning process: What’s new? Capacity Coverage Quality © Alcatel University . WCDMA for UMTS/ 4.8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.4.03 Page 109 .

03 Page 110 .5 km © Alcatel University .4. WCDMA for UMTS/ 4. because the transmission power of the terminal is much lower than that of the base station.8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.7 Typical coverage and capacity values Concentric coverage The coverage is determined by the uplink range. UE Transmit Power 21 dBm (126 mW) 24 dBm (251 mW) Service in suburban area Cell radius (uplink limited) Speech 12 kbit/s  3 km Packet data 144 kbit/s  2 km Packet data 384 kbit/s  1.

diffractions or scattering) by using a Rake Receiver. Multipath diversity it consists of combining the different paths of a signal (due to reflections.4. Receive antenna diversity the base station collects the signal on two uncorrelated branches.g.03 Page 111 .8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.7 Typical coverage and capacity values Ways of improving coverage AMR speech Codec it enables to switch to a lower bit rate if the mobile is moving out of the cell coverage area: it is a trade-off between quality and coverage. Multipath diversity is very efficient with W-CDMA. accuracy of SIR estimation in power control process © Alcatel University . Soft(er) handover the transmission from the mobile is received by two or more base stations. It can be obtained by space or polarization diversity. WCDMA for UMTS/ 4. Base stations algorithms e.

because it is not limited by the hardware equipment. because: .the downlink capacity is expected to be more important than the uplink capacity because of asymmetric traffic.the amount of interference in the air interface Adjacent cells share part of the same interference: there is an additional capacity in a cell. .8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. But.the loss of code orthogonality The downlink codes originate from a single point and can be synchronized. part of orthogonality is lost. It is a soft capacity. The downlink capacity has two limitations: .7 Typical coverage and capacity values Soft capacity The capacity is determined by the downlink direction. .03 Page 112 . after transmission over multipath channel. if the number of users in the neighboring cells is smaller.4.better receiver techniques can be used in the base station than in the mobile station (but requiring more CPU power). WCDMA for UMTS/ 4. © Alcatel University .

indoor) .03 Page 113 .the load of the cell: trade-off capacity/coverage (breathing cells) High loaded cell High DL interference level DL data throughput 660 kbps (per carrier per sector) High loaded cell Low DL interference level DL data throughput 1440 kbps (per carrier per sector) © Alcatel University . WCDMA for UMTS/ 4.8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.7 Typical coverage and capacity values Parameters influencing capacity The capacity depends on: .4.the distribution of the terminals .the radio environment (rural. suburban.the terminal speeds .

1/ consists of increasing the power while decreasing the frequency bandwidth 2/ allows to transmit a signal with a S/N (Signal-to-Noise ratio) smaller than one 3/ enables to retrieve the coded signal at the receiver by using the same code in phase 4/ is used in FDMA system B. signal 2 has a bit rate of 384 kbps and a coding rate of 1/2: 1/ Which spreading factor should be chosen for each of these signals? 2/ What is the processing gain for each of these signals? © Alcatel University . Signal 1 has a bit rate of 12 kbps and a coding rate of 1/3.03 Page 114 .4.. WCDMA for UMTS QUIZ! A. True or False? Spreading.8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed..

8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. How many carriers are there per operator for WCDMA? 1/ 124 carriers 2/ 62 carriers 3/ 1 to 3 according to the country E.03 Page 115 . True or false? A Rake Receiver 1/ can separate simultaneously two signals only if their codes are perfectly orthogonal 2/ can separate simultaneously several signals of 2 different WCDMA carriers 3/ can take advantage of multipath propagation © Alcatel University .84 Mchips/s D. True of false? WCDMA.. 1/ is also called UMTS FDD or UTRA FDD 2/ uses a 1 MHz bandwidth carrier 3/ has a chip rate of 3.. WCDMA for UMTS QUIZ! C.4.

WCDMA for UMTS QUIZ! F..4. True or false? In WCDMA.8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. 1/ is highly desirable in WCDMA 2/ require use of more frequencies 3/ require use of more power in uplink 4/ require additional signal processing equipment such as Rake Receiver 5/ require additional transmission links © Alcatel University . power control 1/ is used in uplink and in downlink 2/ is crucial in downlink because of near-far problem 3/ is composed of the open loop and the closed loop 4/ may be performed each WCDMA time slot (1500 Hz command rate) G.03 Page 116 .. True or false? Soft handover.

03 Page 117 . UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network (FDD mode.8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.5. Release 1999) © Alcatel University .

8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. UTRAN UTRAN role and principles Layer 3 Layer 2 Layer 1 UE Uu Node B Iub RNC CN • To transfer traffic and control channels between UE and CN . © Alcatel University .Independence from the applied transport technology on the Iu interface • To manage the radio mobility of the user Full control of UE radio mobility with the use of the Iur interface which makes it possible to perform soft HO even with 2 cells/Node-Bs belonging to different RNCs.Common handling of packet-switched and circuit-switched data .Protection of the user data on the air interface (providing of ciphering) .03 Page 118 . • To make efficient use of limited radio resources Support of WCDMA specific Radio Resource Management (RRM) algorithms.5.

5 5.8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.1 5.03 .5. UTRAN Layer 3 Layer 2 Layer 1 UE Node B RNC 5.2 5.7 5.4 5.6 UE identifiers and UE states Signalling procedures The Physical Layer (on the air interface) 5.8 Radio Resource Management (RRM) Mobility management Page 119 © Alcatel University .3 From Radio Bearers to transport channels Radio Protocols Iu Protocols 5.

5. UTRAN/5.1 From Radio Bearers to transport channels

Situation
UE UTRAN CN Node Teleservice UMTS Bearer Service Radio Access Bearer Service (RAB) Radio Bearer Service Iu Bearer Service ... Physical Bearer Service CN Bearer Service Backbone Bearer Service External Bearer Service CN Gateway UE

...
Radio Physical Bearer Service Uu
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.03

Iu
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5. UTRAN/5.1 From Radio Bearers to transport channels

Radio Bearers, logical and transport channels
Control plane User plane

NAS signalling
RRC Signalling Radio Bearers

Web browsing Telephony speech SMS Cell Broadcast
User plane Radio BMCBearers

RRC connection establishment
RLC

PDCP

Control Logical Channel s

Traffic Logical Channels MAC Transport Channels (Iur)/Iub/Uu Phys. UTRAN

...
MAC Transport Channels Phys.

UE
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© Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.03

5. UTRAN/5.1 From Radio Bearers to transport channels

Radio Bearers
Signalling Radio Bearers (SRB) SRBs can carry: - layer 3 signalling (e.g. RRC connection establishment) - NAS signalling (e.g location update)

There can be up to 4 SRBs per RRC connection (one UE has one RRC connection when connected to the UTRAN).
User Plane Radio Bearers

RABs are mapped on user plane RBs.
One RAB can be divided on RAB sub-flows and each sub-flow is mapped on one user plane RB. e.g the AMR codec encodes/decodes speech into/from three sub-flows; each sub-flow can have its own channel coding.
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.03 Page 122

5. UTRAN/5.1 From Radio Bearers to transport channels

Logical Channels (1)

Control Channels (CCH)
Broadcast Control Channel (BCCH) Paging Control Channel (PCCH) Common Control Channel (CCCH) Dedicated Control Channel (DCCH)

UTRAN

Traffic Channels (TCH)
Dedicated Traffic Channel (DTCH) Common Traffic Channel (CTCH)

© Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.03

Page 123

measurement reports.g cell identity.5. web browsing T raffic information to all or a group of UEs e. HO T raffic information dedicated to one UE e. UTRAN/5.g speech. uplink interference level P aging information e.g CN originated call when the network does not know the location cell of the UE Control information e.g SMS-Cell Broadcast CCCH DCCH DTCH CTCH © Alcatel University .1 From Radio Bearers to transport channels Logical Channels (2) UL ( ) / DL ( ) BCCH PCCH Wha t type of informa tion? System control information e.g initial access (RRC connection request).8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. fax.03 Page 124 . cell update Control information (but the UE must have a RRC connection) e.g radio bearer setup.

1 From Radio Bearers to transport channels Why Transport Channels? A transport channel offers a flexible pattern to arrange information on any service-specific rate.5. © Alcatel University .8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.03 Page 125 . UTRAN/5. delay or coding before mapping it on a physical channel: • it provides flexibility in traffic variation • it enables multiplexing of transport channels on the same physical channel Transport channels provide an efficient and fast flexibility in radio resource management.

UTRAN/5. Each TF must belong to the Transport Format Set (TFS) of the transport channel 168 360 bits 360 10 ms 168 168 10 ms 168 168 168 168 10 ms 10 ms Time Transmission Interval (TTI): periodicity at which a Transport Block Set is transferred by the physical layer on the radio interface © Alcatel University .1 From Radio Bearers to transport channels Structure of a Transport Channel (1) Transport Block: basic unit exchanged over transport channels. Transport Format (TF): it may be changed every TTI.8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.03 >> The system delivers one Transport Block Set to the physical layer every TTI: what is the delivery bit rate of the transport blocks to the physical layer during the first TTI? Page 126 .5.

