800 Cranes, Rigging, and Lifting

Abstract
This section will facilitate the practical design of rigging by Civil Engineers of all experience levels and assist other Company personnel involved in the development, planning, and execution of lifts. The section defines commonly used rigging terms; describes rigging components and equipment; establishes rigging procedure and safety guidelines; outlines methods for finding loads in slings and designing padeyes; makes recommendations for test lifts and rigging component inspection. The type of equipment that usually requires lifting in a refinery, chemical plant, or producing location includes vertical columns, vertical and horizontal vessels, pumps, heat exchangers, compressors, electrical equipment, air coolers, small shopwelded tanks, and other miscellaneous items. For requirements for lifting services, see the Model Specification CIV-MS-4782, Lifting Services, included in Section 2000 of this manual. This engineering guideline and accompanying Model Specification do not include requirements for offshore lifting. Contents 810 811 812 813 814 820 821 822 830 831 832 833 834 835 Organizing a Lift General Procedure for Evaluating and Performing a Lift Data Required Rigging Responsibilities Lift Classification Transportation and Lifting Methods Transportation Method Lifting Method Safety Considerations Good Rigging Practices Working Around Power Lines and Near Electrical Equipment Working in Confined Spaces Voids And Holes Crane Capacity Considerations 800-11 800-4 Page 800-3

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840 841 842 850 851 852 853 854 855 856 860 861 862 863 864 865 870 880 890

Inspection and Testing Inspection Testing Rigging Diagrams, and Rigging Analysis and Design Rigging Diagrams Loads Factors of Safety Sling Forces Wire Rope Stretch Lifting Lugs (Padeyes) General Rigging Information Types Of Lifting Equipment Miscellaneous Rigging Equipment Wire Rope Slings Hitches For Wire Rope Glossary Model Specification References

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810 Organizing a Lift
811 General Procedure for Evaluating and Performing a Lift
The following steps need to be completed when performing a major or critical lift: • • • • • • • • • • • Collect all the required data—Section 812 Determine safety considerations—Section 830 Choose lifting method—Section 822 Select transportation method—Section 821 Prepare rigging diagram—Section 851 Assemble lifting equipment Verify crane capacity certificate Inspect rigging equipment and components—Section 841 Proof test slings and shackles where required Designate qualified signal man Make trial run

812 Data Required
All rigging operations require a complete investigation in order to select the method best suited for the lift. The items to be investigated depend on the complexity of the lift. The following list outlines the basic information required before selecting a method: • • • Dimensions, weight, center of gravity, and configuration of the piece or pieces to be lifted Inventory of available lifting equipment Method of attachment for handling. If attachment points or lifting lugs are provided on the piece, verify that they are intended for handling the entire piece and not a component. Restrictions by the equipment fabricator to prevent damage to the equipment during handling Sequence of proper assembly, when a piece consists of components Type, size, and number of slings Type of hitch Requirements for shipping skids or other handling devices and their availability Path of movement from the time equipment to be lifted is received to point of final setting Lateral and overhead clearances in areas of restricted movement, particularly from power lines

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Crane operating radius Load restrictions on floors, structures, and access roads Proper orientation of piece in final position Change of load distribution that may occur during upending Holes, rocks, and soft ground in area of lift Need for mats, rollers, jacks, come-alongs, etc. Rating of spreader bars, shackles, slings, and load lines

813 Rigging Responsibilities
The ultimate responsibility for all rigging lies with the design/construction engineer or job engineer. Individual responsibility depends on whether rigging work is done by the Company or a contractor. Contractors are responsible for planning and executing the rigging operation, selecting the proper equipment and preparing rigging diagrams, all subject to review by the Company.

814 Lift Classification
Lifts can be classified as light, medium, heavy or critical. Suggested classification of lifts are: Light lifts Medium Lifts Heavy Lifts Critical Lifts Less than 10 tons Greater than 10 tons but less than 50 tons Greater than 50 tons Lifts over operating equipment, lifts in hazardous locations, lifts in confined spaces, and lifts involving nonrigid objects like tank shells.

820 Transportation and Lifting Methods
Introduction
This section discusses choosing the type of transportation and lifting equipment.

821 Transportation Method
Equipment is generally moved on a truck. Selecting the proper hauling unit depends on verifying the following: • • That the size and weight of the piece is within the dimensional and design capabilities of the truck That axle loadings do not exceed access road limitations

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That clearances along access routes are adequate That the load will remain level and not tip

822 Lifting Method
The lift can be made by mobile crane, gin poles, derricks, bridge crane, or hoists. Figures 800-1 and 800-2 show lifting a vessel with two and with one crane respectively, and provide checklists of several items to be evaluated.
Fig. 800-1 Typical Checks for Uprighting a Vessel with Two Cranes

Mobile Crane
To choose a mobile crane for a lift, the following should be done: • Prepare a layout study to determine the crane position that provides the most favorable operating radius, boom length, boom clearance when stationary and when swinging, and the required boom height. Check for underground obstructions which may be damaged. Check soil capacity.

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Fig. 800-2

Typical Checks for Uprighting a Small Vessel with One Crane

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Examine the erection site to ensure that outriggers and mats can be accommodated. Select a crane from the manufacturer’s chart which has the capability to handle the load. Figure 800-3, a manufacturer’s safe load chart for a hydraulic crane, relates a crane’s safe working load capability to the work radius and boom length. The following example demonstrates the process for verifying the capability of a crane for a lift. Note that this chart is only for one type of crane. Crane charts are different for each type of crane.

Example: Verify that the contractor-proposed hydraulic crane “Pettibone Model 100-SC” (Figure 800-3) has the capability to lift and rotate 360° the piece of equipment described below. Data. 1. Equipment Size: 6 ft W x 14 ft L x 5 ft H Weight: We = 23,500 lb Center of Gravity: at centerlines. Location (elevation) height: He = 50 ft above ground.

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Fig. 800-3

Working Ranges and Safe Load Charts for Pettibone Multikrane Model 100-SC with 36-ft. to 84-ft. Boom (Courtesy Pettibone Corporation) (1 of 2)

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Fig. 800-3

Working Ranges and Safe Load Charts for Pettibone Multikrane Model 100-SC with 36-ft. to 84-ft. Boom (Courtesy Pettibone Corporation) (2 of 2)

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Slings Weight, WS = 100 lb Crane hook height above ground at start of lift, hst = 18 ft. Single point pick.

