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nEC 1:3 1995 Accent

American Spoken English

American spoken English o learn to

IAmericans Foreword

In real life fast

cl993. American
colloquial. Often speakers of other languages suddenly have
Vowels - See the back cover of this book and index. to ta~k to, orally communicate with Americans on
a sink or swim; do or die basis.
Sound Changes - See the inside of the back cover. Refugees, itinerant farm workers, laborers abroad
Throughout this book the italic numbers, like 6, 18. or in the United States, new immigrants as well as
45 .. , refer to these sound changes. recently arrived foreign students have to get along
in, use, real-life spoken English now .. immediately ..
Speed of Speech - The little numpers at the end of a
for urgent survival.
line show h~w many times fast talking native speakers They may know little or ho English at all. They
would repeat it in 10 seconds. Saying it at a slower especially need knowledgeable American English
speed may sound unnatural. If you learn this fastest speaking helpers, tutors or teachers. Any native
speech you will understand slow speech; But if you English speaking person can be an effective tea­
only learn slow speech you will not understand fast cher..just follow the suggestions given here. Non­
native English speaking instructors would use re­
speech nor learn it just by listening to Americans.
cordings more and learn along with the students.
Specific words, structures and explanations - See the If you already know some English but have pro­
detailed listing of the contents at the front and the nunciation problems or are troubled by your own
alphabetical index at the back of this book. 'foreign' accent you can learn much about under­
standrng and speaking fast American English by
If you want more details, have more or different infor­ using this book.
mation about any point in this book please contact, The instructions for teachers will help you un­
derstand better just what you have to do to
call or write the publisher. learn or re-Iearn. You will need the continued
D. G. Davis, Editor
help of a native speaker of American English to
American Spoken English Publications
tell you when you are saying something unna­
turally and then listen to you until you say it
210 West 21st Street

acceptably well, sound natural.

New York, N. Y. 10011

212 - 989 - 2719 All of this takes time and effort... wishful think­
ing is not enough! HopefiJlly this book will be an
Copyright@1993 D. G. Davis
r effective guide to shorten the learning time and
All rights reserved under the I nternational Copyright Conventions.
No par~ of American Spoken English materials may be reproduced,
0'9­ make it easier for both teachers and learners.
stored In a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any
m~ns, el~ctronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or other­
Wise, .~or Instructional use be made of phonetic presentations and ~
,teachllng techniqu&,i uniquely expressed therein, without the prior
written permission of the publisher.
-=::: ~ \1,"

L SOl,!"
CONTENTS· Detailed Listing ReaUy want to improve1 72 a. the, thiB, that
For specific items see the Foreign Accent Check List 73 the th' 149
alphabetical index Accent reductlon 74 It's the i'sth 150
Words - cor. vocabulary 1 fixed daily schedule 75 What·s this US·SlS 151
use of the little words 2 URGENT SURVIVAL 76 111 this the... IllStho 152
base forms hinder speaking 3 the, a usage 153
Basks in just one class 77 the· a drill 154
fast forms 4 a lifetime foundation 78 It'sa ,',. 155
Learning • Teaching .5 Structure (grammar) 79 It'. the / a - ,·.t h ,'.. 156
American Spoken English Unaware of exact sounds 6 Explanations ineffective
vowels· done in 5 minutes
It isn't the ,'"nth. 157
Learning is not that easy 7 I. this a .. 1 158
Means to an end, not an end 8 consonants th, f, I. sh, ch 82 No, It isn't a ,',Z08 159
Learn from practical real life 9 voicing 83
CONTENTS Be physically active -10 stops 84
l'n't thiltMla iZOIst h , ,zn,"
or a or"'"
Don't forget. Write it down! 11 Survival Instruction 85 r and I before vowels - colors 162
repetitions - hand signs 86
General Variety not variants 12
5 factors in learning to speak
13 3-second limit per student 87
fixed order of b/ock - white 163
i8 =~s,·z 1% often means i'n't 164
Learn i n91 new sou nds
14 Initial desmay is overcome 88
JOBS· for advanced students 89 What + color + is + thing 165
American Spoken English.. What is it? 1 Use the eye to, learn sounds
Introduction to Spoken
1. + thing + color; 166
7 ways to see lOund. that this it I' 8' 'I' 167
English 90
Vowels 16 thE' thi' 168
Learning and teaching it 5 Interrelationship 17
Urgent Survival pronunCiation 91
for advanced students 92 ' ..t '" a • the usage 169
Some not written 18 ' ..' ,'one (pronoun) 170
Introduction - Teachers Guide 93
Vowels 17 1 foreign 2 in English 19 Vowel drill 94
this iso thot'lla I.:this I. that 171

Consonants 25 Can't hear but know letters

Some naturally stronger
Stress changes meaning
Intense drilling techniques 95
Hand sign cues
Demonstration of vowels
a: the, that a tho ..'
my, your m' y"
thisisa tha!!!'sa IZIS' Izet
Sound Changes 30 Longer before voiced sounds 23 hand, visual gimmicks 98
mine, your, 174
Each has a changing tone 24 r-tongue flipping prevention 99 your· a the cha·.· tho 175
man.woman boy·glrl he·she 176
Teaching Sounds 44 ColllOnants

Lip movements
Do rather tnan explain
Instruction steps
big . little li'o long - short
high -low 177

Tongue movements
26 Teaching techniques 102
Foreign Accent 64 Glides semi~vowels

w 27 Demos of key sentences 103

is she a - is he a ,'.hi. IZiw 178

r + vowel
28 comments - pointers 104 Po_lIIlives
Urgent Survival 29 Body Parts - locations 105
76 Voiced consonants instruction 106
her. his 179
Is my, your, her, his, this ,'th,' 180
Sound Change. Break into small segments 107
54 phonological principles 30 Who .... ? 181
Introduction to Real Life Spoken English 90 Word groupings 31 Supervised study
Phonetic tapescript· 1 hour 109
108 " (possessive) 182
how shown 32 Whose.. huz hu. 183
33 to write letters. numbers 110 YOUl'll, mine, hers, his 184
Physical practice. train brain
Introductory Basics 114 Meaningful repetitions 34 Diagrams, drawings III is, are l8~"re -5 -z ...,. 185
Speaking practice materials 35 Written English text 112 sar ..r shor zher ory", 186
real life materials 36 Picture test 113 is / are my / your / her / his
Basic Course 134 Native speaker to help 37 SEMINAR - Spoken English 114 or", ory., oz,Z 187
may not know how 38 Learning Am. Spkn. Eng. 115 they are, aren't, ain't his eni. 168
just speak naturally
39 All make hand signs 116 this - these that· those 189
American Spoken English study materials 426 Study Steps
40 Drawings, diagrams 117 thi,..r tho·..r thE'.... 190
Teaching them
41 writing by sounds
118, the foot/I'K ear eye.. 191
natural speed
42 .0 u u signs and drill
119 left. ri,ght urai' 192
For details see the full listing on the following teaching steps
43 a ar" 120 this- that left- ri,ght 'peed drill 193
e .... contrast drill 121 1. this your.. 1. that your.. 194
pages, For specific items see the alphabetical Teaching Sounds 44 i, e .. little finger gimmick 122 Which.'!. your his her IZhsr.. 195
Bone - Ear hearing conflict 45
index at the back of this book, Bypass defective ear with eye 46
Use of recordings
Speaking naturally
on - under the table
a II or rhythm
Fast speech drill techniques 47 In~duction Routine 125 I. the book on the tablef 196
Lesrning to Speak 48 15 sounds a second 126 here - there 199
Cassettes unusual surroundings 49 Urgent Survival speed 127 is/are there It'. there j's.r 200
detailed explanations
12.1i ...there? Yell, they're your 201
Introduction to Real Life Spoken English ISE Speech Correction 51 Routine - details
129 a _ some 202
Introductory Basics· complete seminar IBS In real·life context 52 additional material
130 Lomtionl
What went wrong where? 53 Textsheet • vowels
American Spoken English· Basic Course Time and Jorm of correction 54 Tex tsheet • Routine
132 Where's! Where're there.. 203
Introductory Basics (short), 139,. 182 BC139 13 vowels from memory 56 Selection 22 ' Jobt, . 133 armll, lega, feet, hand. .204
BC183 Minimum pair drills 57 1Iii8liicou~-n'4 in front, be- side/hindI-tween 205
Trial and error method 58 Oral explanations unneeded 135
complete sentences 206
276 .. 350b
BC276 Overcompensation 59 QA drill one' the other 207
Study points can be separate 136

350c ,.425
BC350 vowels "', a,", I 60 Showing each key sentence 137
he, she behind, In fron t of 208
consonants tho I, r 61 Use of pauses in recordings 138
Where... ? ... here ... there 209
Classroom Techniques - 25 62 Alphabet and other sounQs 139
Who'r. -'she/.he huzi h ....hl 21'0
Gestures, silent cues 63 Numbers 1...9 140 sun school ceiling c/o.. he<Jd
FOREIGN ACCENT 64 10 ... 19 141 floor mouth hand stomach 211
Breaking old habits 65 by 10's 142 above ouer on off in out
Psycho·cu Itural problems 66 100,1,00010210010-110143 under beneath below 212
be informal, relaxed 67 American VOWELS 144 noun + location drill 213
Draws desired attention! 68 '1,",.0°0.
vowel learning steps
complete sentences
pick uP. open, re<l<i, .hut,
Correction resented 69
Friends reluctant to help 70 'British vowels 147 close, put down pu'd".,.n 215
Your own voice recording 71 Introduction of Objects 148 a -ya + verb 216