UTRAN/5. • Dynamic part (may be changed easily) Size of transport block.8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.5. MAC may choose another TF every TTI without interchanging with RRC protocol (fast radio resource control). © Alcatel University . MAC chooses TF among TFS.. but long process) Transmission Time Interval (TTI). Coding scheme.1 From Radio Bearers to transport channels Structure of a Transport Channel (2) Transport Format (TF) • Semi-static part (can be changed. Number of transport blocks per TTI Transport Format Set (TFS) It is the set of allowed Transport Formats for a transport channel..03 Page 127 . which is assigned by RRC protocol entity to MAC protocol entity.

How many Transport Format(s) may be chosen for this transport channel? 4.1.4) 3. coding rate= 1/ 3 16 bits 576 576 576 576 576 1.2. Can you imagine why the transfer has been interrupted during the third TTI? © Alcatel University . Complete the table 2.3.1 From Radio Bearers to transport channels Example 576 bits 576 576 576 40 ms Sta tic Pa rt TTI Coding scheme CRC Dyna mic Pa rt T ransport Block Size T ransport Block Size Set ? T urbo coding. UTRAN/5. What is the delivery bit rate of the transport blocks to the physical layer during the first TTI? ? 576*B (B= 0.5.03 Page 128 .8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.

1 From Radio Bearers to transport channels Transport Channels Common Channels Broadcast Channel (BCH) Paging Channel (PCH) Forward Access Channel (FACH) Downlink Shared Channel (DSCH) Random Access Channel (RACH) Common Packet Channel (CPCH) UTRAN Dedicated Channels Dedicated Channel (DCH) © Alcatel University .5. UTRAN/5.03 Page 129 .8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.

Can you explain why? PCH: Paging Channel A downlink transport channel that is used to carry PCCH.8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.5. It is always transmitted over the entire cell. UTRAN/5. >> Is it possible to carry all types of information on the PCH? © Alcatel University . The BCH is always transmitted with high power over the entire cell with a low fixed bit rate.03 Page 130 .1 From Radio Bearers to transport channels Common Transport Channels (1) BCH: Broadcast Channel A downlink transport channel that is used to carry BCCH. >> The BCH is the only transport channel with a single transport format (no flexibility).

1 From Radio Bearers to transport channels Common Transport Channels (2) FACH: Forward Access Channel A downlink transport channel that is used to carry control information. It may also carry short users packets. The FACH is transmitted over the entire cell or over only a part of the cell using beam-forming antennas. >> Why is it interesting to carry short user packets on RACH in spite of limited data field and collision risk (instead of using a dedicated channel)? © Alcatel University .03 Page 131 . The RACH is always received from the entire cell and is characterized by a limited size data field. a collision risk and by the use of open loop power control (slow power control). >> In which case is it interesting to use beam-forming antennas? would it also be relevant to implement this feature for PCH? RACH: Random Access Channel An uplink transport channel that is used to carry control information from the mobile especially at the initial access.5. It may also carry short user packets. The FACH uses open loop power control (slow power control).8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. UTRAN/5.

UTRAN/5. it always has an associated DCH. When a UE is using the DSCH.5.03 Page 132 . which provides power control.  Transfer of signalling and traffic on a shared basis © Alcatel University . It is a contention based random access channel. It is always associated with a dedicated channel on the downlink. CPCH: Common Packet Channel An uplink transport channel that is used to carry long user data packets and control packets.1 From Radio Bearers to transport channels Common Transport Channels (3) DSCH: Downlink Shared Channel A downlink transport channel shared by several UEs to carry dedicated control or user information. which provides power control.8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.

>> Two features are only applied on DCH: can you guess which? © Alcatel University .1 From Radio Bearers to transport channels Dedicated Transport Channels DCH: Dedicated Channel A downlink or uplink transport channel that is used to carry user or control information. UTRAN/5.8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. use of beam-forming and support of soft HO. It is characterized by features such as fast rate change (on a frame-by-frame basis).5.03 Page 133 . fast power control.

03 .8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. UTRAN/5.5.1 From Radio Bearers to transport channels Mapping LogicalTransport Channels Control Logical Channels BCCH PCCH CCCH DCCH Traffic Logical Channels DTCH CTCH BCH PCH RACH FACH DSCH CPCH DCH Dedicated Transport Channels Page 134 Common Transport Channels © Alcatel University .

03 .1 From Radio Bearers to transport channels Mapping Logical  Transport Channels Control Logical Channels BCCH PCCH CCCH DCCH Traffic Logical Channels DTCH CTCH BCH PCH RACH FACH DSCH CPCH DCH Dedicated Transport Channels Page 135 Common Transport Channels © Alcatel University . UTRAN/5.5.8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.

.8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed..1 From Radio Bearers to transport channels Complete the gaps! (1) … channels are defined by what type of information (e. © Alcatel University .g type of coding.g frequency.g user data.. UTRAN/5. ) data are transferred over the radio interface... framing..5.) with which the data are transferred over the physical resources of the airinterface. system information. (2) … channels are defined by how and with what characteristics (e. required BER. signalling. code. required transfer delay. power.) is transported over the radio interface. (3) … channels are defined by the mechanisms (e.03 Page 136 .

5.8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. … 2. DCH DL: DSCH. DCH © Alcatel University .DCH UL: CPCH.03 Page 137 . UTRAN/5. DL: FACH UL: CPCH. … 8. … 10. … 3. DCH DL: DSCH.1 From Radio Bearers to transport channels Complete the table! Traffic cla ss Signa lling 1. … 4. … Conversational Interactive Interactive Streaming Background Background 3 DTCHs DTCH DTCH DTCH DTCH CTCH UL: 3 coordinated DCHs DL: 3 coordinated DCHs UL: RACH. FACH PCH UL: RACH. DCH DL: DSCH. … 7.DCH FACH Logica l Channel BCCH PCCH CCCH DCCH Transport Channel BCH. … User information 5. … 9. … 6. DL: FACH RACH.DCH UL: CPCH.

5. UTRAN

Layer 3 Layer 2 Layer 1 UE Node B RNC

5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8

From Radio Bearers to transport channels Radio Protocols Iu Protocols UE identifiers and UE states Signalling procedures The Physical Layer (on the air interface) Radio Resource Management (RRM) Mobility management
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5. UTRAN/5.2 Radio Protocols

Radio protocol stack
Control plane Non Access Stratum Access Stratum Layer 3
Layer 2/PDCP Layer 2/BMC control control control

User plane Bearers (called RAB in user plane)

RRC
control

control
PDCP PDCP

SAP BMC

Radio Bearers RLC RLC RLC RLC RLC RLC RLC Logical Channels

Layer 2/RLC RLC Layer 2/MAC Layer 1

MAC Transport Channels PHY

© Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.03

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5. UTRAN/5.2 Radio Protocols

Radio Resource Control (RRC)
Bearers Layer 3 control control control RRC control Radio Bearers (control plane) control

Call management Radio mobility management Measurement control and reporting Outer loop power control
PDCP BMC

RLC

MAC PHY

RRC is the brain of the radio interface protocol stack.
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.03 Page 140

5. UTRAN/5.2 Radio Protocols

PDCP and BMC protocols
PDCP (Packet Data Convergence Protocol) - in the user plane, only for services from the PS domain - it contains compression methods

In R99 only a header compression method is mentioned (RFC2507).
Why is header compression valuable? e.g a combined RTP/UDP/IP headers is at least 60 bytes for IPv6, when IP voice service header can be about 20 bytes or less. BMC (Broadcast/Multicast Services) - in the user plane - to adapt broadcast and multicast services from NAS on the radio interface

In R99 the only service using this protocol is SMS Cell Broadcast Service (directly taken from GSM).
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.03 Page 141

5.8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. © Alcatel University . UTRAN/5.03 Page 142 .2 Radio Protocols Radio Link Control (RLC) Segmentation Radio Bearers (control plane) Layer 2/ upper part RLC RLC RLC Radio Bearers (user plane) Buffering Data transfer with 3 configuration modes: .Acknowledged (AM) Ciphering RLC RLC RLC RLCRLC Traffic Logical Channels Control Logical Channels RLC provides segmentation and (in AM mode) reliable data transfer.Transparent (TM) .Unacknowledged (UM) .

UTRAN/5.03 Page 143 .5. © Alcatel University . MAC can change dynamically Transport Format (bit rate…) of each transport channel on a frame basis (each 10 ms) without interchanging with L3-level.8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. MAC provides flexible data transfer.2 Radio Protocols Medium Access Control (MAC) Control Logical Channels Layer 2/ lower part Traffic Logical Channels Basic data transfer Multiplexing of logical channels Priority handling/Scheduling (TFC selection) MAC Transport Channels (common and dedicated) Reporting of measurements Ciphering MAC can switch a common channel into a dedicated channel if higher bit rate is required (on request of L3-level).

