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…essential components of an HVAC system
Dampers – Part of a System
Control Air Flow
Volume (Air) Control
Typical Volume Control Application
Damper regulates air to branch
Volume Control Dampers s Isolating Dampers – Regulate or stop flow of air in branches of a duct system s Balancing Dampers – Limit air flow by holding damper blades at a specified position s Fan Inlet Vane Dampers – Used to control air flow rate to a fan s Fan Outlet Dampers (or Terminal Unit VAV Type Dampers) – Used to control air flow rate from a fan .
Typical Temperature Control Applications Face & bypass for discharge air temp Mixed air control Air Flow at Temp A Temp C Air Flow at Temp B .
Temperature Control Dampers s Operate as pairs to maintain a predetermined set point Simultaneously regulate two different air streams. each having a different temperature Can control the temperature as well as maintain a constant volume of air s s .
Typical Temperature & Volume Control Application Exhaust air Return air Conditioned space Outside air Supply air .
Damper Applications Barometric / Gravity Balancing Control Fire Smoke Combination Fire / Smoke .
Damper Applications Barometric / Gravity s Automatically open and close to maintain predetermined differential pressure Insures proper air flow in boiler flue exhausts Safely limits high static pressure in ductwork s s .
Damper Applications for round or rectangular ducts Balancing s Used for air balancing applications Most commonly specified for environmental control Rectangular dampers have 2 types of operation Control s s Parallel All blades move together at same rate and same direction Opposed Adjacent blades turn in opposite directions .
Damper Applications Smoke (leakage-rated) s Actuator and damper must be UL approved as a MATCHED SET for smoke control You cannot use just any actuator!! UL c UL .
Damper Applications Fire s s Normally open Closes with a spring loaded mechanism (fusible link) at a predetermined temperature or in a fire condition When FUSIBLE LINK temperature reaches 165°F (74°C) or 212°F (100°C) link releases high-torque spring. & BLADES SLAM SHUT UL c UL .
Damper Applications Combination Fire / Smoke s Provide both smoke and fire functions in a SINGLE damper Driven with an actuator during smoke control Permanently close via a fusible link during fire conditions s s .
Factors Affecting Damper Performance s s s s s Inlet and Outlet Conditions Location Damper Authority Damper Flow Characteristic In-duct Obstructions .
Inlet and Outlet Conditions Factors affecting performance s s Overhangs Projections Obstructions Adjacent walls Turbulence from nearby discharge fan Air currents caused by these conditions can adversely affect damper performance s s s .
Damper Location Factors affecting performance s Entering air should be evenly distributed across damper face Air outlet should not be restricted Nearness of duct elbows. upstream and downstream Location of next damper s s s .
Damper Flow Characteristic The relationship between flow rate through the damper and the position of the damper blades .
Damper Flow Characteristic (Opposed) Factors affecting performance Use damper authority to determine installed damper flow characteristic 100 A=10% A=5% A=20% A=50% Inherent % Flow A=1% 50 0 0 50 100 % Damper Blade Rotation .
Damper Flow Characteristic (Parallel) Factors Use damper authority to determine installed affecting damper flow characteristic performance 100 A=5% A=20% A=50% % Flow A=1% A=10% 50 Inherent 0 0 50 % Damper Blade Rotation 100 .
Johnson Controls Johnson Controls Inherent Flow Characteristic Inherent Flow Characteristic Factors Valid when differential pressure is held affecting constant regardless of damper blade position performance 100 Determined in a certified testing laboratory Parallel Blade % Flow 50 Opposed Blade 0 0 100 50 % Damper Blade Rotation .
% Damper Authority Factors affecting performance s Impact of the damper on total system The ratio of wide open pressure drop through the damper to the total duct system pressure drop at the design flow s .
G. C C Pt = Grill Fire Damper Room .% Damper Authority Factors affecting performance Pd = Pressure drop across wide open damper Total pressure drop in that portion of the system in which the damper is to be installed = ( Pd ÷ Pt ) x 100 2 ) x 100 = 5% P Damper = 0.1 ÷ Fan Static = 2 in. W.G = ( 0.1 in. W.
In-duct Obstructions Factors affecting s performance s s s s Actuators Jackshaft assemblies Sensing devices Structural supports Filters .
Additional Considerations Factors affecting s performance s s Pressure drop Leakage Maximum torque required to move damper blades .
Selecting the Correct Damper Factors affecting performance s Determine which installed damper flow characteristic will provide the best control Use the value of the damper authority which best matches the system characteristics to determine the wide open pressure drop through the damper s .
Damper Applications 2-Position Static Pressure Control Temperature Control Face and Bypass Mixed Air Control .
2-Position Application Damper Applications s s Fully open or fully closed Not a modulated device Must obtain wide open design flow rate through damper with a pressure drop less than or equal to a value specified Size to duct to provide lowest possible wide open pressure drop EXAMPLES • 100% s Flow or • 100% s Shut Off .
Static Pressure Control Application Damper Applications s Less common today with the use of Variable Air Volume systems and use of inlet vanes to control fan capacity Damper modulated to maintain a static pressure set point at some downstream point in ductwork Generally installed near the fan discharge The damper pressure drop must be included in the overall system resistance s s s .
