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Space Affirmative....................................................................................................................................................................1 Inherency.................................................................................................................................................................................2 Plan..........................................................................................................................................................................................3 Space Race Adv. (1/3).............................................................................................................................................................4 Space Race Adv. (2/3).............................................................................................................................................................5 Space Race Adv. (3/3).............................................................................................................................................................6 Get off the Rock Adv. (1/3).....................................................................................................................................................7 Get off the Rock Adv. (2/3).....................................................................................................................................................8 Get off the Rock Adv. (3/3).....................................................................................................................................................9 Solvency (1/5).......................................................................................................................................................................10 Solvency (2/5).......................................................................................................................................................................11 Solvency (3/5).......................................................................................................................................................................12 Solvency (4/5).......................................................................................................................................................................13 Solvency (5/5).......................................................................................................................................................................14 **2AC Blocks**...................................................................................................................................................................15 Case OV 2AC (Inherency)....................................................................................................................................................16 Case OV 2AC (Space Race)..................................................................................................................................................17 Case OV 2AC (Get off the Rock)..........................................................................................................................................18 Case OV 2AC (Solvency).....................................................................................................................................................19 Case OV 2AC (Case Outweighs) .........................................................................................................................................20 **Case Ext.**........................................................................................................................................................................21 S&R Israel/Russia Uniqueness..............................................................................................................................................22 S&R Heg Link Ext................................................................................................................................................................23 S&R Econ Link Ext...............................................................................................................................................................24 Climate Change Inevitable Ext..............................................................................................................................................25 **AT: Disadvantages**.........................................................................................................................................................26 AT: Spending/Economy DA (1/3).........................................................................................................................................27 AT: Spending/Economy DA (2/3).........................................................................................................................................27 AT: Spending/Economy DA (3/3).........................................................................................................................................27 AT: Econ Decline = Cut Space Programs..............................................................................................................................29 **AT: Counterplans**...........................................................................................................................................................30 AT: Colonize X (Not Mars) CP.............................................................................................................................................31
Contention one is Inherency - (What’s happenin now dawg?) A dwindling fund for NASA projects in the 2011 and 2012 budget makes a mission to Mars impossible. Clive Cookson 3/18/11. “NASA’s trip to Mars is mission improbable”. URL: http://www.ft.com/cms/s/2/7ee442aa-4f6f11e0-8632-00144feab49a.html#axzz1H3WLeGIS. DA: 3/19/11. Clive is a board member at Financial Times, and holds a First Class Honours degree at Oxford University. Planetary scientists have issued their official wish list for unmanned space missions to explore the solar system over the next decade. Top priority of the report from the US National Academy of Sciences is robotic exploration of Mars. The second mission on the list is a visit to
Jupiter’s icy moon Europa and its subsurface ocean – seen as one of the most promising environments in the solar system for supporting life. Third priority would be a mission to investigate the interior structure, atmosphere and composition of the outer planet Uranus, one of the least understood large bodies in the solar system. The 400-page report is the result of a thorough review of the options by 17 senior planetary scientists. It will carry great weight with its sponsor, the US space agency Nasa. But whether it turns out to be a practical guide for Nasa to plan future missions – or a fantasy
list – depends on how much money the agency receives from the US Congress for space science. Latest signals from the Washington budgetary process are not encouraging. The report was prepared on the basis of Nasa’s 2011 budget, which has still not been enacted as a result of the Obama administration’s fiscal standoff with Congress. The proposed 2012 budget gives considerably less money to space science. “Our recommendations are science-driven, and they offer a balanced mix of
missions – large, medium and small – that have the potential to greatly expand our knowledge of the solar system,” says Steven Squyres of Cornell University, who chaired the academy’s review panel. “However, in these tough economic times, some difficult choices may have
to be made.” The report says that if Nasa does not have enough money to support its three big favoured missions, then one or more of these should be delayed, scaled back or cancelled, so that the agency can continue to fund a steady stream of smaller, less expensive missions. Candidates for these include returning a sample from a comet to earth, probing Saturn’s atmosphere, landing on
the surface of Venus, visiting more asteroids and putting a network of geophysical observatories on to the moon. The most expensive of the three top priorities is the Jupiter Europa Orbiter, for which an independent estimate put the price at $4.7bn. Its cost needs to come down substantially, by reducing the spacecraft’s capabilities and possibly getting the European Space Agency to contribute more, the review says. But the Planetary Society, a
leading lobby group for space science, fears that there will be no mission beyond Mars. “This is not just the loss of an American flagship mission, it is a loss to planet Earth,” says Louis Friedman, the society’s former director.
Thus we offer the following plan: The United States Federal Government should substantially increase its exploration and development of space by colonizing Mars in the order of robotic exploration and then humyn colonization using NASA.
” 4 . Navy Times.com Inc. human space exploration is critical to our country’s national security and economy. Adams and Olson.” the lawmakers wrote. Two Republican lawmakers appealed to House Budget Committee Chairman Rep. (1/3) Contention two is the space race – 1.) and Pete Olson (R-Texas) said in a March 17 letter to Ryan. Amy Svitak 3/17/11.) to spare NASA’s manned space exploration programs from the budget axe next year while suggesting the agency’s roughly $1. the Obama Administration’s budget willingly cedes that leadership to China. Obama’s plan also supports commercial astronaut transportation services and space technology development over deep space exploration systems favored by Congress. and we respectfully ask that our Republican budget reflect this national priority. “We cannot continue to accept this administration’s assault on American exceptionalism and world leadership.” Reps. URL: http://www.” The members lauded America’s history of global leadership in space exploration but criticized Obama for what they said was undermining the nation’s leadership in space exploration. Paul Ryan (R-Wis. urging Ryan to take aim at climate-monitoring programs poised for a funding boost over the next five years under the $18.Space Race Adv. Russia and India — countries that understand the importance of human space exploration.“…[O]nce again. “To be clear. Army Times. 14.S.spacenews. Svitak works for SPACE. and India will overthrow the US in space policy primacy in the status quo. we believe that NASA’s budget can be reduced. said the current fiscal situation is forcing hard choices as members of the GOP-led House seek to curb discretionary spending at federal agencies. Air Force Times. “GOP Lawmakers Appeal for Manned Exploration Funds”.” the letter states. Russia.6 billion request for climate-monitoring initiatives is ripe for cuts. we believe there is an opportunity to cut funding within the Earth Science account where an overabundance of climate change research is being conducted.html. “Within the NASA budget specifically.com/civil/110317goplawmakers-appeal-for-manned-exploration-funds. and Marine Corps Times.72 billion budget blueprint U. DA: 3/19/11. China. Sandy Adams (R-Fla. “The establishment of. whose job as budget chief is to establish top-level spending allocations for the coming fiscal year that begins Oct. and commitment to. President Barack Obama unveiled Feb. who represent states with a stake in NASA’s manned spaceflight program. 1.
Hawkins is a consultant specializing in international economic and national security issues. I have seen this once great American spirit of adventure reborn in China. The NASA plan relies first and foremost on "expanding efforts to utilize the ISS as a National Laboratory for scientific. there needs to be a new push to stimulate the public imagination and to provide rewarding careers for a new generation of innovative thinkers. there is an imminent defeat in the space race. near-Earth asteroids. its own space station and other ambitious projects according to Liang Xiaohong. the technology the space program has generated for society has rewarded taxpayers many times over. and facilities. It is the 135th space shuttle mission since the "Columbia" first lifted off on April 12. explorers. Developing this combined system will enable us to reach cislunar space." At a time when the performance of American students in math and science has fallen behind that of most of the world." But without the shuttle or a replacement space vehicle. from where is the inspiration to come? Designing more video games?The NASA report raises concerns about how to keep even its current high-skilled workforce employed.8906/pub_detail." Tragically. including a mission to an asteroid next decade" are supposed to provide some jobs. By integrating the industrial chain. but not enough. the U. The bailout money given to the AIG insurance company would have funded NASA for a decade. indeed. missions. and educational purposes and for supporting future objectives in human space exploration. will be dependent on the Russians for access to the ISS. (2/3) 2." But the road to that goal will be a long one. it should be remembered. and other celestial bodies. but pound foolish. The base is designed to meet China's growing demand for space technology for the next thirty years. Beijing plans 20 space missions this year. one in April for the "Endeavor" and one in June for "Atlantis. The space shuttle "Discovery" is scheduled to complete its 13 day supply mission to the International Space Station (ISS) on March 9." The shuttles will have flown for over 30 years. has cared enough about the nation's future in space to do anything about funding such a project. He is a former economics professor and Republican Congressional staff member. Shifting work to "green technology" and the study of "global warming" will not lead to new adventures in manned space exploration. 1981. the Russians. commercial shuttle flights and extensive moon bases given to the public in the classic 1968 film 2001: A Space Odyssey has become a sad testimony to three decades of lost American opportunities. And challenging space missions are the key pivotal point of world leadership.Cross-x Lebowski Space Affirmative Space Race Adv. it is America's duty to advance human achievement. Presidents George W." New programs. no one higher up in Washington. Hawkins 3/7. but it has big ideas. either at the White House or in Congress.familysecuritymatters. during which time it should have been expected that a replacement system would have been developed. “Forfeiting US Leadership in Space”. Even the loss of "Challenger" in 1986 and "Columbia" in 2005 did not spark action. Yet. having only sent its first multi-man orbital mission aloft in 2008. Bush (2003) and Barack Obama (2010) cancelled shuttle replacement programs. And developing new generations of scientific breakthroughs will continue to be a major strategic goal of the program. such as "development of a heavy-lift rocket and crew capsule to carry explorers beyond Earth’s orbit. But it has not been." It would be hard to find a better example of the old adage "penny wise. the base will be able to produce the whole spectrum of rockets for China's lunar missions. China is still behind the United States. Its strategic plan has as a goal "reducing the risk of relying exclusively on foreign crew transport capabilities. The stirring vision of giant space stations. "The core elements to a successful implementation are a space launch system and a multipurpose crew vehicle to serve as our national capability to conduct advanced missions beyond low Earth orbit. URL: http://www. Mars. But with NASA doing less in space. Yet. Its 2012 request of $18 billion is only 0. Meanwhile. NASA's role extends beyond the agency's own work. production and testing base for rockets is being built in Tianjin" as part of China's expanding space program." So after 30 years of relying on shuttles that were designed in the 1970s. There are only two missions left in the program. research." NASA notes the danger. and wants to land an unmanned vehicle on the Moon in 2013. It's 2011 report states.asp.S. even though it was the richest nation on the planet and the world's most advanced scientific state.org/publications/id. there is nothing to replace them. I have been amazed (and alarmed) by displays of 5 . The report talks about creating" architectures" that will then lead to a "roadmap for affordable and sustainable human space exploration. was looking for other countries to put up money for the ISS to lighten its own "burden. were invited into the ISS because the U. are now poised to control the ISS. NASA knows. 1969 has been thrown away due to a lack of imagination in Washington. and some of are ready for operation. deputy head of the China Academy of Launch Vehicle Technology.4 percent of a $3. China is positioning itself to lead humankind' further into space. NASA is back to square one. The great lead that the United States has enjoyed in space since the first Moon landing on July 20. With the cancellation of the “Discovery”. Yes. there is very little in the NASA plan or budget to fulfill this noble goal. As long as there are still satellites that can beam down episodes of "American Idol" to a nation of couch potatoes. "The retirement of the Space Shuttle in 2011 is ushering in a transition period for the Nation’s human space flight workforce. DA: 3/26/11. diplomatic. noting. "One of NASA's top strategic goals is to Inspire students to be our future scientists. who lost both the Space Race and the Cold War in the last century. It has served as a stimulus for education and industry. When the shuttles are retired this summer. China sent a spacecraft to orbit the Moon last October. engineers." As the lead civilization of the current era.7 trillion Federal budget. technological. William R. Twenty of the 22 plants have been completed. "The world's largest design. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has put out its 2011 Strategic Plan. who cares about achieving anything more? NASA is one of the few government programs than actually deserves to be called an investment. The Russians. Its first goal is to "extend and sustain human activities across the solar system.S. and educators through interactions with NASA’s people.. there is not even anything close to being ready. The state news agency Xinhua reported Friday.
