This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
The present tense«««««««««««««««««««..5 1.4. The past tense«««««««««««««««««««««7 1.5. The supin and the past participle «««««««««««««7 1.6. The future tense««««««««««««««««««««9 2. Reflexive verbs««««««««««««««««««««««10 Conclusion«««««««««««««««««««««««««11 Bibliography............................................................................................12 Appendices«««««««««««««««««««««««««13
I compared the verb forms in both languages English and Swedish. Fort H. I used empirical methods.. comparison.INTRODUCTION A verb is often defined as a word which shows action or state of being. if it will happen later. Recognizing the verb is often the most important step in understanding the meaning of a sentence. P. In this report I have investigated the differences between English and Swedish verb. The verb is the heart of a sentence .Swedish verb and I hope that my study will present a source of important information for those who want to find more about the verb and its interpretation in a foreign language. such as Gustavus Brunnmark J. analysis. or if it is happening now. 3 . The purpose was: 1. One of the most important things about verbs is their relationship to time. especially in Swedish. My purpose is to give a clear explanation of differences of English .every sentence must have a verb. description. to identify the special features of Swedish verb.. such as observation. The result of the investigation proves that English and Swedish being Germanic languages have a lot of similarites concerning the verb. Verbs tell if something has already happened. In my research I used the works of different outstanding grammarians. 2. Vickner E. to found the differences between English and Swedish verb. J..
but "she sings" ("hon sjunger"). based on the time aspect. the word µspoke¶ is a past form of the verb µspeak¶. Verbs are traditionally divided into groups. To learn all or almost all possible variants of a Swedish verb we should in theory memorize five forms: the infinitive. In the sentence "I spoke". even though English. who did it or who did what to whom. I have spoken. Jag ska tála. the supine. Instead of inflecting the verb. the past. The Swedish verb system is somewhat more complex than the English. µshe¶. And all that just by adding a specific ending and/or slightly changing the stem of the verb. 4 . and if it actually had happened at all. in contrast to Swedish. while "I will have spoken" points to an action that will have been completed sometime in the future. of the verb.mainly use "helping" verbs (auxiliary verbs) to show the exact meaning of the verb: I speak. in some cases still has a separate ending if it is a µhe¶. the µtense¶. I will speak. One single verb could at the same time show when something happened. Depending on which ending a verb takes in some tenses. SWEDISH VERB FORM IN COMPARISON WITH ENGLISH VERB FORM In old Indo-European languages like Latin and Greek each verb could have a hundred different forms or more. Such memorizing is facilitated by the fact that most verbs follow an overall-pattern. that is modifying it through a change of vowels or through various endings or other ways. and the past participle. The Swedish verb groups.1. of which many are very common. whether the action was completed or not. the present. but is still a rather dreary procedure on the whole. or µit¶ doing something: "I sing" ("jag sjunger"). Jag tálar. these two languages . The fourth group consists of irregular verbs. Jag har tálat. it is referred to one of four groups. In English and in Swedish there is fortunately very little left of this.like many other modern languages . if we know these we will be able to easily deduce the rest.
in such case no further ending is added). 1. He has difficult to step up on the mornings.g. It is often used together with the word µatt¶.1. It is formed by adding an -a to the imperative (the main exception to this rule is when the basic form already ends in an -a. µunder¶. whereas the Swedish imperative is a unique form and therefore should be learned separately. µto¶). µCome here!¶. det är frå´gan. 1. that is you tell someone to do something: µBe quiet!¶. that is "direction/position" words like µon¶. I look forward towards to go/travel to Stockholm.2. µRun!¶.1. The imperative is the basic form of the verb in both English and Swedish. the form given in the dictionaries. To be or not [to] be. Jag ser fram emót att résa till Stóckhólm. Han har svå´rt att klíva upp på mórgnarna. Difference in use of the infinitive In some cases English prefers or requires a verb with the ending -ing (e. after prepositions. but should more accurately be seen as showing an continuous action or state or a series of actions that is not completed. that is the question. THE INFINITIVE The infinitive is a µtimeless¶ form of the verb. which usually has the same function as the English µto¶ when it is combined with an infinitive: Att vára éller [att] ínte vára. THE PRESENT TENSE A verb in the present tense is sometimes a bit carelessly described as referring to an action taking place now. THE IMPERATIVE The imperative expresses a command or an exhortation.3. English uses this basic form also for the infinitive. µwith¶. He has problems (with) getting up in the mornings. or something which someone usually do: "I play football" will most 5 . where Swedish would use the infinitive: I¶m looking forward to [here used as a preposition] going to Stockholm.