2 a
r Do you.. d'y'
don't do
Do I.. duo 2-word verbs it 217

Do I.. don't.. ... do

..yesterday today tomorrow.. 286
was is '/I be 287
Was.. 1 I•.. ? ? 288

·ed deletions
-ed pronounced -d, -Id


cloBe want answer wait pay 358

Wan't isn't won't be 289

Tag question .. ,don't 1 dono 221

..don't, do youl duys 222
wa. -n't won't W3Z waz wo 290
... was it? .. ,is it? ..,will/If 291

verb + 8 -S,
-ztIw! -sth
~Z 359

What is it?
Past tense ·d, -id 361
Don't you.. 1 donchi 223 wasn't it? isn't It1 won't it? 292
Did... .. base form .. ? 362
Do I.. Do you.. dua duy. 224 year.. week.. hour..second. 293 -od = -t walk stop look touch 1 The English language has many more words than any other
Verb ... fht ned IaBt 294
kiss wah brush face every if 363
Bhe puts shi pu's first.. next.. IaBt week 295 language.. 500,OOO perhaps. But the ordinary American speaker
he -. readl r.'z fast drill
226 Monday Tu._ Weds Thurs.. 296
Wa•.. I... WiII.. be the - 297
full statements

in daily life uses only about 1,000 different words. A house­
Does he.. Ye., he dozi y..' 227 present tense review 366

• ahe.. YeB,.he do '.hi ye'shi 228 Jan Feb .. Nov Dec

spring Bummer fall winter 299

298 past tense statements 367

wife uses special words about children and the home. A bus
he -.he mixed drill 229 Did... ? 368

doe.n'the/.he d.z"i dlZnchi 230

What tim. is it? past to after 300
TO BE (at a place)
driver has his special words about busses, traffic and passen­
he - .he mixed drill morning.. noon.. ev.ning 301
Doe.n't he.. Doesn't she..

231 a.m. p.m. through 302

Set the scene 369
gers, A doctor talks with special words about being sick. But
here, over there.. on, by 370

come - go to - from 232

niNht, midnwht, midday
Good Morning ...... G'NWht
am is are 371
everybody uses the same core vocabulary, a common group of
bring - take 233
ectl.e drill fuU_ment> 234 meet Bay Hood-by 304 Where amlis/are .. 1 372
only some 800 words which tie together the special·words.
c/OBe to near for from 305
I... f Are.. ? 373

give you - me a g•• yo. 235

I.n't... 1 Aren't... ? 374 The main thing about spoken American English is not so
give. a gUlmo g.,.,rurs 236 can can't (variants of) 306

Ain'L? 375 2
touch can - can't 307
Eat, drink
g/au, tIOUcer, plate, knife, hot
Whyf B0C4UBe... 308 was were 376
much how many different (content) words you know but how
with· without can - can't 309 wasn't weren't 377

coffee, cold milk, meat, tea 237 Wasn't. .. ? Weren·t... 1 378

well do you work with the relatively few (800? functional)
in - ou ~ on - off, or drink 238
Do you eat meat d'y'i'mit 239

CLOTHING IRREGULAR VERBS tie-together words and their various forms and combinations.
hat..pant./.kirt..•hoe.... 310 How to work through them 379
bread butter b.'., Bait s~' 240
put on take Off 311
break .noek breakfat lunch ... 240 have on - have off 312

go come take bring give back 380

base form drill 381

3 The slow word-by-word dictionary pronunciation of the base

have (possess) your my her his 313 1/ You come. go. take ... 382
forms is what you usually learn in the classes of English as a
Have you a h.'YU8 241 have / ha on I off 314 He/She comes, goe.. take•.. 383

No, I haven't 242 wear 315

went came took broughtgave 384 second language. What your first see when learning written
Untrue negative QA problem 243 undress - dre.. 316

Do... have.. ? =Have... 1 244

Did + base Yes + past 385 words stays in your memory for a long, long time, This makes
speak Bay write read know 386

Don't ... have Don't[ dons 245

have to, mu,t,.. 'd better .. 317
1/ You - Bay eat 387 it harder for you to understand and speak natural English
have got = 'vegot 246 write, reach eats ral's r"'z i'l 388
Have... got? 247 have to have go'! to 318

spoke knew Bay gave.. 389

(erroneous initial visual imprint persistance interference).

Haven't..,1 h• • no got 248 must·t 319
should shouldn't 320 80me nothing don't .. any 390
But when speaking naturally the base forms change. The
What've..gotl 249 BaW Mid gave ...• didn't he? 391

hG8 (possess.s) 250 oughtto oughtn't ~t. ;I'n 321

ha.n'thel.he haznchi 251
'd better ad be'.r 322 run get cut /oBe find hurt 392
faster and faster you talk the more they change and group
base form drill 393
Doe• .. have.. 1 .. doe.. 252
'd rather drathar
can will may might could
324 I run and get.. hurt hand on.. 394
themselves together. When you know about, are familiar with.
Doesn't hel.he have 253
',got.. Has he/ahe got.. 254 will-'/1 won't 325 geto finds go', fai·nz h.r's 395
such changes your ear begins to hear them and then you will
Hasn' No•.. ha.n·t got 255 may 326 He /She runa, gets, hurt... 396

ain't got Adjectives 256 mwht 327 ran got cut 10Bt .. scissors 397
use them to speak naturally, Because you already speak
went - didn't go 328 He ran, got... didn't he? 398

more Ie.. than as much as 257

in - out in,ide - outside 329 teach make put think tell 399

another language or do not speak English naturally you do not,

m_n Itsn Bame 258
more .. noun .. than 259
did go (emphatic) 330 base form drill 400
like little children, learn these things about fast speech just by
may not mwh t not 331 !teach, make. putit On.. 401

BOrne. a little. much. a lot

a few. few more. many

could couldn't kud ku'n 332 tells, puts It on pu'.. 'an 402
talking with Americans.
would wouldn't u u' uu'n 333 taught thought t~t th~t 403

--er than -.... n 262 4 For example, you has 17 forms. At the start yu, ya,
auxiliaries pictured 334 He told, didn't he? tau' 404

hwher I lower than 263 Bell buy have hit bur.t 405

Ilk. + noun 335

-or. -e.t 264
candy, money, beer... 336 I have money, buy a pencil 406 YI, y' or we don't say it at all. The negative takes chu,
--reverse drill- 265
like to .. verb 337 has hit, bUrRt. hi'S bars's 407
cha, chi but for the past and conditional ju, ja, jl. you
-or. -est drill 266
had money. bought hit bUrRt 408

-nt, -1st 267 'd like to would,,'t like to 338 yu

little - bW -er -e.t 268 would.. wuju wuehi wudl 339 Did he have.. buy.. hit.. ? 409
Not clearly said is best used for emphasis. Many y.Y·
Comm ands aah, tell, have 340 U8ed to - habitual past 410

small-large -er than .... n 269

Aux iliaries variants table 341 perfect tenses table 411

·Iearners of English as a second language don't hear y'
the -est 270
bad - worst good - be.t 271 recording test of variants 342 tones. stops. changes
compound - simple pasts


the commonly used 3 forms of -n't. So they always chu

before - after 272 What am, do. did.. variants 343 ehs
finge,. .. mlddle.. 273
What variants drill 344 hearing test of pasts 414
clearly say not, which disturbs native speakers. 30-37 elu
first middle IaBt 274 have / has (lived) 415 shu
the first. the middle. the last 275 Overview - forms of all tenses 345
Where'd I did
perfect partic iple table


Did you not get it? Formal written she

the first. middle, Ia.t name. 276
effective learninq of
diagram all tenses. modes
could, would if... 418 Didn't you get it? Informal spoken iu
NUMBERS will. won't (desire) want to 419
Ord in als - first. Becond.... 277 Silent cues - all tenses 348 can but can't 420
did nt yu get ,t base forms by sounds jl
going to gonna -Ing '/I 349 zhu
Arithmetic :2 and 3
:2 from 4
279 Auxiliaries - in action 350
Willyou.. ?WhywolI'tyou? 421

If I.. would you..? If rd _. 422

dl'ncha getlt Sound Change 18 ",n, 41 t+y=ch zhs

3 times 4 280 -in&1-:' 'v. been, ··d been 351 contrary to past fact . 423
dmchl g,',t 2,3,4 u=a=I,23 vowel+f+vowel
3 into 12 281 havl 'I had been... , 352 If rd known rd've" baked.. 424

multiply, divide. minu., plu. 282 •• taq questions 353

4-ietter obscene woros 4<:5 dich, g",' 37 -n't nasalizes the vowel 24-'
Measurements a foot .. inches 283
yard, kilogram. pound, ounce284
PaBt Tense
Learn present tense fi rst 354
Am. Spn. Eng. marerials
Scientific R.ferences


chi g",' 38 the first sound is not said

Fractions 1/6 ... 819 285 Teachinq procedure 355 428
g",'? 38 rising tone question See 24c

Learning- Teach ing

LEARNING AND TEACHING FAST NATURAL 10 You learn, and teach, better if you are physically active. It is
AMERICAN SPOKEN ENGLISH better to stand than to sit when learning or teaching. Do the
action or make a suggestive gesture of the meaning every time
5 This book is about informal spontaneous American speech, something is said. Just the movement of writing helps you to
natural colloquial General American. It shows the exact learn better. Walk around the room as you repeat aloud. Learn
sounds that Americans really do say, their variants and chang­ to talk while you are standing or walking. Students are not to
ing patterns. Also it is a guide to get ESL (English as a Second just sit still and listen. They must react physically in some way
Language) learners to catch, perceive, understand and use the to everything said, repeat what is heard, make a gesture,
sounds and functional words the way Americans do in their write, do something!
casual daily-life conversations. 11 When you learn something will you remember it? Not forget­
6 Many native American speakers of English, even ESL teachers, ting is even more important than initial learning. Paper remem­
are not fully aware of, know, what Americans do with sounds bers..even years later.. So write down in a ~_ ;'... .
and words in real-life fast speech. So ESL learners should not good notebook anything that you feel you .....
expect ordinary Americans to know the details about sounds. should remember, know and use years later.
Just ask them to help you speak naturally. 12 ESL learners may come to only a few classes, maybe just one.
Teachers would do well to glance through this book to be So they should learn well something that is by itself of practi­
more conscious of how we really do speak English and to be cal use. And it is better to learn one each of several separate
different structures, thought patterns, than to learn several va­

able to help the ESL learner when he doesn't speak naturally.
riations of the same basic ~