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Crane Hook block weight, Wb = 1000 lb. Vertical length of block & lines, l b = 5 ft-6 in. Distance centerline turntable to centerline boom pivot pin, lp = 4 ft-7 in. Height of center of rotation of crane boom above ground, hcr = 9 ft-3 in. Work radius, R= 35 ft

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Load handling devices Weight, Wl = 200 lb = 23,500 + 100 + 1000 + 200 = 24,800 lb Height of boom tip above center of rotation at end of lift, h = He + lb - hcr+ hst = 50 + 5.5 - 9.25 + 18 = 64.25 ft Boom length, L = [(R + lp)2 + h2)]1/2 = [(35 + 4.583)2 + (64.25)2]1/2 = 75.46 ft Therefore, use crane working ranges chart with 36 ft - 84 ft boom height extended. H = h + hcr = 64.25 + 9.25 = 73.5 ft At the intersection of H = 73.5 ft and R = 35 ft read the boom angle, which is approximately equal to 58° from the horizontal. Total weight Wt = We + Ws + Wb + Wl

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Crane Capacity. Use load chart with 36 ft - 84 ft boom 1. Crane on rubber and 360° rotation Capacity = 2800 lb < 24,800 lb N.G. Therefore, outriggers are needed. 2. Crane with outriggers and 360° rotation With R = 35 ft and boom length = 76 ft Capacity = 25,100 lb > 24,800 lb OK. Conclusion: Proposed crane is marginal for the intended lift. A slight error in boom angle, lift radius or load calculation would put this lift in jeopardy. Suggest look at bigger crane or reducing lift radius for this crane.

Gin Poles
The primary gin pole features to consider when electing to use them as the lifting method are lift capacity and height of poles. Of equal importance are pole foundations and guy lines. For a more detailed discussion of gin poles see Section 861.

Derricks
Select a derrick for a lift when large load capacity at long radius is needed. If some mobility is required, be sure that there is space for a traveling gantry before choosing a derrick as part of a lift.

Bridge Cranes
Bridge cranes should be considered when (a) the weight of the lift is within the crane capacity and (b) the lift will take place entirely within the crane’s area of coverage. In addition, ensure that vertical and horizontal clearances are sufficient.

Hoists
Hoists are part of most lifting equipment. The most important factors to consider are: • • The hoist must have adequate capacity to spool the total length of rope required for the lift. When the angle at which the rope leaves or enters the drum produces a vertical or horizontal force on the hoist, anchorage must be provided to resist these forces.

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830 Safety Considerations
Introduction
This section discusses general safe rigging practices. It outlines precautions to use when working around power lines, in confined spaces, and in areas where holes and voids are present. It lists inspection requirements for rigging components and crane capacity restrictions. Test lift requirements are also discussed. The Safety in Design Manual, Section 6, has more information on rigging safety.

831 Good Rigging Practices
The following safe design practices apply to all types of rigging and are intended for design engineers as well as field rigging personnel. • Determine the weight of the load before designing the equipment to handle it. Consider whether vessels will contain fluid, sludge, etc, or whether equipment will contain oil or cooling water. These items can and significantly to the nominal weight. If possible, distribute the load evenly on all legs of a sling. When using multiple leg slings, keep in mind that the load is not always divided equally. In a four-sling arrangement, two slings may carry the entire load. Design guy lines for gin poles with a minimum slope of one horizontal to one vertical unless the manufacturer specifies shallower slopes. Always specify the use of outriggers on truck and hydraulic cranes. Ascertain the load carrying capacity of the soil and, if necessary, use mats to spread the load. Call for prooftesting of slings prior to their use. Wire rope should not be loaded to more than 50% of its breaking strength, because the approximate elastic limit of conventional rope is 55% of the breaking strength. Wire rope slings should be proof-tested to 40% of the breaking strength of the rope. The crane capacities listed in manufacturers’ load charts are based on the machine being level. The importance of leveling the crane cannot be overemphasized. Never walk or stand under suspended loads. Stay out of the bight of a line and do not step over or stand near a line under strain. When fastening chain hoists, rope falls, or snatch blocks to permanent structures, make certain that the structure is strong enough to support the load. Do not touch a running wire rope. Do not let your hand or fingers get near blocks and sheaves.

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Always use the shortest boom possible. Never replace the shackle pin with a bolt; only the proper fitted pin should be used. Always refer to the manufacturer’s specification chart for the safe working loads of shackles. For lifts with traveling cranes, measure the actual radius. Do not rely on boom angle indicators. Always use a tag line even on small lifts. It is much easier to maintain control of the lift than to regain control when it is swinging or spinning. For large lifts air tuggers or other mechanical tag lines should be considered.

832 Working Around Power Lines and Near Electrical Equipment
The following practices shall be used when rigging near electrical equipment. No rigging should be done over energized high voltage lines. High voltage lines are lines rated 220V or greater. However, even 110V is dangerous and caution should be used. No part of the rigging operation, including the boom, cables, and the load, shall come closer to high voltage lines than specified in Figure 800-4.
Fig. 800-4 Required Clearances from Overhead High-Voltage Lines Nominal Voltage, kV (Phase to Phase) 0 - 50 51 - 75 76 - 100 101 - 125 126 - 200 201 - 300 301 - 400 401 - 500 501 - 700 701 - 1,000 Minimum Required Clearance (feet) 10 11 12 13 15 19 22 25 32 42

A safety watch monitoring these clearances should be located away from the lift. • In transit with no load and the boom lowered, the lifting equipment clearance shall be a minimum of 4 feet for voltages less than 50 kV, 10 feet for voltages over 50 kV, but less than 346 kV, and 16 feet for voltages up to and including 750 kV.

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The only exception to the above minimum clearances is where the high-voltage lines have been de-energized and visibly grounded or where insulating barriers have been erected to prevent physical contact with the lines. Place guy lines so as to be free of any possible contact with electrical wires. Near transmitter towers, an electrical charge can be induced in the equipment being handled. Prior to work, provide an electrical ground to the upper rotating structure supporting the crane boom, and attach ground jumper cables to the equipment being handled.

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833 Working in Confined Spaces
When lifting in tight quarters, take the following special precautions to assure a safe lift: • • • Conduct a detailed investigation to identify all possible interferences in the vicinity of the work including overhead, at grade or underground. Plot in detail the location of the crane and/or other equipment with respect to the work, including location of outriggers. Establish limits of allowable motion for the boom in both the vertical and horizonal directions for each crane location in order not to damage existing facilities. Devise and provide means to protect existing operating facilities. Mechanically protect small protrusions on operating equipment, such as bleeder valves and brackets, which could be damaged during the lift. Consider shutting down and depressurizing operating equipment which could be jeopardized by the lift. Determine the feasibility of making a crane lift by establishing the operating area requirements, such as the radius, the required length of boom, and the load to be lifted.