So much for the "giant leap for mankind" so bravely stated over 40 years ago. NASA is charted as a civilian organization in line with idealist notions about the heavens being a clean slate free of power politics. There are no such illusions in China. The NASA strategic plan claims. Beijing is now the home of energy and ambition. "Humanity’s interest in the heavens has been universal and enduring. NASA is tasked with developing the capabilities that will support our country’s long-term human space flight and exploration efforts. More important. and then push further. But what can be expected in a country where Buzz Aldrin. push the boundaries of our scientific and technical limits.Chinese plans to build bases on the Moon. discover new worlds. Humans are driven to explore the unknown. Nothing could better portray the decline of American civilization." But where is the higher national leadership with the vision to back these efforts? The frontier spirit that built America has waned. I grew up in a confident America animated by futuristic thinking. is the spirit demonstrated in the space effort. who with Neil Armstrong were the first men to walk on the Moon. What happens in space is not divorced from what happens on Earth. then move farther into the solar system. Though clearly helpful to military space projects. 6 . History has not been kind to nations that stagnate in the face of a rising competitor. ends up on "Dancing with the Stars" performing for an audience most of whom had never heard of him. The desire to succeed is the most important element in any strategy. Beijing's manned-space program is placed under the General Armament Department within the Ministry of Defense. but that drive has faded. The Long March rockets used for space launches are similar in design to China's nuclear-tipped intercontinental ballistic missiles. Both political parties are too busy looking at the mud around their feet to look up at the sky.
7 . because the U. regional powers know that launching a war is likely to lead to a confrontation with the United States. for at least two reasons. overlook the fact that the extent of American primacy is one of the main reasons why the risk of great-power war is as low as it is. great-power wars killed over eighty million people. and also did undergrad studies at Stanford University. those who argue that primacy is no longer important. (8) The second reason is that the continued deployment of roughly two hundred thousand troops in Europe and in Asia provides a further barrier to conflict in each region.S.galegroup. A second consequence of U. primacy is a decreased danger of great-power rivalry and a higher level of overall international tranquility. states within these regions do not worry as much about each other.S. Walt has received a PhD in political science at the University of California. (3/3) 3.S. primacy is of benefit to the United States. often punctuated by major wars and occasionally by all-out struggles for hegemony. When the balance of power is heavily skewed.Cross-x Lebowski Space Affirmative Space Race Adv. and to other countries as well. dominance and dislike playing host to American troops. For most of the past four centuries.com/gps/retrieve. “American primacy: its prospects and pitfalls. Ironically. What Joseph Joffe has termed the "American pacifier" is not the only barrier to conflict in Europe and Asia. but the risk of war via miscalculation is reduced by the overwhelming gap between the United States and the other major powers.” URL: http://find. presence effectively prevents regional conflicts from breaking out. troops are committed abroad. for example. Walt 2. Miscalculation is more likely to lead to war when the balance of power is fairly even. relations among the major powers have been intensely competitive. however. the leading state does not need to go to war and weaker states dare not try. So long as U. They resent U.S. The loss of US primacy is the root cause of major power and nuclear wars. the dominant position of the United States places significant limits on the possibility of great-power competition. because in this situation both sides can convince themselves that they might be able to win. but they also do not want "Uncle Sam" to leave. DA: 3/24/11. because the danger of war is slight. international affairs). Not only is there no possibility of a "hegemonic war" (because there is no potential hegemon to mount a challenge). In the first half of the twentieth century. This tranquilizing effect is not lost on America's allies in Europe and Asia. other major powers are not inclined to challenge its dominant position.do?contentSet=IACDocuments&resultListType=RESULT_LIST&qrySerId=Locale%28en%2C%2C%29%3AFQE%3D%28ke %2CNone%2C16%29American+primacy%3AAnd%3ALQE%3D%28AC%2CNone%2C8%29fulltext %24&sgHitCountType=None&inPS=true&sort=DateDescend&searchType=BasicSearchForm&tabID=T002&prodI d=IPS&searchId=R2¤tPosition=11&userGroupName=lom_birminghps&docId=A88174226&docType=IAC& contentSet=IAC-Documents. Thus.(prominence of United States in economic. because it dampens the overall level of international insecurity. Stephen M. One reason is that because the United States is currently so far ahead.S. (9) Thus. but it is an important one. however. Today. U.
The longer we wait. “Many people don’t realize we are committed right now to a significant amount of global warming and sea level rise because of the greenhouse gases we have already put into the atmosphere.ucar.” says lead author Gerald Meehl. and there will be proportionately even more sea level rise. “Even if we stabilize greenhouse gas concentrations. globally averaged surface air temperatures would rise about a half degree Celsius (one degree Fahrenheit) and global sea levels would rise another 11 centimeters (4 inches) from thermal expansion alone by 2100. URL: http://www. Even if all greenhouse gases had been stabilized in the year 2000. according to a new study by a team of climate modelers at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR).shtml. DA: 3/20/11. (1/3) Contention three is to Get off the Rock – First. the effects of global warming and climate change are inevitable UCAR 05. the more climate change we are committed to in the future. “Climate Change Inevitable in 21st Century Sea Level Rise to Outpace Temperature Increase”. Even if no more greenhouse gases were added to the atmosphere. The modeling study quantifies the relative rates of sea level rise and global temperature increase that we are already committed to in the 21st century. the climate will continue to warm.Get off the Rock Adv.edu/news/releases/2005/change.” 8 . UCAR stands for University Corporation for Atmospheric Research. we would still be committed to a warmer Earth and greater sea level rise in the present century. The findings are published in this week's issue of the journal Science.
According to the World Meteorological Organization. 2007 ranked among the warmest seven years since record-keeping began in the mid-1800s. Global climate change poses a major threat to public health. climate change will accelerate in the decades to come. National voter is a quarterly magazine that discusses governmental politics.com/gps/retrieve. agriculture and industrial processes. C[O. the effects could be catastrophic: millions of people displaced as rising sea levels flood coastal areas. “Climate Change”.S.do?contentSet=IAC-Documents&resultListType=RESULT_LIST&qrySerId=Locale %28en%2C%2C%29%3AFQE%3D%28ke%2CNone%2C14%29global+warming%3AAnd%3AFQE%3D%28TX %2CNone%2C15%29extinction+risk%3AAnd%3AFQE%3D%28TX%2CNone%2C16%29%22Climate+Change %22%3AAnd%3ALQE%3D%28AC%2CNone%2C8%29fulltext %24&sgHitCountType=None&inPS=true&sort=DateDescend&searchType=BasicSearchForm&tabID=T003&prodId=IPS& searchId=R3¤tPosition=7&userGroupName=lom_birminghps&docId=A187505769&docType=IAC&contentSet=IA C-Documents.5 feet or more. DA: 3/20/11. Climate change is caused by human activity. rising sea levels and other changes could threaten U.2] are unprecedented in human history. changes in rainfall. Numerous studies have shown that the costs of not addressing climate change (from increased emergency room admissions to food and crop losses. there's a 90 percent or greater chance that the world will see more extreme weather. (2/3) Second. Scientists say current levels of atmospheric C[O. Sea levels will rise by 1-1. intensifying hurricanes and floods. Recent increases in the strength of tropical hurricanes have been linked to a rise in ocean temperatures caused by global warming. and U. creating an enhanced greenhouse effect. We already face increasingly severe heat waves and droughts. which works like a blanket to trap the sun's heat in the Earth's atmosphere. which lack the resources needed to protect their residents and their economies. Among the potential problems: political instability. What's in It for Us: Everyone on Earth is affected by climate change in multiple ways: Climate change affects our health and safety. In addition.S.5[degrees] F by 2100.0[degrees] and 11. more droughts and more intense hurricanes. the decade from 1998 to 2007 was the warmest on record. There is no longer any doubt about it: Human activities are the primary causes of global climate change. human health threatened by malaria and other diseases. The Nobel Prize-winning Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change projects that global temperatures will increase between 2. and conflicts over water and other resources. the World Meteorological Organization states that average global concentrations of the three main GHGs--carbon dioxide. and numerous plant and animal species at risk of extinction.2] levels in the atmosphere have surged by 36 percent. mountain glaciers are retreating around the world. 9 .2]). global climate is the key internal link for multiple scenarios of extinction National Voter 08.sub. mass movements of refugees. Burning fossil fuels--chiefly coal and oil--in our power plants. If left unchecked. Summer sea ice is disappearing in the Arctic. URL: http://find. disappearing glaciers.sub. A June 2008 report by the National Intelligence Council documented how increased temperatures.2] and other GHGs. the environment. Climate change is happening now.sub. Warmer temperatures already are having alarming effects. many species of plants and animals are responding to earlier spring warming. cars and trucks. Heat waves and extreme temperatures pose obvious health risks to all people. and elsewhere produces carbon dioxide (C[O. many regions devastated by reduced crop yields and shortages of drinking water.sub. lost infrastructure. In addition. Scientists also say climate change will accelerate the spread of infectious disease and pose serious threats to food and water supplies. while increasing the threat to humans from wildfires. and climate change is taking some species to the brink of extinction. and more wildfires. Climate change affects our wallets. heat waves and heavy precipitation events. In the absence of substantial reductions in worldwide emissions of C[O. Climate change affects our security. In its latest Greenhouse Gas Bulletin. (1) Developing countries. Climate change will get worse. methane and nitrous oxide--reached new highs in 2006. The other six warmest years all fell within the 1998-2007 period. Addressing climate change in a serious way also will reduce the United States' reliance on oil from unstable regions of the world.Cross-x Lebowski Space Affirmative Get off the Rock Adv.galegroup. and world economies. hurricanes and other severe-weather events. Compared to pre-industrial levels. will be among the hardest hit by the effects of catastrophic climate change. Other human sources of "greenhouse gases" (GHGs) include deforestation. security in the next 20 years. especially the elderly and those living in poverty. and increased storm and flood cleanup) will be considerably higher than the costs of reducing emissions.