~~ ~ r
Look over the American vowels shown on the back cover of

~a~~e~a~~a~f s~~~~:~1 ~fno~~

thing. It is better to have
this book and read through, become familiar with the Sound
Changes listed inside the back cover and detailed in point 30.
7 ESL learners often think that they will be able to get along of the same tool. It's bet- \ \

in, use spoken English to their satisfaction, or to meet their ter to have a knife, fork

basic needs, with much less work, effort and time than they and spoon rather than 3

really want to put into learning English. "Teach me the alpha­ kinds of spoons!

bet so that I can read English." "I want to learn just by talking, So go through this book studying each key sentence well and
not out of books:' It's not that easy. The older you are the then quickly go on to the next. Learners should get an over-all
more you have to study, make an effort to learn. view, a general idea, of spoken English as quickly as possible.
ENGLISH They might never study English again and may well be faced
8 Not ., but SNOhl!!!! .,
Most ESL learners, reluctantly, are forced to study English with the totality of spoken English immediately and have to
because they have to, must know some English just to get go at it all alone on their own.
through school and to have a tool to get a job and lead a better 13 To learn to understand and to speak American English well
life... whatever that might be! It's on through English on to you have to i , e c
ce 0
the object in life. Only a few, such as would-be-teachers of 1 Hear, catch and say the exact sounds of natural speech. uuar.
English and interpreters, are interested in the English language a Of first importance are the 12 basic simple vowels. You
itself. Always keep in mind that learning English is a means to
have to know exactly each one and how they are to each
an end, a tool to get something, not an end within itself. So
other and to the vowels of your own language. See 17.
study, say, work with something practical as you learn rather
than go through academically conditioned linguistic gymnastics. b Some consonants that are not in your language need spe­
cial attention, zzzz th ch j sh zh wh, and especially the 3
9 Spoken English is best learned most effectively, economically forms each of r and I - before, between and after vowels. r­
and fastest as a by-product of doing something tangible while
-r- -r, 1-·'··1 See 25 ... 28.
repeating aloud what you do many times ..something which is
2 Be familiar with, know how the sounds change. Learn the
of practical use in everyday life. What you learn should be
Sound Changes as they come up in the study materials. The
something you can immediately use at work, in the street or at
little cursive numbers refer to the Sound Changes inside the
home. In learning, do English rather than just study about it!

6 7

back cover and in point 30.

Don't you wont to sit down? Old traditional spelling 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13
dont yu want tu SIt daun Slow base forms American English ai e e lJ ea::lo u u ar a
41 2 9 2 10
doncha wanta sl'dau-n
41 t+y=ch, 9 t+t= 't
2 u=a, 10 t+d='d, 6 ~
French ai i e e. a au ou e
m uet
37 4 18 6 37 ont=o, 4 a = 1,18 n1 Spanish ay e e­ a 0 u
dochl wana sidaun
3 Hear and say a grouping of little words like one longer word. Japanese l' I 7' :It 7
Don't you wont to? 0000'" ~ Chinese 1X. M 00!t .~ 5C
"Doncho wonno" dochl wana
4 Physically practice much. Just knowing it in the head does Your language
not get the tongue to wiggle-waggle, move properly. It takes
much physicai practice over a long time.
J Ii It's Ii ke learn ing to p lay the piano 0 r to
In between the vowels of your language are the special vowels
~ skate beautifully on ice. Every day do 15
of American English. Say your sounds which are before and
to 20 minutes of special physical prac­ • after a special English vowel and then in be­
tice of reading, talking aloud until they
think that you are an American.
lAAe/\QOOoU tween your sounds say a sound which is not
like either of your sounds.
14 Learning to hear and say the new sounds correctly
Say a and then a several times. a 0, a o. Then say a, round
Uttle children can learn new sounds, forms and expre­
the lips only a little and say a sound that is not o. Then move
sions just by hearing them but older learners need special in­
the lips more and say o. Usten carefully until you say 3 dif­
struction. ferent sounds, 2 like in your language and the other in be­
a First you should know the meaning of what you are trying tween, not like a nor o. a ::I 0, a ::I o.
to learn to hear and say. Seeing something and moving your Another way is to say a. Do not move the lips but think of
own body in some way as you say what you do is the best and say o. Then move the lips to say o.. a::l 0, a::l o.
way to learn the meaning. See 40-1.
18 Some languages have other English vowels but no way to
15 b Get into you head, imprint on your mind, put into your
write them exactly. So speakers of those languages don't know
memory exactly what each sound is. When you know exact­
they have certain English vowels.
ly what you are trying to hear or say you will begin to hear,
catch the new unfamiliar sounds of English. Because your Spanish entre. Quise que me hablara ayer. Manana hablara.
ear does not yet hear some English sounds correctly it is entre ablara manana ablara
better to use the eye to learn, come to know exactly what a 5 4 7 7 13 7 7 137 7 7
target sound is. See 18. Japanese eda mame ashita Russian 'komnata'
eda mame ash'ta komnata
There are 7waysto see a sound: a mouth movement, moving 513 7 4 7 13 9 13 7
hand signs, geometic designs, drawings, etc. See 46.
19 In Japanese and in Spanish e at the beginning of a word is
16 Vowels General American English has 12 simple basic vowels much like English e, but -e at the end is more like e. At the
and ai works like a simple vowel. See the back cover of this beginning or in a word a is like a and at the end is more like
book. Little by little the mouth opens. The lips make smaller a. The Spanish accent ' changes a to a. Speakers of these 2
and smaller circles like for a kiss. Then 2 sounds are made in languages, like many others, don't know that
the center of the mouth. ...:::;..c::. L L LL0 0 0 0 Z ~ they have I sound which is 2 or more
kap _ English sounds.

17 Several of the English vowels are the same, or are almost the
same as some vowels in your own language. Under the English . kap cop - policeman
vowels write in your language the English vowels which are in o .kapcup - for coffee
your language. a 3
Vowels Vowels
If you don't have an English sound in your language you
think that it is like the closest sound in your language. With no abundant abandant All vowels are a, the second a little
stronger, abAndant. If you say them the same it sounds natural
e, ;), ar or a (as a separate sound) in their languages many ESL
but ebandant, abudant or abandant would be hard to under­
learners hear cat, cot, caught, curt, cut all to be kat. But native
speakers hear ket, kat; k;)t, kart, kat. stand. Say the vowels correctly. Forget about weak or strong!
22 In the flow of several words a stronger than usual vowel,
usually longer and of higher tone, changes the meaning, feeling
of the expression.
You must go now .
-1,( ~ar
.1.{ , " . ( U'
;) .-:-_ _...::,1....
.. ya
mas' go nao Normal, usual. It is true.

8r You, not some other person
_~ ,..._u a ~59~
_ _, e
ya ma-st go_nao
cannot not go, impossible not to go

y' mas go- nao not stay, definitely leave

Os '-
At first your ear may not hear the difference. If you look at
written sounds you can see which sound you'd like to hear,
the 'target' sound. When your eye has put the correct sound
into your mind your ear will begin to hear it. With the eye as
~---- -
mas' go no-o
at this exact time, not later

A vowel is longer before a voiced sound (vibration in the

throat). It is short before an unvoiced sound (no vibration in
as guide your ear learns to catch, perceive, take in correctly the throat). See 2,9. This is especially important before ..cJ or -t
each sound. Then the eye and the ear help the tongue to say because they often become weak or are dropped, not said.
the proper sound. The first step is to hear yourself say 13 dif­ But the long vowel before -d does not become short after the
ferent sounds for the vowels. When you can hear youself say -d is dropped. So a long vowel means that a ·d is missing, and
the 13 vowels you will hear other people say them. a short vowel is for a missing ·t. See 30 - 6.
20 The vowels are the carriers of, the base for, accent, stress and I bet the bad bat had a hat on the bed, didn't he?
intonation and of course the different meanings. When learn­ ai bet tha be-d beet he-d a heet an tha be-d did n hi
ing, hearing or saying a vowel in a word or in a flow of sounds 2 21 4 6 11 11 6 23 23 4 9 18 33
think, ask yourself abe' th' be·' be' he-' a hee' an th' be·' dl' n i
1 Which vowel is it exactly? i?, e ?Ere uu? (ff()?
A rabid rapid rabbit made his mate aid eight sick big pigs sit.
2 Is it strong or weak? 0 0
a re-bl-d reepl-d re-blt me-d I-Z met e-d et sik bl·g pl-g'Stt
3 Is it of long or short time duration?