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834 Voids And Holes
Voids under pavements, holes, rocks, and soft ground can affect the safe operation of the crane. Sudden subsidence of the ground can induce impact forces in excess of design impact loads. Outriggers must rest on level surfaces which will support the load placed on them. If outrigger floats are allowed to settle into the ground, they lose their effectiveness, thus making continued lift operations unsafe.

835 Crane Capacity Considerations
For a safe lift, the following issues must be considered: • Crane ratings are based on machine standing level on a firm uniformly supporting surface.

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Crane rating charts apply up to a stated maximum wind speed. Avoid operating when the wind speed exceeds the crane design wind velocity. The crane rated loads do not account for the weight of rigging accessories, like blocks, hooks, slings, spreader bars, jibs, material handling equipment, and other elements of lifting tackle. Their combined weight must be subtracted from the load chart capacity when determining the maximum allowable load to be lifted. The maximum safe working load of cranes is determined from static loads. The capacity charts do not take into account impact loads due to the dynamic motions of the load or crane. There is no standard procedure for determining the rating of cranes traveling with suspended loads. Crane rating charts for operation without outriggers should not be used to determine traveling crane rating unless the capacity chart so states. Check with the crane manufacturer before traveling with a load.

840 Inspection and Testing
841 Inspection
Prior to use, all rigging components should be inspected by a qualified crane inspector to ensure that they do not constitute a hazard.

Cranes
• • • • • Verify capacity certificate. Inspect crane for overall good condition. Boom: check for bent lacing, damaged chords, damaged joint connections, boom joint sheave bearings and for wear in rope grooves. Load line: check for broken wires and general condition. Load block: visually check condition of bearings, for wear in rope grooves, and the operating condition of safety latch. Before every critical lift, test for non-visible defects by magnetic particle or radiography. Crane hook: visually check for deformation. Before every critical lift, test for non-visible defects by magnetic particle or radiography. Do not use: – – – • Hooks with cracks Hooks with throat openings more than 15% of normal Hooks with more than 10° twist from plane of unbent hook

Boom lines: check for broken wires, particularly at pendant fittings, and general condition.

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Main clutches and brakes: check operation of air or hydraulic systems. They should be able to hold 110% of line pull with full drums. Swing lock and brakes: check operation and general condition. They should be able to prevent load from swinging in normal operation. Review history of crane to find out if it has been used for major lifts since it was last certified. The crane may have been overstressed since certification.

Shackles
• • Check load rating. Check general condition visually and test by magnetic particle for nonvisible defects.

Lifting Lugs
• • Check load capacity. Check general condition visually and test by magnetic particle, radiography, or ultrasonic gage for nonvisible defects.

Wire Rope Slings
Safety of used wire rope slings depends on the remaining strength. The decision to replace the sling should be made by experienced personnel only. Visually inspect the rope for signs of deterioration to determine if further use of the rope would be unsafe. Look for the following: • • • • • • Reduction of rope diameter below nominal diameter A number of broken outside wires and the degree of concentration of such broken wires Worn outside wires Corroded or broken wires at end connections Corroded, cracked, bent, worn, or improperly applied end connections. Severe kinking, crushing, cutting, or unstranding.

842 Testing
For light and medium, both critical and non-critical lifts, the following tests should be performed before a lift: • Lifting gear assembly (slings, shackles, spreader bars, load blocks, etc.) Test to a minimum of two times the lifted load or design load. When it is impractical to test the rigging assembly to twice the lifted load (i.e., heavy lifts), lifting personnel will have to rely on a careful inspection of the rigging components outlined in Section 841.

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Used slings: Test to two times their normal rating. Position the crane with all the rigging gear attached and make a trial run to verify clearances and operating radii. Rotate the spreader bar to make sure that it clears the crane boom. Where possible, pick up the load and hold it low to test the crane’s ability to hold the load. Repaired or altered cranes. Load test to 110 percent of the rated load to confirm the adequacy of repairs or alterations. Hooks for which no manufacturer’s load recommendations are available: Test to twice the load.

850 Rigging Diagrams, and Rigging Analysis and Design
Introduction
This section discusses how to prepare and evaluate rigging diagrams and lists the information that a complete diagram should contain. It gives the loads and the factors of safety that should be used in the design of rigging components. Methods are presented for finding forces in unequal length slings and in slings for off-center lifts. Common types of lifting lugs are shown, and the steps to be followed in their design are outlined.

851 Rigging Diagrams
Preparation of Rigging Diagrams
A rigging diagram is essential for the successful transportation, lifting, and placing of equipment in final position. Before the rigging diagram is prepared, the rigging operation is first analyzed and the rigging method selected (see Section 820). Small non-critical lifts up to 50 tons can be made without rigging diagrams provided the lift is below 70% of the crane’s capacity as determined from the manufacturer’s safe load chart. A complete rigging diagram must show the entire rigging process and should show the following minimum information when it applies: • • • • Type and capacity of lifting equipment (crane, gin poles, etc.) Crane boom length, radius, and location of outriggers if required Weight, dimensions and center of gravity of piece to be lifted A plot of the path of travel including all vertical and horizontal clearances from such items as adjacent equipment, power lines, and other encumbrances or hazards

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Location, size, and capacities of lifting lugs, slings, and other rigging accessories as well as the method of attachment Type of tow tractor, including size, capacity, turning radius, trailer attachment mechanism, etc. This information is particularly important in narrow, limited width plant access roads and for lifts in confined areas. Description, size, capacity, and location of miscellaneous equipment such as dollies, jacks, hand winches, rollers, etc. Location of mats under equipment if required Location and orientation of equipment before, during, and after the lift Location of underground lines (utility, electrical duct banks or cables, etc.) and foundations Position of survey equipment. For critical lifts, surveying is important to ensure that loads remain within vertical and horizontal limits and stable during the lifting operation. Maximum allowable wind velocity for the lift. Excessive winds can cause the load to drift and strike the boom, other equipment, or obstructions near by.

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Evaluation of Rigging Diagrams
A rigging diagram, particularly one prepared by a Contractor, must be evaluated thoroughly to make certain that it incorporates all necessary information for a safe and successful lift. The evaluation process must verify that calculations and sizing of critical items such as cranes, slings, shackles, etc., are correct, that the proper factors of safety have been used, and that all clearance diagrams are accurate. The evaluation process should address the following: • Rigging Equipment Confirm that the type of rigging equipment selected has the capability to lift the load. If a crane has been selected, verify that the selected crane has the overthe-side and over-the-rear capacity to lift the piece, especially for critical lifts or for lifts in operating plants. For two-crane lifts both cranes should be as close in capacity and drum speed as possible, except when one crane is used as a trailing crane. For additional precautions and restrictions regarding the use of cranes, see Section 811. • Equipment and Roadway Clearance Check the rigging diagram to ensure that the path of travel shows all overhead obstructions, including pipelines, walkways, guy wires, power lines; all obstacles at grade, such as fire hydrants, drains, signs, etc.; and the location of underground lines.

