Good leaders are made not born .

If you have the desire and willpower ,you can become an effective leader.good leaders develop through a never-ending process of self study, education, training and experience. This guide will help you through that process. to inspire your people into higher levels of teamwork, there are certain things you must be, know ,and ,do. These do not come naturally, but are acquired through continual work and study. The best leaders are continually working and studying to improve their leadership skills. Before we get started, les define leadership. Leadership is a complex process by which a person influences others to accomplish a mission, task or objective and directs the organization in a way that makes it more cohesive and coherent. A person carries out this process by applying his or her leadership attributes (belief, values, ethics, character, knowledge, and skills). Although your position as a manager, supervisor, lead, etc. gives you the authority to accomplish certain tasks and objectives in the organization, this power does not make you a leader... it simply makes you the boss. Leadership makes people want to achieve high goals and objectives, while, on the other hand, bosses tell people to accomplish a task or an objective.

Bass' (1) theory of leadership states that there are threee basic ways to explain how people become leaders, the first two explain the leadership development for a small number of people. These theories are: Some


personality traits may lead people naturally into leadership roles. tgis is THE TRAIT THEORY. Crisis or important event may cause a person to rise to the occasion, which brings extraordinary leadership qualities in an ordinary person. This is THE GREAT EVENT THEORY. People can choose to become leaders. People can learn leadership skills. This is THE TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP THEORY. It is most widely acceplted theory today and the premise on which this guide is based. When a person is deciding if he respects you as a leader, he does not think about youe attributes. He observes what you do so that he can know who you really are. He uses this observation to tell if you are an honourable and trusted leader, or a self serving person who misuses his or her authority to look good and get promoted. Self serving leaders are not as effective because their employees only obey them, not follow them. They succeed in many areas because they present a good image to their seniors at the expense of their people. The basis of good leadership is honourable character and selfless service to your organization . In your employees' eyes, Your leadership is everything you do that affects the organizations objectives and their well being. A respected leader concentrates on what she is [be] (beliefs and character), what she knows job, tasks, human nature), and what she does (implement, motivate, provide direction). What makes a person follow a leader? People want to guided by those they respect and those who have a clear sense of direction. to gain respect, they must be ethical. A sense of direction is achieved by conveying a strong vision of the future.


Hay's study examined over 75 key components of employee satisfaction. They found that: trust and confidence in top leadership was the single most reliable predictor of employee satisfaction in an organization. Effective communication by leadership in three critical areas was the key to win organizational trust and confidence: helping the employees understand the company's overall business strategy. Helping employees understand how they contribute to achieving key business objectives. Bring information with employees on both how the company is doing and how an own employee's division is doing - relative to strategic business objectives. So basically, you must be trustworthy and you have to be able to communicate a vision of where you are going. Notice how the "PRINCIPLES OF LEADERSHIP" in the next section closely ties in with this. HUMAN RELATIONS The six most important words: "i admit i made a mistake." The five most important words: "you did a good job." The four most important words: "what is your opinion." The three most important words: "if you please." The two most important words: "thank you." The one most important word: "we." The least most important word: "i."


TO HELP YOU BE, KNOW, AND DO, (2) FOLLOW THESE ELEVEN principles of leadership (later sections will expand on gaining an insight into these principles and providing tools to perform them): Know yourself and seek self-improvement means continually strengthening your attributes. This can be accomplished through reading, self-study, classes, technically proficient. As a leader,you must know your job and have a solid familarity with your employees' jobs. Seek responsibility and take responsibility of your actions. Search for ways to guide your organisation to new heights. And when things go wrong, they will sooner or later, do not blame others. Analyze the situation, take corrective action, and move on to the next challenge. Make sound and timely decisions. Use good problem solving, decision making and planning tools. Set the example. Be a good role model for your employees. They must not only hear what they are expected to do but also see. Know your people and look out for their well-being. Know human nature and importance of sincerely caring for your workers. Keep your people informed. Know how to communicate with your people within the organization. Develop a sense of responsibility in your people. Develop good character traits within your people that will help them carry out their professional responsibilities. Ensure that tasks are understood, supervised, and accomplished. Communication is the key to this responsibility. Train your people as a team. Although many so called leaders call their organization, department, section, etc. A team; they are not really teams... they are just a group of people doing their jobs. Use the full capabilities of your organization. By developing a team spirit, you will be able to employ your organization,department, section, etc. to its fullest capabilities.


What and how you communicate either builds or harms the relationship between you and your employees. emotions. that you are worthy of being followed. not the leader who determines if a leader is successfull.The four major factors of leadership are . SITUATION: All situations are different. What you do in one leadership situation will not always work in another situation." that communicates to your people that you would not ask them to perform anything that you would not be willing to do. You must use your judgement to decide the 5 . THE FOLLOWER: Different people require different styles of leadership. To be successful you have to convince your followers.. know and do attributes. COMMUNICATION: You lead through two way communication.. when you "set the example. a new hire requires more supervision than an experienced employee. For example. and what you can do. A person with a different attitude requires a different approach than one with a high degree of motivation. note that it is the followers. and motivation. then she will be uninspired. For instance. Much of it is non-verbal. You must know your people! The fundamental starting point is having a good understanding of human nature: needs. not yourself or your supervisors. what you know. LEADER: You must have an honest understanding of who you are. If a follower does noit trust or lacks confidence in his or her leader. You must know your employees' be. Also...

communication. but the confrontation is too late or too early.there are things tht u must be. you may need to confront an employee for inappropriate behavior. KNOW yourself . leader.then the people around you will learn to respect you. DO implement. For example. too harsh or too weak. and do. KNOW the four factors of leadership.follower. these fall under the leadership framework: BE a professional. situation. to be a good leader. DO motivate. DO provide direction. 6 . BE a professional who possess good character course of action and the leadership style needed for each situation. if you are a leader that can be trusted. KNOW human nature KNOW your job KNOW your organization. then the results may prove ineffective . know.

keep the pains in your heart.The road to great leadership: Inspire a shared vision . Encourage the heart . Boss tells others what to do..give them tools and methods to solve the the glory with your followers' heart. Enable others to act .when the process gets tough. share your vision in words that can be understood by your followers. a leader shows it can be done. 7 . get your hands dirty. Model the way .