4 (0. the pressure drop across the damper must be equal to 2.5 in. filters. WG) 1.4 2.6 2.5) = 1.05 + 0.Static Pressure Control Application Damper Applications Pdamper = Pfan – ( Psystem + Pset point) Point A Set Point 0.6 0.8 Pressure 1.8 0.2 2. WG to maintain set point 2.6 1.85 in.4 0. WG* *Set Point at “A” is what the VAV boxes require at MAX CFM At 25% of the system flow rate (vertical line Y).2 1.0 0.0 1.2 0 Fan curve Y Damper fully open System resistance curve for ductwork. coils (excluding damper) X 0 100 50 Percent of System Flow .4 (In.
Static Pressure Control Application Damper Applications Damper Pressure Drop Requirement % Damper Authority = ( 2 1.85 Damper Pressure Drop 1 Inch WC Pd ÷ Pt) x 100 (Necessary to maintain set point) 0 0 25 50 75 100 Percent of System Flow .
Static Pressure Control Application Damper Applications AUTHORITY RECOMMENDATIONS AUTHORITY RECOMMENDATIONS Opposed Blade Dampers – Parallel Blade Dampers – Size for an authority of 20 to 50% Size for an authority of 20 to 50% Not recommended for this application Not recommended for this application Note: The damper flow characteristic for the static pressure application would be an authority of 100%. . But damper authorities over 50% are not recommended due to excessive pressure drops and potential noise problems.
Temperature Control Application Damper Applications s Used to regulated amount of conditioned (supply) air to compensate for heat gain / loss within a space Determine amount of heat gain / loss required from supply air by using equation Sensible Heat Transfer (BTUH) = (1.08) (CFM) (T – Tr) sa s CFM Tsa Tr = Flow rate through damper = Temperature of supply air = Temperature of room air .
Temperature Control Application Damper Applications AUTHORITY RECOMMENDATIONS Size for a linear damper flow characteristic Opposed Blade Dampers – Use an authority of 8 to 10% Parallel Blade Dampers – Use an authority of 20 to 25% Others – Refer to product data sheets .
Face & Bypassor Multi-Zone Application Damper Applications s Size the face and bypass dampers so combined flow rate is relatively constant Use parallel blade dampers to enhance downstream air mixing s T Bypass Air Flow Face .
Coil Face Vel. = 300 fpm s Face & Bypass Damper Ratios for Various Coil Drops Bypass 60 Damper Size % 40 of Coil 20 0 .01 .Coil Face Vel. in.03 .Coil Face Vel.Coil Face Vel. = 500 fpm “B” .05 .Face & Bypass Application Damper Applications s Use same full flow resistance to achieve constant flow rate through both face and bypass sections Size bypass damper so full flow resistance equals sum of full flow resistance of coil and coil face damper 100 80 “A” “A” “B” “B” “C” “C” “A” . = 500 fpm “A” .Coil Face Vel.1 .Coil Face Vel. = 300 fpm “C” . = 400 fpm “B” . = 400 fpm “C” . WG .3 .5 1 Pressure Drop Through Coil.2 .02 .
Mixed Air Control Application Damper Applications s Used to regulate flow rate of two air streams so mixed air stream can be maintained at a predetermined temperature Example: Economizer cycle control Exhaust air Return air Conditioned space Supply air Outside air .
= 7% % Flow 50 % Flow 50 0 50 % Actuator Stroke or Rotation 0 100 0 50 % Actuator Stroke or Rotation 0 100 O.A. + R.A.A.A.A. = 7% 100 100 Match dampers so their combined flow rate is constant regardless of position Well Matched Dampers Authority O. + R. Flow Combined .Mixed Air Control Application Damper Applications Dampers are adequately matched if the combined flow characteristic does not deviate more than 15% Poorly Matched Dampers Authority O.A. Flow R.
the flow rate of each air stream unpredictably varies so set point is difficult to maintain This instability causes oscillation in supply fan static pressure s s .Mixed Air Control Application Damper Applications “hunting and cycling” Instability in both temperature and static pressure control loops occurs if variations in combined flow characteristics are excessive s Large variations cause mixing plenum pressure to fluctuate significantly as dampers are modulated In turn.
Mixed Air Control Application Damper Applications % Authority of Second Damper 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 5 10 Constant Flow Damper Matching Chart (i. for Mixing Plenums) Parallel Blade Opposed Blade 15 20 25 30 % Authority of First Damper .e.
Mixed Air Control Application Damper Applications s Select mixing dampers to have a linear flow characteristic When two air streams are mixed. resulting mixed air temperature can be determined with equation s Tm = [(T1)(Flow1)+(T2(Flow2)] ÷ (Flow + Flow2) 1 Tm T1 T2 Flow1 Flow2 = = = = = Temperature of mixed air stream Temperature of air stream #1 Temperature of air stream #2 Flow rate of air stream #1 Flow rate of air stream #2 .
Mixed Air Control Application Damper Applications AUTHORITY RECOMMENDATIONS Outdoor air damper installed in duct s Size for an authority of… – – 8-10% for opposed linkage 20-25% for parallel linkage Opposed or Parallel Blade Dampers s Select return and exhaust air dampers for an authority of: – – 8-10% for opposed linkage 20-25% for parallel linkage Outdoor air damper installed at louver face s s Its size may match the louver Determine the authority for design flow rate (assume 400FPM) and damper size Use constant flow damper matching chart to determine authority of return air damper Select exhaust air damper for same authority as outdoor air damper s s .
1 .DAMPERS Made RIGHT. Right Away FAN 268. DAMPERS Made RIGHT.
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