Step-by-Step Grease Selection

Noria Corporation Tags: greases, grease compatibility, viscosity, bearing lubrication Machinery Lubrication (9/2005) How do you know if you¶re using the right grease? You might be using a high-quality
grease. You may have put a lot of effort and money into selecting the best quality grease in the pursuit of lubrication excellence. But don¶t confuse the quality of the lubricant with the quality of the specification. Considering this lubricating oil analogy, the best quality turbine oil would most likely not make a good engine oil. Most users are aware of the importance of selecting the right lubricant for a given application. When it comes to selecting lubricating oils for manufactured equipment, it¶s easy to determine which products meet the original equipment manufacturer (OEM) requirements. OEM specifications for a lubricating oil normally include viscosity at operating or ambient temperature, additive requirements, base oil type and even special considerations for different environmental conditions. Grease specifications, on the other hand, often lack the detail necessary to make a proper selection, leaving it up to the lubrication engineer to create the specification. A common OEM grease specification might be to use an NLGI (National Lubrication Grease Institute) No. 2 lithium grease of good quality. Using this information alone, one could select the right consistency and thickener type. A similar specification for an oil-lubricated application would be to use a ³good quality lubricating oil.´ What?! Due to the lack of specificity in most grease recommendations, it is important to learn how to properly select greases for each application in the plant. Proper grease specification requires all of the components of oil selection and more. Other special considerations for grease selection include thickener type and concentration, consistency, dropping point and operating temperature range, worked stability, oxidation stability, wear resistance, etc. Understanding the need and the methods for appropriate grease selection will go a long way toward improving lubrication programs and the reliability of lubricated machinery. Let¶s walk through the grease selection process step by step, starting with the most important property.

Base Oil Viscosity
The most important property of any lubricant is viscosity. A common mistake when selecting a grease is to confuse the grease consistency with the base oil viscosity. Because the majority of grease-lubricated applications are element bearings, one should consider viscosity selection for those applications. While most would not use an EP 220 gear oil for an oil-lubricated electric motor bearing, many people will use a grease containing that same oil for an identical grease-lubricated bearing. There are several common methods for determining minimum and optimum viscosity requirements for element bearings, most of which use speed factors, commonly denoted as DN or NDm. Speed factors account for the surface speed of the bearing elements and are determined by the following formulas: DN = (rpm) * (bearing bore) and NDm = rpm * (( bearing bore + outside diameter) / 2)

. Most performance-enhancing additives found in lubricating oils are also used in grease formulation and should be chosen according to the demands of the application. one would need to use a chart that identifies the viscosity at operating temperature. Most greases are formulated using API Group I and II mineral oil base stocks. Figure 1. a lightly loaded high-speed element bearing does not require extreme pressure (EP) additives or tackifying agents. then determine the viscosity grade from a viscosity/temperature chart for a given lubricant.The NDm value uses pitch diameter rather than bore diameter because not all bearings of a given bore have the same element diameter. or any application where extended relubrication intervals are desired. there are applications that might benefit from the use of a synthetic base oil. Such applications include high or low operating temperatures. However. For instance. To be more precise. Knowing the speed factor value and likely operating temperature. Figure 2 shows some common additive requirements by application. a wide ambient temperature range. The additive and base oil types are other components of grease that should be selected in a fashion similar to that used for oil-lubricated applications. the minimum viscosity requirement can be read directly from charts like Figure 1. it¶s time to consider additives. (Courtesy of ExxonMobil) Figure 1 assumes the base oils¶ viscosity index. Additives and Base Oil Type Once the appropriate viscosity has been determined. which are appropriate for most applications. while a heavily loaded open gear set does. and thus have different surface speeds.