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Soil Loads Recently excavated and backfilled areas or areas with weak soils have limited bearing capacity. Examine the rigging diagram to verify that cranes, dollies, and trailers are adequately supported and that the diagram includes cribbing or mats under the crane and outriggers where required.

Wind Loads The rigging diagram should also be checked for the maximum allowable wind velocity.

Lifting Lugs Lifting lugs are often necessary for lifts. The rigging diagram should show the type and location of lifting lugs. Lifting lug calculations accompanying the rigging diagram should be checked thoroughly. See Section 856 for more details.

Slings Depending on the angle of the sling, the sling load may be larger than its portion of the lifted load. If the sling is used in a choked position, the sling capacity must be derated. Loads and ratings of slings are discussed in detail in Section 852. The rigging diagram should specify the minimum safe working load for the slings.

Shackles, Hooks, and Spreader Bars The rigging diagram should also be checked to assure that the size and capacities of shackles, hooks, and spreader bars are adequate for the intended lift.

852 Loads
Rigging components should be designed for the following loads and forces when they exist: • Dead Load Dead load includes the weight of the slings, blocks, shackles, clevises, hooks, spreader bars, and other special rigging devices which may be used. The weight of the crane hooks, jibs, and other crane accessories are also included. • Live or Lifted Load Live load is the load of the piece being lifted. • Impact Load Rapid acceleration or deceleration of the lifted load and the dead load induce impact forces which must be considered in the design of rigging components. The effect of impact forces on the piece of equipment being lifted must also be evaluated. Quick take-up on a hoist or crane with slack or fouling in the connecting slings or ropes produces large impact forces that may be several

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times the lifted load. The amount of impact depends on the rate of lift from the at-rest position. To avoid large impact forces, the slack must be taken up completely before lifting the load. For the design of lifting lugs or other attachments and for slings, the live and dead load should be increased by the following percentages: Lifting lugs or other attachments Slings • Wind Load The maximum allowable wind velocity is based on the ability of the boom to resist lateral loads and on the stability of the lift. Crane manufacturers can supply data regarding the lateral load capacity of crane booms. In the absence of definitive information, however, no rigging should be done when the steady wind velocity exceeds 25 mph. 100% 25%

853 Factors of Safety
A factor of safety is applied to all rigging gear to insure against failure from loads whose magnitude cannot be calculated exactly or from indeterminate material properties. The factor of safety (F.S.) is defined as follows: Breaking or Yield Strength F.S. = ---------------------------------------------------------------Working Strength From experience and common engineering practice, the following factors of safety should be used in the absence of larger values required by local regulations or equipment manufacturers. • Wire Rope The minimum factor of safety of individual wire rope used for general hoisting purposes should be 5. Where the rope is wound around drums or sheaves smaller than the recommended minimum D/d ratio, the minimum factor of safety should be 7. • Manila Rope The minimum factor of safety for new grade No. 1 rope should be 5. For used rope (in service more than 6 months) the minimum factor of safety should be 10. Manila rope is recommended only for very small lifts. • Slings The minimum factor of safety for slings, including end connection or bending efficiencies, should be 5. As an example, a wire rope sling with an end connection efficiency of 80% would require a wire rope with 25% greater working

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strength than a wire rope in a sling with an end connection 100% efficient (100/0.8-100=25). • Shackles and Hooks The minimum factor of safety should be 5. In the case of hooks, the hook must be centered over the load to allow for full lifting capacity, otherwise the hook capacity should be derated. The amount of derating should be calculated by experienced personnel only.

854 Sling Forces
The load in a sling depends not only on the total load but also on the geometry of the lift, i.e., length and angle of sling. To properly size a sling, the following procedure should be followed: • • • • Determine the weight of the load Choose the desired hitch Calculate the force in the sling based on the geometrical arrangement of the slings Select a sling of suitable working strength

For a sling load analysis, the use of a correct free body diagram is very important. The center of gravity of the lift is always located directly underneath the lifting hook. For rated capacity of slings refer to the Safety in Designs manual.

Unequal Sling Lengths
One of the most frequently encountered loading conditions is where unequal sling lengths are used to suspend a load in a level position. The load analysis for two unequal length slings is simple and straightforward as Figure 800-5 shows. Three and four unequal length slings are sometimes used in equipment rigging. The sling load analysis is more difficult and in the case of four slings, unless the sling lengths are precisely calculated with respect to the center of gravity of the load and the pick point of the crane hook, two diagonally opposite slings may end up taking all the load. Instead of oversizing the slings to carry one-half the lifted load, a better solution would be to use a spreader beam which equalizes the load in each pair of slings and prevents diagonal tension. The load analysis of three or four unequal length slings should be carried out by experienced civil engineers only.

Off-Center Lifts
Many times a load, such as a turbine rotor, has to be lifted “on an even keel.” When two equal length slings are used and the load is lifted without regard to the position of the center of gravity, the load will tilt until the center of gravity is directly below the crane hook. See Figure 800-6. A load in a tilted position could be a hazard to personnel and or equipment. In order to avoid tilted loads, the size and length of slings should be designed so that the load is lifted level.

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Fig. 800-5

Example 1—Two Unequal Length Slings

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Fig. 800-6

Example 2—Lifting with Two Equal Length Slings without Regard to Center of Gravity

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855 Wire Rope Stretch
Wire rope, like all other elastic members, elongates under load. Total wire rope elongation (rope stretch) is caused by two factors. The first factor is the way the rope is constructed and starts to develop as soon as a load is applied. It is caused by the adjustment of the wires and compression of the core and it is permanent. Where precise rope length is required and adjustment for length is limited, the rope should be prestretched. This is often the case in critical lifts. The second factor is elastic elongation of the wire rope under load. Provided the load is kept below the elastic limit, the rope returns to its normal length when the load is removed. The elastic stretch can be calculated by using the following formula: ∆L = PL/AE where: L = rope length, in ∆L = elastic elongation of rope, in P = applied load, lb E = modulus of elasticity, psi (See Figure 800-7) A = metallic cross-sectional area of rope, in2 The cross-sectional area can be found in wire rope catalogs. Without a catalog the cross-sectional area of most six-strand wire rope can be estimated as follows: A = 0.4d2, in2 where d = nominal rope diameter, in. As seen in Figure 800-7, the modulus of elasticity varies with different rope construction. The modulus of elasticity will increase during the service life of the rope or with an increase of the applied load. The modulus of elasticity of prestretched wire rope is approximately 20,000,000 psi.
Fig. 800-7 Approximate Modulus of Elasticity of Nonprestretched Wire Rope Modulus of Elasticity (lb/in2) 12,000,000 to 13,000,000 14,000,000 to 15,000,000 11,000,000 to 12,000,000 13,000,000 to 14,000,000 10,000,000 to 11,000,000 12,000,000 to 13,000,000 8,000,000 to 9,000,000 12,000,000 to 13,000,000 12,000,000 to 13,000,000