8 . Have a deep feeling of kinship with others. Have strong ethical and moral standards. They focus on problems outside themselves and are concerned with basic issues and eternal questions. Their lack artificiality. Are original and inventive. Appreciate the basic pleasures of life(do not take blessings for garnted). Accept themselves and their own natures. They like privacy and tend to get detached. Rely on their own development and continued growth. They are deeply democratic and are not really aware of differences.• Have better perceptions of realtiy and are • • • • • • • • • • comfortable with it. less constricted and fresher than others.

• Status. • Achievement. • Supervision. • Responsibility.HYGEINE OR DISSATISFIERS: • Working conditions. • Job challenge. • Advancement • Growth. • Personal life. MOTIVATORS OR SATISFIERS: • Recognition. • Salary and benefits. • Job security. • Fellow workers. • Policies and administrative practices. 9 .

"On Becoming a Leader" 10 . . Ph. while leaders are people who do the right thing.Managers are people who do things right.Warren Bennis.D.

" The small number is anywhere from 2 to 25 members. and common approach for which they hold themselves mutually accountable. extra time and effort are required to ensure good communication. But their work is produced by a combination of individual contributions. 11 . If the group size goes over nine. task forces.Introduction NOTE: Special project teams include work groups. performance goals. problem solving teams. Many organizations have working groups that call themselves teams. committees. Teams produce work that is based on collective effort. communication tends to become centralized because members do not have an adequate opportunity to speak to each other. cross functional teams. etc. with between 5 and 9 as manageable and optimal. Katzenbach and Smith (1) defined a team as "A small number of people with complementary skills who are committed to a common purpose. It the number goes above 9.

Common approach is the way members agree how they will work together. Forming. Members often assume roles. including the Questioner. Specific performance goals are established. moving. tracked. Mutually accountable is the aspect of teamwork that is usually the last to develop. Storming. Adjourning The Tuckman model (2) shows the five stages that teams go through: from 12 . met and evaluated in an ongoing process. Norming. This is because their emotions and motives are hidden under the discussion table. Hidden agendas may prevent the group from turning into a team. Often called Agendas. If the team is composed of like individuals. This purpose must be meaningful and must have ownership by everyone. Many teams have developed their own charter or a set of rules that outline the expected behaviors of members. the Facilitator. as individuals and as a group. making it more relevant as the team develops. a congenital groupthink sets in which limits the number of solutions for creative problem solving. Performing. and energizing force of the team. Performance Goals are the acting. The team must develop its own purpose. the Time Keeper.Complementary Skills provides synergy when the team is diverse and various ideas and multiple skills are combined. Common Purpose is the driving force of teams. to keep the team process moving and on course. A team constantly revisit its purpose. the Historian.

" is called the Storming 13 . and of testing the leader's guidance both formally and informally. anticipation. This is perfectly normal. the team accomplishes little. impatience with these discussions. if anything. that concerns it's project goals. Because there is so much going on to distract members' attention in the beginning. They state why they were chosen or volunteered for the team and what they hope to accomplish within the team. Forming In the Forming stage. Deciding what information needs to be gathered. Forming includes these feelings and behaviors: Excitement.Forming to Storming to Norming to Performing to Adjourning. and optimism. team members are introduced. Pride in being chosen for the project A tentative attachment to the team Suspicion and anxiety about the job. and for some members. Members cautiously explore the boundaries of acceptable group behavior. There will be difficulty in identifying some of the relevant problems. Determining acceptable group behavior. Abstract discussions of the concepts and issues. Defining the tasks and how they will be accomplished. This is a stage of transition from individual to member status. Storming During the team's transition from the "AsIs" to the "To-Be.

All members have their own ideas as to how the process should look. Disunity. and choosing sides. and jealousy. Storming is probably the most difficult stage for the team. But they are beginning to understand one another. They begin to realize the tasks that are ahead are different and more difficult than they imagined. increased tension. Storming includes these feelings and behaviors: Resisting the tasks. This phase sometimes takes 3 or 4 meetings before arriving at the Norming phase. and resist collaborating with most of the other team members. Establishing unrealistic goals. Defensiveness. Questioning the wisdom of those who selected this project and appointed the other members of the team. members argue about just what actions the team should take. Arguing among members even when they agree on the real issues. competition. Sharp fluctuations in attitude about the team and the project's chance of success. They try to rely solely on their personal and professional experience. The above pressures mean that team members have little energy to spend on progressing towards the team's goal. Norming The Norming phase is when the team 14 .phase. and personal agendas are rampant. Resisting quality improvement approaches suggested by other members. Impatient about the lack of progress.

They can begin performing by diagnosing. and sharing of personal problems. More friendliness. Performing includes these feelings and behaviors: Members have insights into personal and 15 . Emotional conflict is reduced as previously competitive relationships become more cooperative. and learned what their roles are. spirit. and goals. team ground rules. At last team members have discovered and accepted each other's strengths and weakness. An attempt to achieve harmony by avoiding conflict. and the individuality of fellow members. their roles in the team. Acceptance of membership in the team.reaches a consensus on the "To-Be" process. and choosing and implementing changes. members reconcile competing loyalties and responsibilities. and the team is tempted to go beyond the original scope of the process. They accept the team. During this stage. solving problems. Enthusiasm is high. A sense of team cohesion. Establishing and maintaining team ground rules and boundaries. Everyone wants to share the newly found focus. they now have more time and energy to spend on the project. Performing The team has now settled its relationships and expectations. As team members begin to work out their differences. Norming includes these feelings and behaviors: An ability to express criticism constructively. confiding in each other.

