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-Ç-C-¢√®Ωç 10 -à-v°œ-™¸ 2011 Ñ-Ø√-úø’ £j«-ü¿®√-¶«-ü˛ 2

Srinivasa Rao, wrong - due to, was closed ÅØË verb ûª®√yûª Å®Ωnç ®√´úøç ™‰ü¿’
Marturu. ´*açC 鬕öÀd. éπüΔ.
Q. Dangling participle Correct: Owing to the rain the school was 'without firing a bul-
Åçõ‰ àN’öÀ? closed/ The school was closed owing to the let shot' Åçõ‰ äéπ
A. First of all there are rain. ûª’§ƒéà í∫’çúø’ èπÿú≈
two participles- Ê°©a-èπ◊çú≈ USSR
Å®·ûË present day usage ™ due to †’ °j
1) The present partici- Nüμ¿çí¬ ¢√úøôç ≤ƒüμΔ-®Ω-ù-¢Á’i-§Ú-®·çC, Åçü¿’-´©x èπ◊°æp-èπÿ-LçC. Åçõ‰ 'à
ple or the '..ing' v°æA-°∂æ’-ôØ√ ™‰èπ◊çú≈
Åçûª-°ü¿l ûª°æ¤pí¬ Å†’-éÓ-¢√-Lq-üËç-™‰ü¿’ Åçö«®Ω’
form. USSR èπ◊°æp-èπÿ-LçC— ÅE Å®Ωnç îËÆæ’-éÓ-´îª’a. (F Vûª’h ´’K °J-TçC. üΔEo á°æ¤púÓ éπAh-Jç*
éÌçü¿®Ω’.
e.g. : going, coming, etc.
 This being a violation of the code.
Q. Present participle †’ preposition í¬ á™«
Öçú≈L. – 'É°æp-öÀ-üΔé¬ Çí¬¢Ëç?— ÅØË ¶μ«´çûÓ)
2) The past participle: gone, seen, did, (The car is too expensive. How can I buy it?
Ö°æßÁ÷-Tç-î√™ ûÁ©-°æ-í∫-©®Ω’. A. This being a violation of the code - ÉC Eߪ’-
killed, etc. =
A. Present participle as preposition is not very ´÷-´R Ö©xç-°∂æ’† 鬴-úøç-´©x – ÉC sentence é¬®Ω’ üμ¿®Ω ´’K áèπ◊\´ – ؈’ é̆-™‰-†çûª. ᙫ
Now look at the sentence: Being = é̆-í∫-©†’?)
common. However, in the sentence, she is é¬ü¿’, Å®Ωnç °æ‹Jh 鬆ç-ü¿’-´©x. Ééπ\úø
Walking along the street, a car knocked him It's time/ It's high time/ time (that) you
busy cooking dinner. Öçúøôç ´©x.
down- walking (down the street) pre-  He came with a reputation of being tough trimmed it = üΔEo (Vûª’h†’) á°æ¤púÓ éπAhJç*
Cooking, the present participle is used as a
Ééπ\úø
sent participle officer. Öçú≈-LqçC. É™«çöÀ structure ûÓ,
preposition, governing the nouns 'dinner'
éπüΔ? Å®Ωnç ®Óúø’f ¢Áç•úÕ †úø’Ææ÷h
walking down the street, a car = ®Óúø’f ¢Áç•úÕ A. being = It's time/ It's high time/ time ûª®√yûª á°æ¤púø÷
Q. Antecedent, adjuncts
´÷´‚-©’í¬ Öçúøôç/ Öçúøí¬/
†úø’Ææ÷h ã é¬®Ω’, knocked him down = úμŒ Åçõ‰ àN’öÀ? Öçúøôç ´©x. past tense ´Ææ’hçC.
A. Antecedent = ´·çü¿®Ω ´îËaC ÅE Å®Ωnç. It's time/ time/ It's time that he got married =
éÌöÀdçC. Åçõ‰ DEéÀ Å®Ωnç àç ´Ææ’hçC? '®Óúø’f The reputation of being a tough officer =
Sentence ™E ¢Á†’éπ ´÷ô, ´·êuçí¬ äéπ pro- Åûª-ØÁ-°æ¤púÓ Â°Rx îËÆæ’-èπ◊E Öçú≈LqçC.
Q. 1) Meet your grand father. He will feel happy