Imagine. Frosty Wooldridge 09." he said. disease-carrying animals and insects are forced into areas of human habitation. traveler. and in the worst (and not unlikely) case. at a recent conference.Get off the Rock Adv. the "tip of the iceberg". Without transitioning away from use of fossil fuels. DA: 3/22/11.abadss. It could happen anytime in the next 20 years . “Leading the way to a cure for AIDS”. infect humanity at a large scale and imperil the survival of the human race. "It can come from a rare animal or from anywhere and can mutate constantly. it is not what Dr Ben-Abraham wants to talk about. There is a much more pressing medical crisis at hand . deadlier than HIV.could be contained was because it was killed before it had a chance to spread. “To Boldly Go: A One-Way Human Mission to Mars”. And. The survival of the human species is not a preordained evolutionary programme. It is clear that most politicians and most citizens do not recognize that returning to “more of the same” is a recipe for promoting the first collapse of a global civilization. it affects one person and then there is a chain reaction and it is unstoppable. Ebola has had sporadic outbreaks over the past 20 years and the only way the deadly virus which turns internal organs into liquid . humanity could face extinction because of a single virus. URL: http://www. Africom has been added to the Pentagon’s structure -. if it was closer to home: an outbreak of that scale in London. would demand a World War II type mobilization -. Wooldridge is an American journalist. The shock of the AIDS epidemic has prompted virus experts to admit "that something new is indeed happening and that the threat of a deadly viral outbreak is imminent". There are several reasons that motivate the establishment of a permanent Mars colony. the flu epidemic that has now affected 200. There are also more immediate threats to our culture. but Dr Ben -Abraham said history has already proven his theory. These include global pandemics.html. figure in the antiillegal immigration movement in the United States. if not our survival as a species."That may sound like a far-fetched plot for a Hollywood film. humanity will move further into an era of resource wars (remember. public health. He added that the problem was "very serious and is getting worse". Avi Mensa. according to Dr Ben-Abraham.and even that might not prevent a global climate disaster.and China has noticed). clearly with intent to protect US “interests” in petroleum reserves. a nuclear war ending civilization. mysterious viruses would. AIDS. B. widening inequity within and between nations. 10 . staying on Earth inevitably leads to extinction Dirk Schulze-Makuch 10.one he believes the world must be alerted to: the possibility of a virus deadlier than HIV. he says. “America galloping toward its greatest crisis in the 21st century”. especially to human life. few could have predicted the impact of AIDS on the world. sudden ecological collapse and supervolcanoes. Two decades of intensive study and research in the field of virology have convinced him of one thing: in place of natural and man-made disasters or nuclear warfare. Resource wars lead to nuclear war. Despite the importance of the discovery of the "facilitating" cell. We are a vulnerable species living in a part of the galaxy where cosmic events such as major asteroid and comet impacts and supernova explosions pose a significant threat to life on Earth. and works for the examiner. Dirk is an Associate professor of geology and astrobiology at Washington State University. If this makes Dr Ben-Abraham sound like a prophet of doom. writer.com/immigration-reform-in-denver/america-gallopingtoward-its-greatest-crisis-the-21st-century. it could happen tomorrow. environmentalist.com/forum/1125-universespace/157531-journal-cosmology. URL: http://www. The required changes in energy technology. It is a tragedy waiting to happen. said Joshua Lederberg of the Rockefeller University in New York. for the first time. New York or Hong Kong. are likely to include increased unrest in poor nations. The consequences of more resource wars. a proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. ending in extinction. Disease leads to extinction South China Morning Post 96. If there is no cure. nuclear or biological warfare. and the economy.examiner.theoretically. the Ebola outbreak which killed more than 100 people in Africa last year. complex and dangerous organism. "This raises the very real possibility that lethal. many likely triggered over water supplies stressed by climate disruption. "An airborne virus is a lively. (3/3) Third will be the impacts A. Abundant sources of genetic variation exist for viruses to learn how to mutate and evade the immune system." he said. runaway global warming.000 in the former Soviet Union . which would benefit not only the environment but also national security. Dr Ben-Abraham said: "Nature isn't benign.they are all. Fifteen years ago. And as new "mega-cities" are being developed in the Third World and rainforests are destroyed. DA: 3/20/11. even if climate change doesn’t kill us." He cites the 1968 Hong Kong flu outbreak as an example of how viruses have outsmarted human intelligence. then he makes no apology for it.
html.25% of its collective GDP to devote to space colonization. and other aerospace companies who are very close to launching humans into orbit. "is at the ever-increasing risk of being wiped out by a disaster such as sudden global warming." Hawking has said. or Gross Domestic Product. Eventually. "Isn't our future worth a quarter of a percent?" 11 . among others. Obama is sensibly ceding space flight development to the private sector. often an outspoken critic of the space program.. Buzz Aldrin. Casey Kazan 10. "We cannot envision visiting them with current technology." Hawking said that any long-term site for a human base should have a significant gravity field. Colonization of other inhabitable planets like Mars solves for an inevitable human extinction. To do that. URL: http://www. GDP. "By long term. Hawking said. we will need to support many types of game-changing technologies NASA and its partners will be developing. DA: 3/21/11. Kazan was educated at Harvard University and currently owns Galaxy. nuclear war. So the government would be partnering with private industry to send astronauts to space.Cross-x Lebowski Space Affirmative Solvency (1/5) The last contention is Solvency – 1. I think the human race has no future if it doesn't go into space. but we should make interstellar travel a long-term aim." he said. a reputable website. Hawking believes that traveling into space is the only way humans will be able to survive in the long-term." he said.com.a few lucky specimens." Humanity can afford to battle earthly problems like climate change and still have plenty of resources left over for colonizing space. Hawking favors human space exploration.com/my_weblog/2010/02/s-colonizing-space-an-imperative-obamas-new-space-strategy-says-yeslays-groundwork-for-human-space-.. "Even if we were to increase the international [space exploration] budget 20 times to make a serious effort to go into space. he said. because long missions in microgravity lead to health issues such as bone loss. Hawking argued that the world can afford 0. The majority of Earthlings would surely be left behind on a planet increasingly unfit for life. a genetically engineered virus or other dangers . is a measure of a country's economic activity. he said. it would only be a small fraction of world GDP. “Is Colonizing Mars an Imperative? Obama's New Space Strategy Says "Yes"”. with new ventures such as SpaceX who will be will be ferrying astronauts to the ISS.it won’t save Earth’s inhabitants. rather than just sending robots to explore space. said: "I also believe the steps we will be taking following the President's direction will best position NASA and other space agencies to send humans to Mars and other exciting destinations as quickly as possible. I mean over the next 200 to 500 years. The initiative to leave NOW prevents any econ impact by stimulating the private sector. If only 1% of the 1000 or so stars within 30 light years of Earth has an Earth-size planet at the right distance from its star for liquid water to exist.dailygalaxy. "Life on Earth." The problems with Hawking’s solution is that while it may save a “seed” of human life. that would make for 10 such planets in our solar system's neighbourhood. humanity should try to expand to Earth-like planets around other stars. a position taken by Nobel laureate Steven Weinberg.
Eventually the outpost would reach self-sufficiency. each with a lander and sufficient supplies. but which has nowadays been replaced with a culture of safety and political correctness. but a return to the exploration spirit and risk-taking ethos of the great period of Earth exploration. and then it could serve as a hub for a greatly expanded colonization program. One approach could be to send four astronauts initially. A one-way human mission to Mars would not be a fixed duration project as in the Apollo program. The strategy of one-way missions brings this goal within technological and financial feasibility. Given the broad variety of resources available on Mars. the basics for creating homegrown agriculture. any critical part of equipment after landing would be available in duplicate in case of an emergency. There are many reasons why a human colony on Mars is a desirable goal.abadss. Also.html. but the first step in establishing a permanent human presence on the planet. URL: http://www. Dirk is an Associate professor of geology and astrobiology at Washington State University.Solvency (2/5) 2. Mars colonization IS possible. No base on the Moon is needed to launch a oneway human mission to Mars. We envision that Mars exploration would begin and proceed for a long time on the basis of outbound journeys only. The astronauts would be re-supplied on a periodic basis from Earth with basic necessities. A one-way human mission to Mars would not be a one-time commitment as was the case with the Apollo program. “To Boldly Go: A One-Way Human Mission to Mars”. perhaps even centuries before the size and sophistication of the Mars colony enabled it to be selfsustaining.com/forum/1125-universe-space/157531journal-cosmology.abadss. More than 40 years after the last Apollo mission.html. to stake a single outpost on Mars. scientifically and politically. ideally (and if the budget permits) distributed between two two-man space craft to allow for some mission redundancy such as in the Viking mission or for the Mars Exploration Rovers. A mission to Mars could use some of the hardware that has been developed for the Moon program. Nevertheless. They also would be continuously resupplied from Earth with necessities that could not be produced from the resources available on Mars. Dirk Schulze-Makuch 10." Robotic probes sent on ahead would establish necessities such as an energy source (such as a small nuclear reactor augmented by solar panels). if any technical malfunction occurs on one space craft. All this equipment could easily be put into place using current technology before the astronauts set out. A human mission to Mars is technologically feasible. and shelter (such as in form of lava tube caves). URL: http://www. but hugely expensive requiring enormous financial and political commitments. it’s technologically feasible. Dirk is an Associate professor of geology and astrobiology at Washington State University. the scientific equipment needed for the colonists to do important research work should be part of the preceding unmanned mission. one or more rover vehicles and a tool-kit for carrying out essential engineering and maintenance work. which would not be an issue if the astronauts were to remain in the low-gravity environment of Mars. In addition. “To Boldly Go: A One-Way Human Mission to Mars”. but otherwise would be expected to become increasingly proficient at harvesting and utilizing resources available on Mars. The first human contingent would consist of a crew of four. Further. A creative solution to this dilemma would be a one-way human mission to Mars in place of the manned return mission that remains stuck on the drawing board. Schulze-Makuch and Irwin 2008). become efficient in harvesting and utilizing necessitated resources and keep costs low. The first human contingent would rely heavily on resources that can be produced from Mars such as water. Such a hiatus cannot be afforded if humanity is to commit to a grander vision of space exploration (Davies and Schulze-Makuch 2008. The first colonists to Mars wouldn’t go in "cold. It would also obviate the need for years of rehabilitation for returning astronauts. DA: 3/22/11. This semi-autonomous phase might last for decades. two on each of two space craft. 12 . to attain it would require not only major international cooperation. the other craft could come to the rescue. enough food for two years. the long-term survival of the first colonists is much more feasible than it would be on the Moon. nutrients. Our proposal would cut the costs several fold but ensure at the same time a continuous commitment to the exploration of Mars in particular and space in general. Dirk Schulze-Makuch 10. DA: 3/22/11. from Columbus to Amundsen. Going to Mars now would solve for our Resource impact scenario.com/forum/1125-universe-space/157531journal-cosmology. no human has set foot on a planetary body beyond Earth. 3.
British tycoon Richard Branson. they wrote. so sending people of child-bearing age is not a good idea. Schulze-Makuch and Paul Davies. Radiation could also damage reproductive organs." NASA spokesperson Michael Braukus said. even to Mars. the mission could cut costs by 80 per cent. in separate ships that would serve as living quarters on the planet. PayPal founder Elon Musk and Amazon. "We want our people back. CEO Jeff Bezos are among the rich who are already involved in private space ventures. from a lack of medical care and exposure to radiation. Davies and Schulze-Makuch say it's important to realize they're not proposing a "suicide mission. frozen water. and it has surface gravity. (The one way trip to Mars avoids their spending impacts) Nicholas K.boston. 13 . and suggest the private sector might be more fertile ground. but he never suggested these space travellers wouldn't come home. DA: 3/26/11. “Scientists propose one-way trips to Mars”." they wrote.com/news/science/articles/2010/11/15/scientists_propose_one_way_trips_to_mars/? p1=Well_MostPop_Emailed6. a Washington State University professor who co-authored an article that seriously proposes what sounds like a preposterous idea." Schulze-Makuch said." "The astronauts would go to Mars with the intention of staying for the rest of their lives. The technology already exists. with its focus on safety. Two scientists are suggesting that colonization of the red planet could happen faster and more economically if astronauts behaved like the first settlers to come to North America . Geranios 10. We have the technology and the resources now. "You would send a little bit older folks." Also cool to the idea was NASA. "There are people who have the money to put this into reality. carbon dioxide and essential minerals. Mars is a six-month flight away." Indeed. SchulzeMakuch said. around 60 or something like that. At least one moonwalking astronaut was not impressed.not expecting to go home. They believe the one-way trips could start in two decades. "What we would need is an eccentric billionaire. President Barack Obama has already outlined a plan to go to Mars by the mid-2030s." said Dirk Schulze-Makuch. "This is premature. argue that humans must begin colonizing another planet as a hedge against a catastrophe on Earth. as trailblazers of a permanent human Mars colony. a thin atmosphere. a physicist at Arizona State University. More colonists and regular supply ships would follow. The two scientists propose the missions begin with two two-person teams. Nick works for the Associated Press and is an intelligence officer in Seattle. which featured more than 50 articles and essays on Mars exploration. URL: http://www. or is within easy reach. "The main point is to get Mars exploration moving. "We aren't ready for this yet.com Inc. It's usually cheaper to fly one way. By not taking the extra fuel and provisions necessary for a return trip to Earth. They acknowledge the proposal is a tough sell for NASA." Schulze-Makuch said. That's because the mission would undoubtedly reduce a person's lifespan. bringing to mind the aging heroes who saved the day in the movie Space Cowboys.Cross-x Lebowski Space Affirmative Solvency (3/5) 4. The article titled To Boldly Go appears in the latest issue of the Journal of Cosmology." Ed Mitchell of Apollo 14 wrote in an email.