Wire Rope Construction 6 x 7 with FC 6 x 7 with IWRC 6 x 19 Class with FC 6 x 19 Class with IWRC 6 x 37 Class with FC 6 x 37 Class with IWRC 8 x 19 Class with FC 6 x 25 Style BFS 6 x 30 Style GFS

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Example. Calculate the elastic stretch of 200 feet of prestretched 1 1/8 inch nominal diameter 6x19 IWRC wire rope loaded to 25,000 lb. ∆L = PL ⁄ AE 25 ,000 × 200 × 12 = -------------------------------------------------------------------( 0.4 × 1.125 2 × 20 ,000 ,000 ) = 5.93 in.

856 Lifting Lugs (Padeyes)
General
Lifting lugs, sometimes called padeyes, are welded to the piece being lifted to facilitate lifting and erection. Not all lifts, however, need lifting lugs. For example, small pumps and electrical equipment on skids can be lifted with hooks, or with choker or basket hitches. Lifts that usually need lifting lugs include columns, vessels, heaters, air coolers, stacks, production skid mounted units, etc. The location and orientation of the lifting lugs depends on the rigging method and type of equipment. Some considerations when locating lifting lugs are: • • • By placing the lugs closer to the center of gravity of columns, the tailing load may be decreased. For thin wall vessels, the location and number of lifting lugs may be dictated by the stresses imposed on the vessel shell during the lifting operation. For lugs on the side of vertical vessels, such as trunnions, the path the slings make during upending must be clear of nozzles, support clips, platforms, or other obstacles.

Types of Lifting Lugs
The types of lifting lugs most often used for lifting vessels are trunnion lugs, ear lugs, and flange lugs. All of these lifting lugs require a complete structural analysis to ensure a sound design. Trunnion lugs and ear lugs are attached to the vessel by welding, and must therefore be installed by the vessel fabricator because welds on vessel shells frequently require stress relieving. Trunnion lugs and earlugs are recommended over flange lugs for new vessels. A trunnion lug is shown in Figure 800-8. This lug is used on heavier vessels. An ear lug is shown in Figure 800-9. This lug is usually installed at the tangent line or transition point of a column or vessel. In contrast to trunnion lugs, ear lugs present fewer interference problems between slings and nozzles, clips, and platforms.

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Fig. 800-8

Trunnion Lifting Lug

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Fig. 800-9

Ear Lifting Lug

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For existing vessels or new vessels without trunnion or ear lugs, flange lugs can be used on vertical vessels with top nozzles. Flange lugs should only be used 1) when a complete structural analysis shows that the nozzle is strong enough to take the lifting load, and 2) when tailing loads do not present any special problem. Figure 800-10 shows flange lugs with various weld attachments and lists several items to be evaluated.

Lifting Lug Design
Designing or checking lifting lugs should be by experienced civil engineers in conjunction with experienced vessel designers. To properly design a lifting lug, the weight and center of gravity of the piece must be known as well as the rigging arrangement, i.e., the number and geometry of the slings. If the actual weight of the piece is not known, the lug can be designed for the working capacity of the attached sling. In a lift with three or four unequal length slings in a single point pick, as mentioned above, two diagonally opposite slings may end up taking the entire load. In that case, the lug should be designed to carry one-half the lift load with an impact factor, I=100%. This means that each lug is designed to lift the static weight of the entire piece. The centroid of the piece should be computed exactly so that the hook can be located directly over it. If this is not done, then the lifting lugs will not be oriented exactly towards the center of gravity and it will be subjected to out-of-plane bending stresses. The design of padeyes should follow a systematic ordered approach and should be based on the American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC), Manual of Steel Construction. Following is a suggested step-by-step procedure for the design of padeyes. 1. 2. Calculate sling load and determine sling orientation, if not given. Both the sling load and direction affect the stress distribution in the padeye. List design data – – – – 3. 4. Governing code AISC Sling load Padeye material properties (yield strength Fy and tensile strength Fu). Welding electrode type and nominal strength

Sketch the padeye and show its location relative to the piece being lifted. List allowable stresses – – – – Tension: Ft = 0.45 Fy Shear: Fv = 0.40 Fy Bearing: Fp = 0. 9 Fy Bending: Fb = 0. 6 Fy

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Fig. 800-10 Flange Lifting Lug (1 of 2)

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Fig. 800-10 Flange Lifting Lug (2 of 2)

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Welds: allowable stresses in accordance with Table 1.5.3 of AISC “Specification for the Design, Fabrication and Erection of Structural Steel for Buildings,” 1978 Combined stresses: fcr = [f 2bx - (fbx)(fby) + f 2by + 3fv]1/2 where fcr = critical stress ≤ Fy fbx = bending stress about X - axis fby = bending stress about Y - axis fv = shear stress in xy - plane

5.

Select shackle size based on sling load, using factor of safety of 5 and list controlling dimensions and tolerances. – – – – Shackle size and capacity Pin diameter and outside of eye diameter Inside length Inside width at pin and at bow

6.

Select padeye hole size to accommodate shackle pin diameter. The size of the hole should be as follows: Shackle pin diameter 1 inch and less greater than 2 inch Hole size pin diameter + 1/8 inch pin diameter + 1/4 inch

greater than 1 inch but less than 2 inch pin diameter + 3/16 inch

7.

Calculate the padeye plate thickness and cheek plate thickness if required or desired to minimize padeye plate size, based on allowable stresses in step 4 above. Calculate weld size – – Cheek plate to main padeye plate Padeye to vessel or other piece

8.

9.

Check adequacy of equipment to which padeye is attached to verify that it is capable of supporting the load from the padeye within the allowable stresses. The vessel fabricator and/or the engineering design group should be consulted first.