It's time that he got married


2) He switched off the refrigerator. It would
defrost so as
OöÀE combine
Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-Tç* îËÊÆ
NüμΔ-Ø√Eo ûÁ©-°æ-í∫-©®Ω’.
A. If you meet your grand father he will feel
happy = †’´¤y O’ û√ûª†’ éπ©’-Ææ’-èπ◊çõ‰ Çߪ’†
¢Áç•úÕ †úø’Ææ÷h Ç é¬®Ω’ ÅûªúÕE úμŒ éÌöÀdçC— ÅE Strict officer í¬ Öçö«-úøØË Ê°®Ω’ûÓ Meet your grand father so as
ÆæçûÓ-≠œ-≤ƒhúø’ =
 The other member, being it's presi- to make him happy.
-Ççí∫x-¶μ«-≠æ-ù 638
éπüΔ? é¬®Ω’x ®Óúø’f ¢Áç•úÕ †úø-´´¤ éπüΔ. é¬F ´’†ç,
Ñ present participle, walking down the road, dent Mr. Rao. He switched off the refrigerator so as to
a car ÅE ®√ߪ’-úøç-´©x, ®Óúø’f-¢Áç-•úÕ †úÕîË/ †úø’- A. being its president = Åüμ¿u-èπ~◊-úÕí¬ defrost it. So as to =
Å™« ÅßË’uç-ü¿’èπ◊ = Ç ÖüËl-
Ææ’h†o car ÅØË N°æ-K-û√®Ωnç ´Ææ’hçC. É™« ¢√úÕ-†- noun à ´·çü¿J ´÷ô†’ í∫’Jç* Öçô÷ ¨¡çûÓ.
°æ¤púø’, Ééπ\úÕ participle dangling participle/ îÁ•’ûª’çüÓ ÅC antecedent Å´¤-  The officials dismissed the possibil- Å®·ûË so as ¢√úøéπç Åçûª Ææ£æ«-ïçí¬ Öçúøü¿’.
unrelated participle Åçö«ç. Å™«çöÀ dangling ûª’çC. M.SURESAN ity of fuel adulteration or stones üΔE •ü¿’©’ so that/ to ¢√úøôç ¢Á’®Ω’í∫’.
participle ûÓ sentence ®√ߪ’úøç/ ´÷ö«x-úøôç´©x He bought a car and it is fine. being put in the oil tank. Meet your grand father so as to make him
ûª°æ¤p Å®Ωnç ´Ææ’hçC. Ééπ\úø †úø’-Ææ’h-†oC 'he' 鬕öÀd, Ééπ\úø 'it', üΔE ´·çü¿’†o car †’ í∫’Jç* A. Being put = éπ©-°æ-•úÕ Öçúøôç happy = Meet your grand father so that he
îÁ•’ûÓçC. 鬕öÀd, car is the antecedent of it.  He is being mischievous. can be happy/ to make him happy = Meet
Ç walking down the car †’, he éÀ ü¿í∫_-®Ωí¬
your grand father to make him feel happy
°úÕûË ÆæÈ®j† Å®Ωnç ´Ææ’hçC– É™«: This is a book which is very useful- 'book' is A. Is being = Öçô’-Ø√oúø’.
While he was walking down the street (Åûªúø’ the antecedent of 'which'. He is being mischievous (Åûªúø’ *L-°œí¬ Öçô’- (Ñ *´JC éÌçûª Å®Ωnç ûËú≈ûÓ ÖçC.)
He switched off the refrigerator so that it
®Óúø’f ¢Áç•úÕ †úø’-Ææ’h-†o-°æ¤púø’), a car knocked Adjunct: An adverb/ a phrase which adds to Ø√oúø’/ ÖØ√oúø’ – Ñ éπ~ùç) would defrost.
him down (car ÅûªúÕE úμŒ éÌöÀdçC). ÉC äéπ the meaning of the verb.  Her tonsured head, chopped legs were indi-
Q. Antonyms
cators of this being case of human sacrifice.
Nüμ¿ç. È®çúÓ Nüμ¿ç, passive voice ™ ¢√úøôç. éÀçC¢√-öÀéÀ ûÁ©-°æ-í∫©®Ω’.
a) He came here last night - 'last
1) Precious 2) Pious 3) Wonderful
Éçü¿’™
É™«: night' is the adjunct of 'came'. A. .... this being a case of human sacrifice =
4) Simplicity 5) Patience 6) Entire (whole)
Walking down the street, he was knocked b) She listened to him patiently - 'patiently' is ÉC †®Ω•LéÀ Ææç•ç-Cμç-*ç-Cí¬ Öçü¿E.
 The recent case of an airhostess being 7) Sacred 8) Melodious 9)Fame 10) Prompt
down by the car - participle, walking
Ééπ\úø the adjunct of 'listened'.
molested. 11) Enough 12) Severe 13) Sacrifice
down the road, he éÀ ü¿í∫_-®Ωí¬ Öçúø-ôç-´©x, '®Óúø’f- Q. Her being elected the president of the party,
A. An airhostess being molested = 14) Auspicious
the ministers congratulated her.
¢Áç-•úÕ †úø’Ææ÷h Åûªúø’— ÅØË ÆæÈ®j† Å®Ωnç ´Ææ’hçC. îÁ®Ω-°æ-•úÕ
A. 1. Precious × Worthless/ Trivial
Ñ ¢√é¬uEo
Dangling participle èπ◊ ´’J-éÌEo examples, The Ministers congratulated her to have
Öçúøôç
¢√öÀ corrections: Ñ Â°j† ûÁL-°œ† Å®√n-©Fo 'Being' èπ◊ ÖØ√o®·. 2. Pious × Impious
been elected the president of the party
3. Wonderful × Ordinary/ Common place
ÅE
Running away with the stolen money, a Being ´÷vûª¢Ë’ Å®·ûË, Å®Ωnç – Öçúøôç/ Öçúøôç
4. Simplicity × Complexity
îÁ°æpúøç éπÈ®-ÍédØ√?
policeman caught him - É™« ®√ÊÆh ´îËa Å®Ωnç! A. Her being elected to the party the president,
´©x/ Öçô÷/ Öçúøí¬
A policeman running away with the stolen Being + past participle - a) being + put (pp of 5. Patience × Fretful/ Restless/ Nervous/
the minister congratulated her-
money. put) = Öçîª-•úÕ Öçúøôç Impatient
(üÌçT-Lç-*† úø•’sûÓ §ƒJ-§Ú-ûª’†o The sentence is not correct.
caught him b) being molested (being + past participle of 6. Entire × Partial
§ÚMÆˇ) (ÅûªúÕE °æô’d-èπ◊-Ø√oúø’ – ûª°æ¤p 'The minister congratulated her to have
molest) = îÁ®Ω-°æ-•úÕ Öçúøôç – É™« 7. Sacred × Profane/ Unholy
éπüΔ? been elected to the party', is not correct
Correction: being + pp °j† îÁ°œp-†ô’x passive form Å´¤- 8. Melodious × Rancour
either.
While he was running with the stolenmoney,
ûª’çC. 9. Fame × Obscurity
The correct form of the sentence is:
a policeman caught him/ Running away with
It being a holiday, we were at home (ÂÆ©´¤ 10. Prompt × Delayed
The minister congratulated her on her hav-
the stolen money he was caught by a police-
鬴-úøç-´©x, ¢Ë’ç Éçöx ÖØ√oç). 11. Enough × Short/ Scarce
ing been elected president of the party/ on Being ill, he was weak (ï•’sûÓ Öçúøôç ´©x,
man/ A policeman caught him running away 12. Severe × Mild
her election as president of the party.
13. Sacrifice × Gain
Éçé¬
with the stolen money.
Åûªúø’ F®Ω-Ææçí¬ ÖØ√oúø’).
round about Being seen here (Ééπ\úø îª÷úø-•-úøôç – Being
14 Auspicious × Inauspicious
í¬ É™« îÁ§Òpa.
Q. Due to, owing to © í∫’Jç* N´-Jçîªí∫©®Ω’. Her having been elected president of the + pp of see) is not good = ´’ç*C é¬ü¿’
A. Due to = Owing to = because of = Åçü¿’-´©x. party, the minister congratulated her- é¬F, ÉO being, being + pp éÀ Å®√n©’. M.S.N. Hareesh, Kurnool.
Most of our problems are due to our corrupt ÉC î√™« ÆæçéÀx≠dçæ . Being ûª®√yûª noun/ adj ´ÊÆh Å™« Öçúøôç ´©x/ Q.
politicians (´’† Ææ´’-Ææu-©Fo èπÿú≈ ´’† ÅN-FA éÀçC -Ççí∫x ¢√é¬u-©†’ ûÁ©’-í∫’™ ûÁ©’-°æ-í∫-©®Ω’.
K.S.R, Marturu. Ç í∫’ù«©’ éπLT Ö†oç-ü¿’-´©x ÅØË Å®√n©’ ´≤ƒh®·. You have been able to convince him.
Being a minister (minister -- noun; ´’çvAí¬
®√ï-éÃ-ߪ’-¢√-ü¿’© ´©x).
The school was closed owing to rain (´®Ω{ç A. You have been able to convince him =
Q. éÀçC v°æA ¢√éπuç™ being ÖçC. Å®·ûË ÅEo Ö†oç-ü¿’-´©x), he has a lot of influence
´©x •úÕ ´‚ߪ’-•-úÕçC/ ´‚ÊÆ-¨»®Ω’). ¢√é¬u™x äÍé Å®ΩnçûÓ Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-Tç-îª-™‰ü¿’. Being †’ (Çߪ’†èπ◊ î√™« °æ©’-èπ◊-•úÕ ÖçC) †’´yûªúÕéÀ †îªa-ñ„-°æp-í∫-L-í¬´¤.
Q. Mr. Uma Maheswara Rao must have been
Å®·ûË î√©-´’çC, due to †’ äéπ sentence Éçé¬ áEo Å®√n-©ûÓ Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-Tç-îª-´îÓa N´-Jç-îª- Being tall, (tall - adj - §Òúø’í¬_ Ö†oç-ü¿’-´©x) she
able to incite Savithri to that crime.
v§ƒ®Ωç-¶μºç™ é¬F, ã verb ûª®√y-ûª-í¬F ¢√úø-ö«Eo í∫©®Ω’. can play well (Ç¢Á’ ¶«í¬ Çúø-í∫-©ü¿’)
A.
 The U.S.S.R. collapsed without being a
ÇÍé~-°œ-≤ƒh®Ω’. Ö´÷-´’-Ê£«-¨¡y-®Ω-®√´¤ ≤ƒN-vAE- -Ç -ØË®√-EéÀ °æ¤J-íÌLp
T. Siva, Nandikotkur. Öçö«úø’/ Öçú≈L (ÆæçüË£æ«ç ™‰ü¿’).
Due to the rain the school was closed - bullet shot.
Q. Miss Rehana might have been able to pass
wrong - due to sentence
ûÓ v§ƒ®Ωç-Gμçî√ç A. Ñ word group ™ 'being' Ö°æ-ßÁ÷í∫ç ÆæJ-é¬ü¿’– Q. Your hair is too long. It's time you trimmed
the C.A. exam last year.
鬕öÀd. them. Ñstructure explain
†’ îËߪ’-í∫-©®Ω’.
A.
Åçü¿’-´©x Å®Ωnç ®√ü¿’. É™« Å®Ωnç îËÆæ’-éÓ-¢√L– È®£æ«Ø√ -§ƒÂÆj ÖçúÌa (ÆæçüË£æ«ç).
The school was closed due to the rain - ûª’§ƒ-éÃ-í∫’çúø’ ™‰èπ◊çú≈, USSR èπ◊°æp-èπÿ-LçC– Åçõ‰ A. Your hair is too long. It's time you trimmed it.