For bearings.00 .000 0 .000 0 .00 .000 150.000 NLGI No.000 75.150. Operating Temperature -30 to 100°F DN (Speed Factor) 0 .Additive Antioxidants Antifoam Agents Antiwear/EP Rust Inhibitors Extreme Pressure Demulsibility VI Improvers Corrosion Inhibitors Journal Ball Thrust Roller Needle Bearings Bearings Bearings Bearings Bearings ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ - ‡ Required.* 1 2 2 2 2 3 2 0 to 150°F 100 to 275°F .000 . The most common NLGI grade is two and is recommended for most applications. . It may seem counterintuitive.300. but higher speed factors require higher consistency greases. The NLGI has established a scale to indicate grease consistency which ranges from grades 000 (semifluid) to 6 (block grease).75.000 .300.75.000 150. it is important to note that a grease can have a high consistency and a low base oil viscosity or vice versa.150. speed factor and operating temperature can be used to determine the best consistency or NLGI grade for a given application. Even though base oil viscosity affects consistency. thickener type and the viscosity of the base oil.000 75.75.Depends on application Figure 2 Grease Consistency and Thickener Type Now for that extra step: The consistency of grease is controlled by the thickener concentration. Table 1 provides a general guide to selecting NLGI grade based on speed factor and operating temperature.

polyurea has good high-temperature performance as well as high oxidation stability and bleed resistance. load carrying tests such as four-ball EP or Timken OK load should be considered. Over time. Sometimes while trying to consolidate lubricants. have a careful balance of properties.000 3 3 *Depends on other factors as well.300. Thickener type should be selected based on performance requirements as well as compatibility when considering changing product types. If an application operates under heavy loads at low speeds. For this reason. A generic oil spec. It is also important to review these specifications on a periodic basis to guard against specification creep. A common upper operating temperature limit for a simple lithium grease might be 250°F. bleed characteristics and pumpability. it is easy to select the right product no matter what brand is preferred. The most common types are simple lithium soaps. additive requirements and consistency have been determined. properties like dropping and upper operating temperature limits are not as important. Like lithium complex. It is important to remember that greases. including bearing type.00 .000 . . should be configured for each lubricated point in the plant. lubricant specification is relatively easy. Armed with this generic specification. it is possible to rest easier knowing that the right grease is being used. as well as others exclusive to grease. Performance Properties Once the appropriate base oil viscosity. While improving a lubrication program can be a tough job. thickener type. this can lead to inaccurate lube specifications.150. it is easy to overconsolidate. A product may excel in one category and perform poorly in another. Grease performance properties include many of the same properties used for lubricating oils. Simple lithium soaps are often used in low-cost general-purpose greases and perform relatively well in most performance categories at moderate temperatures. each with its own pros and cons. Properties exclusive to grease include dropping point.75. This is where the grease quality factors in. water washout. If an application operates continuously at room temperature. like oils. base oil viscosity and base oil type Table 1 Numerous types of grease thickeners are currently in use. lithium complex and polyurea. Complex greases such as lithium complex provide improved performance particularly at higher operating temperatures. it is important to weigh each property¶s significance relative to the intended applications to select the best overall fit. including performance properties. the remaining criteria to consider are the performance properties. Another thickener type that is becoming more popular is polyurea.000 150. mechanical stability. Armed with a little bit of knowledge and a few widely available tools. while that for a lithium complex grease might be 350°F. The most important performance properties are determined by the application.




padatan inorganik yang tidak dapat diuraikan oleh bakteri/ microorganisme akan membentuk endapan yang akan membebani settling tank. logam. Lemak pada limbah cair terdiri dari bermacam bentuk material antara lain lemak. unit aerasi dan digester. Type screen dibedakan dari cara pembersihannya. sabun. lumpur. mineral-oil dan material non-volatil lainnya.Bahan padat yang dapat terurai (biodegreable) seperti kotoran manusia tidak boleh mengendap disini.Pretreatment pada pengolahan limbah cair Screen / Saringan-Saringan biasanya dipasang pada awal pemasukan pada unit pengolahan limbah cair. malam/lilin.Selain merusak peralatan mekanik. fatic-acid. Bentuk dan fungsinya sangat beragam tergantung dari padatan yang akan disaring. Karena itu retention time pada grit chamber relatif singkat hanya berkisar antara 3 ski 5 menit. dimana sistim pemisahan grit nya adalah dengan mengatur kecepatan aliran/velocity nya atau dengan aerasi. Bangunan untuk memisahankan grit dari bahan organik lainnya disebut sebagai Grit chamber. tetapi karena lemak ini mudah mengapung dan dipisahkan dari air . dlsb. gunanya untuk menyaring sampah padat yang terikut dalam aliran air limbah. ada yang pembersihannya dengan manual dan ada yang secara mekanik dengan motor listrik.dimana pada unit tersebut memerlukan pengurasan berkala. Grease Trap & Grit Chamber (Perangkap Lemak Dan Penangkap Padatan) Pemisahan grit pada instalasi pengolahan limbah cair adalah untuk menjaga/melindungi pompa dan peralatan mekanik lainnya dari kerusakan karena tergerus oleh padatan inorganik (grit) seperti pasir. kerikil. teknik baru yang lebih efisien adalah dengan sistim hydrocyclone. pecahan kaca. Lemak sebetulnya bisa diuraikan oleh bakteri/microorganisme.