It may be comforting to know that the third group is quite small and only comprises a couple of the more frequent verbs. by using an auxiliary verb and by adding the ending -ing to the main verb. I play football. or that you can or know how to play football. a form that almost always end in an -r. Vi títtar på tv. I hold on (i.e. 6 . Han står och lágar mat. Vi sítter och títtar på tv. Hon lígger och sóver. He stands and cooks food. In Swedish there is strictly speaking only one form for the present that you will have to pay attention to.but not always . The endings of the verbs in the present are. English. This way of showing that the action is progressive can also be used in other tenses in Swedish.I am busy with) to play football. since the a technically speaking is a part of the stem of the verb and not the ending) Group 2A and 2B: -er Group 3: -r Group 4: The verbs in this often . He cooks food. however. She sleeps/is asleep. to be more specific: Group 1: -ar (or -[a]r. To show that something is happening right now. Hon sóver. Jag hå´ller på att spéla fótbóll. not necessarily that you are playing football at this very moment. Han lágar mat. We watch on TV. She lies and sleeps.likely mean that you sometimes play football.end in -er and -r as well. has a special "progressive" form: "I am playing football". Progressive expressions The µon-going¶ (progressive) -ing form in English can in Swedish often be expressed by adding an additional verb: Jag spélar fótbóll. We sit and watch on TV.
1. for instance.4. Jag lä´ste [basic form: läs] en ny bok várje dag únder seméstern."I saw him"). k. namely to show that a certain action or state is completed in 7 .e. the -te ending is used after any of the voiceless consonants p. the perfect has assumed some of the function of the past ("Ich hab¶ ihn gesehen" . which fairly well describes the primary function of the perfect tense. The door is closed. A Romance language like Spanish does not only focus on the time aspect of the verb when forming the past.). "I shouted [several times]". THE SUPINE AND THE PAST PARTICIPLE I have closed the door. I worked/was working hard previous the week [i." µPerfect¶ is derived from a Latin word for µcomplete(d).1. but also on whether the action is seen as demarcated and completed (pretérito: "Grité" . Combined with the auxiliary verb µhave¶ it forms the perfect tense. t."I shouted") or not completed. In German."I was shouting". and s. THE PAST TENSE The past tense is used in different ways in different languages. I read a new book every day during the vacation. In spite of its close relationship to German. In Swiss German the past tense has been replaced entirely by the perfect.5. and with the same "help" verb in the past you have the past perfect form: "I had closed the door. "I began to shout" etc. while the imperfect tense has a similar usage as in Spanish.) Jag árbétade [basic form: arbeta] hårt fö´rra véckan. last week]. The past is formed by adding the ending -de or -te to the basic form (the imperative). In these two sentences the word µclosed¶ is a form of the verb which in English is called the past participle. however. alternatively repeated (imperfecto: "Gritaba" . In spoken French the old preterite (passé simple) has disappeared in favour of the passé composé (resembling the German perfect). the Swedish uses the past tense just about the same way as English. finished¶. (Some irregular verbs form the past by changing their vowel instead.