UTRAN/5. 0 . There is one TFCS per CCTrCH. 0 . 148} not possible? © Alcatel University . 148} DCH3 = {0 . 148} Transport Format Set (TFS) Transport Format Combination (TFC) DCH1 DCH2 DCH3 TrCH multiplexing TFCS = { {244 .8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. >> Why is the combination {244 . DCH1 = {244} DCH2 = {0 . {244 . 0} . 148 . 148} } Transport Format Combination Set (TFCS) CCTrCH MAC selects TFC inside TFCS.03 Physical channel Mapping L1 Physical Channel(s) Page 144 . {244 .g.5. 148 .2 Radio Protocols TFC selection in MAC protocol Several transport channels can be time-coordinated to be multiplexed on a CCTrCH before mapping on one physical channel (or more if necessary). 0} . Transport Format (TF) MAC TFC selection e.

03 Page 145 . © Alcatel University .8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. UTRAN/5.2 Radio Protocols The Physical Layer Common Transport Channels Layer 1 Dedicated Transport Channels Multiplexing of transport ch.5. Spreading/modulation Physical layer Common Physical Channels Air Interface Dedicated Physical Channels RF processing Power control Measurements The physical layer provides multiplexing and radio frequency processing with a CDMA method.

5. © Alcatel University .2 Radio Protocols Exercise: MAC protocol (1) BCCH MAC Control PCCH BCCH CCCH CTCH DCCH DTCH DTCH MAC-d MAC-b MAC-c/sh BCH PCH FACH FACH RACH CPCH DSCH DSCH DCH DCH Iur or local Look at this figure and answer the questions on the following pages.03 Page 146 .8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. UTRAN/5.

5.internet browsing at a high bit rate .paging . Guess the meaning of “MAC-b” “MAC-c/sh” and “MAC-d”. What are the 4 main functions of MAC protocol? 6.system information broadcasting .8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.telephony speech . MAC can multiplex logical channels only if they require the same QoS: true or false? © Alcatel University . UTRAN/5. 3. On which logical/transport channels will be mapped: . Why is there one MAC-d entity on the UE side and several MAC-d entities on the UTRAN side? 4.03 Page 147 . What is the link between MAC-c/sh and MAC-d for? 5.internet browsing at a low bit rate Can you imagine a situation where the UE will use 2 DTCHs (or more) at the same time? 2.2 Radio Protocols Exercise: MAC protocol (2) 1.

5.8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.2 Radio Protocols Exercise: MAC protocol (3) 7. UTRAN/5.03 Page 148 . What is the name of the channel on which several time-coordinated transport channels can be multiplexed? 10. but not in MAC-d : can you explain the reason? 8. when the UE is connected to the UTRAN .g modification of spreading factor) when MAC selects a new TFC inside TFCS? 13. MAC makes measurement reports to RRC: why is it necessary? © Alcatel University . The parameter RNTI is included in the header of each transport blocks in MAC-c/sh. The system can also multiplex transport channels: where does that take place? 9. RNTI (Radio Network Temporary Identity) is an UE identity assigned by UTRAN. Which entity is responsible for TFC selection? TFCS allocation? 11. Is it possible to multiplex 2 FACHs (or more)? 2 DCHs (or more)? a FACH and a DCH? 12. Will the physical channel configuration be changed (e.

5. UTRAN

Layer 3 Layer 2 Layer 1 UE Node B RNC

5.1 5.2

From Radio Bearers to transport channels Radio Protocols

5.3
5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8

Iu Protocols
UE identifiers and UE states Signaling procedures The Physical Layer (on the air interface) Radio Resource Management (RRM) Mobility management
Page 149

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5. UTRAN/ 5.3 Iu protocols

General model
The same general protocol model is applied for all Iu interfaces:
Radio Network
Control Plane User Plane

Layer
Transport Network Layer

Application Protocol
Transport Network User Plane Transport Network Control Plane

Data Stream(s)
Transport Network User Plane

ALCAP Signaling Bearer(s) Signaling Bearer(s) Physical Layer Data Bearer(s)

1. What is the purpose of the separation between the Radio Network Layer and the Transport Network Layer? 2. Why is ALCAP protocol necessary?

Application Protocols:

- NBAP for Iub interface - RNSAP for Iur interface - RANAP for Iu-CS and Iu-PS interfaces
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5. UTRAN/ 5.3 Iu protocols

Iub protocols
Radio Link Establishment RRC Connection Establishment* NAS signalling*
User Plane

RABs*

RNC
Radio Network Layer Transport
Control Plane

NBAP
Transport Network User Plane Transport Network Control Plane

Frame Protocols (IubFP)
Transport Network User Plane

Network
Layer

ALCAP

AAL5

AAL5 ATM

AAL2

Physical Layer
* at this stage these data streams have been mapped on transport channels by MAC protocol
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.03

Node B
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5. UTRAN/ 5.3 Iu protocols

Iur protocols
Establishment of an additional radio link to an UE (for soft HO) Radio Network Layer Transport Network Layer
Control Plane

RABs*

RRC Connection Establishment* NAS signalling*
User Plane

SRNC

RNSAP
Transport Network User Plane Transport Network Control Plane

Frame Protocols (Iur FP)
Transport Network User Plane

... AAL5

ALCAP AAL5 ATM Physical Layer AAL2

* at this stage these data streams have been mapped on transport channels by MAC protocol
© Alcatel University - 8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.03

DRNC
Page 152

. . (air) .....3 Iu protocols UTRAN protocols: general recap RRC PDCPBMC RLC MAC Soft(er) combining Softer combining RRC PDCPBMC RLC Uu Iub MAC SRNC NBAP ALCAP Iub-FP Phy... (air) NBAP ALCAP Iub-FP Iur-FP ALCAPRNSAP .... AAL5 AAL5 AAL2 AAL2 AAL5 AAL5 ATM/Physical layer Iur UE Node-B RRC PDCPBMC RLC Radio Protocols DRNC MAC Iu Protocols (Radio Network Layer) Iu protocols (Transport Network Layer) © Alcatel University .8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.. AAL5 AAL5 AAL2 AAL2 AAL5 AAL5 ATM/Physical layer Page 153 .03 NBAP ALCAP Iub-FP Iur-FP ALCAPRNSAP .. UTRAN/ 5. . . ... . AAL5 AAL5 AAL2 ATM/Physical layer Soft combining Phy. ........5.

UTRAN 5.5.1 5.5 5.3 5.7 5.8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.6 5.03 .2 5.8 From Radio Bearers to transport channels ? ? Radio Protocols Iu Protocols UE identifiers and UE states Signalling procedures The Physical Layer (on the air interface) Radio Resource Management (RRM) Mobility management Page 154 © Alcatel University .4 5.

RNTI: Radio Network Temporary Identity This is allocated by the UTRAN for each UE in connected mode and used for inband identification in common transport channels (e. UTRAN/5.5. © Alcatel University .TMSI: Temporary Mobile Station Identity They are used in the initial access CCCH message • UTRAN identifier .g FACH).8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.IMSI: International Mobile Subscriber Identity . The RNTI is not used outside the UTRAN.03 Page 155 .4 UE identifiers and UE states UE identifiers 2 types of UE identification on the radio interface: • NAS identifiers .

03 Page 156 .8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.5. UTRAN/5.4 UE identifiers and UE states UE states (1) out of coverage RRC Connection Release UE detached UE in idle mode UE in connected mode “just after switch on” process Including Cell search procedure RRC Connection Establishment Why is the idle mode necessary? © Alcatel University .

.UE in connected mode .UE in idle mode. UTRAN/5.03 .8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.Setup of a Dedicated Control Channel (DCCH) DCCH RNC 3 Which type of transport channel are used to carry CCCH? DCCH? © Alcatel University .The DCCH is used during the whole time of the RRC connection to carry signalling dedicated to this particular UE Page 157 .4 UE identifiers and UE states UE states (2) out of coverage RRC Connection Release RRC Connection Establishment procedure UE UE detached UE in idle mode in connected mode “just after switch on” process RRC Connection Establishment CCCH RNC 1 .5.a Common Control Channel (CCCH) is used to initiate the procedure CCCH DCCH RNC 2 .

03 Page 158 .4 UE identifiers and UE states UE states (3) Cell_DCH state Signalling and traffic data dedicated to the UE (mapped on DCCH and DTCH respectively) are carried on DCH transport channel Cell_FACH state Signalling and traffic data dedicated to the UE (mapped on DCCH and DTCH respectively) are carried on RACH (uplink) and FACH (downlink) transport channels Cell_DCH Cell_FACH No traffic UL/DL at expiry of timer 1 Cell_FACH Cell_DCH Traffic volume UL/DL too large UE in idle mode Cell FACH URA PCH Cell PCH UE in connected Cell DCH mode © Alcatel University . UTRAN/5.5.8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.

