htm The method described by Soxhlet in 1879 is the most commonly used example of a semi-continuous method applied to extraction of lipids from foods. According to the Soxhlet's procedure, oil and fat from solid material are extracted by repeated washing (percolation) with an organic solvent, usually hexane or petroleum ether, under reflux in a special glassware. In this method the sample is dried, ground into small particles and placed in a porous cellulose thimble. The thimble is placed in an extraction chamber (2), which is suspended above a flask containing the solvent (1) and below a condenser (4). The flask is heated and the solvent evaporates and moves up into the condenser where it is converted into a liquid that trickles into the extraction chamber containing the sample. The extraction chamber is designed so that when the solvent surrounding the sample exceeds a certain level it overflows and trickles back down into the boiling flask. At the end of the extraction process, which lasts a few hours, the flask containing the solvent and lipid is removed. In some device a funnel (3) allows to recover the solvent at the end of the extraction after closing a stopcock between the funnel and the extraction chamber. The solvent in the flask (1) is then evaporated and the mass of the remaining lipid is measured. The percentage of lipid in the initial sample can then be calculated. Despite disadvantages of this procedure (poor extraction of polar lipids, long time involved, large volumes of solvents, hazards of boiling solvents), several methods involving automatic solvent extraction were described. Different automated or semiautomated extraction instruments may be found on the market. Several solvent extraction systems based on the Soxhlet device are on the market to allow fast and safe determination of total lipids in food, soil, .... As an example, FOSS has launched several types of "Soxtec Systems" including automated or semi-automated analyzers, which extract lipids rapidly and accurately. These instruments perform boiling, rinsing and solvent recovery. Similarly, Soxtherm extractors from Gerhardt GmbH was developed to reduce extraction times. The sample to be analyzed is weighed into cellulose thimbles and inserted in the extraction device. Except diethyl ether, all solvents may be used (about 15 ml per sample), with a 75% recovery of the solvent after the extraction which is completed in 30 to 60 min, depending on the application.

1025). A modification of that extraction procedure was proposed taking into account the use of a "green solvent". This procedure is slightly different from that described for the extraction of dry materials. applied on the extraction chamber of a modified Soxhlet. 110. The Büchi Extraction System B-811 is an automated system which can be used to perform an extraction according to the original Soxhlet principle. 2626. The proposed method is effective and valuable since no significant difference was obtained when using hexane or limonene for the extraction of oleaginous seeds. hot extraction and continuous extraction. . Several application notes may be downloaded from the Büchi site. rape) was described using a cellulose cartridge placed into a quartz extraction vessel inserted in a modified Microdigest 301 device (Prolabo). 103). Despite a 3 h analysis. Garcia-Ayuso LE et al. 4 or 6 place system in 2 versions (micro or macro). instead of hexane (Virot M et al. 57). soybean. Food Chem 2008. 138. 52. 11961197. namely microwaves. called microwave-assisted Soxhlet extraction. Anal Chem 1998.. 147). 525.. J Chromatogr A 2007. a new and convenient process was designed and developed (Virot M et al. J Chromatogr A 2008. The Soxhlet method with previous acid hydrolysis had the same efficiency as that of the method described by Folch. Virot M et al.. A comparison of different extraction methods for total lipid quantification in meat and meat products was reported (Perez-Palacios T et al. A microwave-assisted Soxhlet extraction of seed oil (sunflower. 1196-1197. Comparative experiments have shown that no significant differences between the extract obtained by the Folch reference method without fat alterations and the microwave-assisted Soxhlet extraction were detected. Four different extraction methods are possible without making any changes to the unit : Soxhlet standard. Chromatographia 2000. These results demonstrated the applicability of that method for the extraction step in routine analysis of a great quantity of food samples (Ruiz-Jimenez J et al.. The system has an inert gas supply to avoid oxidation during extraction and to accelerate the evaporation and drying process even with high boiling point solvents (up to 150°C). 1174. This extraction technique.Another device by ViscoALPHA enables the user to have a 2. This system has been used for the determination of oil content and fatty acid composition of various biological materials and foodstuffs. the time reduction and the lack of need for seed grinding makes this procedure a suitable competitor of the previously described methods (Garcia-Ayuso LE et al. J Chromatogr A 2008. An electronic unit can control and monitor up to 4 extraction units individually. uses two sources of energy. Compact and simple systems with one to six samples are sold by Behr Labor-Technic GmbH. 159). Anal Chim Acta 2004. Soxhlet warm. limonene.. To overcome some limitations of the analytical process (water content). and electrical heating applied on the distillation flask... 70.