THE SUPINE The supine." The usage of the perfect and the pluperfect tenses is on the whole the same in English and Swedish. Everything is closed. To and with (i.e. which is made by adding a -t to the basic form (the imperative). -t. or -dd to the basic form (depending on the final letter). even) the shops/stores are closed. is always used after the auxiliary verb µhave¶: Jag har stängt dö´rren. The post office is closed today. It is used like an adjective. That sounds more complicated than it is. Till och med affä´rerna är stä´ngda. he had closed [pluperfect] the door. and takes endings similar to the adjectives: With an en word: With an ett word: With a word in the plural: After an identifying word: Pósten är stängd idág.relation to present time. Allt är stängt. The pluperfect refers to an action or state that was completed in relation to an event in the past "The door was [past] closed. I have closed the door. THE PAST PARTICIPLE The past participle is composed by adding -d. De ["dom"] stä´ngda dö´rrarna The closed doors 8 . Swedish has actually two forms for the English past participle: The supine and the past participle. Now.
future (neutral. (He repaired the car.1. It is not always easy to tell why one way of expressing a future action is favored instead of another. infinitive: I will study. If you want to show that something is being done in English and the person who does it is either not identified or mentioned after the word µby¶. English I will study. you use a form of the verb µbe¶ together with the past participle: The car has been repaired. 4.) Skólan ska stä´ngas (instead of: Réktorn ska stä´nga skólan). that is someone or something is doing something.6. I think/intend [to] study. neutral. The car was repaired. where the final -r disappears before the -s. since they both lack a proper future tense. intention) I go to Stockholm next [very common] week. I come to study. Jag å´ker till Stóckhólm I will go to Stockholm nä´sta vécka. Future construction kómmer att + infinitive: Swedish Jag kómmer att studéra. 3. 9 . regardless of which variant you choose. The main exception is the present tense. This passive construction is very simple to make in Swedish: You just add an -s to the other endings of the verb. We have not been informed by anyone. 2. 1. I am going to study. intention) tä´nker + infinitive: showing intention using the present tense: Jag tä´nker studéra. THE PASSIVE All the verbs you have met so far have been active. THE FUTURE TENSE English and Swedish have several ways to show that something will take place in the future. I am going to study. µpure¶ future [very common] ska (formal: skall) + Jag ska studéra. next week. future (neutral. The Swedish and English variants of the future are not synonymous. But since they all convey a clear future sense. and that the chart below only gives a rough outline of the usage of the future in Swedish. Bílen reparérades (instead of: Han reparérade bílen). you will not have any problems in making yourself understood. They were killed in an accident.
De tvä´ttar sig (sej). The use of verbs with reflexive pronouns is more frequent in Swedish than in English.) In everyday Swedish an active construction is often preferred to the passive: "De ska stä´nga skólan" ("They are going to close the school"). It is also very common to use a construction with 'bli' (become) instead.The school is going to be closed. that it is I who am the object of the washing. She washes herself. and µthey¶ is always µsig¶ (in spite of its spelling pronounced like the English word 'say'). Three of the most common are: fínnas (to be. without any significant change in meaning: Bílen blev reparérad. Den/det tvä´ttar sig (sej). always have an active function. He washes himself. It washes itself. We wash ourselves. (The headmaster is going to close the school. ACTIVE VERBS WITH A PASSIVE ENDING There are a few verbs. Ni tvä´ttar er. Du tvä´ttar dig (dej). Jag tvä´ttar mig (mej). in spite of having this -s form characteristic for the passive. µit¶. Hon tvä´ttar sig (sej). µshe¶. which. You wash yourselves. I wash myself. which is identical with the objective forms of the personal pronouns. Some Swedish verbs are likewise used together with a special pronoun. 10 . They wash themselves.") 2.") mínnas (to remember): "Jag minns ínte" ("I remember not. REFLEXIVE VERBS In the sentence "I wash myself" English uses the pronoun µmyself¶ to show that the action is reflexive. that is "I hope so. Vi tvä´ttar oss. You wash yourself. exist): "Finns det nå´gon mjölk kvar?" ("Is there any milk left?") hóppas (to hope): "Jag hóppas det" ("I hope it". Han tvä´ttar sig (sej).with one exception: The reflexive pronoun for the persons µhe¶.