.8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. UTRAN/5.03 .4 UE identifiers and UE states UE states (4) Cell_PCH state No transmission of signalling and traffic data dedicated to the UE (no DCCH and no DTCH) Cell DCH UE in idle UE in connected mode Cell PCH But the RRC connection is still active (UTRAN keeps RNTI for UE) and UE location at a cell level.5.a DCCH (and possibly a DTCH) can be reestablished very quickly (this procedure is initiated by sending a paging signal PCH) mode Cell FACH URA PCH Cell_FACH Cell_PCH No traffic UL/DL at expiry of timer 2 Cell_PCH  Cell_FACH URA_PCH Too many cell reselections Cell/URA_PCH  Cell_FACH Incoming DL or UL traffic Page 159 URA_PCH state Very similar to cell_PCH state UTRAN keeps the location of the UE at the URA level (set of UMTS cells) © Alcatel University .

UTRAN/5.5. RA © Alcatel University .03 Page 160 .4 UE identifiers and UE states UE identifiers and UE states: complete the table! UE Sta tes idle mode cell_DCH connected mode cell_FACH cell_PCH URA_PCH CN UTRAN UE Identifiers UE Loca tion UE Identifier UE Loca tion IMSI. TMSI LA.8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.

5. UTRAN Layer 3 Layer 2 Layer 1 UE Node B RNC 5.03 .8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.1 5.2 5.3 From Radio Bearers to transport channels Radio Protocols Iu Protocols 5.5 5.4 5.6 UE identifiers and UE states Signaling procedures The Physical Layer (on the air interface) 5.8 Radio Resource Management (RRM) Mobility management Page 161 © Alcatel University .7 5.

Radio Link establishment E. Direct Transfer F.8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.5 Signaling procedures List of basic signaling procedures A. Transport Channel and Physical Channel F1. Paging Type 2 (in cell_FACH or cell_DCH states) C. UTRAN/5. RRC Connection Release (in cell_DCH states) D. Soft HO (Radio Link Addition) © Alcatel University . RRC Connection Establishment (to cell_FACH and to cell_DCH states) C2. RRC Connection C1. Broadcast of system information B.5. Physical Channel Reconfiguration G. Paging Type 1 (in idle mode or in cell_PCH or in URA_PCH states) B2. RB.03 Page 162 . RAB Establishment F2. Control of RAB. Paging B1.

Initial UE capability RNC RRC Network entity Protocol entity Parameters of the message © Alcatel University .8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. Establishment cause. UTRAN/5.5.5 Signaling procedures How to read call scenario diagrams Logical channel Name of the message Transport channel UE RRC 1. RRC Connection Request (CCCH:RACH) Initial UE identity.03 Page 163 .

. RNC or Node-B. >> Do you think the UE needs to read all the SIBs each time a broadcast is repeated? © Alcatel University .can be carried on BCH which is transmitted permanently over the entire cell...5 Signaling procedures A.contains static parameters (Cell identity.). UTRAN/5. . .8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed..) and dynamic parameters (UL interference level.may come from CN..5.is arranged in System Information Blocks (SIB). System Information Broadcasting (1) The broadcast system information: . which group together elements of the same nature.03 Page 164 . supported PLMN types.

5 Signaling procedures A. BCCH modification time System Information Update Response CN NBAP RRC System Information (BCCH:BCH) Master/Segment Info Block(s) RRC System Information (BCCH:BCH) Master/Segment Info Block(s) RRC NBAP RRC System Information (BCCH:BCH) RRC Master/Segment Info Block(s) RRC >> Why does RRC protocol terminate at Node-B for BCH (not at RNC)? Page 165 © Alcatel University .5.03 . UTRAN/5.8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. System Information Broadcasting (2) UE Node-B NBAP RNC System Information Update Request NBAP Master/Segment Info Block(s).

cell_FACH. Paging Paging is typically used at core network-originated call. cell_DCH states) .in the URA (in URA_PCH state) Paging Type 1: mapped on PCCH/PCH Paging Type 2: mapped on DCCH/FACH or DCCH/DCH >> Can you guess which Paging Type will be use in idle mode? in cell_PCH state? in cell_FACH state? in cell_DCH state? in URA_PCH state? © Alcatel University .in the cell (in cell_PCH.8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.03 Page 166 .5. UE in idle mode The network will page the UE in LA (CS domain) or RA (PS domain) UE is in connected mode The network will page the UE: .5 Signaling procedures B. UTRAN/5.

Paging Type 1 (PCCH:PCH) RRC RRC 2.03 Page 167 . Paging Type1 (PCCH:PCH) RRC © Alcatel University . Paging CN Domain Indicator. Paging Idem RANAP RRC 2.5 Signaling procedures B1.5. Paging Type 1 UE 1 UE 2 Node-B 1 Node-B 2 RNC 1 RNC 2 1. Paging cause CN RANAP RANAP RANAP 1. UTRAN/5.8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. UE identity.

8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.5. Paging Type 2 (DCCH:FACH or DCH) RRC © Alcatel University .03 Page 168 .5 Signaling procedures B2. UTRAN/5. Paging CN Domain Indicator. Paging cause RANAP RRC 2. UE identity. Paging Type 2 UE Node-B SRNC CN RANAP 1.

8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.UE will switch from idle mode to cell_FACH or cell_DCH states.5.measurement reporting .location update . After RRC connection establishment: .UE will have a signalling link with UTRAN (on DCCH) UE needs to establish a RRC connection prior to making : ..5 Signaling procedures C. © Alcatel University . .. UTRAN/5.03 Page 169 . RRC connection RRC connection is established at the initial access (after cell search procedure when the UE is camping on a cell).voice call .

RRC Connection Establishment UE RRC Node-B 1. UTRAN/5. Initial UE capability RNC RRC 2. RRC Connection Request (CCCH:RACH) Initial UE identity. frequency.g. Allocate RNTI. TFCS.5.03 Page 170 . TFS. power control info RRC RRC RRC 5. RRC Connection Setup (CCCH:FACH) Initial UE identity. RRC Connection Setup Complete (DCCH:RACH or DCH) Integrity information. Establishment cause. capability update requirement.8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. Select Level 1 and Level 2 parameters (e. scrambling code) 3. RNTI. TFCS.5 Signaling procedures C1. ciphering information RRC >> Can the UE send user information (e. UL scrambling code. Radio Link Establishment (see Procedure D) 4.g voice call) after completing this stage? © Alcatel University .

Iu Release Command RANAP RANAP Cause 2. RRC Connection Release (in cell_DCH state) UE Node-B of DRNC Node-B of SRNC DRNC CN SRNC 1. RRC Connection Release (DCCH:DCH ) Cause RRC RRC 5.5. Radio Link Deletion © Alcatel University . RRC Connection Release Complete (DCCH:DCH ) - 6.5 Signaling procedures C2. Radio Link Deletion 7. Iu Release Complete RANAP RANAP - 3.03 Page 171 . UTRAN/5.8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. ALCAP Iu Bearer Release RRC RRC 4. Radio Link Deletion 8.

ALCAP and RRC messages carried on the same transport bearers on Iub? © Alcatel University .5 Signaling procedures D. TFCS. frequency.8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. transport layer addressing info RNC Radio Link Setup Request Cell id.5.03 Page 172 . power control info NBAP NBAP Iub-FP Iub-FP Downlink synchronisation Uplink synchronisation Iub-FP Iub-FP Start TX >> Are NBAP. TFS. UL scrambling code. UTRAN/5. Radio Link (RL) Establishment for a DCH Node-B NBAP Start RX ALCAP Iub Data Transport Bearer Setup NBAP Radio Link Setup Response Signalling link termination.

03 RANAP Page 173 . Uplink Direct Transfer (DCCH:RACH or DCH) CN node indicator. UTRAN/5. NAS message RRC 2‟. Direct Transfer CN Domain Indicator.8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. NAS PDU RANAP © Alcatel University . Direct Transfer The mechanism to transfer signalling from higher layers (NAS signaling) through messages of RRC protocol is called Direct Transfer.5 Signaling procedures E.5. UE Node-B SRNC CN RANAP 2. Downlink Direct Transfer (DCCH:FACH or DCH) NAS message 1. Direct Transfer CN Domain Indicator. NAS PDU RANAP RRC RRC >> Can you mention some examples of use of Direct Transfer? RRC 1’.

5. The transport channels and physical channels parameters are included in the RB but can also be reconfigured separately with transport and physical channel dedicated procedures (Transport Channel Reconfiguration and Physical Channel Reconfiguration).performing admission control (see RRM: Radio Resource Management) .03 Page 174 . TFCS) and in layer 1 (codes. RB. UTRAN/5. A RAB is mapped on one or more RB(s). Control of RAB. power control) RAB and RB can be reconfigured during an active connection. © Alcatel University .setting parameters describing RB processing in layer 2 (e. Transport and Physical Channels These procedures take place after RRC connection establishment: the UE is either on cell_FACH or cell_DCH state.8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. A RB establishment consists of: .g TFS.5 Signaling procedures F.