Spoken English -§ƒ-ûª -¢√u≤ƒ-©éÓÆæç -éÀxé˙ -îË-ߪ’ç-úÕ.. URL: http://www.eenadu.net/chaduvu/chaduvuinner.asp?qry=spokenenglish


-Ç-C-¢√®Ωç 24 -à-v°œ-™¸ 2011 Ñ-Ø√-úø’ £j«-ü¿®√-¶«-ü˛ 2

A. Sudhakar, Bhiknur. Hyderabad? again:


Q. Please divide into A. Verb - does start = starts - Present simple - A present participle
Tense and time given denoting an action in the immediate future. (the '... ing' form) -
below sentences. Q. Can I have some milk before I go to bed? e.g.: going, walking,
 I shall write another A. Can have - present tense - request in the writing etc- used as
letter. present, go - Present simple. a noun is a gerund.
 I wrote the letter. That is, if you use
Dileep Tahil, Yellandu. an '... ing' form as
 I am writing the letter
Q. Sir, clarify the following doubts. 1) the subject of a sentence,
now. help me - correct. 鬕öÀd Ééπ\úø 'would' a
i) exchange (ii) Interchange. Please give the 2) the object of a verb or
A. I shall write another letter. tense ÅØË v°æ¨Ïo ™‰ü¿’.
meanings of the above mentioned words. 3) the object of a preposition, the '...ing' for
Shall write- future simple He said that he would help me - Ééπ\úø 'would
A. Exchange = give something to
(؈’ -´’®Ó ñ«•’ ´÷JpúÕ = becomes a gerund. (Åçõ‰, '... ing' form †’, future from the past (í∫ûªç-™-†’ç-* ¶μºN-≠æuû˝)
someone and at the same time take from
®√≤ƒh†’.)
sentence subject verb Q. Ææç´-ûªq®Ωç, ¢√®Ωç, ®ÓV© Ê°®Ω’x (Sunday...
Wrote - Past simple -
äéπ èπ◊ í¬ í¬F, äéπ èπ◊
®√Êƨ»†’. them the same type of things/ É*a-°æ¤-a- object preposition object
Saturday) °æ‹ô©’ Morning... Night. -Ñ °æüΔ-©-
am writing - Present Continuous -
í¬ í¬F, äéπ èπ◊ í¬
gerund
®√Ææ’h-Ø√o†’ éÓ´úøç.
(É°æ¤púø’). a) They exchange rings =
í¬F ¢√úÕûË ÅC Å´¤-ûª’çC. EoçöÀéà ¢Á·ü¿öÀ letter capital ®√ߪ÷™«?
¢√∞¡Ÿx Öçí∫-®√©’ e.g.: a) Walking is good for health. (†úø-´úøç
Q. She would rather we stayed till tomorrow. A. English ™ Ææç´-ûªq-®√-©èπ◊, Ææçêu-™‰-é¬F, Ê°®Ω’xç-úø´¤
´÷®Ω’aèπ◊Ø√o®Ω’/ É*a-°æ¤-a-èπ◊-Ø√o®Ω’. Ç®Ó-í¬u-EéÀ ´’ç*C) – Ñ sentence èπ◊ walking éπüΔ? 鬕öÀd capital letter ûÓ v§ƒ®ΩçGμçî√©ØË
A. Would rather.... stayed - present tense - b) The two countries exchanged prisoners = ÅØË '... ing' form subject 鬕öÀd ÅC gerund.
refers to an improbable situation in the pre- v°æ¨Ïo ™‰ü¿’.
Ç È®çúø’ ü˨»©’ ë„jD-©†’ ´÷JpúÕ îËÆæ’-èπ◊-Ø√o®·. b) I like walking - Ééπ\úø 'walking' ÅØË '... ing'
sent - É°æ¤púø’ ï®Ω-í∫-EC, é¬F ´’†ç ï®Ω-í¬-©E Interchange = 1) to share ideas/ information form, like ÅØË verb èπ◊ object 鬕öÀd, ÅC
¢√®√©’ (Monday, Tuesday etc) ØÁ©© Ê°®Ω’x
January, February, etc) ´÷vûªç capitals ûÓØË
v§ƒ®Ωç-Gμç-î√L. °æ‹ô©’ (morning/ evening, etc)

Please come up the dais! gerund.