Depending on which ending a verb takes in some tenses. and takes endings similar to the adjectives. a verb employs the same form in all persons. whereas English for example uses different forms for different persons. The use of verbs with reflexive pronouns is more frequent in Swedish than in English. and s. t. The past is formed by adding the ending -de or -te to the basic form (the imperative). is always used after the auxiliary verb µhave¶. k. it is referred to one of four groups. The imperative is the basic form of the verb in both English and Swedish. The Swedish verb system is somewhat more complex than the English. The fourth group consists of irregular verbs. of which many are very common. y y y y y y y y Most Swedish verbs are regular. In Swedish there is strictly speaking only one form for the present. which is made by adding a -t to the basic form (the imperative). or -dd to the basic form (depending on the final letter).CONCLUSION y In Swedish. but the most frequently used are irregular. The supine. the -te ending is used after any of the voiceless consonants p. It is used like an adjective. 11 . -t. y The past participle is composed by adding -d. The endings of the verbs in the present are: Group 1: -ar Group 2A and 2B: -er Group 3: -r Group 4: -er and -r as well.
J. 4. Vickner E. Gustavus Brunnmark J. combined with exercises. with exercises (London. P. 2. 5. An introduction to Swedish grammar. New York). adapted for the use of Englishmen. (1923) Modern Swedish grammar (Stockholm.: Augustana book concern).BIBLIOGRAPHY 1.A. Fort H. SikeborgUrban (1998) Introduction to Swedish (Stockholm). 12 . reading lessons and conversations (London. (1911) Elementary Swedish grammar. Ill. 3. Norstedt). Bjorkhagen I. Royal Exchange). P. (1914) A brief Swedish grammar (Rock Island.
replaced by the regular verb 'stoppa' (group 1) in the past participle] [tíll]tálad. [tíll]frå´gade (It is/they are) asked (är) [áv]klárad. berä´ttade (It is/they are) told (är) brúkad. [på´]bö´rjat. [út]títtat. [áv]klárat. [áv]klárade (It is/they are) taken care of (är) lä´mnad. [tíll]frå´gat. lä´mnade (It is/they are) left tála (to) speak. brúkade (It is/they are) used/cultivated (är) [på´]bö´rjad. berä´ttat. [tíll]tálat. stánnat.APPENDICES Group 1 (-ar verbs) Infinitive Imperative berä´tta Berä´tta! (to) tell Tell! brúka (to) use/cultivate bö´rja (to) begin Bruka! Cultivate! Bö´rja! Begin! Present berä´ttar (I) tell brúkar (I) use to/cultivate bö´rjar (I) begin Past berä´ttade (I) told brúkade (I) used to/cultivated bö´rjade (I) began Supine berä´ttat (I have) told (har) brúkat (I have) used to/cultivated (har) bö´rjat (I have) begun frå´gat (I have) asked klárat (I have) managed lä´mnat (I have) left prátat (I have) talked stánnat (I have) stopped frå´ga (to) ask klára (to) manage Frå´ga! Ask! Klára (av det)! Manage (it)! Lä´mna (den)! Leave (it)! Práta! Talk! Stánna! (Stop!) frå´gar (I) ask klárar (I) manage frå´gade (I) asked klárade (I) managed lä´mna (to) leave práta (to) talk [colloquial] stánna (to) stop lä´mnar (I) leave prátar (I) talk stánnar (I) stop lä´mnade (I) left prátade (I) talked stánnade (I) stopped Past participle (är) berä´ttad. lä´mnat. stánnade (It is/they are) stopped [rarely used. [på´]bö´rjade (It is/they are) started (är) [tíll]frå´gad. 13 . [för]úndrat. [tíll]tálade (It is/they are) addressed (är) [út]títtad. talk títta (to) look úndra (to) wonder Tála! Speak!/Talk! Títta! Look! Undra! Wonder! tálar (I) speak/talk títtar (I) look úndrar (I) wonder tálade (I) spoke/talked títtade (I) looked úndrade (I) wondered tálat (I have) spoken títtat (I have) looked úndrat (I have) (är) stánnad. [út]títtade (It i/they ares) stared at (är) [för]úndrad. brúkat.