teams have a shared understanding on how to perform their role. there is always a bittersweet sense of accomplishment coupled with the reluctance to say good-bye. and 16 . Constructive self-change. These roles set expectations governing relationships. Ability to prevent or work through group problems Close attachment to the team The team is now an effective. There are several factors that separate teams from processes. Adjourning The team briefs and shares the improved process during the this phase. timekeeper. and better understanding of each other's strengths and weakness. individuals establish a set of behaviors called roles. Many relationships formed within these teams continue long after the team disbands. These roles include: leader. facilitator. cohesive unit. You can tell when your team has reached this stage because you start getting a lot of work done. While on the other hand. Roles and Responsibilities Within a group. Roles often serve as source of confusion and conflict. When the team finally completes that last briefing.

and state of mind of the team. soul.recorder. and feelings without fear. A team has a clear understanding about what constitutes the team's 'work' and why it is important. groups do not. thoughts. Esprit is the spirit. Through honest and caring feedback. members are aware of their strengths and weakness as team members. 17 . It is almost impossible to establish the sense of cohesion that characterizes a team without this fundamental step. Ask yourself. It is the overall consciousness of the team that a person identifies with and feels a part of. the team is committed to open communication. "How much time gets wasted in meetings you attend?" Teams use facilitators to keep the team on the right path. Individuals begin using "we" more than "me. Differences of opinion is valued and methods of managing conflict are understood. Listening is considered as important as speaking. Cohesion Teams have an esprit that shows a sense of bonding and camaraderie. and the norms and values that will guide them. Communication While members of a group are centered upon themselves. They can describe a picture of what the team needs to achieve. Team members feel they can state their opinions." Facilitate Groups have a tendency to get bogged down with trivial issues. Identity While teams have an identity.

To be a successful team. and they perform different task and maintenance functions as needed.tasks and emotions. Morale Team members are enthusiastic about the work of the team and each person feels pride in being a member of the team. the group must have a strong ability to produce results and a high degree of satisfaction in working with one another. It does this by charting them on two dimensions .There is an atmosphere of trust and acceptance and a sense of community. This section uses a popular categorizer by placing people into four styles . however maintain a high level of flexibility. Organizer.Driver. including themselves. Teams. Humans have always tried to classify things. People gets results on tasks between two 18 . (note that the names will vary widely depending upon the creator of the chart). Persuader. Analyzer. we are dislike in a lot more ways. <> Working With Other Team Members Although we are like in many ways. Flexibility Most groups are extremely rigid. The strengths of each member are identified and used. Team spirit is high. The responsibility for team development and leadership is shared.

innovative Hard time following systems or processes. Personable . impatient Involves and works with others.expedience and processes. er ts (get it done) Emotions are controlled and gets results through expedience. Emotions are responsive Persuad er or Enthusi ast involvement and enthusiasm (positive ideas and responses) Get things done. People use emotions in dealing with others through two extremes . thorough. exerts strong influence to get things done. prefers strong interaction with people. Determine d. Driver or results and focuses on Controll accomplishmen results. direct In-attentative behavior when listening to others. In the chart below. critical. A social specialist. unsympathetic. requiring. the two dimensions are shown under the profile column in italics: Potential Strengths Potential Weaknesses Profile Style Key (focus) A takecharge person. undependable. reactionary 19 . Dominating. enthusiasti c. decisive. stimulating . demanding.controlled or responsive. efficient. Opinionated.extremes . expresses opinions and emotions easily.

Likes to be well organized and thought out. dependabl e. Emotions are controlled and gets results through processes.and gets results through expedience. prefers specific project and activities. orderly. serious. supportive. Conforming. Cooperativ e. precision and accuracy (actions will be documented) Great at organizing. wants to be part of larger picture. Industrious . uncommitted. helpful Does not want to change. Indecisive. hides true feelings 20 . Emotions are responsive and gets results through Builds relationshi ps. uncommunicativ e. enjoys Analyzer putting or structure to Theorist ideas. critical Adaptive Organize relationships specialist. seeks stability and predictabilit y. r or and stability high Affiliato (loyal) concern for r good relationship s. persistent. methodical Can have trouble when action needs to be take immediately.

When Blake and Mouton came out with a tool that used only two dimensions or axis. is struck a cord with its simplicity. That is. There are various degrees along the two dimensions (emotions and tasks). we use emotions when dealing with people and our approach to tasks uses some sort of a result orientation approach. Notice that the two dimensions.processes. Each experience that we have will call for varying degrees of emotions and approaches to task results. are closely related to Blake and Mouton's Managerial Grid which uses People and Tasks as their grid. results and emotions. The result (how we accomplish tasks) and emotions (how we deal with people and experiences) dimensions can be charted as: There are three main flaws that must be taken into consideration when using a tool 21 .

it takes all types to form an effective team. The very simplicity that makes a tool like this so popular. the chart can be a useful tool for understanding different viewpoints. People try to pigeon-hole the four styles of people into certain categories. The goal of using such a tool in a team setting is to realize that people look upon things with a different viewpoint than you. it might be because they are viewing it from a process standpoint and want to ensure that they get it absolutely right (analyzer). most of the employees (workers in a manufacturing plant) were organizers. For example. Where I once worked. managers are drivers. However.of this nature: Everyone uses all four style depending upon the situation. programmers are analysis's. analyzers. our manager was a persuader. However. it can help us get a handle on the various approaches taken by individuals. This is simply untrue. etc. For example. however. without organizers a team will not gel together. our human resource contact was a driver. and one of our best technical persons was an organizer. cannot possible accurately predict the complexity of human nature. without analyzers a team will miss key steps. or a combination of the two. Without drivers a team will get nothing done. one on the employees on the bottom of the rung was a driver. the reason someone will not hurry-up and compete a task in not because they are slow. The four styles 22 . human resource personnel are persuaders. without persuaders a team will fail to get all involved. It is based on the theory that each person tends to have one or two dominant styles. Also.