sehingga berdampak pada desain dan besaran konstruksi.dst) akan mengapung jika kondisi airnya tenang. kerikil.limbah. maka akan lebih menghemat jika hisa menggabungkan konstruksi Grit Chamber dan Grease Trap dalam satu konstruksi.Melihat dari kedua sifat yang ada tersebut yaitu bahan yangringan (minyak. Prinsip dari konstruksi ini adalah bahan yang ringan(minyak. dengan kata lain sungguhpun konstruksi penangkap lemak. lemak. lemak.GreaseTrap.Untuk menghindari agar bahan yang biodegreable tidak mengendap disini dianjurkan agar dasar dari konstruksi ini dibuat tirus hingga kecepatan aliran pada bagian bawah lebih besar. akan mengurangi beban/load organik yang ada. dlsb. dlsb. sedangkan bahan yang berat (pasir.Tetapi rata rata sekali tiap minggu sampai maksimum sekali tiap bulan merupakan praktek yang lazim. .) akan mengapung. maka dengan menangkap/menghilangkan lemak sebelum masuk pada unit pengolahan. pecahan kaca. Contoh sketsa konstruksi gabungan Grit chamber dan Grease trap dapat dilihat pada gambar berikut ini: Ukuran diatas hanya bersifat illustratif. tetapi bila tidak dilakukan pembersihan secara periodik maka manfaatnya sama sekali tidak ada. Bangunan penangkap lemak sering juga disebut sebaga. Ukuran sebenarnya perlu dihitung dan disesuaikan dengan jumlah aliran limbah yang akan ditangani. logam. dan bahan padat telah dibuat.Periode pembersihan ini sangat tergantung pada jumlah bahan padat dan lemak yang terikut. Hal penting yang perlu dilakukan adalah pembersihan dari lemak dan bahan padat lainnya secara periodik.sehingga biasanya konstruksi grease trap adalah bak dengan sekat sekat untuk menghilangkan turbulensi.) akan mengendap.

dan panjang nya 2x lebar = 120 cm.35) 1.Contoh soal : Diketahui :Limbah dari asrama Perawat RS berjumlah 40 m3 per hari.Dimensi kita tentukan dulu lebarnya. waktu produksi limbah rata rata 8 jam dalam satu hari Direncanakan untuk membangun suatu grease trap dan grit chamber sebelum limbah tersebut masuk ke unit pengoiahan.6 0.2 x x Volume chamber = Vol (A) + vol (B)m Vol (B) = 0.64 cm bulatkan jadi 35 cm.168 3 2 (0.2 x T) = 0.4 cm (+Freeboard ±20cm) = 30 cm Tinggi total (A) + (B) = 35 + 30 = 65 cm .082 m3 TB (tinggi B) = 0.114 m = 11.6 x 1. Limbah tersebut dari WC penghuni asrama tersebut dan juga berbagai kegiatan yang dilakukan seperti dapur dan cusian Total produksi limbah per hari 40 m3.Berapa kira kira volume dari konstruksi tersebut ?? Perhitungan : Flow rate adalah = 40 m3 / 8 jam = 5 m3/jam = 500J liter / 60 menit = 83.lebar = 60 cm.Karena kemiringan 60° maka tinggi trapesium = 34.33 liter / menit Retention time dalam konstruksi diambil 3 menit Maka volume konstruksi yang dibutuhkan = 83.2 0. Volume trapesium (A) = 0.25 m3.25 m3 ± 0.168 m3 (0.33 It/menit x 3 menit= 250 liter atau 0. misal dasar trapesium 20 cm an.

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