known (har) levt (är) [út]lévad. (I have) heard hö´rda (It is/they are) heard (har) kä´nt (är) kä´nd. kä´nda known (It is/they are) felt. behö´vda (It is/they are) needed (har) följt (är) följd. hö´rt. ställt. köpt. (I have) lived [út]lévat. hjälpt. hjä´lpta (It is/they are) helped (är) köpt. [út]lévade (It is/they are) decrepit (har) lärt [mig] (är) lärd. (to) know [someone] léva (to) live lä´ra [sig] (to) teach [reflexive: to learn] stä´lla (to) put Följ (mig)! Follow (me)! Hö´r! Hear! Kä´nn! Feel (it)! Lev! Live! Lär [dig]! Teach [reflexive: Learn]! Ställ (den där)! Put (it there)! Present behö´ver (I) need fö´ljer (I) follow hö´r (I) hear kä´nner (I) feel. lärt. know léver (I) live lär [mig] (I) teach [reflexive: (I) learn] stä´ller (I) put Past behö´vde (I) needed fö´ljde (I) followed hö´rde (I) heard (har) kä´nde (I) felt.wondered vísa (to) show Vísa! Show! vísar (I) show vísade (I) showed vísat (I have) shown [för]úndrade (It is/they are) wondered (är) vísad. (I have) felt. vísade (It is/they are) shown Verb group 2 (-er verbs) Group 2 A Infinitive Imperative behö´va Behö´v! (to) need Need! fö´lja (to) follow hö´ra (to) hear kä´nna (to) feel. lä´rda (I have) taught (It is/they are) [reflexive: (I) taught/learned have learned] (har)ställt (är) ställd. knew lévde (I) lived lä´rde [mig] (I) taught [reflexive: (I) learned] stä´llde (I) put Supine Past participle (har) behö´vt (är) behö´vd. (I have) put stä´llda (It is/they are) put Verb group 2 (-er verbs) Group 2 B Infinitive försö´ka (to) try hjä´lpa (to) help kö´pa Imperative Försö´k! Try! Hjälp! Help! Köp! Present försö´ker (I) try hjä´lper (I) help kö´per Past försö´kte (I) tried hjä´lpte (I) helped kö´pte Supine (har) försö´kt (I have) tried (har) hjälpt (I have) helped (har) köpt Past participle (är) hjälpt. (I have) fö´ljda followed (It is/they are) followed hö´rt (är) hö´rd. kä´nt. följt. 14 . (I have) needed behö´vt. vísat.
blívet. drágna pulled (It is/they are) drawn. (it has) existed. think Past bódde (I) resided tródde (I) believed. fúnna there has/have (It is/they are) found been bä´ra (to) carry dra (to) draw. (I have) carried búrna (It is/they are) carried (har) drágit (är) drágen. dwell) tro Tro! (to) believe. Believe! think Present bor (I) reside tror (I) believe. fúnnet. dráget. bebótt. bebódda (It is/they are) inhabited (är) trodd. pulled fanns (it) existed. läst. búret. pull fínnas [passive form. lä´sta (It is/they are) read (är) sökt. but active meaning] (to) exist.(to) buy lä´sa (to) read sö´ka (to) seek tä´nka (to) think å´ka (to) go Buy! Läs! Read! Sök! Seek! Tänk! Think! Åk! Go! (I) buy lä´ser (I) read sö´ker (I) seek tä´nker (I) think å´ker (I) go (I) bought lä´ste (I) read sö´kte (I) sought tä´nkte (I) thought å´kte (I) went (I have) bought (har) läst (I have) read (har) sökt (I have) sought (har) tänkt (I have) thought (har) åkt (I have) gone kö´pta (It is/they are) bought (är) läst. (I have) drawn. thought Supine bott (I have) resided trott (I have) believed. tródda (It is/they are) believed Verb group 4 (irregular verbs) Infinitive bli (to) become Imperative Bli! (Become!) Present blir (I) become Past blev (I) became Supine (har) blivit (I have) become Past participle (är) blíven. be Bär! bär (I) carry drar (I) draw. blívna (It is/they are) become [rarely used] (har) búrit (är) búren. thought Past participle (är) bebódd. there is/are bar (I) carried drog (I) drew. sökt. tä´nkta (It is/they are) thought Verb group 3 (-r verbs) Infinitive Imperative bo Bo! (to) live in (as Reside! in reside. trott. pulled (har) fúnnits (är) fúnnen. tänkt. there was/were Dra! Draw! Pull! 15 . pull finns (it) exists. sö´kta (It is/they are) sought (är) tänkt.
