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Tychonoff via well-ordering,

**We present a proof of the Tychonoff theorem that uses the well-ordering
**

theorem rather than Zorn's lemma. It follows the outline of Exercise 5 of §37.

Lemma H.1.

Let

A be a collection of basis elements for the topology

**X X Y, such that no finite subcollection of A x4X covers x Y.
**

such that no finite subcollection

of the product space If X

is compact, there is a point

of

yA

covers the slice

Ex}x Y.

x. Then, given a point x of X,

Proof.Suppose there is no such point

one can choose finitely many elements of such that these elements of A can cover X

A

t}hat cover the slice

x>x Y.

x

**Then, as in the proof of the tube lemma, one can find a neighborhood U x Y. Because X x
**

bl finitely many such neighborhoods U ; then all of .

*

cover

U of x

is compact, we

XXY

can be covered by finitely many elements of

,

Theorem Proof.

H,2. Let

**Products of compact spaces are compact.
**

IXT(J a family of compact spaces; let X be

be their product,

X=

and let ~ : X-+XL

rTJ x

;

Well-order J in such a way that

be the projection map.

it has a largest element.

Step 1. Le!t Xi supspace of X:

be an element of i< .

J;

ar;d suppose that a point Z3

Pi

of

has been specified for all

Define

to be the following

9

W2

(X) =

i

for

i

}

Then for each

o(<A

,

define

Y

=

Y.

**to be the following subspace of
**

li( ) = Pi for i <

X:

Note that as

, increases, the space

Yd

shrinks, and that

Z

equals the

intersection of the spaces We show that if covers If predecessor. Z , then tA Tn-en Y

**YL for all k</3.
**

finite collection of basis elements for Y&, for some J, let o X t.at

c

,4is a

actually covers the larger space = Z

hats an immediate predecessor in

be that immediate

, and the result is trivial.

H.2.

Now suppose that A of , let JA

has no immediate predecessor. denote the set of those indices

**For each eement
**

for which JA, for

i <3

Iri(A) /.Xi; all Then and A in

then

JA

is a finite set. let ol whenever

The union of the sets

.A ,

is also finite; X.

**be the largest element of this union. i is an index such that < i
**

<

i<Cd3,

(A) and Ti.

A

is an element of

iA.

**Y . Given xY~ , we show that it lies
**

for i

.

We show that in an element of point y of

A

covers

4. We know that 7i(x) = i

by setting

TTi() T i( Y) = Pi

= F

i ( x)

Define a

for for

i <, i>

ai;d

Then

Y

belongs to

Z

,

so that

y

lies in some element x.

A

of

A..

for

We show this element of Since all i J. A

LA

also contains

**is a basis element, we need only to show that Since
**

y

TTi(x) E r(A) i. We also

A.

**we know that TT(y) for TTi(x) i
**

<d

Ti(A) i

for all

.

know that cit

7f

i (x) = 7T()

we know that

and for

.

And finally, for 7(A) = Xi.

(A)

because in this case

Step 2.

Assume that

**LA is a collection-dfbasis elements for
**

X. We show that

X

siuch

**that no finite subcollection covers dover X. The theorem follows.
**

Pi X

,

LA itself does not

**We shall choose points Yke , for
**

A

for all

i,

such that none of the spaces When oC i: the largest Since it cannot be

~ J, J,

can be finitely covered by the space Yj

A.

element of

is a one-point space.

finitely covered by %A,

it is not contained in any element of J. We write

A .

X in the form

To begin, let o/ be the smallest element of

XTFi.

Snce X

Xi

and since X is compact,

sch that the

c~annot be finitely covered by

the preceding lemma implies that there is a point space

Y4

=

p. e XC

X

i/

Xi1p

cannot be finitely covered by

A.

H.3

Now suppose

the space pi. by LA Yk

Pi

is defined for all

i<

P,

· A4

**such that for each V4 ,
**

We seek to define the point

cannot be finitely Y 7

overed by for

d </

Since none of the spaces , Step 1 implies that Zp in the form

, can be finitely covered

cannot be finitely covered by

4A.

Let

us write

zB

Because such that X he space

= iC26tpi X X X i>3 i.

p Xp

is compact , the lemma tells us there is a point

cannot be finitely covered by

.

this is just the space T

Y

.72), Pi is

By the general principle of recursive definition (see defined for all i.

**Note of course that we have used the axiom of choice
**

Pi.

repeatedly to choose the points

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