´÷vûªç ´÷´‚-©’-í¬ØË ®√ߪ÷L, capital ûÓ
v§ƒ®ΩçGμç-îª-èπÿ-úøü¿’.
Q. Åûªúø’ bank ™ money deposit î˨»úø’. He
deposited the money in the bank/ with the
bank - which one is correct?
A. Deposited in the bank - correct.
éÓ®Ω’èπ◊-ØËC. c) with a view to having some exer-
Q. It has been raining all night.
A. Has been raining - present perfect continu- -Ççí∫x-¶μ«-≠æ-ù 639 cise, I started walking -
tence ™ walking, to
sen-
Ñ
prepo-
ÅØËC
Q. Please come on to the dais or I request him
to come on to the dais. Which one of the
ous -
sition gerund above sentences is correct?
¢√† í∫ûªç™ éÌçûª-ÊÆ-°æöÀ †’ç* Éçé¬ èπ◊®Ω’- 鬕öÀd, ÅD -Å-´¤-ûª’ç-C.
Ææ÷hØË ÖçC. etc = ¶μ«¢√-©†’, Ææ´÷î√-®√Eo äéπ-J-®ΩéÌ- Q. Ravi is taller than Krishna. A. Please come on to the dais, correct é¬ü¿’.
Q. My uncle is arriving tomorrow.
Krishna is as tall as Ravi. stage stage
éπ®Ω’ É*a-°æ¤-a-éÓ´úøç – Ñ Å®ΩnçûÓ, ÉC ´’†ç O’ü¿ ÖçúÕ, Éûª-®Ω’-©†’ O’CéÀ
A. is arriving - present continuous referring to üΔüΔ°æ¤ Exchange ûÓ Ææ´÷-†- M.SURESAN ¢Á·ü¿öÀ sentence ™ Ravi Krishna éπçõ‰ please come up the dais
Ç£æ…y-Eç-îËç-ü¿’èπ◊,
definite future - Í®°æ¤ ´Ææ’h-Ø√oúø’. ´’´¤ûª’çC. There was an inter- §Òúø´¤. ´’J È®çúÓ sentence ™ Åçö«ç.Announcers/ Anchors etc. stage
Q. I have finished my work just now. change of ideas between the two groups
Krishna Ravi ´÷C-Jí¬ §Òúø´¤. Ñ ¢√é¬u©†’ °æéπ\ØË E©’aE ÅA-ü∑¿’-©†’ Ç£æ…y-Eç-îË-ô-°æ¤púø’,
A. Have finished just now - Present Perfect during the discussion = √a Ææ´’-ߪ’ç™ N´-Jç-îª-í∫-©®Ω’. please go up the dais Åçö«®Ω’.
Tense - É®Ω’°æé¬~ -©-¢√®Ω÷ ¢√J ¶μ«¢√©†’, Ææ´÷-î√-®√Eo °æ®Ω-
A. Ravi is taller than Krishna- ®ΩN, éπ%≠æg éπçõ‰ Q. He addressed his speech from on the dais.
É°æ¤púË (Ø√°æE) °æ‹Jh-îË-¨»†’.
Q. I received his letter a week ago.
Ææp®Ωç É*a °æ¤îª’a-èπ◊-Ø√o®Ω’. Å®·ûË Ñ Å®ΩnçûÓ Ñ
°æü¿ç – interchange - ¢√úøéπç ûªèπ◊\´. §Òúø´¤ äéπ-üΔ-E-éπç-õ‰ ÉçéÓöÀ áèπ◊\´ ÅØË Å®ΩnçûÓ – A. He addressed his speech from on the dais-
A. Received..... (a week ago) - Past simple - Ééπ\úø 'taller' ÅE ¢√ú≈L 鬕öÀd, ÅC 'compara- This sentence is wrong.
áèπ◊\´í¬ interchange E Ñ Å®ΩnçûÓ ¢√úø-û√®Ω’ tive' degree. (éπçõ‰ ÅE Å®Ωnç 鬕öÀd) A person addresses an audience/ a gather-
í∫ûªç™ éπ*a-ûª-¢Á’i† Ææ´’-ߪ’ç™ ïJ-T† °æE
– to change the positions of two things/ per-
(Çߪ’† Öûªh®Ωç Ø√èπ◊ ¢√®Ωç véÀûªç îËJçC.)
sons with that of each other = È®çúø’ Krishna is not as tall as Ravi - éπ%≠æg, ®ΩN Åçûª ing/ a meeting, etc. but not a speech/ a
Q. When I reached the station the train had §Ò-úø´¤ é¬-ü¿’. Ééπ\úø 'tall' ¢√ú≈ç 鬕öÀd, ÉC pos- meeting.
started (So I couldn't get into the train)
´Ææ’h´¤©/ Éü¿l®Ω’ ´uèπ◊h© ≤ƒn-Ø√-©-†’ °æ®Ω-Ææp®Ωç
itive degree.
´÷®Ωaúøç. Address: You
äéπ-∞¡x†’ ÖüËl-Pç* v°æÆæç-Tç-îªúøç.
A. Reached - past tense - Q. Please translate the below sentences into can say, 'He addressed the gathering/ the
í∫ûªç™ ïJ-T† °æE – a) The ministers' portfolios were inter-
When I reached the station - station
؈’ English.
changed = audience from the dais - correct.
the train had started (train
îËÍ®ô-°æp-öÀéÀ (í∫ûªç), Ç Éü¿l®Ω’ ´’çvûª’©’ îª÷ÊÆ
F´¤ Ø√èπ◊ Åúøfçí¬ E©-•-ú≈f´¤. °æéπ\èπ◊ ï®Ω’í∫’.
had started - Past perfect Y. Gayathri, Asifabad.
´u´£æ…®√©†’, äéπ-JC ÉçéÌ-éπ-JéÀ ´÷®√a®Ω’.
A. You are blocking my way/ You are in my
•ßª’-™‰l-J-§Ú-®·çC) –
b) The time tables of Monday and Tuesday
tense -
way. Please stand aside. Q.
í∫ûªç™ ïJ-T† È®çúø’ °æ†’™x, ¢Á·ü¿öÀ
have been interchanged = éÀçC °æüΔ-©èπ◊ ûÁ©’-í∫’™ Å®√n©’ ûÁ©-°æ-í∫-©®Ω’.
Past Perfect (had + Past participle)
≤Ú´’-¢√®Ωç,
Q.  Indologist
°æEE ™
time tables ÉûªúÕE ؈’ 鬢√-©E ûÓ¨»-†E ¢√∞¡x Ø√†o ††’o
(Train
ûÁ©’-°æ¤û√ç. •ßª’-™‰l-®Ωúøç – í∫ûªç™ ´·çü¿’. ´’çí∫-∞¡-¢√®Ωç äéπ-üΔEéÌéπöÀ
Åçü¿’-éπE the train had started ûª®√yûª ´÷®√a®Ω’ ŧƒ®Ωnç îËÆæ’-èπ◊ç-ö«úø’. A. ¶μ«®Ω-Bߪ’ îªJvûª, ÆæçÆæ \%A, Ææçv°æüΔ-ߪ÷-©Â°j ÇÆæéÀh -