gå´ngna (It is/they are) gone by. lay ser (I) see sítter (I) sit láde (colloquial: la) (I) put. have had to (har) förstå´tt (I have) understood (har) gett. leave gör (I) do. gjort. gjórda (It is/they are) done. laid lä´gga (to) put. made (har) haft (I have) had (har) hå´llit (I have) hold (har) kómmit (I have) come (är) fórtsátt. am allowed to. hå´llna (It is/they are) hold. given (är) [vä´l]kómmen. gívet. förstå´tt. (I have) written skrívna (It is/they are) 16 . hå´llet. left gjórde (I) did. make har (I) have hå´ller (I) hold kómmer (I) come (är) förstå´dd. laid (har) sett (I have) seen (har) súttit (I have) been sitting skríva (to) write Skriv! Write! skríver (I) write skrev (I) wrote (är) sedd. fórtsátta (It is/they are) continued Förstå´! Understand! Ge! Give! Gå! Walk! Leave! Gör! Do! Make! Ha! Have! Håll! (Hold!) Kom! Come! förstå´r (I) understand ger (I) give går (I) walk. [vä´l]kómna (It is/they are) welcome (är) lagd. laid såg (I) saw satt (I) sat (har) lagt (I have) put. gå´nget. have to förstå´ (to) understand ge (to) give gå (to) walk. made háde (I) hade höll (I) held kom (I) came (har) fórtsátt (I have) continued (har) fått (I have) received. made (är) hå´llen. have been allowed to. [vä´l]kómmet. lágda (It is/they are) put. have to fórtsátte (I) continued fick (I) received. give [a speech] kómma (to) come Fórtsä´tt! Continue! fórtsä´tter (I) continue får (I) receive. fórtsátt. sédda (It is/they are) seen (är) [néd]sútten. past (är) gjord. skrívet. make ha (to) have hå´lla (to) hold. förstå´dda (It is/they are) understood (är) gíven. gívit (I have) given (har) gått (I have) walked. [néd]súttet. left (har) gjort (I have) done. be allowed to.fórtsä´tta (to) continue få (to) receive. gívna (It is/they are) given (är) gå´ngen. lagt. lay se (to) see sítta (to) sit Lägg! Put! Lay! Se! See! Sitt! Sit! lä´gger (I) put. was allowed to. sett. had to förstód (I) understood gav (I) gave gick (I) walked. leave gö´ra (to) do. [néd]súttna (It is/they are) saggin (har) skrívit (är) skríven.
[úpp]stå´ndna (It is/they are) resurrected (är) tágen. táget. tágna (It is/they are) taken 17 . [úpp]stå´ndet. wished written (är) [úpp]stå´nden. wished (har) tágit (I have) taken (har) várit (I have) been (har) vétat (I have) known (har) vélat (I have) wanted. wish Ta! Take! Var! Be! Vet! Know! (Vill!) Want! tar (I) take är (I) am vet (I) know vill (I) want.stå (to) stand Stå! Stand! står (I) stand stod (I) stood (har) stått (I have) stood ta (to) take vára (to) be véta (to) know vílja (to) want. wish tog (I) took var (I) was vi´sste (I) knew vílle (I) wanted.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.