It is time to adequately investigated the situation and its possibilities by: Brainstorming Delphi Decision Making Dialectic Decision Making Team Checklist Goals Clear mission statement _____ Measurable objectives _____ Objectives are prioritized _____ Goals are set in all key task areas _____ Roles Individual roles. and it takes a community to grow a team. and accountabilities are clear _____ Style of leadership is appropriate for the team tasks _____ Each individual competent to perform her key tasks _____ 23 . relationships. creativity gets stifled when everyone follows the rules or arriving at solutions the same old way.form a complete community.oriented that they narrow down their focus much too soon by choosing the first likely solution. How Do We Arrive at a Solution? or Encouraging Wild and Great Ideas All to often. Teams often become so task.

The mix of roles is appropriate to the team tasks _____ Procedures Decisions reached are effective _____ Management information is effectively shared _____ Key activities are effectively coordinated _____ Products and services are of a high quality _____ Conflict is managed effectively within the team _____ Internal Relationships There are no areas of mistrust _____ Feedback is constructive _____ Relationships are not competitive and unsupportive _____ External Relationships Relationships with key external groups are effective _____ Mechanisms are in place to integrate with each key group _____ Time and effort is spent on identifying building and monitoring key external relationships _____ 24 .

his leadership qualities have been described as 'inspiring'. This philosophy was put to the test when. or his daring 120 against South Africa in a must-win match at the 1999 World Cup.To Steve Waugh. Steve still lives in the southern suburbs with his young family. he is passionate about helping those less fortunate than himself. you'll fall for everything". on a tour of South Africa. Born in Sydney. Who could forget his 200 against the West Indies at Sabina Park in 1995. "I try and instil faith in the players and give them self-belief and really empower them to be the best. during a visit to India in 1986. He was the new kid on the block. his twin centuries against England at Old Trafford in 1997. His incredible career. spanning more than 18 years. and wore the baggy green cap for the first time in 1985. He was selected for the New South Wales side while playing first grade cricket in Sydney. and was a given a golden opportunity which led to one of Australia's most distinguished cricketing careers. retiring in January 2004. Although better known for his cricket prowess. Captaining the Australian Test team from 1999 to 2004 and the one-day side between 1997 / 98 and 2001 / 02. His favourite personal philosophy on life is "If you don't stand up for something. taking care of your family. Steve Waugh has played representative cricket for Australia since 1985. Steve was spotted as a talented cricketer at the young age 17. being Australian is about "looking after your mates. Steve saw children and 25 . has produced some outstanding moments in Australian sporting history. being able to have a laugh at yourself".

For the past three years Steve has been actively assisting these families through his support of the Udayan Home in Barrackpore. 26 . He was struck by those suffering from leprosy and their families and was prompted to get involved. Steve is an extraordinary Australian. Australians love to hear about Steve's journeys and cricket tours and so he has become Australia's bestselling sports' author. In recent years. through his work as a patron of Camp Quality and the conductive Education Unit for the Spastic Centre of New South Wales. As a person he is a great humanitarian and brings hope to those in need. Always leading by example. The home takes children out of their leprosy environment and provides them with education. I think Australians like to see that in people and they like to recognise it. He is now working towards building another centre which will assist a further 200 girls in need of care. not only for sportsloving Australians. I've always had to fight hard for my spot and to achieve what I have. the home catered only for boys. When he started his work. and I've had to give 100%. I'm sort of an underdog and a bit of a battler. healthcare and opportunities in life. India." As a cricketer Steve has broken many records. "I see myself as an average guy who tries to help out my mates and loves my sport.adults suffering from disease and poverty. Steve is also working with young people in Australia. I think in some ways. He is an inspiration. with the assistance provided by Steve and others. the home now cares for 60 young girls as well. but for many worldwide.

At an early age. as well as lending a reluctant hand with other farm work. He grew up on a prosperous family farm in what is today Dearborn. born July 30. he showed an interest in mechanical things and a dislike for farm work.Henry Ford. He remained an apprentice for three years and then returned to Dearborn. Upon his marriage to Clara Bryant in 1888. although he did occasionally return to help on the farm. and over-hauling his father's farm implements. Michigan. 27 . Henry enjoyed a childhood typical of the rural nineteenth century. Henry supported himself and his wife by running a sawmill. Henry divided his time between operating or repairing steam engines. sixteen-year-old Ford left home for the nearby city of Detroit to work as an apprentice machinist. 1863. was the first of William and Mary Ford's six children. In 1879. During the next few years. spending days in a one-room school and doing farm chores. finding occasional work in a Detroit factory.

the company opened a large factory at Highland Park. and had only two forward speeds with no reverse. Groups of two or three men worked on each car from components made to order by other companies. His promotion to Chief Engineer in 1893 gave him enough time and money to devote attention to his personal experiments on internal combustion engines. Michigan. The Quadricycle had four wire wheels that looked like heavy bicycle wheels. was steered with a tiller like a boat. Ford became an engineer with the Edison Illuminating Company in Detroit. To meet the growing demand for the Model T. the Ford Motor Company was incorporated in 1903 with Henry Ford as vice-president and chief engineer. maintain. immediately becoming a huge success. and efficient with the introduction of the Model T in 1908. however. Here. reliable. one of several automotive pioneers who helped this country become a nation of motorists. in 1910.THE ENGINEER In 1891. Henry Ford 28 . This event signified a conscious decision on Ford's part to dedicate his life to industrial pursuits. These experiments culminated in 1896 with the completion of his own self-propelled vehicle-the Quadricycle. half of all cars in America were Model Ts. By 1918. The infant company produced only a few cars a day at the Ford factory on Mack Avenue in Detroit. It was easy to operate. he was. Although Ford was not the first to build a self-propelled vehicle with a gasoline engine. Henry Ford realized his dream of producing an automobile that was reasonably priced. and handle on rough roads. After two unsuccessful attempts to establish a company to manufacture automobiles. This vehicle initiated a new era in personal transportation.