RAB Assignment Request RAB parameters.. UTRAN/5. ALCAP Iu Data Transport Bearer Setup 3. RAB Establishment UE Node-B RNC RANAP 1. Radio Link Establishment (see Procedure D) 4. Iu Transport association CN RANAP 2.. User plane mode. Transport Address.g voice call) after completing this stage? © Alcatel University .5 Signaling procedures F1.8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.5. TFCS.03 Page 175 . RRC 5. RAB Assignment Response - RANAP RANAP >> Can the UE send user information (e. RB Setup Complete (DCCH:RACH or DCH ) RRC RRC - 6. RB Setup (DCCH:FACH or DCH ) RRC TFS.

Physical Channel Reconfiguration UE Node-B of DRNC NBAP NBAP 1.5 Signaling procedures F2. RL Reconfig.03 Page 176 . Prepare DL scrambling code DRNC SRNC NBAP NBAP RNSAP RNSAP 3. UTRAN/5.8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. DL scrambling code 2. NBAP RRC RRC 5. RL Reconfig. Physical Channel Reconfiguration (DCCH:DCH ) DL scrambling code 7. Commit NBAP RRC RRC 6. Physical Channel Reconfiguration Complete (DCCH:DCH ) - >> What is the difference between NBAP and RNSAP? © Alcatel University .5. Ready - RNSAP RNSAP 4. RL Reconfig.

03 . UTRAN/5. RL Setup Request - RNSAP RNSAP RRC 6. Soft HO (Radio Link Addition) UE Node-B of DRNC DRNC SRNC 1.8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.5. Active Set Update Complete (DCCH:DCH ) - RRC Page 177 © Alcatel University .5 Signaling procedures G. Decision to setup new RL RNSAP 3. ALCAP Iur Data Transport Bearer Setup RNSAP RRC 5. RL Setup Response - 2. Active Set Update (DCCH:DCH ) - RRC 7. Radio Link Establishment (see Procedure D) 4.

5.5 Signaling procedures EXERCICE  Please complete the procedure diagrams on the following slides by using the elementary procedure previously described  Duration : 10 minutes © Alcatel University .03 Page 178 .8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. UTRAN/5.

MM: Location Updating Request MM: Authentication Request MM: Authentication Response 3..5. Security procedures 4.03 Page 179 . UE in idle mode © Alcatel University . ... “Just after switch on” process CN UE in idle mode 1.8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.5 Signalling procedures Location Update Find the missing procedure names! UE UE detached Node-B RNC 0.. UTRAN/5. . . UE in connected mode 2.... . MM: Location Updating Accept 5..

.5.. RR: Paging Response MM: Authentication Request MM: Authentication Response 4. . . . 2...03 Page 180 .. “Just after switch on” process CN 1..... UTRAN/5. 7. Security procedures 5.5 Signalling procedures Mobile terminated call Find the missing procedure names! UE Node-B RNC 0.8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.. CC: Setup CC: Call Confirm 6. CC: Alerting CC: Connect CC: Connect Acknowledge © Alcatel University .... . 3. .

3 5.2 5.6 5.1 5.5.5 5.8 UE From Radio Bearers to transport channels Node B RNC Radio Protocols Iu Protocols UE identifiers and UE states Signalling procedures The Physical Layer (on the air interface) Radio Resource management (RRM) Mobility management Page 181 © Alcatel University .7 5.4 5. UTRAN Layer 3 Layer 2 Layer 1 5.03 .8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.

Turbo coding 10 ms frame duration 15 time slots CCtrCH DPDCH.6 The Physical Layer Physical Layer Process Transport Channels Convolutional coding. DPCCH.03 Page 182 . UTRAN/5. Channelization codes Scrambling codes QPSK Channel Coding Radio Frame Segmentation Transport Channel Multiplexing Physical Channel Mapping Spreading Layer 1 Modulation Physical Channels spread over 5 MHz bandwidth © Alcatel University .5.8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed... PRACH.

666 ms)..6666 ms .03 Page 183 .8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. = N bits (according to the bit rate after channel coding) 0. UTRAN/5.5.6 The Physical Layer Radio Frame Structure 1 Radio Frame : 10ms … = 15 Time Slots 1 Time slot : …. © Alcatel University . Fast power control may be performed for each time slot (0. 1 Bit : = M chips (M is equal to the spreading factor) The bit rate may be changed for each frame (10 ms).

6 The Physical Layer Transport Channel Multiplexing DCH 1 Channel Coding DCH 2 Channel Coding Transport Channel Multiplexing CCTrCH Physical Channel Mapping One Physical Channel (or more if necessary) Two transport channels can be mapped onto the same physical channel (for one user).03 Page 184 . © Alcatel University .8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. UTRAN/5.5.

• Physical channels are defined mainly by: . measured in integer multiples of chips) • Physical channels are sent continuously on the air interface between start and stop instants..g frequency.03 Page 185 .6 The Physical Layer Physical channels Physical channels are defined by the mechanisms (e. framing.start & stop instants (giving a time duration..5.a scrambling code . code. • Physical channels are separated by means of quasi-orthogonal codes (2 physical channels shall not have the same channelization code / scrambling code combination). UTRAN/5. power. © Alcatel University .a specific carrier frequency .a channelization code .8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.) with which the data are transferred over the physical resources of the air-interface.

5.8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.6 The Physical Layer Uplink Physical Channels Common Channels Physical Random Access Channel (PRACH) Physical Common Packet Channel (PCPCH) Mapped on Transport Channels Node B Dedicated Channels Dedicated Physical Data Channel (DPDCH) Mapped on Transport Channels NOT mapped on Transport Channels Dedicated Physical Control Channel (DPCCH) © Alcatel University . UTRAN/5.03 Page 186 .

it is not carried by any transport channels. f DPCCH carries the dedicated signalling of the physical layer..5.g. 10*2 1 Radio Frame Slot #0 Slot #1 T Slot #i = 10 ms Slot #14 DPDCH carries the dedicated data generated at layer 2 (ie the Dedicated Transport Channel DCH). DPCCH is not visible above the physical layer. Uplink DPDCH/DPCCH Data DPDCH DPCCH Pilot N pilot N data bits FBI bits bits (k=0.03 Page 187 . © Alcatel University .6 The Physical Layer e. Under long scrambling code.6) N FBI TFCI bits T slot N TFCI k TPC bits N TPC bits = 2560 chips.8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. UTRAN/5. which is required to convey DPDCH.

radio frame: 10 ms 5120 chips #0 Access slot #0 Access slot #1 #1 #2 #3 #4 #5 #6 #7 #8 #9 #10 #11 #12 #13 #14 radio frame: 10 ms A mobile can only begin to transmit at a certain access slot (slotted ALOHA). UTRAN/5. © Alcatel University . Random Access Transmission Random Access Transmission Access slot #7 Access slot #8 Random Access Transmission Random Access Transmission Access slot #14 The PRACH has a Random Access Transmission to limit risk of collision. 15 access slots have been defined (nothing to do with the time slots of the radio frame!). It is based on a Slotted ALOHA approach with fast acquisition indication. Collisions may occur between two mobiles.8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.5.g. the mobile has no dedicated code yet and must choose randomly a code in a set of codes. Uplink PRACH When attempting to access the network.6 The Physical Layer e.03 Page 188 .

03 Page 189 Mapped on Transport Channels .5. UTRAN/5.6 The Physical Layer Downlink Physical Channels Common Channels Primary Common Control Physical Channel (P-CCPCH) Secondary Common Control Physical Channel (S-CCPCH) Physical Downlink Shared Channel (PDSCH) Mapped on Transport Channels Node B Synchronisation Channel (SCH) Common Pilot Channel (CPICH) Page Indicator Channel (PICH) Acquisition Indication Channel (AICH) NOT Mapped on Transport Channels Dedicated Channels Dedicated Physical Data Channel (DPDCH) Dedicated Physical Control Channel (DPCCH) NOT mapped on Transport Channels © Alcatel University .8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.