10. Summarize padeye design parameters 11. Detail padeye

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860 General Rigging Information
Introduction
This section lists types of lifting equipment and miscellaneous rigging equipment. It discusses construction and strength of wire rope, slings, and the different kinds of hitches used in rigging.

861 Types Of Lifting Equipment
Different types of lifting equipment are available to fill any rigging need. A rigging operation analysis will indicate what equipment is best suited for a particular job.

Mobile Cranes
Cranes are the most useful equipment in heavy rigging. The improvements which have taken place in cranes in recent years have greatly increased their lifting capacity. Crane mobility makes for a minimum amount of time for move-in, setup, and move-out, and their long boom allows access to restricted areas. • Hydraulic cranes are readily available, can usually travel on most public streets and highways with few restrictions, and can be made ready for rigging fast because the boom requires no assembly. The majority of hydraulic cranes have maximum working capacities that range from 5 tons to 40 tons, though some models can exceed 125 tons. They are suitable for light lifts and medium lifts at short radii. Truck-mounted cranes have maximum working capacities to 300 tons and have longer booms. Small truck cranes, like hydraulic cranes, can travel on public streets and highways with limited restrictions. Large capacity truck cranes on the other hand are much wider than small ones (up to 16.5 feet) and require travel permits before they can move over public streets and highways. They are suitable for medium and heavy lifts, but because the boom requires assembly, it takes longer to prepare them for rigging. Crawler-mounted cranes can have capacities exceeding 600 tons. The large crawler dimensions distribute the load over a larger area, thus resulting in lower bearing pressures than truck cranes of equal capacity. Depending on size, the crawler width can exceed 20 feet. As a result, travel over public streets and highways is severely restricted and they are normally disassembled for transit. Crawler cranes are suitable for heavy lifts.

Gin Poles
Gin poles are used primarily for lifting tall, heavy columns and vessels in remote locations where large capacity cranes are not available or confined spaces limit their use. Compared to cranes, gin poles have larger capacities (up to 1200 tons) and lower relative cost. Gin poles are usually used in pairs. The poles are guyed from the top and pinned at the base. The load is raised or lowered by ropes reeved through sheaves or blocks at the top of the poles. Unlike cranes, however, capacity

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charts for gin poles are given for the pole as a compression member only. The load in the guy wires must be calculated from the geometry of the lift. A complete analysis should consider wind and temperature loads too. The bottoms of gin poles should rest on sound foundation and must be anchored securely to prevent kicking out under the load. The top of gin poles should be guided by at least four guy lines to maintain them in a stationary position and to prevent rotation. The guy lines can be ASTM A586 Zinc-Coated Steel Structural Strand or ASTM A603 Zinc-Coated Steel Structural Wire Rope.

Derricks
Derricks have relatively large capacities at long radii. They can be mounted either on fixed foundations only a few feet above the ground or on top of high specialized gantries. They are not as flexible as mobile cranes because they cannot be moved easily. Some mobility can be provided by traveling gantries.

Bridge Cranes
Bridge cranes are often used in lifting operations when the load is to be placed within a building or space already served by the crane.

Hoists
Hoists are used in heavy lifting as part of the rigging system and are generally not subjected to severe use. Design of the tackle arrangement for specific lifts is generally done on a trial basis and it starts with selection of a hoist of adequate capacity. The line pull of a hoist decreases as the amount of load line on the drum increases. A check should be made to insure adequate line pull and rope capacity for the entire lift.

862 Miscellaneous Rigging Equipment
A rigging operation often requires the use of miscellaneous rigging equipment. Some of the most common is listed below:

Chain Hoists
Chain hoists or come-alongs, as they are often referred to, provide a portable tool for applying tension. There are two types of chain hoists available: roller chain and conventional link chain. Conventional link chain is preferred in general rigging because it is less susceptible to wear than roller chain. Chain hoists range in size from a few pounds to 10 tons.

Turnbuckles
Turnbuckles are positive tension fittings with limited capability for adjustment. They can be furnished with end connection combinations of eye, hook or jaw. Their working load capacity ranges from 500 pounds to 75,000 pounds.

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Jacks
Jacks, both hydraulic and mechanical, are useful in raising and supporting loads. When raising a load with jacks, it is very important that the base of the jack be on a solid surface. If the piece to be raised is of appreciable height, consideration should be given to using hydraulic jacks designed for use with a power pump. Hydraulic jacks may be used to determine the weight of a piece. The total weight being supported can be computed with the aid of a calibrated pressure gage if the effective ram area of each jack and the unit pressure on each jack are known. Jack capacities range from a few pounds to 500 tons.

Rollers
Rollers are used to move loads horizontally. There are three general types of rollers: wood rollers, steel pipe rollers, and manufactured flat top roller assemblies. Moving a load on wood or pipe rollers requires a runway consisting of heavy timbers or beams capped with wood planks or steel plate. The runway should be of sufficient area to distribute the load, and an adequate number of rollers should be used to support the load without damaging the load or the rollers. Manufactured roller assemblies require a smooth concrete or steel surface on which to operate. They range in capacity from 2 tons to 200 tons.

Mats
Mats provide a means for increasing the bearing area under cranes and outriggers when soil bearing capacity is limited. The ground surface on which mats are placed must be graded to provide uniform level bearing. Mats are usually made of 6-to-12 inch thick timber. They are sometimes made of steel members when greater rigidity is needed.

Shackles And Hooks
Shackles are the most frequently used fitting for joining slings to rigging attachments or lifting lugs. The safe working load for shackles of the same size varies and it depends on shackle type and manufacturer. Therefore, shackles must be specified by safe working load, size, pin size, and manufacturer’s model number. Hooks are also used as sling fittings for moderate material lifts and where the loads are connected and disconnected often. Only hooks with safety latches should be used.

863 Wire Rope
General
Wire rope is widely used in slings, hoists, boom lines, etc. Wire rope is formed by laying strands of wire around a rope core. Each strand is made up by a number of small wires laid helically around a center wire in one or more layers. The rotation of the wires and the rotation of the strands in a wire rope is referred to as rope lay. Rotation is either to the right (clockwise) or to the left (counterclockwise). The

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center of the wire rope is called the core and may be made of fiber (FC), wire, plastic, or other material. Wire cores are of two general types: independent wire rope core (IWRC) or wire strand core (WSC). Wire rope with IWRC or WSC has slightly greater capacity (approximately 6%) than rope with FC, and has greater resistance to crushing under heavy bearing pressure. Wire rope is usually designated by first the number of strands and then the number of wires in each strand. Therefore, a 6x19 wire rope would normally have six strands and each strand would contain 19 wires. However, depending on the wire rope classification, the number of wires per strand can vary. For example a 6x19 wire rope can have 16 to 26 wires per strand. The nominal diameter of the wire rope is the greatest diameter that can be measured.

