Role of MEMS and nanotechnology in medical technologies

Ekansh Nayal (2008A3PS143P)

First of all, what is MEMS ?
 MEMS stands for Micro Electro Mechanical Systems.  It is a technique of combining Electrical and Mechanical components

together on a chip, to produce a system of miniature dimensions ..

 By miniature, we mean dimensions less than the

thickness of human hair !!!!

 This allows to alter the properties of a material and build structures of desired features.000 times smaller than the thickness of human hair !! .  Nanotechnology makes it possible to manufacture devices 80.  A nanometer is one-billionth of a meter.The wonder called nanotechnology  Nanotechnology is the technology of arranging atoms and molecules in a material.

 The atoms in an object can be compared to the blocks in a building game.  In a building game.A simple analogy. This forms the basis of nanotechnology..  Similarly. atoms can be arranged differently to produce a multitude of devices. . the blocks can be arranged to create different looking structures.

Low power consumption. Integration permits a large number of systems to be built on a single chip. hence lasts longer on the same battery. . hence less painful.Benefits of MEMS and nanotechnology in medical applications        Small volume of reagent samples (like blood). used in most MEMS devices. Existing IC technology can be used to make these devices. Less invasive. Batch processing can lower costs significantly. required for analysis. Silicon. interferes lesser with body tissues.

.Can MEMS devices really replace the existing medical devices ?  A lot of MEMS medical devices have been developed that are much more sensitive and robust than their conventional counterparts.  Market trends for MEMS medical devices show a promising future ahead.

org/industy_statistics.Projected MEMS market share in 2012 Consumer 3% Industrial 22% Medical 11% Automotive 17% Communictions 21% Computer 26% http://www.memsindustrygroup.asp .

Diagnostics gene sequencing Drug discover pathogen detection  Biotechnology MEMS – deals “in vitro”.Classification of biological MEMS devices  Biomedical MEMS – deals “in vivo”. within the host body. with the biological samples → → → → . → → → → precision surgery Biotelemetry Drug delivery Biosensors and other physical sensors obtained from the host body.

used during operations.  Long term sensors for prosthetic devices.MEMS Sensors:MEMS sensors in the biomedical field maybe used as:  Critical sensors. .  Sensor arrays for rapid monitoring and diagnosis at home.

MEMS and nanotechnology in precision surgery .

 Conventional endoscopes  Can be used to view only the first third of the small intestine.MEMS and endoscopy  What is endoscopy ?  A diagnostic procedure which involves the introduction of a flexible device into the lower or upper gastrointestinal tract for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes.  Require sedation of patient  Is an uncomfortable procedure .

see.ed.pdf .ac.spie.uk/~tbt/norchip2002.MEMS redefines endoscopy with “Lab on a Pill” Size : 35mm Components of lab on a pill  Digital camera (CMOS Technology)  Light source  Battery  Radio transmitter  Sensors (MEMS Technology)  Requires no sedation  Can show a view of the http://www.org/web/oer/august/aug00/cover2.html entire small intestine  Can aid in early detection of colon cancer http://www.

the pill's sensors sample body fluids and pick up "meaningful patient data" such as temperature. once excreted. dissolved oxygen levels and pH.Working of this magic pill !  The pill is intended to be swallowed like any normal pill.  The pill is expected to retrieve all data over a 12-hour period and disposed off. .  This data is transmitted wirelessly to a card attached to the wrist of the individual.  Once within the body.

 MEMS surgical tools provide the flexibility and accuracy to perform precision surgery. .Micro-surgical tools  Present day surgeons operate within a domain restricted by the mobility and control of the surgical tools at hand.

http://www.edu/~jjudy/publications/conf erence/msc_2000_judy.MEMS driven scalpels  Precise control of the scalpel is an important requirement in any surgery.ee.  MEMS piezoelectric motor help to accurately position the scalpel.ucla. Accordingly.pdf .  MEMS pressure sensors incorporated on the scalpel. the scalpel can he handled. can help to measure the force exerted on the area operated upon.

MEMS and drug delivery .

 This patch is applied to the skin and drug is delivered to the body using micropumps.MEMS microneedles  MEMS enables hundreds of hollow microneedles to be fabricated on a single patch of area. These micropumps can be electronically controlled to allow specific amounts of the drug and also deliver them at specific intervals. .   Microneedles are too small to reach and stimulate the nerve endings. say a square centimeter. and hence cause no pain to the body.

Consists of  biosensors  Battery  Control circuitry  Drug reservoirs   The biosensors sense the substance to be measured.Smart Pill   A MEMS device that can be implanted in the human body. say insulin. the pill releases the drug. . Once this quantity falls below a certain amount required by the body.

.  Resist drifting along with the body fluids.Challenges for MEMS medical sensors  Biocompatibility remains the biggest hurdle for MEMS medical devices.  Retrieving data out of the device.  Life of the device.

 Governments should actively invest in MEMS technology to improve the conditions of medical facilities currently being provided to the people.  MEMS technology requires high initial capital investments hence is generally not in the reach of small private firms. the only problem being the absence of abundant number of players in the market which is causing cost escalation in the present scenario. So governments should arrange for the funds required for research.Conclusion  MEMS can offer new avenues in the field in the field of Medical technology. Ekansh Nayal (2008A3PS143P) .

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