Downlink DPDCH/DPCCH DPDCH Data1 N data1 bits DPCCH TPC N TPC bits T slot TFCI N TFCI bits = 2560 chips. T f = 10 ms Slot #14 Similar to uplink.03 Page 190 . UTRAN/5. but DPDCH and DPCCH are time-multiplexed..5.7) DPCCH Pilot N pilot bits Slot #0 Slot #1 Slot #i One radio frame.8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. © Alcatel University .g. The SF may range from 256 to 8.6 The Physical Layer e. 10*2 k DPDCH Data2 N data2 bits bits (k=0.

g. UTRAN/5.6 The Physical Layer e.5. 20 bits Slot #0 Slot #1 Slot #i 1 radio frame: Tf = 10 ms Slot #14 The Primary CCPCH carries the BCH.03 Page 191 . indirectly for UL). which provides system.and cellspecific information (e. Downlink PCCPCH 256 chips ( Tx OFF) Data 18 bits Tslot = 2560 chips . which provide a timing reference for all physical channels (directly for DL.g set of uplink scrambling codes) The P-CCPCH is a fixed rate (30 kbps. CCPCH is scrambled under the Primary Scrambling code. © Alcatel University . SF=256) DL physical channel.8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.

g.to aid the channel estimation at the terminal (time or phase reference) . CPICH (pilot) Pre-defined symbol sequence Tslot = 2560 chips .5. 20 bits = 10 symbols Slot #0 Slot #1 Slot #i 1 radio frame: Tf = 10 ms Slot #14 CPICH (or Pilot or Beacon) The pilot carries a pre-defined symbol sequence at a fixed rate (SF=256). It is a reference: .03 Page 192 .to perform handover measurements and cell selection/reselection (power reference) © Alcatel University .8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. UTRAN/5.6 The Physical Layer e.

the terminal can read system and cell. After cell search procedure.0 Slot #1 acp acs i.6 The Physical Layer e. UTRAN/5.14 256 chips 2560 chips One 10 ms SCH radio frame SCH (Synchronisation Channel) It can be detected by the UE just after switch on.5. as the SCH consist of a 256 modulated code sequence which is the same for every cell in the system.g SCH and the cell search procedure Slot #0 Primary SCH Secondary SCH acp acs i.specific BCH information. © Alcatel University . It is used by the UE in the cell search procedure to get the (downlink) scrambling code of the cell.1 Slot #14 acp acs i.8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.03 Page 193 .

8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.03 .5. UTRAN/5.6 The Physical Layer Mapping TransportPhysical Channels BCH PCH FACH RACH PRACH PCPCH PDSCH DPDCH Physical Random Access Channel Physical Common Packet Channel Physical Downlink Shared Channel Dedicated Physical Data Channel P-CCPCH S-CCPH Primary Common Control Physical Channel Secondary Common Control Physical Channel CPCH DSCH DCH Physical channels not mapped on transport channels: DPCCH SCH CPICH PICH AICH Dedicated Physical Control Channel (uplink and downlink) Synchronisation Channel Common Pilot Channel Page Indicator Channel Acquisition Indication Channel Page 194 © Alcatel University .

© Alcatel University .5. The DCH has the TFS (Transport Format Set): Transport block size Transport block set size CRC Coding TTI #4 640 #3 640 #2 640 #1 640 640 640 640 640 640 bits 4*640 bits 16 bits Turbo coding.6 The Physical Layer Example 1: UL 64 kbps data (1) In this example.8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. a RB (Radio Bearer) is mapped (in RLC) on DTCH which is mapped (in MAC) on DCH. coding rate = 1/3 40 ms 640 640 640 640 640 640 640 640 40 ms This example can be applied for ISDN service. UTRAN/5.03 Page 195 .

6 The Physical Layer Example 1: UL 64 kbps data (2) Transport block CRC attachment TrBk concatenation Turbo coding R=1/3 Tail bit attachment #1 640 #1 640 CRC #4 640 #4 640 2624 7872 CRC 16 16 Tail 7872 12 1st interleaving Radio frame segmentation #1 1971 #1 1971+N RM1 7884 #4 1971 #4 1971+N RM4 Rate matching What is the radio frame length? Can you deduce the spreading factor (SF)? To TrCh Multiplexing (see further) Extracted from 3GPP 25. UTRAN/5.5.03 Page 196 .944 © Alcatel University .8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.

can you determine the bit rate of this SRB? © Alcatel University .03 Page 197 . 148 bits 16 bits CC. coding rate = 1/3 40 ms 148 40 ms 148 148 >> Assuming that RLC and MAC overhead in a transport block is 12 bits.6 The Physical Layer Example 2: UL 3. UTRAN/5. The DCH has the TFS (Transport Format Set): Transport block size Transport block set size CRC Coding TTI 148 bits 0.8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.5. a SRB (Signalling Radio Bearer) is mapped (in RLC) on DCCH which is mapped (in MAC) on DCH.4 kbps data (1) In this example.

1) 16 TrBks concatenation 164 Tail Tail bit attachment 164*B 8*B Convolutional Coding. UTRAN/5.03 To TrCh Multiplexing (see further) Page 198 .4 kbps data (2) Transport block 148 CRC CRC attachment 148 TrBks (B =0.5.944 © Alcatel University .6 The Physical Layer Example 2: UL 3. CR = 1/3 1st interleaving 516*B 516*B Radio frame Segmentation Rate matching #1 129*B #1 129*B +NRM1 #2 129*B #2 #3 129*B #3 #4 129*B #4 What is the radio frame length? Can you deduce the spreading factor? 129*B +NRM2 129*B +NRM3 129*B +NRM4 Extracted from 3GPP 25.8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.

UTRAN/5.6 The Physical Layer UL TrCH multiplexing of 64 kbps and 3.4 kbps data? what is the spreading factor mapped? what is the DPDCH bit rate? >> What is carried on DPCCH ? © Alcatel University .4 kbps data #2 #3 #4 TrCH multiplexing #1 #1 #2 #2 #3 #3 #4 #4 2nd interleaving Physical channel mapping ?? kbps DPDCH CFN=4N CFN=4N+1 CFN=4N+2 CFN=4N+3 15 kbps DPCCH CFN=4N CFN=4N+1 CFN=4N+2 CFN=4N+3 >> On which physical channel are the UL 64 kbps data and the UL 3.4 kbps data UL 64 kbps data #1 #2 #3 #4 #1 UL 3.5.03 Page 199 .8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.

5 5.6 5.1 5. UTRAN no 5.3 5.8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.7 Signalling procedures The Physical Layer (on the air interface) Radio Resource Management (RRM) 5.8 Mobility Management Page 200 © Alcatel University .03 .4 From Radio Bearers to transport channels Radio Protocols Iu Protocols UE identifiers and UE states yes 5.2 5.5.

7 Radio Resource Management (RRM) RRM purposes RRM is a set of algorithms to manage radio resources: • Maximise the amount of radio resources available Power control algorithms Handover algorithms • Allocation of radio resources Which type of transport channel. transport format should be chosen to meet QoS requirements? • Admission Control In which conditions can a new user be admitted? • Load Control (congestion control) What should be done to avoid congestion? In RRM all layers are involved under RRC control.8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. UTRAN/5.5.03 Page 201 . © Alcatel University .

implemented in SRNC and Node B:  Selection of radio bearer parameters according to RAB requirements  Closed loop power control  Handover control  RRC states management according to UE traffic volume  DL dynamic scheduling on DCH  UTRAN dedicated functions.7 Radio Resource Management (RRM) RRM functions  UE dedicated functions. UTRAN/5.5. implemented in CRNC:  Radio admission control  Code allocation  Radio load control  Open loop power control © Alcatel University .8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.03 Page 202 .

but continuous transmission not maintained no soft HO and no fast PC CPCH / DSCH no guarantee of delay no soft HO.5. but fast PC Common channels Short packets Bursty traffic to be sent immediately Shared channels Medium packets Bursty and delayinsensitive traffic Long packets Constant and variable bit rate traffic with low delay requirement (LCD) High bit rate Page 203 Dedicated channels DCH / DCH bit rate can be changed during transmission (TFS) soft HO and fast PC © Alcatel University .8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.7 Radio Resource Management (RRM) Transport channel allocation strategies UL / DL RACH / FACH low setup time.03 . UTRAN/5.

They are estimated separately for uplink and downlink directions. transmit capacity in DL) •Number of active users in the frequency band (code management) And performed according to: •The type of required QoS •The current system load Load Control (Congestion Control) This algorithm ensures that the system is not overloaded and remains stable. UTRAN/5. It is based on: •Power transmission criteria (noise increase in UL. In case of congestion some actions can be taken.5.8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. But overload situations should normally be exceptional.03 Page 204 . © Alcatel University . Admission Control This algorithm is executed when a radio bearer is to be setup or modified.7 Radio Resource Management (RRM) Admission and Load Control Both procedures are handled by CRNC.

3 5.1 5.8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.03 .6 5.8 Mobility management Page 205 © Alcatel University .5 5.2 5.5. UTRAN Layer 3 Layer 2 Layer 1 UE 5.4 From Radio Bearers to transport channels Radio Protocols Iu Protocols UE identifiers and UE states Node B RNC 5.7 Signalling procedures The Physical Layer (on the air interface) Radio Resource Management (RRM) 5.