4 Is the tone (voice level) high, low or ?--'"

Native speakers of English do not consciously know about
changing up or down or not changing? .~ long and short sounds or rising and falling tones but ESL stu­
dents should know about them and keep them in mind when
You have to know, recognize, identify, discer.n each of the learning a new word or groupings of words.
vowels. When you see a phonetic letter you should know
exactly which sound it is even though you still may not be 24 Each vowel sound has a voice level and change in tone.
able to catch, hear it in fast speech. a In learning to sayar and a it is helpful to think of ar as rising
lIe ereaao u U BIa from a mid level and then dropping a little for a. Note the up
21 Some vowels are naturally stronger than others. The ones in and down line of vowels, as on the back of the book.
the center, e a !) 0, are stronger than those at the sides, i I ••• ai i lee e a !) 0 U U ar a worker warkar cop cup kap kap
U ar a. So if you learn and say the vowels properly you don't b For special meanings the voice goes up a little when a word
need to worry, think about stress or accents in a word. is said more strongly. See 22.
present prazent - ' to give
c At the end of a thought segment the vowel goes up, down
prezant ' - a gift, now, be at a place
or stays at the same level.
10 11
Consonants Consonants

You must go. Not finished. The listener expects you to say For beginners learning to say I before a vowelJ
---------­ more. You must go ..... because he's waiting. 1 Bite the tip of the tongue between the upper ~ 0
You must go. A statement of fact. End of a thought. Some and lower front teeth, the same as for tho : ~
~ other person may start to talk.
You must;:::, A question of doubt, surprise, suspicion_ Per­ 2 Say a weak u, with any consonant blending . ,. .
haps an expression of anger, frustration.
into the I. ~:l:::~lbt'lnMn
.tntlnl po,Hlon

Questions starting with a Wh-word,What, When, Where, look Uluk blue bUlu glad gUIa!d sleep sulip
Who, Why, Which or a verb like Is, Was, Were, Have, Has, 3 Do not smile as the tip of the tongue goes down behind the
Do, Does, Did, Will, Would, Could, Should end with the lower front teeth.
voice tone going down because the first word itself shows
that what you say is a question. A rising tone is for doubt. 4 Say the vowel after the 1- Ulu bu lu gU Ia! SU Ii
n The tongue touches the top Of the mouth farther back than
So at the end of a thought segment give your listener the pro­
per feeling by the voice tone going up, down or staying even. for 1-. ng
, ... ,.---_ ...... _--­
25 Consonants For a complete listing of consonants see 139. The back of the tongue goes up
These are sounds that go together with the vowels. It is well k, 9 The air flow is stopped for an in- r"
to know how the lips and tongue move to make some of the stant, then goes on out the mouth. i

consonants which may not be in your language. og The air flow is stopped and then
Lip movements " goes back up out through the nose.
A match flame in front of the nose
p, b, m The upper and lower lips should flicker, move quickly.
come together and stop the
flow of air. h The back part of the tongue closes

up but the air goes on by, no voice.
f. v The lower lip comes up and
touches the edge, the bottom
part of the upper teeth.
The tip of the tongue goes down
s, z The end of the tongue is halfway
sh, zh The lips are round like for a kiss. li-?­ down in the center and the air flows
out over it. The lips smile.
O I + vowel The lips are in a little circle as for a kiss. Say a
weak u .... but then the lips stay round. Don't smile! sh, zh The tip of the tongue is down
r + vowel The lips first are round for
a kiss. Say u. Then smile side to side.
0 - 0 closer to the lower front teeth. The
lips are round like for a kiss as the
air flows out. For beginners, push
s, z The lips smile from side to side. the center of the cheeks into be­
26 tween the upper and lower teeth.
Tongue movements See Sound Change 23.
t,d, The end, tip of the tongue goes up. ch, j The tip first goes up as for t and
t, d The tongue tip touches the top of the mouth stops the air. Then it quickly goes
behind the upper teeth and stops the flow of air. down near the lower front teeth
e tip is tight against the lower edge and lets the air go out over it.
of the front teeth. Beginners are to bite the end 27 Vowels in movement, glides, semi-vowels, 2-part consonants
of the tongue between the upper and lower front y + vowel The center top of the tongue goes up and almost
teeth and then let the air go out. stops the air as you start to say a long i. iiiiiiiar year Hiet yet
I + vowel For most native speakers of English the tip of the w + vowel Like its name 'double u'· uu. Don't smile as you say
tongue goes up and touches the top of the mouth farther a long uuuuu before a vowel. uuuuuant want uuuuomao
back away from the upper front teeth than for t and d. woman. Much like the Spanish speakers say guante, agua .­
Near but not close to the upper teeth. See Sound Change 30-47.
wante awa.

r+ consonant Sound Changes 1 .. 5

28 r + vowel First say u then smile as you go on to say the fol­ exact sounds and how they change. This will help them to
lowing vowel. 00 not let the tip of the tongue flip up and understand better what Americans say and to talk in a way
hit the top of the mouth, as in Spanish, cl.~((?~ that Americans will more easily, readily understand what the

~ ~.

Japanese, Russian, Hindi, etc. ~. r.~

ESL speaker is saying.
To learn to say the American r· before a vowel Native speakers of English are not conscious of or don't
know about these changes. But they do react to and use them
1 Put a pencil point straight
back into the mouth on top of the in their daily life conversations.
tongue so that it can't move up. First you should get a general overall idea of how the sounds
Practice reading aloud and speaking change. Look over, quickly read through, become familiar
with a pencil point 2.5 cm. into .the with the following points. Then when in your study materials
mouth. See 30-54. you see little cursive numbers, like 2, 18,53 .. , you can look at
2 Say u. Just saying u makes it harder those numbers in these Sound Changes to understand better
for the tongue to flip up. If it does, what is happening to the sounds.
1 kiss 2smUe
with the pencil point on the tongue
® ,. c:::::::> put your lips around the pencil as you
say u. Kiss the pencil!
1 Basic Simple Sounds
ESL learners should know well the vowels and consonants.
Say u, together with any consonant which blends into the Learn to hear yourself say 13 different vowel sounds and re­
r. write, right uroit bright bUroit, try turai, through thuru member the 8 pairs of voiced and unvoiced consonants.
3 Smile as you slide, glide, flow into the following vowel. Consonants Vowels
29 Voiced Consonants. voicing See 83. 30-1 voiced d g j b v Z zh th m n ng oi i I e f: ae a :) 0 U U ar a
unvoiced t k ch p f s sh th y- w- r- wh- 1­
When you say a vowel, for example 0, 0, u, there is a vibra­
tion, something of the voice moves very fast down in the
throat. As you say 0, 0 or u put a finger on the little hard VOWEL CHANGES
thing in the front of your throat (larynx, Adam's Apple, voice 2 Clear vowels often become weak and change to the neutral
box) and feel it move very fast, vibrate. Put your hands flat vowels +, tJo, I, a. Most people hear these neutral vowels as a or
over, cover, your ears and you will hear the vibration down in sometimes I and so in writing use mostly a.
the throat.
There are 8 pairs of consonants. Each pair is basically the
What can you get for a dollar? ai i 1 e ~~ CB (l ,) 0 U U sr 3
huot kaen yu get for e dolar ~~_ __
same sound but one of the pair has the voiced vibration and huat kan ya get far a dolar (3 I
the other does not. Say ssssss like a hissing snake or cat, just
hua' kmYI get faa dola J( ~
the passing flow of air going out. Then make the voice buzz
like a bee flying near your ear, zzzzzzzz. sssssss - zzzzzzz. 3 Sometimes the neutral sound is more like I, such as before
Learn these 8 pairs well...voiced often become unvoiced. unvoiced consonants and vowels. can you kmYI See 2 above.
Voiced (with vibration) d g j b v Z zh th ~JAI..w.AAWhW~. 4 Often a and I disappear.
Unvoiced (no vibration) t k ch v f s sh th mWU'fY¥I"""'' ' V\ (schwa deletion)
interest Mrs.
Also voiced are m, n, ng, I and sometimes What do you say? police chocolate
before vowels y-, W-, r- and h- are voiced. ----..~ huot du yu se polis chokalat mtarest mlsaz
hua'da ya se palis chok'Jat mtrest mlSIZ
30 SOUND CHANGES hua'dl yl
Phonological Principles of Fast Natural Speech hua'd'y' se p'lis chak'ltt mtns' mls'z
- - - Pronunciation Pointers - - ­ 5 Consonant + vowel
The more informally, faster Americans speak the more the Usually we say a consonant with the vowel after it. If there is
base sounds of English pronunciation change. Learners of Eng­ no vowel after a consonant, to say the consonant more easily
lish as a Second Language (ESL) should be familiar with the or clearly add a weak -a that disappears when you speak faster.

14 Hi
Sound Changes 6 .. 8 Sound Changes 9 .. 19

five nine left asks business advanced 9 When 2 same sounds are together they become just 1 stronger
fai-v a nai-n a Idit a aesakis a bizanasa adavaensat ii sound, often after a glottal stop. •• > _ ** > '*
Often at the end the stop consonants p, k, t, b, g, d release a some more bookkeeper this seat give you a book What did he
puff of air which sounds much like a weak _a. See 30-53. sam mo-ar bukkipar thlsslt glv ya a buk hua'dld'i
6 The vowels are said longer before voiced sounds. See 1 above. sa'mo-ar bu'kipar thl'sit glvya- buk hua'di
The vowel is still long even if the voiced sound after it is not 10 We don't say the first of a voiced-unvoiced pair. They are
said or changes to its unvoiced form. The meaning is often really 2 forms of the same sound. See 1 and 9. ~ p ¢ b
understood by how long or short the vowel is, not so much • ~ t r d
Please Slt down cupboard large check g k ~ 9
by the consonant after it. _
pli-z sltdau-n kapbo-ard la-arj chek ~~~ Wlh
What does the neat knee need now? pli-'sl'dau-n ka'bar-d I~r'chtk ~: ~ ~
huat da-z tha nit ni ni-d n~o ~
hua'da-sth' ni' ni ni-' n~o
ni' ni ni-' 11 Often we don't say the first, or sometimes the second, of 2
stop sounds - k 9 d t ch j p b See 8 - 1, 2, 3.
The duck dug the dock dog. (dug - liked, was friendly to)
th' dak da-g th' dak d~g (dog - d~g, but sometimes dag) blank check dog-do hot cakes big deal! good-by
blaengkchtk d:>-gdu hatkeks bl-g dio gu-d bci
Police sit down. Please sit down. He loves silly fluffs. z 5=5 539
blaeng'chek d:>-'du ha'keks bl-'dio gu-'bai
palis Sit dau-n pli-z Sit dau-n hi lavz slli flafs 55 ='5 9
4 10 pli-s 51' dau-n la-fsslll vs = fs39 12 5 / z + sh = 'sh
p'li'sl'dau-n pli-'sl'dau-n hi la-f'slll flafs la-fs lafs this shoe does she his shirt nice sheets
7 re = ra = ar (ra reduction) this shu daz shi hIZ shart ncis sh its