Q. As if. -D-Eo ÖüΔ-£æ«-®Ω-ù-©ûÓ N´-Jç-îª-í∫-©®Ω’. A. His father will misunderstand me. He will
ïJTçC. When I reached - ؈’ îËÍ®-ô-°æp-öÀéÀ – Öç-úÕ, ¢√öÀE Åüμ¿u-ߪ’†ç îËÊÆ-¢√∞¡Ÿx.
A. As if = as though = Å®·-†ô’x. é¬F, é¬ü¿’ = think that I pushed him intentionally  Indological
reached - Past Simple).
Q. I won't go out if it rains. appearing to be, but not really. He behaves (鬢√©E). A. ¶μ«®Ω-Bߪ’ ÆæçÆæ \%A, îªJ-vûªèπ◊ Ææç•ç-Cμç-*†.
as if/ as though he were the cleverest boy in Raju, Atukulapalli.  Crusader - saint
A. I won't go = will not go - future simple;
the class =
rains = present simple if it rains - condition- A. Crusader =
ûªØËüÓ Åçü¿-J™ Åûªuçûª ûÁL-N-í∫©
Q. Please clarify the following doubts äéπ ´’ç* N≠æ-ߪ÷Eo ≤ƒCμç-îËç-ü¿’èπ◊,
al clause
¢√úÁj†ô’x (é¬F é¬ü¿’) v°æ´-Jh-≤ƒhúø’.
(¢√†-´ÊÆh)  Even huge mountains would be like tiny ã îÁúø’ ÇÊ°ç-ü¿’èπ◊ Bv´, Ææ’D®Ω` v°æߪ’ûªoç §Ú®√-ôç-
Imp: Note that as if/ as though are always fol-
Q. This time tomorrow I will be sitting on the particles of sand. îË-ÊÆ-¢√-úø’.
lowed by was/ were, but refer to the pre-
beach in Singapore. underline Past Tense or Present Crusader - saint = Å™«çöÀ Öü¿u´’ç ïJÊ°
sent. îËÆœ† °æü¿ç
A. Will be sitting - future continuous tense - Tense? ´’£æ«F-ߪ·©’. Gandhi was a crusader- saint
It is as if/ as if he were giving/ was giving his
¶μºN≠æu-ûª’h™  é̆-≤ƒ-í∫’ûª÷ Öçô’ç-ü¿-†’-èπ◊ØË A. 'Would here indicates improbable present - for peace and non-violence = ¨»çA, Å£œ«çÆæ©
money = ûª† úø¶‰sûÓ É*a-†-ô’xçC/
N≠æߪ’ç. Åçõ‰ v°æÆæ’hûªç ï®Ω-í∫E/ ïJÍí O™‰xE N≠æ-ߪ÷Eo éÓÆæç Bv´ v°æߪ’ûªoç/ §Ú®√ôç ïJ-°œ†
Q. I will be staying here till Sunday.
É*a†ôxE°œÆæ’hØ√oúø’ (é¬F é¬ü¿’). ´’£æ«Fߪ·úø’ í¬çDμ.
Q. You are not supposed to do it.
ûÁ©’-°æ¤-ûª’çC.
A. will be staying - future continuous tense; use  Female-Foeticide
Ñ ¢√é¬uEo
Å®Ωnç: °ü¿l-°ü¿l °æ®Ωy-û√©’ èπÿú≈ *†o ÉÆæ’éπ Í®ù’-
-
ÖüΔ-£æ«-®Ω-ù-©ûÓ N´-Jç-îª-í∫-©®Ω’.
-É-C èπÿ-ú≈ ¶μºN≠æu-ûª’h™ é̆-≤ƒ-í∫’ûª÷ Öçô’ç-ü¿-†’- A.
A. You are not supposed to do it = you are not
´¤™«x Öçö«®·. (üËE-ûÓ-†-®·Ø√ §ÚLa-†-°æ¤púø’ í∫®Ωs¥Ææn Çúø P¨¡Ÿ-£æ«ûªu (°æ¤ôd-¶-ûª’-†oC Çúø-°œ©x ÅE
èπ◊ØË N≠æߪ’-¢Ë’.
expected/ you must not to do it (according
´÷vûª¢Ë’ – ¢√Ææh´ç é¬ü¿’) ÉC îª÷úøçúÕ. ûÁLÆœ, -G-úøf °æ¤ôd-èπ◊çú≈ í∫®Ωs¥-v≤ƒ´ç îË®·çîªúøç)
Q. I shall have written my exercise by three. If I were you, I would do it - ؈’ †’´y-®·ûË  Pandora
to rule/ orders from Superiors) = E•ç-üμ¿-†©’,
A. Shall have written - future perfect tense - (؈’ †’´yßË’ N≠æߪ’ç ÅÆæç-¶μº´ç – Å®·† A. Pandora ÅE-é¬-èπ◊çú≈, áèπ◊\-´í¬, opening a
Çïc-©†’ í∫’Jç* îËߪ’-èπÿ-úøE °æE.
¶μºN≠æuûª’h™ äéπ Ææ´’-ߪ÷-EéÀ °æ‹®Ωh®· Öçô’ç-ü¿-†’- Boys are not supposed to tease girls = Boys
°æé¬~ †) ÅC ؈’ -îË≤ƒh†’. Pandora's box Åçö«®Ω’. Å®Ωnç î√™« îÁúø’
èπ◊ØË N≠æߪ’ç. Å®Ωnç: (by three = ´‚úø’ í∫çô-©- must not tease girls = Ŷ«s-®·©’, Å´÷t®·©†’ É™«çöÀ îÓôx 'would' improbable present. °æJù«´÷©’ éπL-TçîË ã îÁúø’-°æE îËߪ’úøç.
éπ™«x) ØËØ√ Öûªh®Ωç ®√Æœ Öçö«†’. Q. He says that he would help me what is the The govt has opened a Pandora's box by
12th
Q. The school opens on June.
¢ËCμç-îª-èπÿ-úøü¿’.
Q. 'Gerund' please give meaning with one meaning of the underlined word is it Past making caste based reservations = èπ◊-©ç -
A. Opens - Present simple tense, indicating a Tense or Present Tense? Please explain.
example. ÇüμΔ®Ωçí¬ Jï-Í®y-≠æ-†x†’ Å´’-©’ -îË-ߪ’-úøç´©x
definite action in future - ¶μºN-≠æu-ûª’h™ äéπ A. He says that he would help me -
A. 'Gerund' has been explained a number of Ééπ\úø v°æ¶μº’ûªyç îÁúø’ °æJ-ù«-´÷-©èπ◊ ûÁ®Ω-™‰-°œçC.
Æ洒ߪ÷-EéÀ ï®Ω’-í∫’-ûª’ç-ü¿ØË N≠æߪ’ç. times before. However, we are explaining it would He says he will
Ö°æ-ßÁ÷í∫ç ÆæJ-é¬ü¿’.
Q. When does the next train leave for

