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When a fluid passes through an orifice, the discharge is often considerably less than the amount calculated on the assumption that the energy is conserved and that the flow through the orifice is uniform and parallel. This reduction in flow is normally due to a contraction of the stream which takes place through the restriction and continues for some distance downstream of it, rather than to any considerable energy loss. With the flow through apparatus, arrangements are made to measure the extent of the reduction in flow, contraction of the stream and energy loss, as water discharges into the atmosphere from a sharp-edged orifice in the base of a tank. Description of Apparatus The apparatus is designed to be used with the Hydraulic Bench. Additional orifices can be fitted in the apparatus. The diagram below shows the arrangement of the tank which is fed from the bench supply valve through an adjustable vertical pipe terminated in a water settler just beneath the water surface. An overflow pipe directs the surplus water onto the bench top and thence to drain. The water passes down the tank and leaves through a sharp-edged orifice which is fitted into the base of the tank in such a way that there is no unevenness along the inner surface. The emerging jet passes through the bench top directly back into the measuring tank. There is a tapping in the base of the tank which connects with a plastic tube mounted in front of a vertical scale showing directly the level of water in the tank above the plane of the orifice. A second plastic tube is connected to a Pitot tube which may be introduced into the discharging jet to measure the total head of the jet. The Pitot tube may be traversed across the jet by revolving a graduated nut which works along a lead screw having a pitch of 1 thread per mm; each complete revolution of the nut moves the Pitot tube a distance of 1 mm. This traverse enables the diameter of the jet to be measured by traversing the sharp blade, supported from the tube, from one side of the jet to the other.

In the vicinity of the orifice. so that as the jet emerges it suffers a reduction of area due to the curvature of the streamlines.Theory of Flow through the Orifice The diagram below shows the essential features of flow through the orifice. The tank is assumed to be sufficiently large for the velocity of flow in it to be negligibly small except close to the orifice. as typified by the streamline MN indicated in the diagram. The reduction in area due to the curvature . the fluid accelerates towards the centre of the hole.

From Bernoulli. from Equations (1) and (2). but within the jet the pressure does not fall to atmospheric until the acceleration is complete. Pm and Pn are equal. i. which would occur if there was not energy loss. until the vena contracta is reached. The reduced section is usually referred to as the vena contracta. Consider now the total head of the water at points M and N of a typical streamline. M being in the surface and N being in the plane of the vena contracta. i. if there were no loss of total head: u2 u2 Pm P + + zm = + m + zm (1) 2g w 2g w In this equation. the total head at M is: u2 m 2g + Pm + zm w and at N is: 2 un P + n + zn 2g w so that. The pressure everywhere on the surface of the jet is atmospheric. zm − zn = H o (2) so that.e.e. the ideal velocity at N is given by: u2 = Ho (3) 2g This result applies to all points in the plane of the vena contracta. Moreover. if the energy were conserved.may be taken to be complete at about half the orifice diameter downstream of the plane of the orifice. so changing the notation to let uo be the ideal velocity in the plane of the vena contracta. since both are at atmospheric pressure and um is negligibly small according to our assumption. m m m 2 uc = Hc 2g (4) .

diameter o . The actual discharge Q is given by: Q = u c ac (8) and if the jet discharged at the ideal velocity uo over the orifice area ao. the actual velocity uc in the plane of the vena contracta will be less than uo.coefficient Ao = cross sectional area of orifice Ac = cross sectional area of jet at plane of vena contracta Ho = static (piezometer) head above plane of vena contracta Hc = actual head above plane of vena contracta g = gravity Cu = velocity coefficient: Cc = contraction coefficient: Cd = discharge coefficient: Qo = ideal discharge: . the discharge Qo would be: Qo = u o a o = a o 2 gH o (9) So. the coefficient of contraction Cc is defined as the ratio of the cross-section of the vena contracta ac. Cd = Q 2 gH o a o (11) From Equations (6).orifice A . The ratio of actual velocity uc and ideal velocity uo is often referred to as the coefficient of velocity Cu of the orifice.contracta/contraction H . Q u c ac Cd = = (10) Qo u o a o or in terms of quantities measured experimentally.area c .velocity u . and may be calculated from the Pitot tube reading by the equation: 2 uc = Hc 2g (5) It is clear that (Ho – Hc) represents the energy loss.velocity d . (7) and (10) it follows immediately: C d = Cu Cc Apparatus Data Symbols: Suffixes: D . the coefficient of discharge Cd is defined as the ratio of the actual discharge to that which would take place if the jet discharged at the ideal velocity without any reduction of area. from the definition of the coefficient of discharge. we obtain: u Hc Cu = c (6) uo H o In a similar sense.Because of the energy loss. a Cc = c (7) ao Finally. From Equations (4) and (5). which in fact takes place as the water passes down the tank and through the orifice. to the cross-section of the orifice ao.head u .discharge C .

the Pitot tube is inserted into the emerging jet close to the underside of the tank. 3) Note the diameter of the sharp-edged orifice. This ensures that the level in the tank remains constant while the measurements are made.Qc = actual discharge: Experimental procedure 1) The equipment is set on the bench and levelled so that the base of the tank is horizontal. ao (m ) = Sr. t(s) (mm) Calculations: Discharge. No. 5) To measure Cd the discharge is obtained by the collection of a 6 kg weight of water from the orifice in the weighing tank. do (mm) = 2 Cross-sectional area of orifice . 4) Water is admitted to the tank to fill it to the height of the overflow pipe. and the overflow of the apparatus is directed onto the bench top. Ho Time required to collect 6 kg of Pitot tube reading. and recording the value of head Ho in the orifice. and the values of Pitot head Hc and head Ho on the orifice are noted. 6) To measure Cu. Observations Diameter of orifice. and the inflow is regulated so that a small steady discharge is obtained from the overflow. To obtain the steadiest readings adjust the vertical position of the inlet pipe so that it is just submerged. 2) The flexible supply pipe from the bench control valve is connected to the inlet pipe of the apparatus which is positioned to discharge directly back to the weigh tank. 7) About eight different flow rates should be sufficient to establish the relationship between discharge and head on the orifice. Q (m3/s) = 6 10 × t 3 . Hc (mm) water. Head on orifice.

Cv Coefficient of Contraction. No.Coefficient of Discharge. Cc Graphs . Cc = Cv Q Results Sr. Q (m3/s) Coefficient of Discharge. Cd = a 2 gH 0 o Hc Coefficient of Velocity. Discharge. Cv = Ho Cd Coefficient of Contraction. Cd Coefficient of Velocity.

Draw a graph between Qact and Qthe. Conclusion .

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