standardized and interchangeable parts. and. a division of labor. and were used to produce both iron and steel. and assembly shops transformed the steel into springs. all steps in the manufacturing process from refining raw materials to final assembly of the automobile took place at the vast Rouge Plant. 29 . Ford's production of Model Ts made his company the largest automobile manufacturer in the world. Rolling mills. a continuous moving assembly line. Michigan. and car bodies. The massive Rouge Plant included all the elements needed for automobile production: a steel mill. axles. By September 1927. glass factory. The company began construction of the world's largest industrial complex along the banks of the Rouge River in Dearborn. Workers remained in place. thus lowering costs. and automobile assembly line. Foundries converted iron into engine blocks and cylinder heads that were assembled with other components into engines. in 1913. during the late 1910s and early 1920s. Delivery of parts by conveyor belt to the workers was carefully timed to keep the assembly line moving smoothly and efficiently. forges. characterizing Henry Ford's idea of mass production. The introduction of the moving assembly line revolutionized automobile production by significantly reducing assembly time per vehicle. Iron ore and coal were brought in on Great Lakes steamers and by railroad.combined precision manufacturing. adding one component to each automobile as it moved past them on the line.

Winning by a narrow margin in the popular vote. when his PT boat was rammed and sunk by a Japanese destroyer. he entered the Navy. Of Irish descent. on May 29. advancing in 1953 to the Senate. which won the Pulitzer Prize in history. In 1956 Kennedy almost gained the Democratic nomination for Vice President. led the survivors through perilous waters to safety. Back from the war. 1953. Graduating from Harvard in 1940. despite grave injuries. Kennedy. Millions watched his television debates with the Republican candidate. 30 . 1917. Massachusetts. In 1943. and four years later was a first-ballot nominee for President. he was the youngest to die. Kennedy became the first Roman Catholic President. he wrote Profiles in Courage. he was born in Brookline. He married Jacqueline Bouvier on September 12. Kennedy was the youngest man elected President. In 1955.On November 22. John Fitzgerald Kennedy was killed by an assassin's bullets as his motorcade wound through Dallas. 1963. when he was hardly past his first thousand days in office. Texas. while recuperating from a back operation. Nixon. Richard M. he became a Democratic Congressman from the Boston area.

calling for new civil rights legislation. His vision of America extended to the quality of the national culture and the central role of the arts in a vital society. Kennedy imposed a quarantine on all offensive weapons bound for Cuba. he laid plans for a massive assault on persisting pockets of privation and poverty. he brought American idealism to the aid of developing nations. Shortly after his inauguration. including new efforts in outer space. Soon thereafter. Moscow. Kennedy replied by reinforcing the Berlin garrison and increasing the Nation's military strength." As President. already armed and trained. banishing the world of war and 31 . Kennedy permitted a band of Cuban exiles. Confronted by this reaction. While the world trembled on the brink of nuclear war. the Russians backed down and agreed to take the missiles away. The months after the Cuban crisis showed significant progress toward his goal of "a world of law and free choice. relaxed its pressure in central Europe. the Russians now sought to install nuclear missiles in Cuba. The American response to the Cuban crisis evidently persuaded Moscow of the futility of nuclear blackmail. he set out to redeem his campaign pledge to get America moving again. His economic programs launched the country on its longest sustained expansion since World War II. But the hard reality of the Communist challenge remained. With the Alliance for Progress and the Peace Corps. he took vigorous action in the cause of equal rights. He wished America to resume its old mission as the first nation dedicated to the revolution of human rights. the Soviet Union renewed its campaign against West Berlin. The attempt to overthrow the regime of Fidel Castro was a failure. after the erection of the Berlin Wall. Instead. before his death. to invade their homeland. When this was discovered by air reconnaissance in October 1962. Kennedy now contended that both sides had a vital interest in stopping the spread of nuclear weapons and slowing the arms race--a contention which led to the test ban treaty of 1963.Responding to ever more urgent demands.His Inaugural Address offered the memorable injunction: "Ask not what your country can do for you--ask what you can do for your country.

In 1973. who you most likely know as Bill Gates. I'll tell you.coercion. Who started programming computers at the age of thirteen? Who was the youngest person to become a billionaire? Who co-founded the world's largest computer software company? Who has donated more than $800 million dollars to charities? Who? Well. Bill was born and raised in Seattle. Washington. and there he began programming computers at the age of thirteen. He attended a private school. Bill entered Harvard University. called Lakeside. His name is William H. Bill dropped out of 32 ." His administration thus saw the beginning of new hope for both the equal rights of Americans and the peace of the world. and invented a computer programming language. He cofounded Microsoft in 1975 with his friend Paul Allen. Bill Gates was born to William and Mary Gates on October 28. Gates III. 1955.