Using a water-powered spaceship.foxnews. but he's optimistic about the possibilities. however. [Video: Space Engines: The New Generation] "It's really a systems integration challenge. so their relative value would grow over time. freezing into a strong." he said. That's partly because electrothermal engines are so efficient. DA: 3/27/11. low-thrust travel." McConnell said." said study lead author Brian McConnell. and partly because the use of water as fuel makes most of the ship consumable. Because there are fewer single-use materials. starting with its solar-powered electrothermal engines. “Water-Powered Spaceship Could Make Mars Trip on the Cheap”. McConnell said. and possesses a bachelor’s degree from Arizona University. The water-powered space coach is just a concept at the moment. a recent study has found." 14 . The ship would carry large quantities of water. McConnell said. each individual vehicle fueling up with water in low-Earth orbit when the need arises. Rotating the craft could also generate artificial gravity approximating that of Earth in certain parts of the ship. eventually. flighttesting would follow. Smaller chemical rockets could be called into service from time to time when a rapid change in velocity is needed. researchers said. The space coach's living quarters would be composed of a series of interconnected habitat modules. "The fundamental technology is already there. so some work needs to be done on the propulsion system. URL: http://www. He estimates a roundtrip mission to the Martian moon Phobos. this reduces costs by a factor of 30 times or better. "I think things could happen very quickly."Altogether. we avoid the resource impact (AND spending impacts) Mike Wall 3/27/11. researchers said. has a PhD in evolutionary biology from University of Sydney. helping to keep the space coaches in good operating condition for several decades. so astronauts could conceivably grow some food crops and — luxury of luxuries — even take hot baths now and again. as well as one for the overall ship design — cash-reward contests that would be like smaller versions of the Google Lunar X Prize. researchers said. there's much less dead weight. these factors would translate into huge savings over a more "traditional" spacecraft mission to Mars using chemical rockets. ground-testing and. according to the study. fuel could be sourced along a space coach's travels — for example.com. as are several varieties of electrothermal engine. "If one party decides to do this." Space coach: The basics The space coach concept vehicle is water- driven and water-centric. pushing the space coach from Earth orbit to Mars. and the resulting steam would then be vented out of a nozzle. Each mission undertaken from low-Earth orbit would be far cheaper than anything launching from the ground. as the vehicles reduce the need for expensive one-off missions that launch from Earth. McConnell added. could be made for less than $1 billion. which is a $30 million private race to the moon. And the idea is to keep these "space coaches" in orbit between trips. This mode of propulsion would do the lion's share of the work. have not been flight-tested." McConnell told SPACE. rigid debris shield when the structure is exposed to the extreme cold of space. Electrothermal engines are very efficient. A journey to Mars and back in a water-fueled vehicle could cost as little as one space shuttle launch costs today. "There's not a lot of new technology that needs to be built. flying a variety of different flags — as long as somebody takes the initial plunge. researchers said — much like Bigelow Aerospace's inflatable modules. making flights to Mars and other far-flung locales far cheaper. Electrothermal engines that use water as fuel. Combined. A space coach journey would also be more comfortable. researchers said. researchers said. for example. McConnell said. and they're well-suited for sustained.Solvency (4/5) 5. water could be mined from an asteroid or a Martian moon. Packed along the habitat modules. "It's really just a matter of convincing decision-makers that this is worth getting into. or recyclable. These would be expandable and made of fabric. In the future.com. could later be shunted off to the engines. It could also be incorporated into the fabric walls themselves.com/scitech/2011/03/25/water-powered-spaceship-make-mars-trip-cheap/. Australia. which have already been deployed and tested in low-Earth orbit. Water first used for radiation shielding. but it could become a reality soon enough. Water would be a big part of the space coach's body. according to the study. McConnell envisions holding a design competition for the engines. it would provide good radiation shielding." From vision to reality No huge technological leaps are required to make the space coach a reality. "I think countries wouldn't want to get left behind. Once winners of these competitions emerge. for example. These engines would super-heat water. A fleet of space coaches? McConnell envisions space coaches cruising around the solar system." McConnell said. a software engineer and technology entrepreneur. McConnell thinks an entire fleet of space coaches could one day populate the heavens. McConnell and co-author Alexander Tolley published their study last March in the Journal of the British Interplanetary Society. I think it would spur a lot of other activity. Slashing the cost of space travel The dependence on water as the chief propellant would make the space coach a relatively cheap vehicle to operate. Spaceships powered primarily by water could open up the solar system to exploration. McConnell declined to put forth any specific timelines. Bigelow's expandable habitats are already space-tested. producing the necessary amount of thrust. too. Parts could be swapped out and upgraded on orbit as well. Mike is a senior writer for SPACE. for example.
The first essential step is that American leadership in the exploration and development of the space frontier must be an explicit national goal. there are some very serious challenges that we must face as a nation. this country has a renewed commitment to maintain our leadership and restore the capabilities we set aside many years ago. Indeed. it may be significant to note that. Our determination to be first on the Moon and preeminent in other space activities resulted in some of the iconic moments of the 20th Century. But beyond those very important congressional votes. That is the longI'm certain that most of us here will agree that held dream that has actively engaged our country and others for nearly 50 years. And that quest has brought tangible benefits that improve our lives in countless ways. other nations besides our own aspire to leadership on the space frontier. America will lead. The Vision gives us the opportunity to take on the leading role in the exploration of space. will they be standing with the United States. and aerospace engineer. just as we are determined to be leaders in other areas such as defense. we must leave Earth entirely. As we watch other countries commit to developing new exploration systems and technologies to expand into space." He also said our Vision for Space exploration is a "journey. cultural.spaceref. We cannot rest on nor be satisfied with past accomplishments. to maintain our leadership role in space exploration. which is both sincere and automatic.html?pid=18901. or Mars. our country has been rightly recognized as the world leader in the exploration and use of space. or after a technical problem. But. or will we be watching their exploits on television? The President has given us his answer. DA: 3/20/11. not a race. These things are not in doubt. Decades of commitment were required to build up our network of transcontinental railroads and highways. And if we don't like that picture. it is important for the United States to be a leader among the nations of the world. of today's major spacefaring powers only Russia and China have spacecraft . moral and educational leadership are certainly major components of world leadership. as well as our systems for maritime and aeronautical commerce. and so the question before us is this: when other nations reach the Moon. Michael Griffin 05. It means occupying the cutting edge of science and technology.Soyuz and Shenzhou . And we must get beyond revisiting this determination each year. It will be no quicker or easier to build our highways to space. It is imperative that this commitment transcend any given Administration and any given Congress. Today. but for centuries to come." These words are unambiguous. as other countries renew their commitment to space.that are capable of returning crews from a trip to the Moon. And I firmly believe that in the 21st Century world that is taking shape as we speak. this is almost a tautology. URL: http://www. and that such leadership has many dimensions. education. that was then and this is now. a vital part of world leadership will be leadership in the exploration and development of the space frontier. inevitably. Space exploration by its very nature requires the planning and implementation of missions and projects over decades. be partisan debates over whether to have a vibrant space program or not. In order to maintain leadership the US must take action now. indeed there must not. Today. the President said. They chart a course for action that is unmistakable. And those dreams have always included the desire to see what lies beyond the known world.as we have done in the computing and aviation industries . Michael Griffin is the former administrator of NASA. But true leadership also involves defining. It means establishing world technical standards . some societies retreated from the frontiers they had pioneered. There must be continued and sustained bipartisan cooperation and agreement on the importance and necessity of American leadership in space. And empirically. Economic. thereby ultimately influencing world culture. The vote by two successive Congresses to support the Vision for Space Exploration outlined by President Bush two years ago offers wonderful evidence of national determination to regain lost ground in space. we too must remain committed to new advancements. their greatness subsided as well.not through coercion but because we have developed a capability that others wish to use. that is accorded to nations and societies engaged in pioneering activities. since our first primitive steps in the exploration of space became possible. America has the opportunity. we define as "great" only those civilizations which did explore and expand their frontiers. in my judgment. and in developing and deploying the technologies that make space leadership possible. there are a number of critical things we simply must decide to do. or the worlds beyond. And when. Their activities will earn them the respect. There need not. It also means having the ability and determination to take the lead in building coalitions and partnerships to do those things that fulfill the dreams of mankind. an American physicist. In that regard.com/news/viewsr. as they say. To journey beyond the known world today. We must think carefully about what the world of tomorrow will look like if the United States is not the preeminent spacefaring nation. and clearly we still live in a time when any wealthy and prominent nation must have the ability to defend itself and its allies. we need to make this a commitment from generation to generation. These nations are making progress. the frontiers that expand mankind's reach. and they will undoubtedly utilize their advancements in space to influence world affairs. and scientific research. the nations that expand mankind’s reach of colonization can maintain or gain unipolar hegemonic status. if we truly want the United States to be the world leader in space now and in the future. The true space age. is just getting underway. not just for this century. in which humans will explore the worlds beyond our own. and make it a reality. In addition to needing national agreement on the importance of American leadership in space. the great civilizations have always extended the frontiers of their times. diplomatic. and I would argue the obligation. "We have undertaken space travel because the desire to explore and understand is part of our character. Nearly two years ago. lest we fall behind. Leadership in establishing a human presence in the Solar System will. For many years. and then pursuing. not years. Through the Vision for Space Exploration however. or after an accident. and the commitment to do it must be clear and 15 . be a key factor in defining world leadership back home on Earth for generations to come.Cross-x Lebowski Space Affirmative Solvency (5/5) 6. But we have to seize that opportunity. and helped to solidify American leadership in the generation after World War II. Throughout history.
I earnestly believe those nations that are the most adept at reading the lessons of history will be taking the lead. let us consider the case of John Cabot. if we were alive 500 years ago. What the United States gains from a robust. A recent Gallup poll indicated that. While we cannot predict today at what pace others will venture beyond Earth orbit and establish the first outposts on distant worlds. was founded precisely because our nation's leaders feared the European nations already had a significant advantage in the development of strategically important aviation systems and technologies. in the form of those quintessentially American inventors. explain how their activities would bring about Portugal's rise to global influence. deliberate and sure about any commitments we make. The human imperative to explore new territories. and to help shape the destiny of this world for centuries to come. In any partnership. Wilbur and Orville Wright. or thereabouts. We have the opportunity. will surely be satisfied. the International Civil Aviation Organization dictates that pilots and air traffic controllers speak English. Cabot. and tangible benefits as we renew our commitment to lead in these endeavors. the explorer who claimed Brazil for Portugal. While American ingenuity. we're spending only 0. and I believe it provides a firm foundation upon which to build in the years ahead. is the role we wish to play. today. and I would say the obligation. Perhaps all of us would be speaking Portuguese today had not first Spain. as viewed by the historians of yet future centuries. we tend to forget that we squandered our initial leadership in aviation. of course. 16 . did lead the way into the era of powered flight. As we lift our eyes to the future. it is essential to have simple but compelling goals. exploration. be seen in everything from the fact that we live in a world not dominated by fascism or communism. and as a consequence. and returning to the Moon as a stepping-stone to Mars and other destinations beyond.moving our space exploration activities beyond low Earth orbit. Indeed. in advancing those interests of our nation that are very much in harmony with the interests of people throughout the world. the influence of American air power and aviation technology can. other nations can and will surpass our achievements. such as the near-Earth asteroids. and to exploit the resources of these territories. and was the first to bring our language to the shores we now live.sustaining. from where. But because we made a strong commitment at that time to this emerging field. the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. And so. and a candlelight conference were held in Lisbon by the Portuguese Oceans Authority. to the fact that when you fly anywhere in the world. focused program of human and robotic space exploration is the opportunity to define the course along which this human imperative will carry us. These are some of the key things we need to do if we Americans are indeed serious about being a leader on the space frontier. actually. opportunity. I think we can all agree that one of the best results of the International Space Station program is the cooperation it has fostered among the participating nations. We know what motivates those dreams. we have a lot of work to do to sustain the Vision which takes us there. there is no doubt that the expansion of human civilization into space will be among the great achievements of this era. whose true name was Giovanni Caboto. This was in fact true. was an Italian who sailed for the English government and with private merchants. Since that. not only in this century but in the centuries to follow. The Vision for Space Exploration affords the United States nothing less than the opportunity to take the lead. Exploring new territory when it becomes possible to do so has defined human striving ever since our remote ancestors migrated out of the east African plains. While exploring the coastal regions of North American in Newfoundland. by others if not by us. Space will be explored and exploited by humans. to explore worlds beyond our own. But once made. we must be thoughtful. the most critical commitments fall upon the senior partner. As we look forward to the events that will define the 21st Century. the air war of World War I was fought with European airplanes. and what language will they speak? It is my goal that Americans will be always among them. I see a space program that will bring hope. the choice could not be more compelling. A critical component of this ability will always be our credibility in making agreements. As an example of how the choices that nations make matter. we need to keep them. made a greater commitment to the discovery. The question is: which humans. say from Bangalore to Bangkok. This is a lesson that cannot be learned too thoroughly: if we become complacent. The first step might be to explain that. I am convinced that leadership in the world of the 21st Century and beyond will go to the nation that seeks to fulfill the dreams of mankind. no doubt we would be listening to such giants of exploration as Vasco da Gama and Pedro Alvares Cabral. looking for the patterns that can provide guidance for our own time. Broad support for these goals is certainly there. and then later England. The President's Exploration Vision has established goals that people can understand and support . with funding levels at or below 1% of the Federal budget. I have mused often upon these lessons. not only for themselves. There are more recent examples of similar pivotal crossroads in our history. and honoring them. To ensure the success of the space program across a wide spectrum of political thought and down the generations. The space community has an obligation to communicate to the country our plans to ensure America's leadership in space exploration. three-quarters of Americans are supportive of our plans to return to the Moon and voyage to Mars. to lead this enterprise. he established the basis for England's claim to North America. just one decade into the age of flight. This is amazingly strong support for any government initiative. and settlement of new territories. but also for the future of humanity. To me. NASA's major predecessor.7% of the Federal budget! Still another key requirement for long-term leadership in space is the ability to build and maintain a strong international coalition of spacefaring nations. after Spain and Portugal expressed no interest in his ideas on finding a westward passage to Asia. If this is the future we wish to see. ninety years ago. A prime goal of the President's Vision for Space Exploration is to continue and expand this cooperation as we plan for human lunar return.