thl'shu da'shi hl'shar' nai'shi's

hundred children iron introduce protect prepare

handred chludren mtradus pratekt pripaer Dental Deletions -1, ~, t~
handrad chiudran mtardus prapaer 13 t / d + b ='b See 11.
handard chludarn aiarn m'ardus (partekt) (parpaer)
good-by dead beat damned bastard Great Britain
Deletions - Not saying a sound gu-d bai dt-d bit demd baestard gret brlt'n
8 Stops gu-'bai de-'bit dem'baes'ard gre'brl'n
When a sound is not said there is usually a very short pause 14 t / d + ch = 'ch (ch = tsh 45, ttsh 8, ~ tsh 10)
(silence .. 1/20 of a second?) c~used by stopping the flow of air. flat-chested fried chiken bad check Fat chance!
Then the next sound is stronger because the air that is released flae'ches'ld frai-'chlk'n bee-'chek fae'chaens
after the stop goes into the next sound. - - - ' ­ 15 t / d + j ='j (j = d zh the voiced form of t sh - See 45.)
Stops are just as important as any sound you say. Listen for hot jazz broad jump great joy mid June
the stops and make them when you speak .. a good, quick, full ha'jee-z br~-' jamp gre'joi ml-'ju-n
stop of the air or of the voice. If there is no stop the meaning
may be different. 16 t / d + I ='1
There are 5 kinds of stops. jet lag red light bad luck fat lady
1 The lips come together. b, p, m je'lee-g re-'Iai' bee-'Iak fae'ledi
2 The tip of the tongue t, d, th 18 t / d + n = 'n, n + t / d = n + no deletion stop
3 Back of the mouth g, k, ng See 26. ,page 13. XnX
didn't get nervous oughtn't button important !K~
4 Down in the throat - glottal stop. dl'n gt'narvas ~'n ba'n Impo-ar'n'
Th is glottal stop is often used in place
of the other stops, especially for the tip 19 t / d + P = 'p See 11.
of the tongue stops. See 46. could pay
5 Transitional pauses The air goes out smoothly ~
wet paint night patrol lead pipe
we'pe-n' nai'p'tro o le-'paip ku'pe
but the voice stops for 1/20 of a second or less.

16 17
Sound Changes 20 .. 28
Sound Changes 29 .. 35
20 t / d + s = 's See 22,30. 29 s / z + th = s·- / z·· -.-. the/a patterns
What's that? It's a bad sign. got sick For God's sake! Is that right?! What's this? Is there a... It fits these.
huo's theet I'sa bee-'sain go'slk far go-'s sek
izee'rai' hua'sls IZEara j'fi'si-z
hua'seet f'go-'sek
s / z + the -s and ·z slide into a weak vague -sth' or ·zthil
21 t / d + th = 'th
before unvoiced or voiced sounds. The voice goes up a little.
What then that they Good thinking! Feed the cat. s / Z + a -s and ·z form a firm syllable with -a. ·sa ·za The
huo'then tha'the gu-'thmgking fi-'th' keet
voice stays down. No rising tone.
22 t / d + Z = 'z See 20,30.
Was the book waztha buk It's the key j'sth'ki
Was a book waza buk It's a key I'sa ki
the right zip codes worlds of words 8 zeros red zipper
th' rai'zlp ko-'z uaro'za uar-'z e'ziroz re-'zlpar 30 th / d + s / z = 's / 'z See 20,22.
23 vowel + t / d + vowel, W-, r- == vowel + ' + vowel. W-, r. months clothes cloths both sides with some modes baths
mans klo-z kl:>'s bo'soj.'z wl'sam mo-'z bee's
The tongue doesn't have time enough to go i .. u \y j .. U f.

up to the top of the mouth before saying the ~ ~ :;:. ~ ~ W· ,a :;:. 31 ch / j / sh / zh + th = chs, js, shs, zhs
second, usually a weaker, vowel. So in place of & O. to. I wish they'd wash those. Change that judge this week.
t or d some sort of a glottal stop or transitional pause is made. theud thee'jaj
Put it on now. better water ladder get rougher bad weather awisheu' woshso-z chenjsa' jajsiswik.
pu','o-'nao be'ar wo'ar Ie-'ar ge'rafar bee'wdhar Each thing which they use to rouge their cheeks
24 ...1. .. .. ·Iif. -' = -t - ' - d ichsmg hUlch se yus t'ruzhser chiks

At the end a t or d is often weak, dropped or the air is stop­ Other Deletions
ped but not let go out, not released. If the vowel which was 32 -ing = ing, in, 10, an, 'n
suddenly cut off, stopped is short a t was dropped. If the vowel What're you doing? Nothing. Something's cooking!
is tong a d was dropped. See 6. huotarya doin' nathm samthms kukm
Ali right, but it ~d need two neat hot odd bad bat bodies! huataya dolO nath'n samp thans kukan
::l0 roit bat Itud ni-d tu nit hot o-d be-d beet bo-diz huacha doan na'n samp'ms kuk'n
::l°roi' ba'i'u-' ni-' tu ni' ho' 0-' ble-' bee' bo-diz
33 ~-.-.
25 --st = --5'
For Christ's sake he must've just guessed it last Christmas!
far krois's sek hi masta jas' gl!:st, It lees' kns'mas
f'kroi'Sek imas'a jis' ges'I'lees' knsmls
he him his her here
hi him hlz har
1m IZ ar
have has had
heez heed
eez eed
az ad
26 -Id + consonant == 0/ u + consonant See 48. He has his truck here for him and her to have fun in.
ieesls tra kir f'lm nar t'ee'fanm
Ole Man River wildfire world wide cold war should go
oUdmeen riva'r woiudfoir warudwai-d koudw:>r shu-'go 34 wh·- = w··
oUmle-n rivar woiofaiar uar O uoi-d kouu::lar shuU'go Really who is hand u at the same time, ~ or hu is all right.
27 ., th + vowel == ·1 + vowel / ·uth + vowel See 47, 48. But some people don't say the h-sol-lnd.
Well, that's nice. Will they sell those too? What do you want? Which one? Why the white one?
weuthee's nois w,uthe seutho-z tu
huo'da ya wont hUlchwan huai th' huait wan
weulee'snois wlUle seulo-stu
wad'y'wan' wlchwan woi th'woi'wan
28 -nth + vowel n + vowel (+ no deletion stop) 35 have, of = av + vowel, a + consonant (of clock == o'clock)
In that case can those go in there when they come? I've got one of them./'d 've taken a cup ofcoffee at 2 o'clock.
nee'kes kanoz go lOer huene kam aiv gat wana them ada v tekan akapa k:>fi l!Il'tu akiak
aago' wanavam ada tekanakapa k:>fi a'tu akiak
Sound Changes 36 .. 40 Sound Changes 41 .. 49
36 Reduced Forms, fragments It rains cats and dogs. give some I would've! in the garage
Many much-used words become only 1 short weak sound. It It re-nz kaets aend do-gz gl-v sam ai wudav ii In tha ga raj
is good to learn these short reduced forms when first studying It re-nskae's n do-gzss gl-fsam aiwudavff nth' garajchch
a new word. Sometimes using the classical base form changes 41 -t + y- = ch ch + y = ch
the meaning or makes a native speaker uncomfortable, uneasy.
The more you use these forms the more natural you will speak. can't you not yet last year cooked your each year
kaenchu nache:t laeschir kukchar ichiar
a and but by can can't do for have I in is my of the
e amd bat bai kaen kaent du for haev ai in IZ mai av thi 42 -d + y- =j j +y =j
a an' ba' ba kan kaen da far aev aa n is ma 3 tha Did you .. educated soldier good use change your
n b' b' kin k&i d' fa av a s m' th' did yu edyuketld soOdyar gu-d yus che-nj yur

ka f'a i' dlja eja ketl' soojar gu-jus che-njar

them they to would had did you could shouldn't oughtn't 43 -s + y + vowel = sh + vowel sh + y = sh
them the tu wud haed did yu kud shud'n ot'nt
tham e ta ud had dl' ya ku' shu'n o'n kiss you issue Miss Universe let's unite fresh yogurt
am e tf f kls yu ISyu mlsyun,vars lets yunait freshyogart
u ad 'd YI shu

k.sha Ishu mlshunlvars lefshunait freshogart

37 -n't = 'n, .:.

