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In Vedic Mathematics, we have: specific techniques and general techniques. The specific techniques are fast and effective but can only be applied to a particular combination of numbers. On the other hand, Vertically and Crosswise method is one of the general techniques in Vedic Mathematics , as it can be used to multiply numbers of any possible combination of digits. Thus general techniques have a much wider scope of application than specific techniques because they deal with a wider range of numbers. Here first we will discuss some of the specific techniques.

**Squaring Numbers Ending in a 5
**

By way of notation, 22 means 2 times 2 or 4 and 32 means 3 times 3 or 9. What if you are asked to calculate 452 or 652 or the square of any number ending in a 5 ( a number with unit digit 5) ? More than likely, we would need pencil and paper or a calculator to work it out. One of the Vedic Mathematics Sutras “one more than the one before” can help us to solve the questions immediately. Very simply, multiply the digit(s) to the left of the 5 by the next higher number and then write 25 after it. For example, let’s apply this sutra to the calculation of 452. 1st step: Determine the number to the left of the 5. That number is 4 in our example. 2nd step: Multiply this number by next higher number . This means multiply the 4 by 5. This results in the number 20. 3rd step: Follow this result with the number 25. This means the number 25 will follow 20. That is 2,025.This is the answer to the problem. Let’s try 652: 1st step: The number 6 2nd step: 6 times 7 equals 42 3rd step: follow 42 with 25, which is 4225. Algebraic proof: Consider (ax + b)2 Ξ a2. x2 + 2abx + b2. This identity for x = 10 and b = 5 becomes (10a + 5) 2 = a2 . 102 + 2. 10a . 5 + 52 = a2 . 102 + a. 102 + 52 = (a 2+ a ) . 102 + 52 = a (a + 1) . 10 2 + 25

Clearly 10a + 5 represents two-digit numbers 15, 25, 35, -------,95 for the values a = 1, 2, 3, -------,9 respectively. In such a case the number (10a + 5)2 is of the form whose L.H.S is a (a + 1) and R.H.S is 25, that is, a (a + 1) / 25 Similar proof can be given for 3 or more digit numbers.

**Multiplication with a series of 9’s
**

Students often fear multiplication of numbers, which involve lot of 9’s in them. However the truth is exactly the opposite. The higher the number of 9’s in the question, the easier it is to calculate the correct answer. There can be three cases with multiplication with series of 9’s A. Multiplying a number with an equal number of 9’s B. Multiplying a number with more number of 9’s C. Multiplying a number with less number of 9’s Here we are discussing Case – A only and leaving the rest two cases for the readers to explore. Question: Multiply 764 by 999 • • We subtract 1 from 764 and write half the answer as 763. Now we will be dealing with 763. Subtract each of the digits seven , six and three from nine and write down them in answer followed by 763 one by one. 9 7 2 • • 6 3 3 6

Nine minus seven is two, nine minus six is three and nine minus 3 is six. The half answer already obtained was 763 and now we suffix the digits obtained in previous step. The final answer is 763236

Question: Multiply 2345123 x 9999999 2345123 x 9999999 --------------------------2345122 / 7654877 Subtract 1 from 2345123 to get 2345122 as left part of answer. Now subtract individual digits of 2345122 from 9 and write answer as 7654877. This becomes right part of answer. The final answer is 23451227654877

**Use of Yavadunam Sutra for finding square of a number near 100
**

Sutra Yavadunam function over a base value. The bases may be 10 , multiples of 10 or 100 , multiples of 100 or 1000 , multiples of 1000 etc. Here we limit ourselves to base 100 only. The sutra says whatever be the difference of the number from the base add (if the number is more than the base) or subtract (if the number is less than the base) that much to the number and on the right hand side set the square of the difference. This gives us the final answer. Remember that the number of digits on right hand side is equal to the number of zeros in base. 1082 = 108 + 8 / 82 = 11664

Since 108 is 8 more than 100 therefore we have added 8 here as per the sutra and on the right hand side we set square of 8. 982 = 98 - 2 / 22 = 9604

Since 98 is 2 less than 100 therefore we have subtracted 2 here as per the sutra and on the right hand side we set square of 2. See that we set 4 as 04 as the right hand side of the answer should have number of digits equal to the number of zeroes in the base.

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