8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.the network should be able to reach the UE in the downlink (paging) >> Location Area (LA) / Routing Area (RA) update mechanisms • UE in connected mode (radio mobility management) A connection to the UTRAN (RRC connection) has been established: this connection should remain. UTRAN/5.5. It is performed as long as the UE remains switched on.03 Page 206 .the UE should have an access point to the network in the uplink >> Cell reselection mechanisms . It needs a lot of radio and network resources. when the UE moves from one cell to another.8 Mobility management General description (1/2) The mobility management enables a user to have access to the subscribed services on the whole coverage of the usual network and possibly visited networks. >> Handover (HO) or cell update mechanisms © Alcatel University . • UE in idle mode (network mobility) Wherever the UE is located in the network coverage: .

known by the UTRAN at a cell or URA level.8 Mobility management General description (2/2) • UE in idle mode This mode is entered after “just after switch on” process.8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. The UE location is: Connected mode . © Alcatel University .03 Page 207 .known by the CN at a LA or RA level (furthermore the MSC or the SGSN Uu knows the SRNC of the UE) .known by the CN at LA or RA level . The UE location is: . UTRAN/5.5.not known by the UTRAN UE UTRAN Detached “Just after switch on” process Idle mode • UE in connected mode RRC connection establishment This mode is entered after RRC connection establishment.

5. but the network can influence it by changing the radio parameters used in radio criteria.8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. if the initial cell on which it is camped is no longer available or is no longer the best suited. The cell reselection is performed autonomously by the UE. © Alcatel University . the UE may have to perform a cell reselection. These radio parameters are transmitted in the Broadcast Channel (BCH).03 Page 208 .8 Mobility management UE in idle mode (1/2) When moving across the network. UTRAN/5. ? The cell reselection consists of a selection of candidate cells and a ranking of these cells according to radio criteria.

5..03 Page 209 . When the terminal moves across the network. HLR .. the terminal must register its LA and/or its RA. SGSN Location Area (LA) VLR SGSN Routing Area (RA) When camping on a cell. UTRAN/5.8 Mobility management UE in idle mode (2/2) VLR . it must update its LA (RA) which is stored in VLR (SGSN) in the Core Network. © Alcatel University .8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed... LA (RA) Update is performed periodically or when entering a new LA (RA).

© Alcatel University .8 Mobility management UE in connected mode (1/3) MM mechanisms Cell_DCH Cell_FACH Cell_PCH URA_PCH hard HO soft HO hard HO cell update cell update URA update Effect during the call very short cut no cut very short cut suspended suspended suspended Cell update (URA update) consists of updating the MS location information stored in the SRNC.5.8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. A UTRA originated paging message will therefore be sent only in this cell (this URA) and not in a whole LA or RA. UTRAN/5.03 Page 210 .

inter/intra RNC) © Alcatel University .03 Page 211 .8 Mobility management UE in connected mode (2/3) Soft HO •inter-cell (softer HO. cell 1 but necessary for common channels for which soft HO is not applied cell 2 •inter CDMA-carrier one operator can have two CDMA carriers or more between two different operators •inter-mode FDD-TDD (not provided in R99) •inter-system UMTS-GSM: necessary to provide continuous coverage UMTS-CDMA2000 (in the US?) Cell reselection •Inter-system : UMTS/GPRS (inter/intra carrier. managed by Node-B) •inter Node-B •inter-RNC (SRNS relocation) Hard HO •intra CDMA-carrier not recommended for dedicated channels. UTRAN/5.8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.5.

but expensive receiver . in order to perform measurements on the other frequencies without losing data Downlink 10ms frame Compressed frame Idle period Page 212 UTRA cell GSM cell © Alcatel University .8 Mobility management UE in connected mode (3/3) A hard handover consists of forwarding a call on another channel which is running on a different carrier.Dual receiver •simple handover operation. UTRAN/5.03 . GSM or TDD frequencies) whilst holding the on-going connection : .8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. The terminal must make measurements on other frequencies (FFD.5. but complicated handover operation •the information is compressed time periodically (a few ms).Compressed mode (or slotted mode) •simple receiver.

8 Mobility management Exercise 1. In which case is it be better for the network to move a UE to URA_PCH state rather than to cell_PCH state? © Alcatel University .5. Is it better to have small or large LA? 5. Why is soft HO not provided in cell_FACH state? 6. If there were no LA/RA update mechanisms.03 Page 213 .8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. what would happen? 4. UTRAN/5. The cell reselection is easier than the initial cell selection (performed just after switch on): can you find the reason? 2. What is the difference between the cell reselection and the cell update (performed in cell_PCH state)? 3.

Appendix • “Just after switch on” process • AMR codec •NBAP elementary procedures •RANAP elementary procedures © Alcatel University .8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.03 Page 214 .

03 Page 215 . the UE selects: . the UE: . UE switche d on Cell selection Hence the UE can establish a list of PLMNs which are available in its location.monitors the broadcast channels (BCCH for UTRAN FDD) to get the PLMN identifiers.scans the entire frequency bandwidths of UTRAN FDD and GSM (cell search procedure for UTRAN FDD ) .Appendix/”Just after switch on” process PLMN selection PLMN selection List of available 1 PLMNs Selected 2 PLMN 1 After switch on.otherwise another PLMN (national or international) according to priority rules possibly stored in the USIM Attachment © Alcatel University .the HPLMN (Home PLMN) if it is available . 2 In the list of available PLMNs.8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.

Appendix/”Just after switch on” process Attachment procedure PLMN selection 3 In the selected PLMN.8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.authentication procedure .03 .storage of subscriber data from the HLR in the VLR (or in the SGSN for PS domain) .if successful.initiates attachment procedure on the selected cell 4 5 Cell selection Attachment 3 request Attach4 ment result During the attachment procedure (called IMSI attach for CS domain. the UE: .if it fails.allocation of the TMSI (P-TMSI for PS domain) Attachment 5 The result of the procedure is notified to the UE: . the UE can only perform emergency calls Page 216 Indication of service to the UE © Alcatel University . the UE can access services . the UE indicates its presence to the PLMN for the purpose of using services: .selects the best cell according to radio criteria . GPRS attach for PS domain).

is capable of switching its bit rate every 20 ms upon command of the RNC .40 kbit/ s (IS-641) 6.8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.20 AMR_7.20 kbit/ s 7.is located in the UE and in the transcoder (which is located in the CN) © Alcatel University .offers 8 AMR modes between 4.75 Source coding bit.2 kbits/s .15 kbit/ s 4.20 kbit/ s (GSM EFR) 10.rate 12.03 Page 217 .70 kbit/ s (PDC-EFR) 5.90 AMR_5.95 AMR_7.75 kbit/ s Class Class Class A B C 81 65 75 61 58 55 49 42 103 99 84 87 76 63 54 53 60 40 0 0 0 0 0 0 The AMR (Adaptative Multirate) speech codec: .75 kbits/s and 12.Appendix/AMR codec AMR codec (for CS domain) AMR mode AMR_12.20 AMR_10.90 kbit/ s 5.70 AMR_5.15 AMR_4.40 AMR_6.95 kbit/ s 7.

•Measurements on Dedicated Resources. This function gives the Node B the ability to inform the CRNC about the status of Node B resources. •Common Transport Channel Management.03 Page 218 . © Alcatel University . •Configuration Alignment. This function allows the CRNC to initiate measurements in the NodeB.8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. •Resource Event Management. This function allows the CRNC to control the usage of compressed mode in a Node B.433) •Cell Configuration Management. •Radio Link Supervision. This function allows the CRNC to initiate measurements in the Node B. This function gives the CRNC the possibility to manage the configuration of Common Transport Channels in a Node B. •System Information Management. This function gives the CRNC and the Node B the possibility to verify that both nodes has the same information on the configuration of the radio resources.Appendix/NBAP elementary procedures NBAP elementary procedures NBAP Functions (see 3GPP 25. •DL Power Drifting Correction (FDD). The function also allows the Node B to report the result of the measurements. •Measurements on Common Resources. This function allows the CRNC to report failures and restorations of a Radio Link. This function allows the CRNC to adjust the DL power level of one or more Radio Links in order to avoid DL power drifting between the Radio Links. The function also allows the NodeB to report the result of the measurements. •Compressed Mode Control [FDD]. This function gives the CRNC the ability to manage the scheduling of System Information to be broadcast in a cell. This function gives the CRNC the possibility to manage the cell configuration information in a Node B.

This function allows adjusting the load in the Iu interface.8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. This function is responsible for reporting unsuccessfully transmitted DL data volume over UTRAN for specific RABs. This function is responsible for transferring SRNS context from the RNC to the CN for intersystem forward handover in case of packet forwarding. This function enables to change the serving RNC functionality as well as the related Iu resources (RAB(s) and Signalling connection) from one RNC to another. •Data volume reporting function. This function provides the CN for capability to page the UE. •Controlling overload in the Iu interface. •Paging the user. This function allows the CN to operate the mode in which the UTRAN reports the location of the UE. •SRNS context forwarding function. This function makes the RNC aware of the UE's Common ID. •Sending the UE Common ID (permanent NAS UE identity) to the RNC.Appendix/RANAP elementary procedures RANAP elementary procedures RANAP Functions (some of them (see 3GPP 25. •Controlling location reporting. •Release of all Iu connection resources. •Overall RAB management. © Alcatel University .413)) •Relocating serving RNC. This function is used to explicitly release all resources related to one Iu connection. This function is responsible for setting up. modifying and releasing RABs. •Transport of NAS information between UE and CN. This function is used to send the security keys (ciphering and integrity protection) to the UTRAN. and setting the operation mode for security functions.03 Page 219 . This function has three sub-classes: •Controlling the security mode in the UTRAN.