For his achievements in science and technology. Bill was presented the Howard Vollum Award in 1984 by Reed College. Jennifer Katharine Gates. non-profit civic and arts organizations. He accepted the award in Portland. Melinda grew up in Dallas and went to Duke University. as it is popularly known. Hopefully now you don't know him just as one of the richest people in the world. world public health. and Puget Sound capital campaigns. Over two million copies of MS-DOS were sold by 1984.Harvard to devote all his time to the company. or MS-DOS. who was born in 1996. where she was a product manager. Since Microsoft went public in 1986. Microsoft had sold more than 100 million copies of MS-DOS. but as a very generous person who has accomplished great things 33 . 1994. Bill developed the Microsoft Disk Operating System. They met at Microsoft. Bill Gates says on this subject: "The principle challenge we face is to close the gap in health status between the developed and the developing worlds. code named Project Chess. making the operating system the alltime leader in software sales. Bill married Melinda French." On January 1. Bill has contributed more than $800 million to charities. The focus of his philanthropy is education. Most everyone knows Bill Gates is one of the richest people in the world. Eventually asked to design the operating system for the new machine. In 1980 Bill was asked by IBM to help the company with their personal computer project. By the early 1990s. They have one daughter. Oregon.

remains the undisputed doyen of Indian industry. he came to be referred to as chairmen's chairman. He was a redoubtable visionary under whose regime the group entered into several new 34 . As an industrialist. JRD to the world.Jehangir Ratanji Dadabhoy Tata. JRD is credited with placing the Tata Group on the international map. fast cars. For his unparalleled excellence in business management. widely respected for his contribution to the development of Indian industry and aviation in particular. a philanthropist and yet a man with a passion for literature. skiing and flying. He proved his mettle by saving it from disintegration in an era when family ownership and management or family rifts were ripping apart family businesses. Apart from being a businessman par excellence. he was a patron of the sciences and the arts.

he was respected for building and keeping alive the tremendously active Tata charitable trusts.000 crore in 1990. the number of companies under the group grew from 14 to 50 large manufacturing ones. Despite all these bottlenecks. 1904. meant motivating others. Leadership. JRD was also a professional to the core and a sensible leader. many of them unconventional and produced a vast range of product. JRD's respect for his managers bound the group. As one of his executives. once said. His achievements have to be seen through the lens of India's economic and political history. run by the Tatas. besides innumerable holding. according to him. the Tata assets grew from Rs 62 crore in 1939 to over Rs 10. as they say. he brought commercial aviation to India. He started his stint as chairman at the tender age of 34 in 1938. sculpture and performing artistes as he generously patronised Indian art and culture. Darbari Seth. investment."Mr Tata was able to harness a team of individualistic executive. all by the sheer weight of his leadership". He was greatly revered by artists. India was straitjacketed by a foreign exchange crunch for almost 40 years after Independence. subsidiaries and associate concerns. which gravely limited industrial entrepreneurship From 1964 to 1991. stiff government control through the licence-quota regime further curbed the growth of the group. is history. At the same time. Under British colonial rule until 1947. capitalising upon their strengths. JRD Tata reigned over the Tata group for more than three decades. 35 . he expanded the Tata empire manifold and made it India's biggest business group. The earliest success of JRD was in cajoling 10 rival cement companies to merge and form the Associated Cement Companies. And the rest. in Paris. And as a philanthropist. This chairmen's chairman was born on July 29. downplaying their differences and deficiencies.streams of business. Under his leadership. He was the second child of Ratanji Dadabhoy Tata and his French wife Sooni. As an aviator and pioneer flier.

A company. we would undoubtedly have a special staff or department to look after them. He was also a vital bridge between the scientific establishment and the Government through his founding of the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research and as the longest serving member of the Atomic Energy Commission.. and much of his fabled short temper was triggered by the carelessness of others. and died long before the phrase `war for talent' was coined. Tata spotted talent easily. It takes a lot of energy out of you but that's the only way you finally actually achieve excellence." JRD was an expert in managing human resource. It makes you go into detail that you can avoid. say. 36 . which uses the name Tata shares a tradition. etc. And once he was confident that a manager would perform. you must aim at perfection. At his behest. each with a mind and soul of his own. JRD was something of a self-taught technocract. Ardeshir Dalal. Russi Mody and Darbari Seth. maintain their efficiency.. to keep them repair. A university dropout. we seem to have assumed that they would look after themselves and that there was no need for a separate organisation to deal with the human problems involved". A D Shroff and D R Pendse could flourish.. Yet.. being finicky is essential. He disliked the laid-back Indian attitude. Jehanghir Ghandy. Tata Steel became one of the earliest companies in India to have a dedicated human resource department. almost every senior Tata director from the 1930s onwards.000 human beings. It was an environment where scientists of international repute such as Homi Bhabha. Tata willingly financed bright young boys who wanted to go abroad for further education."As chairman. held a degree from a foreign university. protect them from damage. leading lawyers like J D Choksi and Nani Palkhivala and economists such as John Matthai. He stressed: "If you want excellence." he was wont to say. replace them when necessary. JRD commented: "If our operations required the employment of. The supportive climate that he built developed entrepreneurs such as Homi Mody. but when employing 30. According to JRD. my main responsibility is to inspire respect. quality had to match innovation. Expressing his surprise that the company had functioned for so long without one. 30. So in that sense. I know that aiming at perfection has its drawbacks. Be that as it may. he gave him a long rope.000 machine tools.

The development and successful flight test of Prithvi. Thus. was born on the 15th October. The successful launching of 'Agni' surfaceto-surface missile is a unique achievement which made India a member of an exclusive club of highly developed countries. Joseph's College. JRD died in Geneva on November 29. Avul Pakir Jainulabhudin Adbul Kalam. he served the ISRO in various capacities. and so did JRD's brilliant life. was entrusted with the Integrated Guided Missile Development Programme. He conceived the programme cnstituting 5 major projects for meeting the requirements of the defence services and for establishing re-entry technology. ' Achievements Dr. Tiruchi. 1993.As the saying goes. He did his B. as Director. development. During 1963-82.Sc. at Rameshwaram in TamilNadu. In 1982. all good things must come to an end. he was responsible for carrying out design. DRDO. Trishul. SLV-3. 1931. He joined the DRDO in 1958. through SLV and Guided Missile Programme a solid foundation has been created in the 37 . He left behind an indelible mark on the Indian business terrain as also a huge business empire we all know as the House of Tatas. Akash. and Agni established the indigeneous capability towards self reliance in defence preparedness. qualification and flight testing of 44 major sub systems. Madras. As Project Director. at the St. and DMIT in Aeronautical Engineering at the MIT. during 1954-57. Nag.