Cross-x Lebowski Space Affirmative **2AC Blocks** 17 .
Experts say it’s impossible without more money in the 2011 and 2012 budget. The funds would have directly been given to the Mars Mission. here is updated evidence: 18 . and the rest of the current money is allocated to fund less expensive missions. 3.Case OV 2AC (Inherency) On Inherency – 1. A. he is a board member of Financial Times and has an education at Oxford University. Even if you don’t like that card. 2. You should prefer our author. Extend that a dwindling fund from the government makes challenging missions from NASA impossible that’s Cookson in 3/18.
there has not been a major power war since World War 2 because that’s when the US became the World Hegemon. Both are on the verge of surpassing the US. C. Second. accountants. that’s Walt in 02. biologists. that’s Hawkins in 3/7.Cross-x Lebowski Space Affirmative Case OV 2AC (Space Race) 1. The lack of effort loses any credibility and faith in the US and cedes the hegemonic status to China and Russia. D. NASA creates a substantial amount of jobs when doing space missions. on the Impact Debate (Only if you are not doing the Case o/w block) – We access all of their war Impact cards. To make basic missions to places like the ISS we are dependent on the Russians which only injures the image of US space policy B. other nations look to the US to expand humanities reach. astrophysicists. The imbalance of power prevents any miscalculation. 3. and an increasing number of doctors are all involved when making a flight to Mars (and prevents your spending impact). extend that China. Engineers. 2. Russia is expanding their space system and China is creating the largest Space engineering center in the world. Empirically. and the power dampens other countries anxiety. NASA keeps US students under inspiration to further the limits in space. and there are none to be made soon. E. And. and India are all spending money to surpass the US in space policy that’s Svitak in 3/1. 19 . and promote international competitiveness which ensures sustained Hegemonic control. Russia. That aspires students to do better in school. The cancellation of the “Discovery” was the end of challenging missions in the US. In the status quo. we’ll isolate 5 internal links to Heg because of challenging Mars Mission A. First.
and biological warfare are all reasons to colonize Mars. C. that’s South China Morning Post in 96. asteroids. that’s Wooldridge in 09. that’s Schulze-Makuch in 10. we would still be doomed to the effects.Case OV 2AC (Get off the Rock) First. on the Impact Debate – Our case infinitely outweighs any DA impacts. This ideology will culminate in extinction. nuclear war. A. Climate change worsens the spread of disease and political instability. that’s National Voter in 08. Even if you didn’t like the other scenarios for extinction. Nations will become increasingly alarmed and wage wars to contain their share. and the rainforest is destroyed. and more rampant disease. The study showed that even if we had stabilized greenhouse gas emissions in the year 2000. Second. we are continuing to get warmer. And according to the World Meteorologist Organization. extinction is inevitable if we stay on Earth. Any disease like this will lead to extinction. Hawking believes that a supernova. Nations will feel safer if they are able to proliferate and destroy other countries first. the effects of global climate change are irreversible. In the status quo there are increased heat waves and droughts. B. super volcanoes. new diseases become more rampant and exposed to the world. As water and other resources begin to become scarcer. As new cities are built in third world countries. Research and experts in the field show that there is an ever-increasing risk of an airborne disease that is infinitely mutating and incurable. 20 . Climate change will only grow worse. food and water shortages. that’s UCAR in 05.
and India cannot surpass us in primacy unless we don’t do challenging missions like explore and colonize Mars. China. Russia. we solve for the Space Race Advantage – A. Our Griffin in 05 card indicates that space exploration and 21 . First.Cross-x Lebowski Space Affirmative Case OV 2AC (Solvency) 1.
Case OV 2AC (Case Outweighs) 22 .
** 23 .Cross-x Lebowski Space Affirmative **Case Ext.
The head of Roscosmos." Perminov said. as cited by the ITARTASS news agency. including . "Our countries already have a positive experience of mutually advantageous partnership in the space sphere." said a press release from the Israeli prime minister's office.six satellites in space. Russia sign space cooperation agreement. According to Roscosmos.com/2011/03/israel-russia-sign-space-cooperation-agreement/. DA: 3/27/11.I believe .” URL: http://channel6newsonline. the agreement will allow to create organizational and legal grounds for the development of mutually advantageous cooperation connected with research and the use of space technologies for peaceful purposes. which has a major infrastructure for space operations. and required efforts to establish contacts between Russian and Israeli organizations in the space-missile industry. "The agreement. said that bilateral cooperation in space is at the initial stage. Anatoly Perminov. France. navigation." "One year ago. enhances cooperation between the Israeli and Russian space agencies in the fields of space research. medicine and biology in space. India. research in advanced materials and launchings. The Israeli government adopted a five-year programme last year for the development of civil space. Canada." Netanyahu added. It will suffice to say that five Israeli spacecrafts have been put into orbit with Russian launch vehicles. He also said that Russia now produces the telecom spacecraft Amos-5 for an Israeli customer. The Russian Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos) and the Israel Space Agency on Sunday signed an agreement to increase cooperation in space exploration. 24 . "We have focused technology. Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu said the combination of Russia's developed industry and his country's advanced technology "could provide major benefits to both countries.S&R Israel/Russia Uniqueness Russia and Israel cooperation ensures that space policy primacy will be taken Channel 6 News 3/27/11. I told him [Technology Minister Daniel Hershovitz] that I thought that Israel's most natural partner for cooperation is Russia. Germany. “Israel. Soon we will have a dozen. The Israeli Space Agency already has cooperation agreements with space agencies of the US." he said. which was signed in the presence of Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu. Ukraine. the Netherlands and the European Union and also prepares for signing agreements with Brazil and South Korea. observation.
it is part of the American tradition.com/gps/retrieve. The development and colonization of space is key to maintain hegemony. "The Free World Is Losing NASA's Space Leadership. NASA is much more than an American tradition and patrimonial treasure.galegroup. A. The rights and the dreams of many countries are closely tied to NASA. robots on Mars. Nevertheless. Kepler. NASA's budget has been "redirected" to simple LEO applications and some inexpensive research programs. Is prestige important? Not only is prestige important. economic and military interests . The budget is important for any administration. cutting spending in a myriad of programs from small private activities to large public projects. NASA's successes and legacy are not only America's heritage. Apollo. Loureiro is a retired Military Major. Cassini-Huygens. In the United States. The rich history of NASA brought the world Voyager 1. but that of all free countries. As a consequence of the international financial crisis many countries around the world have decided to drastically reduce their budgets. but they will now have to continue alone or somehow partner with other countries. Space exploration is a matter that affects the rights and freedoms of people around the world. part of American life and by extension. DA: 3/23/11. can shine and succeed. political.the scientific and technological leader . We long to discover new scientific horizons in space that will improve our lives and allow our countries to succeed and to live in a peaceful future.not only in LEO. America's preeminence lights the free world and provides hope and support that other nations. Loureiro 10. but also in deep space exploration. to the astonishment of the world. who will guide the world in peaceful space applications? Without NASA there is a void of experienced leaders well grounded in science. from the time of early explorations of the universe to today's highly advanced technological achievements. Indeed. ESA and other recognized space agencies.and rely upon America to protect their freedoms. Luis. we are approaching a new era in which space will be exploited by private." URL: http://find. Without NASA's leadership. Citizens of foreign countries around the globe hope and pray for a changed view of NASA among America's political leaders. Can this be true? This is the agency that has contributed most to America's prestige with its innovative and extraordinary achievements in space. it is the world's hope for better space exploration and understanding.Cross-x Lebowski Space Affirmative S&R Heg Link Ext. Curiosity and so many more. 25 . Until now.do?contentSet=IACDocuments&resultListType=RESULT_LIST&qrySerId=Locale%28en%2C%2C%29%3AFQE%3D%28KE %2CNone%2C23%29Nasa+%22world+leadership%22%3AAnd%3ALQE%3D%28AC%2CNone %2C8%29fulltext %24&sgHitCountType=None&inPS=true&sort=DateDescend&searchType=BasicSearchForm&tabID=T003&prodI d=IPS&searchId=R1¤tPosition=2&userGroupName=lom_birminghps&docId=A220036864&docType=IAC &contentSet=IAC-Documents. Traditionally. most countries around the world wait for a signal from America . countries pursuing space programs have not competed against America or against each other. too. Will countries continue along the moral high ground of benefiting all mankind with the fruits of exploration and innovation or will space become a battleground for national greed and gain? America should not decide NASA's future merely on the basis of budgetary expedience. free states and prevent space power wars.