This function allows the SRNC and DRNC to pass information between the UE and the SRNC on a CCCH controlled by the DRNS. This function allows the SRNC to manage radio links using dedicated resources in a DRNS.8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed. This function allows the SRNC to initiate measurements on dedicated resources in the DRNS. This function allows the DRNC to reallocate the physical channel resources for a Radio Link. •Radio Link Supervision. This function allows the DRNC to report failures and restorations of a Radio Link. •CCCH Signalling Transfer.Appendix/RSNAP elementary procedures RSNAP elementary procedures RSNAP Functions (some of them (see 3GPP 25. © Alcatel University . This function allows the SRNC to control the usage of compressed mode within a DRNS.03 Page 220 . This function allows the SRNC to finalise a Relocation previously prepared via other interfaces. •DL Power Drifting Correction [FDD]. The function also allows the DRNC to report the result of the measurements. •Measurements on Dedicated Resources. •Physical Channel Reconfiguration.423)) •Radio Link Management. •Paging. •Compressed Mode Control [FDD]. •Relocation Execution. This function allows the SRNC to adjust the DL power level of one or more Radio Links in order to avoid DL power drifting between the Radio Links. •Common Transport Channel Resources Management. This function allows the SRNC to page a UE in a URA or a cell in the DRNS. This function allows the SRNC to utilise Common Transport Channel Resources within the DRNS (excluding DSCH resources for FDD).

Related Documentation Abbreviations and Acronyms © Alcatel University .03 Page 221 .8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.

03 Page 222 . ISBN 0 471 49829 7 .WCDMA for UMTS. l'architecture. Harri Holma and Antti Toskala.UMTS les réseaux mobiles de troisième génération.UMTS les origines.3gpp. 1st Quarter 2001 (“Find your way with 3G”) . Editions Dunod 2001.8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.Revue des Télécommunications d’Alcatel .UMTS Mobile communications for the future.Alcatel Telecommunications Review. Wiley 2000.3GPP specifications: ftp://ftp. Editions Eyrolles 2001 (translation of “WCDMA for UMTS” ) . Wiley 2001.org/Specs/ Francais . la norme.Related documentation English . ISBN 2 10 005195 4 . ISBN 0 471 72051 8 . 1er trimestre 2001 (entièrement consacrée à la 3G) © Alcatel University . Pierre Lescuyer.

03 Page 223 .8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.Abbreviations and Acronyms (1) AAL ACELP ADN ALCAP AMR ATM BCCH ATM Adaptation Layer Algebraic Code Excited Linear Prediction Abbreviated Dialling Number Access Link Control Application Part Adaptive Multi Rate Asynchronous Transfer Mode Broadcast Control Channel CCCH Common Control Channel BCH BHCA BER BLER BMC BM-IWF BSC BSS BTS CAMEL CC Broadcast Channel Busy Hour Call Attempts Bit Error Rate Block Error Rate Broadcast / Multicast Control Broadcast Multicast InterWorking Function Base Station Controller Base Station (sub)System Base Transceiver Station Customized Application for Mobile Enhanced Logic Call Control CCTrCH CDMA CDR CN CPCH CRNC CS CTCH DCA DCCH Coded Composite Transport Channel Code Division Multiple Access Call Detail Record Core Network Common Packet Channel Controlling RNC Circuit Switched Common Traffic Channel Dynamic channel Allocation Dedicated Control Channel DCH DHO DHT DRAC DRNC DS DSCH DTCH Dedicated Channel Diversity HandOver Diversity HandOver Trunk Dynamic Resource Allocation Control Drift RNC Direct Sequence Downlink Shared Channel Dedicated Traffic Channel © Alcatel University .

Abbreviations and Acronyms (2) EDGE ERAN FACH Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution EDGE Radio Access Network (all-IP) Forward Access Channel FBI FDD FDD-DS FDD-MC FER FP FTP GERAN GGSN GPRS GSM GSN GTP GTP-U HO HPLMN FeedBack Information Frequency Division Duplex FDD-Direct Sequence (FDD1) FDD-Multiple Carrier (FDD2) Frame Error Rate Frame Protocol File Transfer Protocol GSM/EDGE Radio Access Network Gateway GPRS Support Node General Packet Radio Service Global System for Mobile Communications GPRS Support Node (ie SGSN or GGSN) GPRS Tunneling Protocol GPRS Tunneling Protocol-User Plane HandOver Home PLM IETF IMEI IMSI IP IR ISDN L1.8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.03 .L2.L3 LA LCS LLC LQC M3UA MAC MBS MC MExE MM MSC MSP Internet Engineering Task Force International Mobile Equipment Identity International Mobile Subscriber Identity Internet Protocol Incremental Redundancy Integrated Services Digital Network Layer 1. Layer 2. Layer 3 Location Area Location Services Logical Link Control Link Quality Control SS7 MTP3 User Adaptation layer Medium Access Control Multi-standard Base Station Multiple Carrier Mobile Execution Environment Mobility Management Mobile-services Switching Center Multiple Subscriber Profile Page 224 © Alcatel University .

Abbreviations and Acronyms (3) MTP3 Message Transfer Part (broadband) MTP-3B Message Transfer Part level 3 NAS Non Access Stratum NBAP Node-B Application Part ODMA Opportunity Driven Multiple Access OSA Open service Architecture OTDOA-IPDL Observed Time Difference of Arrival Idle Period Downlink OVSF Orthogonal Variable Spreading Factor PCCH Paging Control Channel PS QOS QPSK RA RAB RACH Packet Switched Quality Of Service Quadrature Phase Shift Keying Routing Area Radio Access Bearer Random Access Channel PCH PDA PDC PDP PDU PLMN PRACH Paging Channel Personal Digital Assistant Personal Digital Cellular (2G Japan) Packet Data Protocol Protocol Data Unit Public Land Mobile Network Physical Random Access Channel RAN RANAP RB RL RLC RNC RNS RNSAP RNTI RRC RRM Radio Access Network RAN Application Part Radio Bearer Radio Link Radio Link Control Radio Network Controller Radio Network Sub-System RNS Application Part Radio Network Temporary Identity Radio Resource Control Radio Resource Management © Alcatel University .03 Page 225 .8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.

8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.03 Page 226 .Abbreviations and Acronyms (4) SAP SAT SDU SF SGSN SHO SIR SMS SPU SRNC SSCOP Service Access Point SIM Application Toolkit Service Data Unit Spreading Factor Serving GPRS Support Node Soft HandOver Signal to Interference Ratio Short Message Service Signaling Processing Unit Serving RNC Service Specific Connection Oriented Protocol SSCP Signaling Connection Control Part STM Synchronous Transfer Mode TC Transcoder TCP Transport Control Protocol TD-CDMA Time Division & CDMA TDD Time Division Duplex TDMA Time Division Multiple Access TF TFC TFCI TFCS TFS TMSI TPC UDP UICC UMTS USIM USSD URA URAN USB UTRAN Transport Format Transport Format Combination Transport Format Combination Indicator Transport Format Combination Set Transport Format Set Temporary Mobile Station Identity Transmission Power Control User Datagram Protocol UMTS Integrated Circuit Card Universal Mobile Telecommunication System UMTS Subscriber Identity Card Unstructured Supplementary Service Data UTRAN Registration Area UMTS Radio Access Network (ETSI) Universal Radio Access Network (3GPP) Universal Serial Bus UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network © Alcatel University .

8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.03 Page 227 .Abbreviations and Acronyms (5) VC VHE VoIP VP WAP W-CDMA WIM Virtual Channel Virtual Home Environment Voice over IP Virtual Path Wireless Application Protocol Wideband Code Division Multiple Access WAP Identity Module © Alcatel University .

Abbreviations and Acronyms (Standard Organizations) 3GPP 3GPP2 3GIP ANSI ARIB CWTS ETSI IETF IMT ITU T1 TIA TTA TTC UWCC W3C 3rd Generation Partnership Project (WCDMA) 3rd Generation Partnership Project 2 (cdma2000) 3rd Generation partnership for Internet Protocol American National Standard Institute (USA) Association of Radio Industries and Business (Japan) China Wireless Telecommunication Standard group European Telecommunication Standard Institute Internet Engineering Task Force International Mobile Telecommunication International Telecommunication Union Committee T1 telecommunication of the ANSI (USA) Telecommunication Industry Association (USA) Telecommunication Technology Association (Korea) Telecommunication Technology Committee (Japan) Universal Wireless Communications Committee World Wide Web Consortium © Alcatel University .03 Page 228 .8AS 90171 0004 VT ZZA Ed.

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