" As a humanitarian and with his extreme simplicity. he was appointed Scientific Advisor to Raksha Manthri and Secretary. Other prestigious awards include Dr.J. easy access. • Dreams To Ignite Young Minds 38 . Starting with Anna University's first D. of Defence Research and Development. Industries etc.. An Advanced Technology Research Centre. As a crowing glory to all his achievements. he has received many such including the one given by IIT. Om Prakash Basin Award for Science and Technology. Abdul Kalam as an extension of DRDL to undertake development in futuristic missile technology areas. National Nehru Award. He has also established a unique 3 tier management structure to integrate and commit technologists. he has become a National Hero. He adores his Gurus of MIT and cherishes his education and training at MIT. Dr. He loves Tamil poetry and is interested in carnatic music. Abdul kalam. Astronautical Society of India and many other professional bodies. BHU and others. He has published two books.Sc. Bombay. Awards • • • • He has been Awarded with the India's Highest civilian Award "The Bharat Ratna" in 1997. academic institutions. in his cartoon in "Times of India. Laxman.P. He is a member of Indian National Academy of Sciences. Arya Bhatta Award. He has himself written poems in Tamil. A.K. is praised as a welder of people and a Gandhian Missile Man by R. called Research Centre Imarat has also been established by Dr.Biren Roy Space Award. Honoris Causa. Dept.indigeneous testing and development of high technology Aerospace Projects.

" After a pause. aviation. Defence Research and Development is the second scientist to receive the Bharat Ratna.J. "We are a nation of a billion people and we must think like a nation of a billion people.P. "This will lead to a highly beneficial economic and social progress for the nation. He feels there are a few areas where India can develop its core competence. Homi Jehangir Baba. according to him. 39 . Technology is the economical strength of the nation". after the late Dr. he fires another missile: "Most importantly. "India has people of high calibre and intelligence.India has to have vision to become a developed nation. In an interview to Science Express. determined youngsters. Abdul Kalam. Only then can we become big." Kalam's advice to the youngsters of the nation is to "think big" . A. Can we ignite our young minds? These are the thoughts that frequently 'fire' the mind of India's missile man-. government funding and good leadership in scientific areas. Kalam's. Science. the dynamics of performance changes." Dr. the highest civilian award. The only thing required is more facilities in our labs. A good dream for our young people is the vision. defence research and space technology and chemical engineering. Scientific Advisor to the Defence Minister and Secretary." No wonder he advices the youth of the country to "dream. These areas are software engineering. "Whenever there is a goal. dream and dream and convert these into thoughts and later into actions. agriculture and food. computer products and design.this year (1998) Bharat Ratna awardee Dr. This genius attributes his success to his parents and the team which worked relentlessly to achieve the goal. the man who built biting molars and awesome muscles into India's missile programme outlined the vision he has of India of tomorrow." says Kalam. is a global phenomenon. says soft-spoken Kalam.

in the orthopaedic Department of NIMS. "The stent developed by us costed much less (he is modest not to say that the cost is less than half) than the ones imported. The technology used for defence imaging systems can be used for medical imagery which is yet another value product. you now have the fire to torch the Agni" turns out to be extremely shy. His love for the Bhagavad Geetha and the long mane almost gives the missile man the halo of a saint. That is another passion of Kalam-using missiles that maime and kill to give a fresh hope to the disabled." explains Kalam. Another important event that took place in Hyderabad is the development of the Cardiac stent. The clogged arteries are opened up using a balloon and stents are inserted to prevent the vessels from collapse." he adds. Hyderabad) was the birthplace for the defence technology spin offs from Kalam's labs via the DRDL (Defence Research and Development Laboratory). remembers Kalam. In fact. 40 . He is one of those scientists who aims at putting technology created by him to multiple use.The man who said.) Nizam's Institute of Medical Sciences (NIMS. Kalam has not shied in using the technology behind fire-spewing missiles to build artificial limbs and springlike coils called stents to keep the heart vessels open. "We are also working on a cost-effective lighter substitute for the Jaipur foot. "It was a great experience to see. He used the light weight carbon-carbon material designed for Agni to make calipers for the polio affected. his views on technology and life make him the copy book saint of science armed with Brahmastras and the power to heal wounds. Kalam says there are many more avenues wherein defence technology can be used for a social cause. "Friends. he says. how the light weight caliper could bring happiness to the polio affected". This carbon-carbon composite material reduced the weight of the calipers to 400 grams (from its original weight of 4kgs. DMRL (Defence Metallurgical Research Lab) and the RCI (Research Centre Imarat). Cardiac stents are used during a Balloon Angioplasty. In a U turn.

Indian Air Force (IAF) version. UNI quoting Defence Minisry sources said production of 150-Km range "Prithvi" missile for the Army had already commenced and two flight trials of the 250-Km range.He is of the opinion that a mission oriented programme should be chalked out where in medical equipments and their maintenance should grow out of indigenous technology. Like the space shuttles. Having rolled out sophisticated missiles at regular intervals. That includes the field of medicine. 41 . Many of Kalam's pet projects like the Integrated Guided Missile Development Programme (IGMDP) and several other defence ventures under his command." says Kalam in a matter-of-fact tone. thus making us self reliant. According to a status report of major ongoing projects of the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) headed by Kalam. is being given top priority and DRDO scientists have been able to indigenously produce carbon-carbon composite material which could withstand temperatures upto 3500 degrees celsius during the flight of the missile. are poised for a quantum leap next year. The reusable missile's close 'cousin' is Nishant .the Remotely Piloted Vehicle (RPV) or a one-time-use missile that can thumb its nose at even sophisticated radars. defence technology and everything else. the crown of the IGMDP. the development of the five indigenous missiles under the IGMDP is progressing as per schedule. "Prithvi" had also been completed. But personally. the reusable missiles can carry war-heads to a predetermined target. Kalam is now striving to make the reusable missiles dream a reality. "Agni" missile. given a chance would he rather opt to use technology solely for social purposes or continue with his missile programmes? "If India has to become a developed nation it has to have overall development. deliver the fire power and return for another run.