we step forward along a similar path. and there are many more milestones in the very near term. With the FY 2012 budget. NASA's Science Mission Directorate (SMD) continues to rewrite textbooks and make headlines around the world. a retired United States Marine Corps major general. and that will engage the public. “Statement of NASA Administrator Bolden: Senate Committee on Commerce. Our human spaceflight priorities in the FY 2012 budget request are to: * safely fly the last Space Shuttle flights this year and maintain safe access for humans to low-Earth orbit as we fully utilize the International Space Station. to expand our presence in space for knowledge and commerce. We have an incredible balance of human space flight. we will extend our reach with robots and scientific observatories to expand our knowledge of the universe beyond our own planet. and to support other agencies. Now. and education programs that will help us win the future. particularly efforts by the leadership and Members of this Committee. I want to thank you and all the Members of the Committee for the longstanding support that you have given to NASA. 2010. one of the final three shuttle flights to the International Space Station. supporting a diverse portfolio of programs. aeronautics and technology development. DA: 3/19/11. but so are the opportunities we have to achieve big things that will create a measurable impact on our economy. while making difficult choices to fund key priorities and reduce other areas in order to invest in the future. and Transportation”.com/news/viewsr. The President's FY 2012 budget request of $18. our world. I appreciate the opportunity to submit this statement for the record as part of the Committee's hearing today entitled Realizing NASA's Potential: Programmatic Challenges in the 21st Century.the International Space Station . technology and innovation programs that support long-term job growth and economic competitiveness and build upon our Nation's position as a technology leader. We will also continue our groundbreaking research into the next generation of aviation technologies. URL: http://www. 3/15/11. engineering.S. NASA brings good jobs and bolsters the economy in communities across the nation. Charles F. These are exciting and dynamic times for NASA.purpose crew capsule. which all of NASA's Mission Directorates. we will make the most of all of NASA's technological breakthroughs to improve life here at home. technology.spaceref. and former NASA astronaut. Discovery delivered a robotic crewmember. Challenging space exploration missions are key to fueling the economy and sustaining hegemony. science." This statement is from the new multi-year 2011 NASA Strategic Plan accompanying the FY 2012 budget request. Just last week. and our way of life. Robonaut-2 (R2). and cost-effective U. develop technologies to improve life. and encapsulates in broad terms the very reason for NASA's existence and everything that the American public expects from its space program. for science.7 billion for NASA continues the Agency's focus on a reinvigorated path of innovation and technological discovery leading to an array of challenging destinations and missions that increases our knowledge. science. We recently made some preliminary announcements about program offices to carry out our future work. aeronautics research. engaged in a wide range of activities in human spaceflight. But the proposed FY 2012 budget funds all major elements of the Authorization Act. Mission Support Offices and Centers helped to develop. At the same time.a path characterized by engagement of an expanded commercial space sector and technology development to mature the capabilities required by increasingly challenging missions designed to make discoveries and reach new destinations. economy.S. asteroids. * begin to lay the ground work for expanding human presence into deep space--the Moon. Because these are tough fiscal times. Within the human space flight arena.and the safety and viability of the astronauts aboard it. and mathematics education. and supplies that will support the station's scientific research and technology demonstrations. Kennedy. And we plan to release three additional high-priority solicitations spanning Space Technology's strategic investment areas. Bolden Jr. With the President's signing of the NASA Authorization Act of 2010 (P. our foremost priority is our current human spaceflight endeavor . The request supports an aggressive launch rate over the next two years with about 40 US and international missions to the ISS. This is a time of opportunity for NASA to shape a promising future for the Nation's space program. Science.-provided commercial access to low-Earth orbit first for cargo and then for crew as quickly as possible. * facilitate safe. Chairman and Members of the Committee. we completed the Space Shuttle Discovery's STS-133 mission. It establishes critical priorities and invests in the technologies and excellent science. We will educate the next generation of technology leaders through vital programs in science. At its core. these human spaceflight initiatives will enable America to retain its position as a leader in space exploration for generations to come. NASA has a clear direction and is moving forward. NASA appreciates the significant effort that advanced this important bipartisan legislation. Finally. NASA will carry out research. A chart summarizing the President's FY 2012 budget request for NASA is enclosed as Enclosure 1. 111-267) on October 11. reliable.L. who 50 years ago. tough choices had to be made. The request also maintains a strong commitment to human spaceflight beyond low Earth orbit.S&R Econ Link Ext. The challenges ahead are significant. Our space program continues to venture in ways that will have long-term benefits. We will continue the vital work to expand our abilities to observe our planet Earth and make that data available for decision makers. Mr.html?pid=36425. Across 26 . Charles is the current Administrator of NASA. NASA's mission remains fundamentally the same as it always has been and supports our new vision: "To reach for new heights and reveal the unknown so that what we do and learn will benefit all humankind. and aeronautics . Taken together. and * pursue technology development that is needed to carry humans farther into the solar system. set the United States on a path that resulted in a national effort to produce an unprecedented achievement. And we will build the future through those investments in American industry to create a new job-producing engine for the U. technology development. This year we honor the legacy of President John F. eventually Mars--through development of a powerful heavy-lift rocket and multi.
often under difficult circumstances. While the request is above the authorized level for 2012. efficiency and environmental friendliness of air travel. The Agency's fundamental and integrated systems research and testing will continue to generate improvements and economic impacts felt by the general flying public as well as the aeronautics community. These are tremendously exciting and dynamic times for the U. a heavy-lift rocket that will be the first step on our eventual journeys to destinations beyond LEO. as well as an invaluable National Laboratory for non-NASA and nongovernmental users.the skilled civil servants and contractors . The ISS will serve as a fully functional and permanently crewed research laboratory and technology testbed. * In 2012. combined with significant corporate investments. As with the SLS. The program will re-plan its activities based on available FY 2011 funding to align with 2010 NASA Authorization's focus areas. this is a top Agency priority.* We also continue to work with industry to develop the concepts and technologies for the aircraft of tomorrow. Launch Services. we will make progress in developing a new Space Launch System (SLS). we also facilitate commercial uses of space. and will support the initial Space Technology Policy Congress requested in the NASA Authorization Act. exploration. and transforming KSC into a modern facility that benefits all range users.* NASA will continue to expand commercial access to space and work with our partners to achieve milestones in the Commercial Orbital Transportation Services (COTS) Program. while building our Nation's global economic competitiveness through the creation of new products and services.* Research and Analysis programs will use data from an array of sources. expanding capabilities to support SLS. ESMD will continue to set the prioritized requirements for these efforts and will serve as the primary customer of Space Technology's Exploration-specific activities. NASA believes the amount is critical. we not only create multiple means for accessing LEO. NASA aims to achieve a deep scientific understanding of Earth. * Our work continues to address the challenge of meeting the growing technology and capacity needs of the Next Generation air travel system. The establishment last year of the Office of the Chief Technologist (OCT) enabled NASA to begin moving toward the technological breakthroughs needed to meet our Nation's space exploration goals. space program. The Shuttle program accomplished many outstanding things for this Nation. disruptive technology that industry cannot tackle today. bringing the agency a wide range of mission. and then proceed with the disposition of most Space Shuttle assets after the retirement of the fleet. It will be the largest rover ever to reach the Red Planet and will search for evidence of both past and present life.* The 21st Century Space Launch Complex program will focus on upgrades to the Florida launch range. * OCT continues to manage SBIR and STTR.* The budget reflects the scientific priorities for astrophysics as expressed in the recent Decadal Survey of the National Academy of Sciences. acquisition strategy decisions will be finalized by this summer.* We will fly out the Space Shuttle in 2011. other planets and solar system bodies. OCT will sponsor a portfolio of both competitive and strategically-guided technology investments. and Commercial Crew activities. balloons.* The Mars Science Laboratory will launch later this year and arrive at Mars in August 2012. * NASA's work on green aviation technologies that improve fuel efficiency and reduce noise continues apace.* A continued focus on Earth Science sees us continuing development of the Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2) for launch in 2013 and other initiatives to collect data about our home planet across the spectrum. to ensure that we will have one or more companies that can transport American astronauts to the ISS. science. space weather.S. and development of other smaller missions and instruments to study the Sun will get underway here on the ground.Cross-x Lebowski Space Affirmative disciplines and geographic regions worldwide. and aeronautics programs and projects successful. The Agency is laying the foundation for the robotic and human expeditions of the future while meeting today's needs for scientific information to address national concerns about global change. sustainable jobs.With the appointment of a new Chief Scientist NASA will pursue an integrated. commercial cargo/launch services providers. segment of the ISS will be the crowning achievement of the Space Shuttle's nearly 30-year history. to make our human spaceflight.S. and high-quality. NASA's Education programs this year focus on widening the pipeline of students pursuing coursework in science. including spacecraft. * The Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) mission will launch in early 2012 and become the first focusing hard X-ray telescope to orbit Earth. NASA matures the technology required for our future missions in science and exploration while improving the capabilities and lowering the cost of other government agencies and commercial activities. and facilitates emerging commercial space activities Recognizing that our work must continuously inspire not only the public at large but also students at all levels. * In FY 2012. develops technology partnerships. and spark an engine for long-term job growth. NASA recognizes that these programmatic changes will continue to personally affect thousands of NASA civil servants and contractors who have worked countless hours. providing a critical stepping stone for exploration and future international cooperation. NASA will strive to utilize our workforce in a manner that will ensure that the Nation maintains NASA's greatest asset . The final product will establish a mechanism for prioritizing NASA's technology investments. MPCV. our star system in its entirety. and eliminates the potential for overlap had NASA's space technology investments been split among two accounts. and education. and payloads on the ISS. NASA will award a cooperative agreement to an independent non-profit organization (NPO) with responsibility to further develop national uses of the ISS.* We will continue work on a Multi Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) that will build on the human safety features.specific technologies to enable NASA's deep space human exploration future. which define pathways to advance the Nation's capabilities in space and establish a foundation for the Agency's future investments in technology and innovation. sounding rockets.* The Radiation Belt Storm Probe mission will launch next year. * As leader of the Space Technology Program.* Most importantly. and large.while working to increase the efficiency and cost-effectiveness in all of its operations. and the universe beyond. * Completing assembly of the U. and systems of the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle. The budget supports small-. We will continue to evaluate the vast amounts of data we receive from dozens of ongoing missions supported by this budget. NASA recently developed draft space technology roadmaps. and integrates technology transfer efforts ensure NASA technologies are infused into commercial applications. and transfer current NASA biological and physical research to the NPO in future years. As we direct resources toward developing these capabilities. 27 . NASA's Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD) continues to improve the safety. strategic approach to its scientific work across Mission Directorates and programs. NASA is working collaboratively with the National Research Council (NRC) to refine these roadmaps. With retirement of the Space Shuttle in 2011. including cross organizational coordination between 21stCSLC. and an expanded Commercial Crew Development (CCDev) program. During FY 2011. or *NextGen. help lower costs. The NPO will oversee all ISS research involving organizations other than NASA. These efforts focus on developing the long-range. medium-. designs. new business and industries. As we continue our work to consolidate the Exploration Systems and Space Operations Mission Directorates (ESMD and SOMD). both groups will support our current human spaceflight programs and continue work on technologies to expand our future capabilities. a significant portion of the Exploration Technology Development Program is moved from ESMD to Space Technology.focused and transformative technologies that will enable revolutionary approaches to achieving NASA's current and future missions. The integration of Exploration Technology activities with Space Technology creates one robust space technology budget line. By investing in high payoff.scale activities recommended by the Decadal Survey.* in coordination with the FAA and other stakeholders in airspace efficiency. including STS-135 if funds are available. the Commercial Resupply Services (CRS) effort. * In OCT's crosscutting role. and in 2012 we look forward to moving our retired Orbiters to museums and science centers across the country to inspire the next generation of explorers. I commend the investment that these dedicated Americans have made and will continue to make in our Nation's space and aeronautics programs.
111-267) has provided us with clear direction that enables the Agency to conduct important research on the ISS. See Enclosure 2 for a more detail summary of each activity. develop new technologies that will have applications to both space exploration and life on Earth. encouraging. Conclusion As we enter the second half-century of human spaceflight.* Among NASA's Education activities will be a continued Summer of Innovation. and nurturing the young minds of today. As President Obama has said. 28 . engineering and mathematics (STEM). the Nation can look back upon NASA's accomplishments with pride. develop new launch vehicle and crew transportation capabilities to go beyond the bounds of LEO. NASA's education program in FY 2012 and beyond will focus and strengthen the Agency's tradition of investing in the Nation's education programs and supporting the country's educators who play a key role in inspiring. and engineering. improve aviation systems and safety. science. technology." * The FY 2012 request for NASA's Office of Education capitalizes on the excitement of NASA's mission through innovative approaches that inspire educator and student interest and proficiency in STEM disciplines. but we can also look forward with anticipation to many more achievements to come. The NASA Authorization Act of 2010 (P. And that leadership tomorrow depends on how we educate our students today. where we challenge ourselves and create a global space enterprise with positive ramifications across the world. All of these activities place NASA in the forefront of a bright future for America. building on the successful model piloted with four states this past year. especially in math. "Our future depends on reaffirming America's role as the world's engine of scientific discovery and technological innovation.L. and we look forward to implementing it. The FY 2012 budget request provides the resources for NASA to innovate and make discoveries on many fronts. and inspire the teachers and students of our country. who will manage and lead the Nation's laboratories and research centers of tomorrow.technology. utilize a dazzling array of spacecraft to study the depths of the cosmos while taking the measure of our home planet. In developing and executing the challenging missions that only NASA can do. we contribute new knowledge and technologies that enhance the nation's ability to compete on the global stage and help to secure a more prosperous future.