Wire Rope Strength
Ropes are classified into various grades according to strength and ability to withstand abrasion. In ascending strength order they are: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Mild Plow Steel. Plow Steel (P.S.) Improved Plow Steel (I.P.S.) Extra Improved Plow Steel (E.I.P.S.) Double Extra Improved Plow Steel (X.E.I.P.S.)

Manufacturers of wire rope publish breaking strength and sometimes safe working strength values. The safe working strength is typically listed as 20 percent of the breaking strength: i.e., factor of safety = 5. The manner in which wire rope is used affects its strength properties. Ropes running over sheaves or drums are subjected to bending stresses. The ratio of sheave diameter D to rope diameter d influences rope efficiency. Figure 800-11 shows an empirically derived curve that relates the efficiency of wire rope to the diameter of the pin or sheave. As can be seen, the smaller the ratio of sheave diameter to nominal rope diameter the smaller the efficiency. The minimum recommended sheave diameter is 18 times wire rope diameter.

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Fig. 800-11 Efficiency of Wire Rope when Bent Over Sheaves or Pins of Various Sizes

864 Slings
General
Slings are made with wire rope, steel chain, natural fiber rope, and synthetic fiber rope. Selecting the proper size sling, length, and hitching arrangement will achieve the desired orientation of the suspended load, will result in a stable lift, and will provide the required factor of safety.

Wire Rope Slings
Wire rope slings are the most frequently used slings in general rigging. Wire rope slings are made by attaching fittings to the ends of premeasured wire rope lengths. Sling capacity is affected not only by the strength of wire rope but also by the type of end connection. An end connection that distorts the wire rope least is the most efficient. The various types of end connections and corresponding approximate efficiencies can be found in “Safety in Designs” manual. The appropriate end connection efficiency must be applied to the working rope strength to arrive at the working strength of the wire rope sling. If the sheave diameter D to rope diameter d (D/d) ratio results in bending rope efficiency which is less than the end connection efficiency, then bending efficiency should be applied instead of the end connection efficiency.

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Synthetic Webbing Slings
Synthetic webbing slings are made of nylon, polyester, and polypropylene. Because of their relative softness and width, synthetic slings have less tendency to mar or scratch machined, polished, and painted surfaces, or to crush fragile objects. They are non-sparking and can be used safely in explosive atmospheres. Obtain manufacturer’s data on safe working loads, factors of safety, and allowable wear before using.

Steel Chain Slings
Chain slings are used where flexibility, ruggedness, and resistance to abrasion or high temperatures are important. However, chain failure is sudden, and unless circumstances dictate otherwise, the use of chain slings should be discouraged in general rigging. Check chain type, grade, and working load limit before using.

Natural Fiber Rope Slings
Number 1 manila rope is the only fiber rope approved for hoisting. Normally, manila rope is used for lifting men. Load capacity of manila rope slings is shown in ANSI B30.9, “Slings.” Manila rope is not recommended for general use as lifting slings. Use for very small lifts only.

865 Hitches For Wire Rope
The most commonly used hitches for wire rope are vertical hitch, choker hitch, and basket hitch.

Vertical Hitch
This hitch is also called a direct connection hitch. When used singly, it does not afford the best load control nor protection against spin. It is effective when used in multiples with spreader bars or when two or more attachment points are provided on the load. See Figure 800-13.

Choker Hitch
A choker hitch is made by simply threading one eye of the sling through the other and choking the load. A single choker hitch does not provide full contact with the load and should not be used to lift loose bundles or long loads. The double choker hitch is made by doubling the sling and threading the double end through both eyes. Double wrap choker hitches compress the load and prevent it from slipping out of the sling. See Figure 800-12. Bending of wire rope at a choker hitch decreases the working strength of the rope because of bending efficiency. In a choker hitch, when the load is freely suspended, the center of gravity is directly under the point of choke. The observed angle in this position is approximately 135°. Smaller angles occur when a choker hitch is used to turn a load or when the point of choke is not directly over the centerline of the piece. Figure 800-14 shows the various choker hitch angles and relates the angle of choke to wire rope efficiency.

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Fig. 800-12 Choker Hitch

Fig. 800-13 Single Vertical Hitch

Basket Hitch
With a single basket hitch, two parts of the cable support the load although only one cable is used. As a load is lifted with a basket hitch, the load is equalized on each leg and therefore each leg supports half the weight. The basket hitch is easy to attach and is a good hitch when used under the right conditions. The double wrap hitch is one of the best hitches for smooth cylindrical loads such as pipes and tubes. It is the safest hitch to use. The load is held in a loop with the cable exerting equal pressure for 360°. See Figure 800-15.

Reverse Basket Hitch and Single Length Double Basket Hitch
In these hitches the bight of the sling bears on the crane hook. The sling is free to move over the hook so that the load in each leg of the sling is automatically equalized. These hitches can be used to lift loads with lifting lugs or trunnions located above the center of gravity of the load. They can also be used to equalize loads in a pair of legs of a four-leg sling arrangement by using two equal slings and one long sling with its bight over the hook.

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Fig. 800-14 Choker Hitch Efficiency

Fig. 800-15 Basket Hitch

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870 Glossary
The following terms are commonly used in rigging. Area, Metallic. Sum of the cross-sectional areas of individual wires in a wire rope or strand. Basket Hitch. Sling configuration that equalizes the load in both legs of a sling formed with a single wire rope. Bight. A loop or slack part in a rope. Boom. A metal beam or strut, pivoted or hinged at its lower end and with its upper end supported by chains, ropes, or rods reeved through sheaves or a block, used to support or guide a load to be lifted or swung. Boom Angle. The vertical angle from a horizontal line through the center of rotation of the boom and centerline of the boom. Boom Length. The straight line distance of a boom from the lower end hinge to the upper end load point or hoist sheave pin. Boom Line. A wire rope for supporting or operating the boom on derricks, cranes, drag lines, shovels, etc. Bright Rope. Wire rope made of wires that are not coated with zinc or tin. Cable. A term loosely applied to wire ropes, wire strands, manila ropes, and electrical conductors. Cable-Laid Wire Rope. A type of wire rope consisting of several wire ropes laid into a single wire rope. Cheek Plates. Doubler plates attached to the sides of and centered around the padeye hole. Chocking. Wedges used to keep round vessels from rolling. Usually of timber construction. Choker. Sling hitched to form a slip noose around the object to be moved or lifted. Core. The center of a wire rope about which the strands are laid. It may be fiber, a wire strand, or an independent wire rope. Counterweight. Weight used to supplement the weight of the machine in providing stability for lifting working loads and usually attached to rear of revolving superstructure. Also called ballast. Deflection. (a) Sag of rope in a span; usually measured at mid-span as the depth from the chord joining the tops of the two supports (b) Any deviation from a straight line. Drum (Rope). A rotating cylinder with side flanges on which rope used in machine operations is wrapped.