the 25Km medium range surface to air missile "Akash" with multiple target handling capability. Its integration with LCA was expected in early 1999. No country can throttle India's missile programme despite technology denial regimes. In many ways. As far as the current status of India's ambitious Light Combat Aircraft (LCA) was concerned. An important aspect of "the integrated guided missile development programme was identification of critical technologies and their indigenisation as the missile technology control regime was primarily directed at India. They included carbon fibre composite structure. The Kaveri engine had been developed and was undergoing evaluation. digital fly-bywire control system and advanced computing system. the "Akash" missile is emerging as a key weapon which is being developed by the DRDO as it employs ram rocket propulsion to facilitate carrying of bigger pay loads." Elaborating on his future plans. the third generation 4Km range anti-tank "Nag" missile were slated to commence next year. believes Kalam. industry and government. 42 . Several new technologies had been established with regard to the LCA. 'Akash' is the key in the sense that ram rocket technology is also to be employed by India for the futuristic reusable missile systems.User trials of the other three missiles under the IGMDP the 9 Km short range low level quick reaction Trishul for the three services. He also spoke about working on a 10 year self-reliance programme in defence technologies. the second LCA was under integration along with the simultaneous development of technology demonstrator TD-1. control law for unstable aircraft. the senior most serving defence scientist referred to the Technology Mission 2020 which proposes to change the national status from a developing one to a developed one and involve 500 people from academia.

Gail Sheehy The secret of a leader lies in the tests he has faced over 43 . This was indeed his launching pad for this promising young man who was destined to become the father of Indian missile programme. It was his father who wanted him to take up science in the college. After graduating from St. co-workers especially at the Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre. he joined the Madras Institute of Technology (MIT) to specialise in Aeronautical Engg. he joined the Indian Space Research organisation (ISRO) in 1963. While at the Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre. He later re-entered DRDO at the Defence Research and Development Laboratory (DRDL).Kalam was born into a family of modest means in Rameshwaram. Hyderabad. as the director and this is where most of the research and development of his missile programmes were conceived and created. the missile man remembered his parents. besides teachers who collectively contributed in various ways towards this achievement. a small town in TamilNadu. he developed the Satellite Launch Vehicle (SLV-3) which put the Rohini Satellite into orbit. Thiruvananthapuram and a Hyderabad-based defence research laboratory. Dale Carnegie Do the hard jobs first. In his hour of glory. After a brief stint in the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO). Tiruchirapalli.Joseph College. The easy jobs will take care of themselves.

Ray Kroc The quality of a leader is reflected in the standards they set for themselves. Anna Eleanor Roosevelt It is not fair to ask of others what you are unwilling to do yourself. but ought to be. Rosemary Brown Until all of us have made it. please. person to person. Do it alone. 44 . 'I don't much care where --' said Alice. which way I ought to go from here?' 'That depends a good deal on where you want to get to.the whole course of his life and the habit of action he develops in meeting those tests. more enabling than performing. Poole Leadership should be more participative than directive. Indira Gandhi My grandfather once told me that there were two kinds of people: those who do the work and those who take the credit. He told me to try to be in the first group. A great leader takes people where they don't necessarily want to go. Mother Teresa Do not wait for leaders. Mary D. Rosalynn Carter A leader takes people where they want to go. There is much less competition. ~ Wayne Gretzky ________________________ 'Would you tell me.' said the Cat. Anais Nin Life shrinks or expands in proportion to one’s courage -_______________________ 100% of the shots you don't take don't go in. none of us have made it.

love. Small people always do that. ~ Dr. too. love. In the eyes of children. ~ Zig Ziglar _____________________________ Keep away from people who try to belittle your ambitions. the mind can achieve. but by perseverance. not by strength. they are all 30 feet tall. '--so long as I get somewhere. but the really great make you feel that you. ~ Mark Twain Great works are performed. ~ Samuel Johnson _______________________________ I made this letter longer than usual because I lack the time to make it short. Alice's Adventures in Wonderland _________________________ An eye for eye only ends up making the whole world blind.K. ~ Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart ___________________________ You can have everything in life that you want if you just give enough other people what they want. ~ Blaise Pascal _______________________________ Never worry about the size of your Christmas tree.' said the Cat. that is the soul of genius. Love. can become great. Napoleon Hill __________________________ Neither a lofty degree of intelligence nor imagination nor both together go to the making of genius. ~ Lewis Carroll. ~ M. 45 .'Then it doesn't matter which way you go. Gandhi _________________________ Whatever the mind can conceive and believe.' Alice added as an explanation.

~ Larry Wilde. When we live Christmas every day. ~ Helen Steiner Rice • • • • • • • • Character: Be a piece of the rock Charisma: The first impression can seal the deal. The Merry Book of Christmas _______________________________ Peace on earth will come to stay. Commitment: It seperates doers from dreamers Communication: without it you travel alone Competence: if you build it they will come Courage: one person with courage is a majority Discernment: put an end to unsolved mysteries Focus: the sharper it is. the sharper you are 46 .

47 . keep learning Vision: you can seize only what you can see. you can Problem solving: you cant let your problems be a problem Relationships: if you get along they will go along Resposibility: if you wont carry the ball you wont lead the team Security: competence never compensates for insecurity Self-discipline: the first person you lead is you Servanthood: to get ahead. put others first Teachability: to keep leading.• Generosity: your candle loses nothing when it lights • • • • • • • • • • • another Initiative: you wont leave home without it Listening: to connect with their hearts use your ears Passion: take this life and love it Positive attitude: if you believe you can.

    Office Management.......K Chopra Inside Outside Magazine Internet John Maxwell 48 .R...........

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