I guess Gibson has the courage to not believe that either. "put the lives and wellbeing of billions of people at increased risk." The number of scientific organizations whose official position support Gibson's side is zero. I wonder if Gibson thinks those photos of severely depleted reservoirs. in Rep. Moench is a physicist that studies the effects of climate change and global warming. a direct consequence of warmer winters.standard. 29 . Note these words from the president of the WMA. "The biggest global health threat of the 21st century. chemists. URL: http://www. professor of meteorology at MIT. Less conservative climate scenarios are so catastrophic that adaptation might be unachievable. as are the photos of the massive die off the world's northern forests from pine beetle destruction. astronomers and now even the medical profession. written by 29 distinguished medical scientists called the climate consequences of the greenhouse gas phenomenon. massive threat to global health that will likely eclipse the major known pandemics as the leading cause of death and disease in the 21st century. including rampant disease and resource wars – several reputable sources agree that this will lead to extinction. Gibson must also believe that all the dramatic photos of the world's shrinking glaciers and polar ice caps are fake. and emaciated and dying children. lakes and streams throughout the Western United States are also fake or have nothing to do with human-caused climate change either. Biologists examining all the Earth's ecosystems.. Let me repeat that score -. including our oceans. "tipping the whole world into a danger zone. but what is needed now is a public health movement that frames the threat of the climate crisis for humankind as a health issue.Cross-x Lebowski Space Affirmative Climate Change Inevitable Ext.S."To be fair a few "maverick" scientists have one foot. Brian Moench 10. warn that the climate crisis and loss of habitat is precipitating the largest and most rapid plant and animal species extinction in the history of the Earth. the U. Here’s more evidence that the effects of climate change are inevitable.80 to 0. one of the world's most prestigious medical journals. Kerry Gibson. is creating millions of climate refugees because of ruined crops. In one corner you have Rep. In another four years 80 percent of the massive forests of British Columbia will have been destroyed by pine beetles. “Climate change is inevitable”. He doesn't believe there is evidence that smoking causes lung cancer either. including the American Medical Association (AMA) and the World Medical Association (WMA).25 million acres so far -are just an optical illusion. biologists. or a couple of toes at least. geologists. Recently the lead article in the Lancet. The countries that provide two thirds of the world's agricultural output are already experiencing consequences of the climate crisis. DA: 3/26/11. Canada. "Even the most conservative estimates are profoundly disturbing and demand action. dead livestock. He must also believe that the huge swaths of pine beetle destroyed forests in the Western U. hopelessness. They all disagree with Rep. In the other corner you have 97 percent of all climate scientists and virtually the entire world's scientific community. engineers. continuing temperature rises. If someone out there has not made up their mind about whether the climate crisis is real or not you have a couple of starkly contrasting choices to bet on. Yet Gibson wants the entire state to accept his scientific expertise. His "maverick" world view is not limited to climate science. 9 degrees F or more by then. including 80 international scientific societies representing the world's physicists. who is so convinced that there is no climate crisis that he has sponsored a resolution before the legislature insisting that the EPA cease any attempt to limit greenhouse gases." The report goes on to state that. could soon go into steep decline in some regions." and will. in many countries unprecedented drought. From reports published by the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences agricultural experts now warn that global agriculture. The most highly decorated is Richard Lindzen. and Australia isn't related to climate either.S. Apparently the alarming increase in forest fires in Siberia.net/topics/opinion/2010/02/11/climate-change-inevitable. Drought. Apparently he has better satellites than NASA. Gibson's corner. are expected to start adversely affecting crops worldwide. more accurate computers and thermometers than the World Meteorological Organization. "Climate change represents an inevitable. that you can see with your own eyes -. Gibson's global warming denial is rich with irony because he is a farmer and the worldwide droughts that are already underway because of climate change obviously threaten the livelihood of farmers more than anyone else. and more public health expertise than the world's doctors. even though human survival depends on the natural resources derived from intact ecosystems. a dairy and crop farmer from Ogden. already stressed by climate change. By mid-century. according to Gibson. meteorologists. Gibson." The authors said that health professionals have come late to this debate.
**AT: Disadvantages** 30 .
URL: http://www. and the universe beyond. I want to thank you and all the Members of the Committee for the longstanding support that you have given to NASA. other planets and solar system bodies. and our way of life. NASA will carry out research. This is a time of opportunity for NASA to shape a promising future for the Nation's space program. It establishes critical priorities and invests in the technologies and excellent science. Our human spaceflight priorities in the FY 2012 budget request are to: * safely fly the last Space Shuttle flights this year and maintain safe access for humans to low-Earth orbit as we fully utilize the International Space Station. Bolden Jr. our foremost priority is our current human spaceflight endeavor . supporting a diverse portfolio of programs.spaceref. Because these are tough fiscal times. NASA's mission remains fundamentally the same as it always has been and supports our new vision: "To reach for new heights and reveal the unknown so that what we do and learn will benefit all humankind.S.com/news/viewsr. for science. engineering. we step forward along a similar path. a retired United States Marine Corps major general. aeronautics research.the International Space Station . Mr. Charles F. The challenges ahead are significant. We recently made some preliminary announcements about program offices to carry out our future work. 2010. NASA's Science Mission Directorate (SMD) continues to rewrite textbooks and make headlines around the world. * facilitate safe. I appreciate the opportunity to submit this statement for the record as part of the Committee's hearing today entitled Realizing NASA's Potential: Programmatic Challenges in the 21st Century. Charles is the current Administrator of NASA. NASA brings good jobs and bolsters the economy in communities across the nation. engaged in a wide range of activities in human spaceflight.a path characterized by engagement of an expanded commercial space sector and technology development to mature the capabilities required by increasingly challenging missions designed to make discoveries and reach new destinations. We will continue the vital work to expand our abilities to observe our planet Earth and make that data available for decision makers. develop technologies to improve life. our star system in its entirety. new business and industries. DA: 3/19/11. who 50 years ago. but so are the opportunities we have to achieve big things that will create a measurable impact on our economy. But the proposed FY 2012 budget funds all major elements of the Authorization Act. Robonaut-2 (R2). and that will engage the public. Finally. particularly efforts by the leadership and Members of this Committee. And we will build the future through those investments in American industry to create a new job-producing engine for the U. NASA has a clear direction and is moving forward. 3/15/11. Chairman and Members of the Committee.Cross-x Lebowski Space Affirmative AT: Spending/Economy DA (1/3) 1. The President's FY 2012 budget request of $18. We have an incredible balance of human space flight. These are exciting and dynamic times for NASA.purpose crew capsule. aeronautics and technology development. while making difficult choices to fund key priorities and reduce other areas in order to invest in the future. Our space program continues to venture in ways that will have long-term benefits. our world. And we plan to release three additional high-priority solicitations spanning Space Technology's strategic investment areas. Taken together. which all of NASA's Mission Directorates. The Agency is laying the foundation for the robotic and human expeditions of the future while 31 . science. and supplies that will support the station's scientific research and technology demonstrations.html?pid=36425. and to support other agencies. and mathematics education.S. and former NASA astronaut. these human spaceflight initiatives will enable America to retain its position as a leader in space exploration for generations to come. and aeronautics . one of the final three shuttle flights to the International Space Station." This statement is from the new multi-year 2011 NASA Strategic Plan accompanying the FY 2012 budget request. and education programs that will help us win the future. The request also maintains a strong commitment to human spaceflight beyond low Earth orbit. Kennedy. science. With the President's signing of the NASA Authorization Act of 2010 (P. We will also continue our groundbreaking research into the next generation of aviation technologies. We will educate the next generation of technology leaders through vital programs in science. This year we honor the legacy of President John F. asteroids.and the safety and viability of the astronauts aboard it. and there are many more milestones in the very near term. NASA aims to achieve a deep scientific understanding of Earth. “Statement of NASA Administrator Bolden: Senate Committee on Commerce. we will extend our reach with robots and scientific observatories to expand our knowledge of the universe beyond our own planet. sustainable jobs and engaging the private industry. tough choices had to be made. Discovery delivered a robotic crewmember. 111-267) on October 11.L. technology and innovation programs that support long-term job growth and economic competitiveness and build upon our Nation's position as a technology leader. Science. Within the human space flight arena. With the FY 2012 budget. and * pursue technology development that is needed to carry humans farther into the solar system. technology development.-provided commercial access to low-Earth orbit first for cargo and then for crew as quickly as possible. The request supports an aggressive launch rate over the next two years with about 40 US and international missions to the ISS. to expand our presence in space for knowledge and commerce. reliable. high-quality. set the United States on a path that resulted in a national effort to produce an unprecedented achievement. we completed the Space Shuttle Discovery's STS-133 mission. economy. and Transportation”. Just last week. At its core. eventually Mars--through development of a powerful heavy-lift rocket and multi. and encapsulates in broad terms the very reason for NASA's existence and everything that the American public expects from its space program. Now.7 billion for NASA continues the Agency's focus on a reinvigorated path of innovation and technological discovery leading to an array of challenging destinations and missions that increases our knowledge. Link Turn – The plan counteracts spending by building economic competitiveness through the creation of new products and services. At the same time. Mission Support Offices and Centers helped to develop. we will make the most of all of NASA's technological breakthroughs to improve life here at home. NASA appreciates the significant effort that advanced this important bipartisan legislation. Across disciplines and geographic regions worldwide. and cost-effective U. technology. A chart summarizing the President's FY 2012 budget request for NASA is enclosed as Enclosure 1. * begin to lay the ground work for expanding human presence into deep space--the Moon.
2. commercial cargo/launch services providers. During FY 2011. we will make progress in developing a new Space Launch System (SLS). The program will re-plan its activities based on available FY 2011 funding to align with 2010 NASA Authorization's focus areas. NASA believes the amount is critical. medium-. and Commercial Crew activities.* The 21st Century Space Launch Complex program will focus on upgrades to the Florida launch range. while building our Nation's global economic competitiveness through the creation of new products and services. we also facilitate commercial uses of space. and aeronautics programs and projects successful. balloons. And other scary tales that 32 .* NASA will continue to expand commercial access to space and work with our partners to achieve milestones in the Commercial Orbital Transportation Services (COTS) Program. and spark an engine for long-term job growth. sounding rockets. That cuts costs by over 80%. sustainable jobs. NASA's Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD) continues to improve the safety. or *NextGen.the skilled civil servants and contractors while working to increase the efficiency and cost-effectiveness in all of its operations. The ISS will serve as a fully functional and permanently crewed research laboratory and technology testbed. We will continue to evaluate the vast amounts of data we receive from dozens of ongoing missions supported by this budget. Not Unique – We have given NASA substantial amounts of capital in the past to do just as expensive missions AT: Spending/Economy DA (2/3) 5. expanding capabilities to support SLS. and then proceed with the disposition of most Space Shuttle assets after the retirement of the fleet.* The Mars Science Laboratory will launch later this year and arrive at Mars in August 2012. * Completing assembly of the U. this is a top Agency priority. 4. and payloads on the ISS. The NPO will oversee all ISS research involving organizations other than NASA. designs. assumes multiple scenarios Moses Naim 10. and systems of the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle. and development of other smaller missions and instruments to study the Sun will get underway here on the ground.* Research and Analysis programs will use data from an array of sources. Launch Services. new business and industries. acquisition strategy decisions will be finalized by this summer. the Commercial Resupply Services (CRS) effort. as well as an invaluable National Laboratory for non-NASA and nongovernmental users. to ensure that we will have one or more companies that can transport American astronauts to the ISS. 3. help lower costs. including STS-135 if funds are available. segment of the ISS will be the crowning achievement of the Space Shuttle's nearly 30-year history. economic decline does nothing.* The budget reflects the scientific priorities for astrophysics as expressed in the recent Decadal Survey of the National Academy of Sciences. These are tremendously exciting and dynamic times for the U.* in coordination with the FAA and other stakeholders in airspace efficiency. and an expanded Commercial Crew Development (CCDev) program. and transforming KSC into a modern facility that benefits all range users. and in 2012 we look forward to moving our retired Orbiters to museums and science centers across the country to inspire the next generation of explorers. a heavy-lift rocket that will be the first step on our eventual journeys to destinations beyond LEO. * NASA's work on green aviation technologies that improve fuel efficiency and reduce noise continues apace. While the request is above the authorized level for 2012. The world's growing economies didn't grind to a halt.S. No Link – Their evidence doesn’t assume that we send astronauts on a one way trip to Mars. space program.meeting today's needs for scientific information to address national concerns about global change. Tariffs didn't come roaring back. strategic approach to its scientific work across Mission Directorates and programs.* Most importantly. that’s our Kazan 10 evidence. * The Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) mission will launch in early 2012 and become the first focusing hard X-ray telescope to orbit Earth. both groups will support our current human spaceflight programs and continue work on technologies to expand our future capabilities. providing a critical stepping stone for exploration and future international cooperation. I commend the investment that these dedicated Americans have made and will continue to make in our Nation's space and aeronautics programs. As we continue our work to consolidate the Exploration Systems and Space Operations Mission Directorates (ESMD and SOMD). NASA will strive to utilize our workforce in a manner that will ensure that the Nation maintains NASA's greatest asset . and large. No Impact – Empirically. often under difficult circumstances.* We will continue work on a Multi Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) that will build on the human safety features. As we direct resources toward developing these capabilities. The establishment last year of the Office of the Chief Technologist (OCT) enabled NASA to begin moving toward the technological breakthroughs needed to meet our Nation's space exploration goals. “It didn't happen: the dollar didn't crash. and high-quality. space weather. science. * Our work continues to address the challenge of meeting the growing technology and capacity needs of the Next Generation air travel system. including cross organizational coordination between 21stCSLC. including spacecraft. It will be the largest rover ever to reach the Red Planet and will search for evidence of both past and present life.* We also continue to work with industry to develop the concepts and technologies for the aircraft of tomorrow. The Agency's fundamental and integrated systems research and testing will continue to generate improvements and economic impacts felt by the general flying public as well as the aeronautics community. combined with significant corporate investments. MPCV.* A continued focus on Earth Science sees us continuing development of the Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2) for launch in 2013 and other initiatives to collect data about our home planet across the spectrum.* The Radiation Belt Storm Probe mission will launch next year. and education. and transfer current NASA biological and physical research to the NPO in future years. NASA recognizes that these programmatic changes will continue to personally affect thousands of NASA civil servants and contractors who have worked countless hours.scale activities recommended by the Decadal Survey.* We will fly out the Space Shuttle in 2011. to make our human spaceflight. we not only create multiple means for accessing LEO. NASA will award a cooperative agreement to an independent non-profit organization (NPO) with responsibility to further develop national uses of the ISS. As with the SLS. * In 2012. that’s our Schulze-Makuch 10 and Geranios 10 evidence.S. The Shuttle program accomplished many outstanding things for this Nation. efficiency and environmental friendliness of air travel. With retirement of the Space Shuttle in 2011. The budget supports small-. Naim is the editor in Chief of Foreign Policy Magazine. Link Turn – The plan helps the economy by engaging the private sector.With the appointment of a new Chief Scientist NASA will pursue an integrated.