Spoken English -§ƒ-ûª -¢√u≤ƒ-©éÓÆæç -éÀxé˙ -îË-ߪ’ç-úÕ.. URL: http://www.eenadu.net/chaduvu/chaduvuinner.asp?qry=spokenenglish


-Ç-C-¢√®Ωç 1 -¢Ë’ 2011 Ñ-Ø√-úø’ £j«-ü¿®√-¶«-ü˛ 2

K. Srinivasa Rao, Martur. Ç Dictionary ™. üΔçûÓ §ƒô’, ´’ç* English Ææçü¿-®√s¥Eo •öÀd
Q. Sir, The choice lies News paper (Hindu ™«çöÀC) v°æA-®ÓV Å®Ω-í∫çô Öçô’çC. É™«:
between the three candi- ™‰üΔ ´·§ƒp´¤ í∫çô îªü¿-´çúÕ. Éçé¬ v°æA-®ÓW He was tired, as he
dates ÅE B.B.Jain English News telecast éπFÆæç morning äéπ-≤ƒK, had worked the
ví¬´’®˝-•’-é˙™ ÖçC. ®√vA äéπ-≤ƒK îª÷úøçúÕ. O’J-™«-îËÊÆh È®çúø’ ´‚úø’ whole day = ®Óïçû√
among ÆæÈ®j† °æü¿ç é¬ü¿E ØÁ©™x O’ vocabulary ™ î√™« improvement °æE-îË-¨»úø’, 鬕öÀd Å©-
èπÿú≈ ÖçC. N´-Jç-îª-í∫-©®Ω’. Öçô’çC. Æœ-§Ú-®·† ÆœnA™
A. The choice lies
T. Siva, Nandikotkur.
ÖØ√oúø’. (Å©-Ææô
between the three candi- §ÒçüΔúø’) îª÷úøôç.
dates - Ééπ\úø 'Three candidates' í∫’Jç* Q. Attributive Adjectives, Predicative adjec- He got tired of telling his friend not to smoke
tives, Participial adjectives
2) éÓ™p-®·† £æ«èπ◊\©†’ °æ¤†-®Ω’-ü¿l¥-Jç-îªúøç.
v°æ≤ƒh-N-Ææ’h-†o-°æp-öÃéà choice is between
ÆæÈ®jçüË. †’ ≤ÚüΔ-£æ«-®Ω-ùçí¬ = ûª† N’vûª’úÕE Æœí∫-È®ö¸ ´÷ØË-ߪ’-´’E îÁ°œp îÁ°œp  Rid of - Get rid of
The choice lies among the three, ņo-°æ¤púø’ N´Jçîª-í∫-©®Ω’. Å©-Æœ-§Ú-ߪ÷úø’/ NÆœ-T-§Ú-ߪ÷úø’. A. To get rid of = to be rid of =
A.
´ü¿-©’a-éÓ-´úøç.
Å®Ωnç™ èπÿú≈ é¬Ææh ûËú≈ ®√´îª’a, three E, ´‚úø’ Attributive Predicative He felt tired after the day's work = Ç ®ÓV He got rid of/ is rid of his troubles = ´ü¿’-©’a-
Adjectives
´Ææ’h-´¤-©’í¬ é¬èπ◊çú≈, ´·í∫’_®Ω’ ´uèπ◊h-©ØË Å®Ωnç Adjectives °æúøf v¨¡´’-´©x Å©-Ææô ÅE-°œç-*ç-ü¿-ûª-úÕéÀ. èπ◊Ø√oúø’ / N´·éÀh §ÒçüΔúø’.
BÆæ’èπ◊†o-°æ¤úø’. The choice lies among the The blue sky The sky is blue ´·êu í∫´’-Eéπ:  Altogether - All together
three (men) ņ’-èπ◊çõ‰ Å°æ¤púø’ '¢√∞¡Ÿx ´·í∫’_®Ω÷
The beautiful girl The girl is beautiful 1) °j† îÁ°œp† ûËú≈©’ Åçûªí¬ §ƒöÀç-îª-éπ\-®Ω-™‰ü¿’. A. Altogether = On the whole = ¢Á·ûªhç-O’ü¿.
áç°œéπ îËÆæ’-éÓ¢√Lq† N≠æߪ’ç ÅC— ÅØË Å®Ωnç
The great player The player is great ´‚úÕçöÀ™ àü¿-®·Ø√ áéπ\úø®·Ø√ ¢√úÌa. a) It was a great party altogether = It was a
´Ææ’hçC. 2) 'Tire' †’ v°æÆæ’hûªç áèπ◊\-´í¬ NÆœ-Tç-îªúøç ÅØË great party on the whole =
Q. ÅA-ü∑¿’-©†’ ¢ËCéπ O’ü¿èπ◊ Ç£æ…y-Eç-îË-ô-°æ¤púø’ ¢Á·ûªhç-O’ü¿ Ç
Noun (sky, girl, player) party
Å®ΩnçûÓ ¢√úø’-ûª’-Ø√o®Ω’.
beloved, august, distinguished, honourable, îª÷¨»®Ω’ éπüΔ Â°j†. èπ◊ íÌ°æp-í¬ØË ïJ-TçC.
a) You tire me with your silly jokes = F °œ*a
b) His visits here had become irregular and
stopped altogether =