44 -z + y = zh zh + y zh
Often -n't becomes a weak _n or just disappears leaving the
sound before it nasalized, said through the nose. ESL learners Is your was young pleasure as your, azure those yanks
often don't hear the nasal coloring and think the word is posi­ IZ yur wazyang plezyur cez yur tho-z ycengks

tive, yes, when it is negative. no. So carefully listen for the Izhar wazhang plezhar cezhar tho-zh cengks

nose sound of many of the short verbs. 45 t / d + sh = ch See 26 - sh, ch· j

are aren't is isn't did didn't should shouldn't don't won't It's your windshield that she.. Did she get sugar?
or or IZ 12: dl' di shu shu do wi) Itshur winchiud thcechi dlchi gechugar
38 Often we don't say the first sounds of a word or phrase. i'char
because enough Did you get it? Are you ready? It's too bad. 46 1/ n + sh = Ich, ush / nch See 48.
bakoz enaf dlju get It ar ya re-di I'Stu b~d
b'koz anaf ja ge'lt Ylredl stu bae-d Will she bullshit the insured Welsh? Well, shouldshe 10 sheep
kaz naf ge',,? redi? tu b~' WIU shi buush.t th f Inshurd weush weu shud shi ten ship
wlolchi buolchl'th' Inchurduelch welchuchi tenchip

39 * Assimilation - Sounds change other sounds

+ ­ = - + - voiced + unvoiced = unvoiced + unvoiced
R· L Changes

Voiced sounds before unvoiced sounds become unvoiced. See 1.
:i~ fh His cars have to move slowly. Please come. used to
hlz karz h~vtu mu-v sloli.
Ilk ...... :
hlskars h~fta mu-f sloli
pli-z kam yu-zdtu
pli-skam yu-ztta
47 I + vowel = ul + vowel Prevocalic apical L
Beginners learning to say 1 should first bite the end of the
tongue, say u, and not smile as they go on to the next vowel.
Lucy loves bright clean blue-gray flowered pillows.
See 21.

~. t See 358. yu-s'ta ulusi ulavz bUrait kuli-n bulu gUre fUlauar' plUlozss
40 -z, -v, -zh = -s, -f, -sh -zss -vff -zhshsh .~ 48 I + no vowel = u (usually heard as u or 0) Non-prevocalic dark 1
At the end of words the letter s is -s after unvoiced sounds Will you help fill real little Rio school milk bottles?
and is -z after voiced sounds. But if the first sound of the next WIU yu heup flO rio 11'0 rio sku o mluk ba'ozss
word is unvoiced the final -z changes to -so
At the end of a sentence the -z changes to a longer -zsss and
49 I + no vowel (o/u) + vowel = o/u + I + vowel Intermissive 1
fades, stops being a sound. In much the same way j, v, zh be­ That's all. th.'s 0 0 Tell him tau him Will I.. WI U ai
come -ch, f, sh and at the end jCh. vff, zhshsh. It's all over. I'SOo lovar teuhm wlula ..

20 21
Sound Changes 50 .. 55 Word Groupings

50 r + vowel = ur + vowel Prevocalic R See 28. 31 Groupings of Words

Phonic Word Formation OOOO:o.<@J)
Beginners first say u, then smile widely on to the next vowel.
I n fast natural speech the much-used little functional working
write, write, very real rough Americans try to throw. words (is, are, of, in, my, from, and, to ... ) are weakened and
rite, right urait Vf>uri uriO uraf ameunkans tUrai t'thuro
shortened to just 1 or 2 sounds (reduced forms) of the original
51 thar ..•thhuar See 53. or classical pronunciation (base form). These little words tie
First say th, let out a puff of air, think of u as you sayar. together, show the relationship of, the'stronger longer names
of things, actions and adjectives (content words).
thirty-third Thursday thoroughly thirsty
thh uartl thh uard thhuarzdl thh uarUra Ii th h uarstl Usually an idea, thought, is expressed by 1 or maybe more
groupings of the little functional words (phonic word) in be­
52 ar + vowel = arur + vowel Intermissive prevocalic r See 49.
tween a few content words. So think in word groupings when
During sr before a vowel the lips come together for an instant you're learning to understand fast speech and to speak natural­
and make a soft u leading an r- into the following vowel. ly yourself.
Hey, girl. We're in here and where is your old furry cap? 32 In this book most key example sentences (utterances) are:
he garUro wiarunn hiaruran huearunzharuroufarurikiep
a Written in the old traditional spelling (Traditional Ortho"
53 Aspiration k / p / t / th + strong vowel Also after -ng graphy - TO). Try not to read TO very much because it gives

Jj A:...
A little puff of air should go out after the you wrong ideas of how things are said naturally.
~ voiceless stops k, p, t, th when they are put If you already know some English you can look at some
before a strong vowel or before an r·, I- and words in TO to understand the meaning of the spoken
!f. ~..J w- (Ur, u/, u), and sometimes if they are forms or to look up a word in a dictionary. But do not look
!::::%: at the end of a, word. See if a match flame at the TO when listening to the recording, reading aloud or
in front of the mouth fl ickers. I f there is no practicing your pronunciation!
puff of air a listener may hear a different word and misunder­
b Word-by-word base pronunciation is written by sounds,
stand. Also, after -ng a puff of air comes out the nose. See 26.
phonetic letters. Remember that there is no one 'correct'
could khud two,too,to thu try broth thurai bur:>thh pronunciation of a word in English. Correct is what the
good gud do. dew, due du dry throat durai thhurot h listener hears and thinks is all right. The forms shown here
54 Tip of the tongue location are mostly of General American English.

In American English the 'home base' of the end of c The little cursive numbers between the lines or at the sides
the tongue is the very center of the mouth .. not up, refer to the Sound Changes of how the base forms change to
the fast spoken forms. See inside back cover of this book

. not down, not close to the front teeth. To keep the
tip of the tongue back in the center put the for a brief listing of these changes, or pages 14 ... 22 for fur­
sharp point of a pencil straight into the mouth ther details.

about 2.5 cm., an inch. Practice much talking and d The fast speech patterns written by exact sounds are seen
reading aloud with the pencil in the mouth. See 28. in the last lines. Practice well the groupings that are much
55 Voice Projection like longer words. The little figures at the end of a phonetic
line show the natural fast speed of the sentence, utterance.
Think of throwing the sound vibrations down in Go Practice it until you can say it x number of times in 10 se­
your throat out through the center of your fore­ conds as shown by the little figure.
head .. up and out above the eyes. .
I'm late and I've got to get out of here. (Archie Bunker)

("'\J .a~'frL~~"
-....J' \~~.,
aim let iend
2 218
aiv got tu get aut av hj.·ar
2 9 2 23 23 35 6
I r '~~

p" ~?I, am let an av ga'ta g8' au'a hi-r

4 184 35 23
"Y .... 'mle' naga'age'au'a hir 8 (8 times in 10 seconds)

22 23
33 36
Physical Practice

33 Physical Practice b Say the alphabet in English like little American kids do.
If you know something in the head that ebisidiiafji ech~ijeke eOlemenopi kiuaaruresti

doesn't mean that your mouth can easily ab cde fg h i j k i m n op q r 8 t

say it. Little currents of electricity have to yuvida baya eksuaizi

go many, many times between the brain . . . ~ uv w xyz

cells to set up, make network patterns so
that you can instantly understand what Say all the alphabet in 10 seconds. See Sound Changes
you hear or tell you muscles what to do when YQU speak. Then
49, 52 about saying 1- and r- followed by vowel sounds.
also the muscles have to be trained to move properly. c Say the days of the week and months of the year. 296·8
34 It usually takes 50 or more meaningful (you are conscious 9f, d Count from 1 through 20 and then by 10's up to 100 ..

feel the meaning) repetitions to learn to say a short utterence 10, 20, 30, 40... Be careful about 5 and 9, 13-30, 14-40

well. Doing 5 repetitions at 10 different times dur- Dtimes ..the i and I of -teen and -ty. See 140 .. 142.

ing several days is much better than 50 repetitions -!!. d

all at the same time. The important thing is not ll" ay e Introduction Routine
how many total repetitions but how many differ- l:~,' week Say the 13 vowels and the 11 sentences in 45 seconds or
ent times you practice. 500 a month less. Just remember which action comes next in the relat­
It is best to not do more than 5 repetitions of tile same sen­ ed series. See 132.
tence at one time. You stop feeling the meaning and your
2 Repeat aloud what you hear from natural recordings
muscles get tired. You get tense, nervous. But for intensive
practice go on to 4, 5, 10 other utterances, 5 repetitions each. You should listen often to fa­ -
Then go back to the first and do them all over, again and again miliar recordings of unprepared

After you feel that you know an utterence or sentence well informal conversations, real-life

and can say it easily your brain cells and muscles still need to speech ..not something academi­

continue practicing until how to say it is permanently imprint­ cally made up by teachers in a

ed in your recall memory. So when you think that you know it sound studio. Real-life record­
well a week or two later, and again a month after that, review, ings may sound noisy and of
. .
practice that same thing until fluently said. See 36 - 4. poor Quality but in real life ) f !/7

you don't hear academically \ ,--J

Steps for physical practice: correct English without a lot of .

1 First know the meaning. See 40, Study Step 1. background noises. As you understand more and more the

2 Learn, memorize which sound comes next. less and less you will notice the background or static noises.

3 Study, think how to make each sound Your ear learns to not hear the sounds which don't have a

4 Practice speaking until you can say the complete utterance meaning. See 40, Study Step 6.

smoothly at natural speed from memory..without reading.

For example, see 32d. I'm late and I've got to get out of 3 Read aloud from materials written by sounds. See 40 - 3.
here.'amle'naga'age'au'ahir At first say it in three parts Read the same material again and again until
with definite stops for the t's. Later say it all like one you can say the sounds easily. This is for training
A'l't r-/
long word until you can repeat it 7 times in 10 seconds. the speech muscles. This is like a pianist who.

'mle t nagatagetauta hi-ar -- 'mle'naga'age'au'ahir plays the same musical selection hundreds of

times. Most ESL learners do not practice enough physically.