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Eye or Eye Splice. A loop, with or without a thimble, formed in the end of a wire rope. Factor of Safety (FS). Factor of safety is defined as the ratio between breaking or yield strength and working strength. Fiber Core (FC). Fiber center of a wire rope. Fitting. Any accessory used as an attachment for wire rope. Gantry. A structure for mounting a crane or derrick. It can be stationary or adapted for truck travel by towing or by independent truck power. Gantry (A-Frame). A structural frame, extending above the superstructure, to which the boom support ropes are reeved. Gin Pole. Compression member guyed from top and pinned or in a socket at its base. The load is raised and lowered by ropes reeved through sheaves and blocks at the top of the pole. Usually used in pairs. Grades, Rope. Classification of wire rope by its breaking strength. In order of increasing breaking strength: Mild Plow Steel, Plow Steel, Improved Plow Steel, Extra Improved Plow Steel, Double Extra Improved Plow Steel. Guy (Line). A rope used to steady or secure the mast or other member in the desired position. Guy Derrick. A fixed derrick consisting of a mast supported in a vertical position by guys capable of being rotated, and a boom whose bottom end is hinged or pivoted to move in a vertical plane with a reeved rope between the head of the mast and boom point for raising and lowering the load. Hitch. The manner of using the sling to support a load. Hoist Line. See load line. In lifting crane service, refers to the main hoist. The secondary hoist is referred to as the whip line. Hook Block. Block with hook attached used in lifting service. It may have a single sheave for double or triple line, or multiple sheaves for four or more parts of a line. Independent Wire Rope Core (IWRC). Wire rope used as the core of a larger rope. Jib. An extension attached to the boom head to provide added boom length for handling specified loads. The jib may be in line with the boom or may be offset. Lang Lay Rope. Wire rope in which the wires in the strands and the strands in the rope are laid in the same direction. Lay. Manner in which wires are helically laid into strands or strands into rope. Lifting Lug. Attachment on equipment to be lifted. Load Block, Lower. The assembly of sheaves, pins, hook or shackle and frame suspended from the hoisting ropes.

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Load Block, Upper. The assembly of sheaves, pins, shackle, swivel, and frame suspended from the boom by solid links or direct connection. Load Line. Another term for hoist line. See also whip line. Mats. Supports or floats used for supporting machine on soft ground. Usually of timber construction. Outriggers. Extendable arms attached to the mounting base, which rest on supports at the outer ends to increase stability. Pressed Fitting. Fittings in which wire rope is attached by pressing the shank enclosing the rope. See swaged fittings. Prestressing or Prestretching. Stressing a wire rope or strand before use under such a tension and for such a time that the constructional stretch is largely removed. Radius of Load. The horizontal distance from the axis of rotation to the centerline of boom point sheave. Rated Load (or Crane). Rated loads at specified radii are the lesser of a specified percentage of tipping loads or the machine’s structural competence as established by the manufacturer, and are the maximum loads at those radii covered by the manufacturer’s warranty. Reeving. A rope system in which the rope travels around drums and sheaves. Rigging. A combination of slings, shackles, hooks, load blocks, spreader bars, and other attachments that are used to support, lift, manipulate, and place equipment or other loads in their final position. Safety Factor. See Factor of Safety (FS). Safe Working Load (SWL). Proper load which the rope, shackle, etc., may carry as determined by manufacturer’s data, tests, and applicable codes. Safety Hook. A hook with a latch to prevent slings or load from accidentally slipping off the hook. Shackle. A U-shaped fitting with a pin. Sheave. A grooved pulley for use with rope. Side Loading. A load applied at an angle to the vertical plane of the boom. Sling. The rope assembly which connects the load to be lifted to the crane or other lifting device. Slings, Braided. A very flexible sling composed of several individual wire ropes braided into a single sling. Splicing. Interweaving of two ends of ropes so as to make a continuous or endless length without appreciably increasing the diameter. Also making a loop or eye in the end of a rope by tucking the ends of the strands.

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Spreader Bar. A member used to make slings vertical from object lifted. Theoretically a compression member. Spreader Beam. Same function as spreader bar. Uses less headroom. A bending member. Strand. An arrangement of wires helically laid about an axis, or another wire or fiber center to produce a symmetrical section. Superstructure. The rotating upper frame structure of the machine and the operating machinery mounted thereon. Swaged Fittings. Fittings in which wire rope is inserted and attached by swaging. Tackle (Hoist). Assembly of ropes and sheaves arranged for lifting, lowering, or pulling. Tag Line. A rope used to prevent rotation of a load. Tail Swing. Distance from center of rotation to maximum rear extension of revolving superstructure. Thimble. Grooved metal fitting to protect the eye of a wire rope. Tipping Condition. A machine is considered to be at the point of tipping when a balance is reached between the overturning moment of the load and the stabilizing moment of the machine on a firm level supporting surface. Tipping Load. Tipping load is the load producing a tipping condition at a specified radius. It includes the weights of hook, hook blocks, slings, etc., plus weight on hook. Turnbuckle. Device attached to wire rope for making limited adjustments in length. It consists of a barrel and right-and-left hand threaded bolts. Whip Line. Secondary rope system. Also see load line. Wire. Single continuous length of metal, round or shaped, cold drawn from a rod. Wire Rope. A plurality of strands laid helically around an axis or a core. Wire Strand Core (WSC). Wire strand used as a core for a wire rope.

880 Model Specification
CIV-MS-4782, Lifting Services, is included in the Specification section of this manual. This model specification establishes the basic requirements for performing a lift, including all lift equipment and items required in rigging operations. It also discusses design requirements, inspection and testing, and safety.

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890 References
Company Standards
1. Safety in Designs Manual, Section 6

American National Standards Institute (ANSI)
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. B30.1 Jacks B30.2 Overhead and Gantry Cranes B30.5 Mobile and Locomotive Cranes B30.6 Derricks B30.7 Base Mounted Drum Hoists B30.9 Slings B30.10 Hooks

U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)
1. 2. 3. 29CFR1910.180 Crawler Locomotive and Truck Cranes 29CFR1910.181 Derricks 29CFR1910.184 Standard Slings

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