I am tired of his company


Åûª-úÕ-éπ\-úÕéÀ ®√´úøç
éÌçûª-鬩ç Æævéπ-´’ç-í¬-™‰-ü¿’. ûª®√yûª °æ‹Jhí¬
ÇT§Ú®·çC.
All together = ÅFo/ Åçü¿JF éπL°œ – There
were fifty students all together.
jokes ûÓ ††’o NÆœ-T-Ææ’h-Ø√o´¤.  Specially - especially
respected ™«çöÀ¢Ë é¬èπ◊çú≈, Éçé¬ à¢Á’iØ√ A. Specially, especially -
b) I am tired of his company = ÉC Éçûªèπ◊ ´·çü¿’
-Ççí∫x-¶μ«-≠æ-ù 640
°æüΔ©’çõ‰ ûÁ©-°æ-í∫-©®Ω’. Åûª-úÕûÓ
Öçúøôç NÆæ’í∫’ éπL-T-≤ÚhçC. î√™«≤ƒ®Ω’x N´-Jçî√ç.
A. Éçé¬ Éûª®Ω ´÷ô©’ èπÿú≈ ¢√úø-´îª’a.  Business - Trade
Q. éÀçC-¢√-öÀéÀ Antonyms ûÁ©-°æ-í∫-©®Ω’.
Celebrated, esteemed, eminent, renowned, A. Business -
highly renowned, etc ´÷ô©’ èπÿú≈ ¢√úø-´îª’a. ´·çü¿’ adjective (blue, beautiful,  Monotony A. Variety ´Ææ’h-´¤©’ ûªßª÷-®Ω’-îË-ߪ’úøç, Å´’túøç,
great) attributive use of  Meagre A. Abundant/ plenty
é̆úøç, ´Ææ’h-´¤© †´‚-Ø√©’ ®Ω÷§Òç-Cç-îªúøç,
Q. éÀçC ¢√é¬u-EéÀ ûÁ©’-í∫’™ Å®Ωnç ûÁ©-°æ-í∫-©®Ω’.
¢√úÕûË ÅC,
the adjective.  Tickle A. Constant/ steady
¢√u§ƒ®Ωç îËߪ’úøç.
M.SURESAN
If I had a son of daughter possessed of one
Å™« é¬èπ◊çú≈ È®çúÓ
column™ îª÷°œ†ô’x, noun (sky, girl,  Marvellous A. Ordinary
ÉN ®Ωéπ-®Ω-鬩 ´Ææ’h-´¤© ™«¢√-üË-O©’ 鬴a, NNüμ¿
accomplishment it should be that of speech
great)
ûª®√yûª adjective ¢√úÕûË(blue,  Meek (Mild) A. Rebellious (Mild X harsh)
®Ω鬩 ´Ææ’h-´¤© véπߪ’ Nvéπߪ’ç– öèπ◊/-*-©x®Ω
A.
beautiful, great) predicative use of
Ø√ èπ◊´÷®Ω’úÕéÀ/ èπ◊´÷-È®hèπÿ àüÁjØ√ °∂æ’†ûª Öçú≈©E Ŵa. *†o-®Ωéπç ¢√u§ƒ®Ω¢Á’iØ√, ¶μ«K
 Generous A. Mean
Å°æ¤p-úøC,
؈’ éÓ®Ω’-èπ◊çõ‰ ÅC Ö°æ-Ø√uÆæ v°æA¶μº/ ´éπh %-ûªy-¨¡éÀh. the adjective Adjective ¢√u§ƒ®Ω¢Á’iØ√ 鬴a. Company © ´’üμ¿u ™‰üΔ
 Straight
Å´¤-ûª’çC. í∫´’-Eç-îªçúÕ: A. Crooked/ dishonest/ artful
Q. He behaved cowardly †’ predicative adjective í¬ ¢√úÕûË, ÅC ´uèπ◊h© ´’üμ¿u 鬴a.
We did nothing but complained ≤ƒ´÷†uçí¬ verb ûª®√yûª ´Ææ’hçC.  Ample A. Scanty Trade = ¶μ«K ¢√u§ƒ®Ωç, ´·êuçí¬ öèπ◊-´-®Ωhéπç.
°j È®çúø’ ¢√é¬u-™xE ûª°æ¤p†’ N´-Jç-îª-í∫-©®Ω’. The blue sky - blue, attributive adjective  Praise A. Blame ÅD äÍé-®Ω-é¬-EéÀ îÁçC† ´Ææ’h-´¤™, Åçü¿’™ èπÿú≈
A. He behaved cowardly- correct sentence
ÉC Å®Ωnç: F™«-鬨¡ç.  Offer A. Reject/ deny/ withdraw ¶μ«K ¢√u§ƒ®Ω ÆæçÆæn© ´’üμ¿u, áí∫’-´’A – Cí∫’-´’-ûª’©
é¬ü¿’ –cowardly, adjective. correct sen- The sky is blue - blue, predicative use of the  Quiet A. Loud ®Ω÷°æç™ èπÿú≈ Öçúø-´îª’a ü˨¡ NüË-¨»-©-´’üμ¿u.
tence. He behaved in a cowardly manner- adjective  Regret A. Satisfaction (noun)/ Business ™ Trade îËJ Öçô’çC.Trade 鬮Ωu-éπ-
correct. He behaved like a coward.
™‰éπ-§Ú-ûË gloat (verb) ™«-§ƒ-©Fo business ™ ¶μ«í∫¢Ë’. é¬F business
Å®Ωnç: Ç鬨¡ç F©çí¬ ÖçC.
We did nothing but complain (complained
Participial adjective: Present participle/ past  Sacrifice A. Gain 鬮Ωu-éπ-™«-§ƒ-©Fo Trade ™ Öçúø-éπ-§Ú-´îª’a.
é¬ü¿’) participle adjective
†’, to qual-
í¬ (¢√úÕûË – Q. éÀçC-¢√öÀéÀ Å®Ωnç, v°æßÁ÷-í¬Eo N´-Jç-îª-í∫-©®Ω’. ÖüΔ: Trade™ *©x®Ω ¢√u§ƒ®Ωç, ≤ƒ´÷†u¢Á’i†
Q. Her air of pomposity was tactless and offen- ify a noun), participial adjective
Å°æ¤p-úøC  Joyous - joyful ™«¢√-üË-O©÷ Öçúø-éπ-§Ú-´îª’a.
sive. Å´¤ûª’çC. A. Joyous and joyful = joyous
ûËú≈ ™‰ü¿’ Å®·ûË  Site - cite
Ñ ¢√éπuç™ air Å®Ωnç ûÁ©-°æ-í∫-©®Ω’. e.g. : The moving train. poetic-
ÅØËC, poetry
Åçõ‰ poetic lan-
™, A. Site - ÉçöÀ Ææn©ç – É©’x éπô’d-èπ◊-ØËç-ü¿’èπ◊ EÍ®l-Pç-*†
A. Ç¢Á’ ú≈çGéπç (Air of pomposity; air = Ééπ\úø 'moving'- present participle, train - noun
ÅØË guage joyous -
™ áèπ◊\´í¬ ¢√úø-û√®Ω’. áèπ◊\- Ææn©ç.
v°æ´-®Ωh-†)ûÓ èπÿúÕ† †úø-´úÕ, ¶«í¬ éπE-°œÆæ÷h, †’ qualifyîË≤ÚhçC 鬕öÀd, ÅC adjective. joyous occasion
´í¬ Ææçü¿-®√s¥-©èπ◊, (ÆæçûÓ≠æ Cite = Öôç-éÀç-îªúøç – ÖüΔ-£æ«-®Ω-ù©÷, Éûª-®Ω’©
Éûª®Ω’©èπ◊ éÓ°æç ûÁîËa-Cí¬ ÖçC. Å®·ûË ÅC present participle
鬕öÀd, particip- persons