the U. we'll have another lost decade. and Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac crashed.. as Financial Times columnist Martin Wolf noted. and Japan had begun to grow again. 33 . such as Mexico and Iran. It will topple governments that were moderate and bring in governments that are extreme. It didn't. Electorates did punish governments for the economic hard times. and risks abound. It didn't happen. It is bound to destabilize some countries." warned Harvard University's Kenneth Rogoff. the economies of the United States." calling the turbulence more severe than during the Great Depression. Even today. By the second half of 2009.S. at the height of the crisis. By fall of 2009. and the perception that it is too unsafe to use or that it can suddenly crash out of existence has largely dissipated." No. Violent political turmoil will become more common. Some emerging economies relied on their domestic markets. but also measures such as increased tariffs or import restrictions imposed in 17 of the G-20 countries. credit is scarce. the same experts who failed to foresee the economic crisis were also blindsided by the speed of the recovery.” URL:http://find.Cross-x Space Affirmative Lebowski failed to come true during the crisis. But devaluation has not turned out to be the catastrophic crash predicted by the pessimists. Then. including not only the U. It didn't. the wise men predicted a total system meltdown. fiscal deficit skyrocketed and anxieties about a dollar devaluation mounted. and many of the largest developing economies." prophesied AT: Spending/Economy DA (3/3) Harvard historian Niall Ferguson last spring. in the fall of 2008. The U. but they started to grow again in the second half of 2009 as economies recovered. investors from around the world sought refuge in the U. banks are still failing. But the financial system is working. and a meaningful increase in trade barriers cannot be ruled out.do?contentSet=IACDocuments&resultListType=RESULT_LIST&qrySerId=Locale%28en%2C%2C%29%3AFQE%3D%28KE %2CNone%2C100%29Just+a+few+months+ago %2C+the+consensus+among+influential+thinkers+was+that+the+economic+crisis+would+u %24&sgHitCountType=None&inPS=true&sort=DateDescend&searchType=BasicSearchForm&tabID=T002&prodI d=IPS&searchId=R2¤tPosition=1&userGroupName=lom_birminghps&docId=A216896333&docType=IAC &contentSet=IAC-Documents. It will cause civil wars to break out that have been dormant. had taken measures in anticipation of an eventual global slowdown. another distinguished economist. Yet one year later." warned investment guru Warren Buffett. international conflicts. for example. and though the world did change in important ways for the worse--the International Monetary Fund. Instead. as Citigroup and many other pillars of the financial system teetered on the brink. Just a few months ago.S.S. the American currency's value increased 20 percent between July 2008 and March 2009. we now know just how off they were. had warned that the global financial crisis was bound to lead to surges in protectionism as governments sought to blame foreigners for their problems. civil wars. Pascal Lamy. Fellow financial wizard George Soros agreed.. But decouple they did. The economy has "fallen off a cliff. Xenophobic outbursts." Roubini was far from the only pessimist.S. Bear Stearns. "The dollar's correction is not just natural. financial market affected banking systems everywhere. Rather.S. From there to visions of martial law imposed to control street protests and the looting of bank offices was just an easy step for thousands of Internet-fueled conspiracy theorists. At first. government bailed out troubled companies and stimulated the economy with aggressive public spending. estimates that the global economy's new and permanent trajectory is a 10 percent lower rate of GDP growth than before the crisis--the scary predictions for the most part failed to materialize. Not all developing countries managed to escape the worst of the crisis--and many. It didn't. The crisis in rich countries will drag down developing ones. From telling us about the imminent collapse of the international financial system to prophecies of a 10-year recession. As the economies of America and Europe screeched to a halt during the nightmarish first quarter of 2009. for example. low exposure to toxic financial assets. But this was mostly in Europe and mostly peaceful and democratic. others on exports to other growing countries (China. echoing a widely held sentiment among trade experts. Although the crash did cause severe economic damage and widespread human suffering. In late 2008 he warned that radical governmental actions at best would prevent "what will now be an ugly and nasty two-year recession and financial crisis from turning into a systemic meltdown and a decade-long economic depression. a report from the European Union concluded that "a widespread and systemic escalation of protectionism has been prevented. Still others had ample foreign reserves. It didn't. part of a broader trend in which emerging markets fared better through the crisis than the world's most advanced economies. "is that instead of having a few bad years. currency had lost value. were growing at an even faster pace. The economic crisis will last for at least two years and maybe even a decade. the financial system is still frail. As Lehman Brothers. like Chile. the U." Protectionism will surge. such as China. India." It turned out that radical policy reactions were far more effective than anyone had expected in shortening the life of the recession. and comparing the situation to the demise of the Soviet Union.. It will lower the risk of deflation in the U." he said in October 2008. DA: 3/27/11. were deeply hurt--but many others managed to avoid the fate of the advanced economies. "That is exactly what happened in the 1930s when [protectionism] was the virus that spread the crisis all over the place.com/gps/retrieve. director-general of the World Trade Organization. dollar. and facilitate the correction of the global 'imbalances' that helped cause the crisis. Congress's much-derided "Buy American" provision. More than a year into the crisis. displaced the United States last year as Brazil's top export market). it is helpful. or. protectionism. dollar will crash. noting the world economy was on "life support. Sadly. as the U. This was surely a far cry from the doom-laden--and widely echoed--prophecies of economist Nouriel Roubini.S. here are six of the most common predictions about the crisis that have been proven wrong: The international financial system will collapse. "A crisis of this magnitude is bound to increase political [conflict]. and as stock markets everywhere entered into free fall. Europe. it turns out: They aren't." The protectionist temptation is always there. These things are pretty predictable. and street riots were only some of the dire consequences expected by the experts. It didn't.S. But it has not happened yet. the idea that emerging economies could "decouple" from the advanced ones was widely mocked.S. collapsing currencies. and Brazil. And it is true that many governments dabbled in protectionism. "There will be blood. "The danger. Trade flows did drop dramatically in late 2008 and early 2009. It didn't. As the rich countries entered a deep recession and the woes of the U.galegroup. The natural corollary of such doomsday scenarios was the possibility that depositors would lose access to the funds in their bank accounts. China's economy accelerated. the consensus among influential thinkers was that the economic crisis would unleash a wave of geopolitical plagues.
7. Uniqueness overwhelms the Link – If the economy is actually doing well now. 34 . No Internal Link – Make them name one significant way that this economic collapse is different than the 11 other economic collapses in America’s history. something abstract like a NASA project won’t hurt it.6. 8. No Impact – Our Hawkins 3/7 is indicative that AIG was bailed out with more money in one day than NASA’s budget has accumulated for the last 10 years.
Durable fiat means that the plan happens regardless of funding issues – we should be debating about the implications of the plan. We solve for economic decline – cross apply from the answers we read from the Spending/Economy DA 2. The economic decline would happen post plan. still a chance of solvency Case outweighs – any risk of extinction in the status quo means that its try-or-die for the Aff. 3. 35 .Cross-x Lebowski Space Affirmative AT: Econ Decline = Cut Space Programs 1. 4.
**AT: Counterplans** 36 .
The latter is true for asteroids as well. Mahaney and Dohm 2010).. The Moon is the closest object and does provide some shelter (e. establishing a permanent multicultural and multinational human presence on another world would have major beneficial political and social implications for Earth. “To Boldly Go: A One-Way Human Mission to Mars”.abadss.com/forum/1125-universe-space/157531journal-cosmology. 2005. Levin and Straat 1977. 1996. URL: http://www. provide a unique way to boost Hegemony. Baker et al. A permanent human presence on Mars would open the way to comparative planetology on a scale unimagined by any former generation. A scientific facility on Mars might therefore be a unique opportunity to study an alien life form and a second evolutionary record. 2005. Schulze-Makuch et al. Dirk is an Associate professor of geology and astrobiology at Washington State University. 2008. In the fullness of time. the Moon and Mars. perhaps deep beneath the surface (Lederberg and Sagan 1962. microbial life. and serve as a strong unifying and uplifting theme for all humanity. McKay et al. Mars is our second closest planetary neighbor (after Venus) and a trip to Mars at the most favorable launch option takes about six months with current chemical rocket technology. and research new medicine with the discovery of new life. an intensive study of ancient and modern Mars will cast important light on the origin of life on Earth.g. Mars is by far the most promising for sustained colonization and development. because it is similar in many respects to Earth and. Finally. DA: 3/22/11. Mars is the only body that can be inhabited. lava tube caves). Mars also conceals a wealth of geological and astronomical data that is almost impossible to access from Earth using robotic probes. Wierzchos et al. or once hosted. and to develop novel biotechnology therefrom. an atmosphere. 2010. Dirk Schulze-Makuch 10. Astrobiologists agree that there is a fair probability that Mars hosts. but in all other respects falls short compared to the variety of resources available on Mars. The first potential colonization targets would be asteroids. a Mars colony is attractive for other reasons. Darling and Schulze-Makuch 2010. McKay and Stoker 1989.Cross-x Lebowski Space Affirmative AT: Colonize X (Not Mars) CP 1. 1981. In addition to offering humanity a "lifeboat" in the event of a mega-catastrophe. a Mars base would offer a springboard for human/robotic exploration of the outer solar system and the asteroid belt. abundant water and carbon dioxide. possesses a moderate surface gravity. At the very least. crucially. together with a range of essential minerals. Levin 2010.html. 37 .
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