Ææçü¿®√s¥EéÀ) ¢√úø-û√®Ω’. èπ◊ Åçûªí¬ ´÷ô©’. (îÁ°æ¤p-éÓ-´úøç).
Q. Antonio had no ready money. So, he had to ial adjective
Å´¤-ûª’çC. ¢√úø®Ω’. We cite the example of the lion for courage
borrow it from Shylock. Å™«Íí look at the expression: joyful, persons èπÿ, occasions èπÿ È®çúÕç-öÀéà = ≤ƒ£æ«-≤ƒ-EéÀ ÖüΔ-£æ«-®Ω-ùí¬ Æœç£æ…Eo îÁ°æ¤p-èπ◊çö«ç.
Ñ ¢√é¬uEo éÀçC Nüμ¿çí¬ ®√ߪ’-´î√a? The stolen money. ¢√úø-û√®Ω’.  Illness - disease
If Antonio had had ready money he would 'stolen'- past participle of steal, qualifies the  Committee - commission A. Illness = disease = ¢√uCμ/ ï•’s
not have had to borrow it from Shylock. noun, 'money'. So here 'stolen' is an adjec- A. Committee- àüÁjØ√ ´u´-£æ…-®√Eo E®Ωy-£œ«ç-îËç-ü¿’èπ◊  Pitiful - Pitiable
A. ®√ߪ’-´îª’a. Correct. tive. Å®·ûË ÅC past participle èπÿú≈ 鬕öÀd ™‰üΔ N≠æߪ’E-®√l¥-®Ωù îËÆœ, °æJ-≥ƒ\-®√Eo Ææ÷*ç-îËç- A. Pitiful =ü¿ßª’-ûÓ-èπÿ-úÕ†/ ñ«L-°æúË í∫’ù´·†o
participial adjective. Dharmaraja was a pitiful man =
V. Sreedhar, Nandalur.
ÅC, ü¿’èπ◊ à®ΩpúË ´uèπ◊h© Ææ´‚£æ«ç ü¿ßª’-í∫-©-¢√úø’.
Some more examples: Commission- éÌçûª ´’çC ´uèπ◊h© Ææ´‚£æ«ç– Pitiable = ñ«L-íÌ-LÊ°/ ñ«L-°æ-úø-ü¿-T† The condi-
Q. Competitive Exams synonyms,
™ ÅúÕÍí Walking stick, looking glass, boiling water, ´·êuçí¬ v°æ¶μº’ûªy Çïc©’, E®Ωg-ߪ÷©’, NüμΔØ√©’ tion of the child who lost its mother is
antonyms, comprehension, spotting errors,
etc., and also, printed matter, the murdered ÆæJí¬_ Å´’-©´¤ûª’Ø√oߪ÷? ™‰üΔ? ÅE °æJ-Q-Lç- pitiable =
ordering of sentences ™«çöÀN ÖçúË ´’ç* ûªLxE éÓ™p-®·† Ç Gúøf ÆœnA ñ«L-íÌ-L-
person, selected candidates etc. All the îËçü¿’èπ◊. Ê°C/ ü¿ßª’-F-ߪ’çí¬ ÖçC.
Commission èπ◊ îªôd-•-ü¿l¥-¢Á ’i† ÅCμ-é¬-®√-© ’ç-
°æ¤Ææh-é¬Eo Ææ÷*ç-îª-í∫-©®Ω’. underlined present/ past participles are,
Bank tests, staff selection commission  Camp - Campaign
èπ◊ participial adjectives. ö«®·.Commission E®Ωg-ߪ÷-©†’ é¬ü¿-†úøç îªôd- A. Camp 1) •Ææ.
°j† îÁ°œp† Æœ©-•Æˇ Öçô’çC. Q. He was tired. He felt tired. He got tired. Kû√u ØË®Ωç. Committee éÀ É™«çöÀ îªôd-•-ü¿l¥ûª,
The collector's Camp =
A. Competitive exams èπ◊ 鬢√-Lq† vocabulary
OöÀ éπ™„-éπd®˝ •Ææ/ NúÕC.
(be) P.P./ (feel) P.P./
Å®√nEo àßË’ Ææçü¿-®√s¥™x ÅCμé¬-®√-©’ç-úø´¤.
lists with antonyms and synonyms lists à (get) P.P. ©†’ Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-T-≤ƒh®Ω’?  Wail - weep
2) •Ææ îËߪ’úøç The minister is camping here
Guide to competitive exams tonight = Ñ ®√vA ´’çvA-í¬-J-éπ\úø •Ææ îËÆæ’h-Ø√o®Ω’.
A. Wail =
´’ç* ™ØÁjØ√ A. He was tired - 'was' here expresses the con- ´‚©’í∫’ üμ¿yEûÓ àúø-´-úøç – ®ÓCç-îªúøç.
Lists
üÌ®Ω’-èπ◊-û√®·. Å®·ûË Å™«çöÀ ™EWords Campaign = Öü¿u´’ç/ Öü¿u-N’ç-îªúøç
dition of the person. Was tired ņo-°æ¤púø’, Weep = à Nüμ¿ç-í¬-ØÁjØ√ àúø-´-úøç.
Literacy campaign = Åéπ~-®√-Ææuû√ Öü¿u´’ç.
 Recover - Restore
†’ éπç®∏ΩÆænç îËߪ’úøç ´©x ÅN Åçûªí¬ í∫’®Ω’hç-úø-éπ-
§Úí¬, î√™« confusing í¬ èπÿú≈ Öçô’çC. Åûªúø’†o °æJ-Æ œnA. (Å©-Æ œ-§Ú-®·† °æJ-Æ œn-A™
Abraham Lincon campaigned for the aboli-
Åçü¿’-éπE O’®Ω’ Å™«çöÀ guides ™E ´÷ô-©èπ◊, ÖØ√oúø’) A. Recover = 1) ´’†ç §ÚíÌ-ô’d-èπ◊†o ´Ææ’h´¤†’ AJT
He got tired = Åûªúø’ Å©-Æ œ-§Ú-ߪ÷úø’. àüÓ tion of slavery = ¶«E-Ææûªy E®Ω÷t-©-†èπ◊ LçéπØ˛
¢√öÀ antonyms, synonyms †’ ´·çü¿’ îª÷Ææ’- §Òçü¿úøç
Öü¿u-N’ç-î√úø’/ Öü¿u´’ç †úÕ-§ƒúø’.
èπ◊E, Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary áèπ◊\´ v¨¡´’-°æ-úøôç ´©x/ NÆæ’í∫’ îÁçü¿-úøç-´©x. 2) ï•’s †’ç* éÓ©’-éÓ-´úøç.
of current english ™, Ç ´÷ô© Å®√n-©†’ ´’Sx He felt tired = Åûª-úÕéÀ Å©-Ææô ÅE-°œç-*çC/ Restore = 1) ÉçÈé-´-J-ÈéjØ√ îÁçC† ´Ææ’h´¤/
îª÷Ææ’-èπ◊E, ¢√öÀE ¢√úÕ† sentence ©†’ îª÷úøçúÕ, Å©Æœ† ¶μ«´ç ´îËa-ÆœçC. àC áéπ\úø ¢√ú≈-©-ØËC §ÚíÌ-ô’d-èπ◊†o N≠æ-ߪ÷©’ ¢√JéÀ -A-JT ´îËa™«

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