35 Speaking Practice Materials

Read aloud until your mouth becomes very. very tired. Take

1 Repeat things aloud from memory a rest, do something different. Then come back and read

a The series of the 13 vowel sounds as seen on the back until tired again.

cover of this book. At first try for 5 repetitions at least 5

times a day. Give special attention to I, ce, :l, u, ar until 4 Read a translation of familiar real-life material and say it in
you can say all 13 in 10 seconds. See 16 .... 24. spoken English. See 40, Study Step 8.

24 26
American Helpers
Study Steps
37 Speaking Aides - Native speakers of American English you can touch, easily see. Near is for something at more dis­
At the start of your study of English you really can't notice tance, harder to touch. Perhaps you can't see it. See 305.
and correct your own faulty pronunciation or speech pattern Where is the nearest post office? Traditional spelling.
mistakes. Also you just can't -'pick up', learn without special whue:sr IZ tha ni-anst post :;,fis Slow word-by-wordsounds
attention, certain fast forms or ways of Does your American helper say whuE:, hUE: or ue? 30 -34
speaking that are more natural. Your ear Are the vowels longer before oar? hue-ar. ni-ar See 30-6
can't yet hear some sounds and you don't I s the word is IZ, -s or -z? See 30 -40. Where is = Where's
know the way you use some words isn't Do you hear a soft u during -ar before a vowel? 30 -52
natural. Some native speaker of American Does your American friend say -ast or -1st? See 30 -3 -1st
English has to tell you, point out, correct Why does nearest become n i-aru ns '? 2 reasons 30 -11,25
anything you say that is unnatural before it becomes a habit. And post becomes pos'? 1 reason - See 30 -25.
With saying something unnaturally only 5 or 6 times when Do you hear and say the 0 of pos- and off- differently?
first learning it this unnatural way easily becomes so set, fixed, Where's becomes huarz husarz - huaarz - huarz 30 -2, 4
imprinted in your mind that it will seem natural to say it in Does the voice go up or down at the end? See 24.
that improper way, to your disadvantage. for the rest of your Is -s the _ztha or -st h '? See 30 -29. _ztha before n­
life. It's better to learn natural spoken English from the start. huarztha ni-aru rIS'pos':lfIS 8 (Practice to say this 8 times
_ _.......-....... in 10 seconds)

Don't use not not, is iz but-n't, 's -n, -,-s,-zSee 73-9,30-37.

38 A native speaker, even some ESL teachers, may not be able 40 STUDY STEPS
to tell you how to say the proper sounds or why a certain In learning spoken English don't try to learn too much at one
time. only 5 to maybe 10 sentences as a unit of study. Do each

-: word is used that way but can tell you what is not
_'. proper or unnatural. Such a person can say the pro­ study step well because it is the base of the next step. I f a step
v; per or popularly acceptable sounds. or if you show seems too hard maybe you didn't do the previous steps well. Go
. something written in usual spelling can show you back and do them again.
the right order of words or tell you a better word
) to use. See 53-lb.
10 I Learn traditional spelling· optional
Tell your American friend, helper or tutor that you want to 9 INative speaker corrects pronunciation
speak naturally fast like when American friends talk to each 81 Read a translation, say it in spoken English
other. Your helper can tell you what is natural but you yourself
have to know what to do to speak that way!
39 Many Americans in helping you will give you the base form,
the formal classical school or dictionary word-by-word pro­ 4 I Listen to real·life voices, write by sounds
nunciation. Keep in mind the explanations in this book of how 3 I Read the real· life spoken English sounds aloud
to make sounds and how they change when words are said in 2 I Listen to rea)·life voices, read the sounds t say them aloud
fast speech groupings. Think of the Sound Changes and use 1 IKnow the meaning first of what you will be learning to say
them in what you are trying to say naturally. Your American
helper probably doesn't know about sound changes but uses Step 1 Know the meaning of what you are trying to hear and
them naturally, unknowingly. Just ask your helper to speak say.
normally fast. Then you are to repeat what was said several a See, touch or move something.
times with little changes until the American says that it sounds b See a movement. Somebody does something .. another
natural. See trial-and-error learning. 58,45,43-5. student.. .. the teacher ..
For example you want to ask c You yourself do an action or make a movement with a
Where is the closest post office? hand to show the meaning to remember better.
This is correct but it is more natural to say d Hear a translation in your own language. The teacher
Where is the nearest post office? Close is more for something or another student says a few words. But don't talk back
and forth in your language.
.40· ·~u

Study Steps 2 .. 4 Study Steps 5 .. 10

e Read a translation in your language .. a printed one that ing back and forth moving the head and eyes when
comes with the textbook, one made by the teacher or a checking for errors makes the picture of the sounds even
student who has already studied the material. clearer in your memory.
f If you already know some English you can look at the Step 5 Listen and say what your hear.
old usualspellng, the written English form. But beginners

I!J ~~
Hear a sentence, stop the machine dur­
should not read the old spelling (Traditional Orthography ~:: ing the following pause and practice, say
- TO) because it gives wrong ideas of how to say words in . '" ')yJ- lIJ what you have just heard. At first read
normal fast conversation. 'friJ.~;,tjpptJ/Q~Q'#f,rfblyl-/TQ . each sound carefully and then after a
g Carefully, neatly write the translation in your own lan­ few times repeat aloud without reading.
guage. In this textbook and real-life materials the sen­ Talk, no reading. Listen carefully to your inside sounds
tences are numbered. In your notebook write the number coming up from down in the throat. It is the memory
and after it your translation. You will use this in Study of your inside sounds that helps you speak well later. 45
Steps 7 and B.
Step 6 Listen and repeat without stopping.
If you already know some English you may think that
Do not stop the machine. In the pauses that follow the
you don't need to write a translation. But if you do make
a written translation you will notice little things about utterances, try to say what you have just heard before
your language and English which you didn't but should you hear the next th ing. As the pauses are the same
know, keep in mind. As you will be using both languages length of time as the preceeding utterances this makes
for the rest of your life you should learn to use them to­ you speak at the natural fast conversational speed of the
gether from the very start of your study of English. The original native speakers you hear. Do this many times
until without stopping the recording you can sayevery­
making of a written translation helps you to understand
thing without reading what you hear. This also trains
and remember English better. ::::::::::::::t
the ear to not hear noises and spoken sounds that don't
Step 2 Listen and read aloud have any meaning. See 36·2.
II After hearing one sentence stop the re­

Step 7 From a translation write by sounds
".. '1 1111 cording during the pause, silence after
. each utterance and read by sounds Read a translation and write the ideas by exact sounds
aloud. Don't even look at the old tra­ in spoken English. Check for errors and practice reading
ditional spelling, TO. Carefully look at aloud what you have written.
each sound, phonetic letter, and let the eye put a pic­ Step 8 Say a translation baek int spoken ~nglish.
. o~~asily. If this
of it in your mind, like a photographic camera. See 19,46.
Do this many ti e"
Step 3 Read aloud is too hard. ~~ 0 oae and do Step 7 well.
Look at each sound and say them carefully aloud all ~tep 9 ~~ spfaker of lean English listens.
through the sentences of the lesson. Read the sentences
many times until you feel that you are saying the flow ~ \ d1speak
An American friend
of sounds smoothly. This is physical practice for your . ,;:" '\ reading from a ranslation and points out what is
tongue and lips. Also, your eye gets a better picture of . not natural fast spoken English. See 37, 38, 39.
the sounds into your head. Step 10 Learning old spelling Traditional Orthography -TO
Step 4 Listen and write by sounds. If YOu!wt to Ij~!n ,t~e 01· us a spelling.
U ~fast
(fi\ Hear an utterance, a sentence, stop the re­ ':. ttll\ ·first do eliWn~e el. hen you know the
~':~ cording during the pause and write by the pro ntia10n well then you can look at the TO to
-.. exact sounds of what you have just heard. see the I tters used in 'written English: Then read the
When you have written by sounds all of the lesson look sentences written by sounds, say them aloud and try
in the textbook and correct your mistakes. The action to write the 'written English' forms. Later, listen to
of writing helps you learn and remember better. Look­ the recording and write in 'written English:

28 29
41 43

Teaching Steps

41 TEACHING AMERICAN SPOKEN ENGLISH any particular sound. This is the start of physical training in
speaking with further visual imprint reinforcement.
As a general guide, after having gone, worked through the
series of vowels follow the study steps given above in 40. If a 4 Writing by Sounds
vowel in the flow of sounds is not pronounced well enough Students listen to a real-life utterance and try to write it
quickly review the vowel series, as seen on the back cover of carefully sound by sound. The teacher and student both see
this book. For details see points 16 .. 24,30 - Sound Changes which sounds are not yet well defined in the student's mind.
2 .. 8. Also see the Introduction points 97 and 98. Where does a sound go wrong?
Work on the consonants as needed when they come up in the It's not heard properly. See 19.
study materials. See points 25 .. 39, 30 - Sound Changes 8 .. A clear visual imprint has not yet been set in the mind.
52 and 139 where they are treated alphabetically. The audio recall memory is not clear or is faulty. See 45.
By using the recordings teacher aides, knowing little English, The student is unfamiliar with the phonetic letters.
can do most of the routine class instruction. Only a native Usually studen.ts, even illiterates, unconsciously learn
speaker of English is really needed for speech correction in this way of writing by sounds as a by-product of focus­
Study Step 9. ing attention on learning the exact sounds. Just use the
42 Keep in mind this is 'fast spoken natural colloquial speech'. phonetic letters without comment.
When an utterance is said at less than 10 sounds per second Students familiar with the British system, as used in
it may sound unnatural. Native speakers should model at many bilingual dictionaries, will need to relearn the let­
the speeds shown by the little figures at the ends of the ters for a couple of sounds and new ones for the Ame­
final lines written by sounds, at X times in 10 seconds to rican sounds not in the British system. See 147 and 196.
set the pace of saying it just once. These speeds are often
5 Listen and Repeat Aloud
15 sounds, phonemes, a second.
Now you can start to work seriously on pronunciation.
StUdents repeat aloud in unison, small groups or individually
in fixed order at first or at random later. As a general rule, Factors to be considered:
limit spoken repetitions to only 5 or 6 each time. It may take a A learner does not hear some sounds correctly. See 19.
10 or so 5-repetition practices over weeks to reach natural Can't tell the difference in sounds other people say.
fast conversational speed. 5 x 10 = 50. See 34. Doesn't know when he doesn't say a sound well.
43 TEACHING STEPS - See the Study Steps of 40. b One's own and another's same sound heard as different.
1 Establish the meaning. c Improper audio (ear) and visual (eye) recall imprints
Students should not drill with what to them is a nonsense d Not enough physical practice in speaking
utterance. The teacher, someone, does something and says Only when a learner has a good concept of each sound
what is being done. At least a few students should do and can he begin to pick out and hear any given sound. He
say the target action. The older the learner is the more im­ has to have an external perception imprint in his mind
portant is that he write out a translation, neatly with refer ­ to recognize it and an internal perception imprint as a
ence numbers in his notebook. This is to be used in Steps guide to say it correctly. See 19 and 58. For physical
7,8,9 and perhaps 10... and years later! See 62 -22. practice see 33 .. 35.
2 Visual Imprinting of Sounds 6 Listening and speaking without stopping
When the eye sees what the exact sound is the ear will be­ This is training to hear, understand and speak at natural
gin to hear it accurately. The pictorial imprint in the visual fast speed. Maybe stop during a pause to work on a trouble­
recall memory guides the ear to di.stinguish the sounds and some spot. If a student messes up a bit, makes a mistake or
put them separately into the audio recall memory. See 19. is slow to respond the teacher usually can give a cue, make a
3 Read aloud by Sounds corretion without stopping the machine. See 62 -6.
Don't be too critical of pronunciation at this point. Give 7 Write by sounds from a translation
just enough guidance to be sure a student has a good idea of This clearly shows what sounds and structures have not yet
30 31
44 45
Teaching Sounds Sounds by eye

been learned well enough. Many so-called advanced students can't be used to get the proper imprint of some sounds into an
in regular courses speak poorly because they are not sure of
ESL learner's brain. See 19.
the sounds, mess up on word groupings of reduced forms ...
Your recorded voice does ~ Inside· Outside
and structure patterns too. Do this step until there are few 45
not sound like you to you. / ~ ( , , , - Hearing
if any errors.
But to other people your re­
8 Speak from a translation corded and speaking voices
Students often falter in speaking because they don't have a are the same. When you
definite idea to express. Thinking of a thing half-way intelli­ speak your hear mostly the
gent to say, how to say it and moving the mouth to say it all sounds that come up from
at one time is just too much for beginners and frustrates down in the throat through
flowing speech practice at all levels. A translation gives a your bones. You feel that
ready-made train of thoughts, usually of familiar and inter­ this 'inside bone hearing' is
esting materials. Steps 3, 5 and 6 are for physical practice. your true voice.
Step 7 clarifies the 'how'. If a student falters too much in The fast moving ear drum brings into your brain many more
speaking from a translation go back and do Steps 3 to 5 as qualities of sounds, such as higher frequencies. So the 'outside
needed. ear hearing' patterns are different and you feel that they are of
9 A native English speaking American to monitor speech. other people, even if it's your own voice which you are hearing.
Anything unnatural in speech should be nipped in the bud. You use the 'outside ear hearing' imprint in the brain to re­
It takes only 5 or 6 repetitions of something said in an un­ cognize, know what sounds other people say. You use the 'in­
natural way for it to become set in the mind. Unless cor­ side bone hearing' imprint as a guide to say your sounds when
rected immediately, as a part of learning it, such unnatural­ you speak. In the beginning your ear does not hear correctly
ness will plague, be disadvantageous for, the ESL speaker and the wrong imprints of some sounds get into the brain.
the rest of his life. The eye can help the ear to hear correctly. See 46.
At least a weekly Pronunciation Correction session is sug­ The ear and bone hearings (external, internal audio percep­
gested. A native American English speaker could rotate on tions) are different. So unconsciously, it seems all right to you
around many classes during a week leaving the routine in­ that when you hear yourself say a sound, bone hearing, it is
struction to teaching aides who really don't need to know not the same as when you hear other people say it, ear hearing.
much English ... just supervisory skills to see that the ESL But maybe, or often, you are saying a wrong sound.
learners study properly. For an ESL learner to say a sound properly, he needs to have
10 Learning Traditional Orthography - TO an American tell him when he is saying it properly and then
A beginning ESL learner should not see, read the old usual repeat it enough times to imprint the 'inside bone hearing'
spelling of written English as it gives wrong ideas about how on the recall memory. See 58, Trial and Error Correction.
English is spoken naturally fast. After the students speak 46 Teaching Sounds through the Eye

fairly well let them look at familiar real-life materials writ­ Because the beginner's ear doesn't hear some sounds correctly

ten by sounds and then at the nearby traditional spelling or can't tell the difference between some sounds at all, the

versions. Have them read by sounds aloud, self-dictation, ear is a poor tool to get the concept of some sounds into the

as they try to remember the traditional spelling. brain. To imprint in the mind exactly what the target sound

TEACHING SOUNDS is you can bypass, go around the defective ear by using the

more perceptive eye, through which we are used to learning

44 ESL learners and speakers often don't or can't catch some rl}ost things anyway. (The ear does well to take in 20 succes­

sounds or hear them imperfectly. This leads to a continuing Sive bits of information per second. The eye absorbs many

distorted recall memory (erroneous inital audio perception im­ thousands of simultaneously changing bits per second.)

print persistance). They won't ever say some sounds correctly

or even well enough. Because the ear hears imperfectly (defec­ Visual gimmicks to get the mind to know what a sound is:
tive external audio perception) the ear is a poor tool or simply 1 Crosscut drawings showing the throat, mouth, tongue and

32 33
47 48
Fast Speech Learning to speak

lips are good for showing where and how things move inside A silent jerk, hesitation or transitional pause for a deleted
the mouth and head. A quickly drawn rough outline is more sound is just as important to natural speech as is any sound.
alive, pertinent than something pointed to in a book. For Give special attention to hearing and making some sort of
example, see page 22, Sound Changes 54 and 55. a separation, the briefest kind of a suggestion of a break, for
the loss of t between vowels. Even though each sound or stop
2. ~_"" Watch the lips of a speaker. This is good for some
is given the proper fast speech form the whole utterance, often
~ vowels, r-, 1- and ar before vowels. See pages 21,22 ­
a complete sentence, is not natural at slower speeds. Work up
~ Sound Changes 47.. 52.
to, try for, the speed shown by the little numbers at the end
3 Geometric designs, diagrams based on jaw angles, degrees of of phonetic lines ... x times in 10 seconds. See Sound Changes
lip separation or contours and tongue positions. Notice the 8 and 23, pages 16 and 18.
angles and circles under the vowels on the back cover.
.1 .2 3 4: 5 6 1 .9 9 10 11 12 13
_ E .•__ '7.1:_. /Jk~

Don't be concerned, worried abo.ut ESL

.. e/J-.- u
~~Z~~~~ .. ~~~~~;;-
0fi I I 0 U at </_
,~ I \'i;;.' L r ,­
.~.; . ~ learners getting around to speaking free­
4 Finger signs, gestures similar to the geometric designs have • 1', Iy (initiation of speech production).
the advantage of showing movements from one sound to an­ .' \. Some students deludedly expect that
other. They can be used any time in an instant.. .. anywhere after just a little study they'll be able
(as from across the street) by the teacher. A speaking student join in and learn from conversations. 'I want to learn by talk­
making hand signs during pronunciation practice gives added ing, not grammar! But on the other hand, prematurely forced
kinesthetic reinforcement to his learning imprint. Learners conversational practice can be contraproductive by creating
can see and feel the movement of their fingers but really can frustration, feelings of inadequacy, hope­
not sense the corresponding mouth movements. See 86. less resignation and a dislike for English.
But if the students are busy hearing and
5 Contour lines for utterance patterns of stress, pitch and
saying real-life English they satisfy that
tone shifts. Any utterance put up on the chalkboard should
" desire to say soon someth ing effective in
have under it an undulating line showing tone variations.
Thicken the line for stressed points. See 22,24.~
6 Sound change formulas like n + m = 'm, n;, Y
give an easily imprinted, remembered presentation of phono­
t+ = ch As they become familiar with the reduced functional word
groupings, the working core of free conversation and targets of
this course, students will be able to say what they really have
logical principles of something being said. At the point of oc­
to say when they do have to say something..and do it naturally.
currence in the phonetic version of an utterance under study
show the number of the applicable Sound Change. For quick To practice speaking naturally ESL learners need to work
reference see inside the back cover of this book. with something definite to say, something familiar, with readily
recalled fast speech patterns in the mind. See 43-8, page 32.
7 Phonetic letters are the most effective, practical of all visual
gimmicks for learning spoken English sounds and speech pat­ a Read aloud from the phonetic transcript (version written by
terns. Many ESL learners write their own languages by sounds Sounds) of familiar real-life conversations until read smoothly.
or have used phonetic letters in their previous study of Eng­ b Say things from memory See 35, 36 on pages 24 and 25.
lish. They think phonetically and often are disconcerted, even
astounded that their American instructors don't. Learning c Sayan idea which someone silently cues.
to write by sounds needs no special attention. Without com­ Many of the key study sentences and the Introduction have
ment just use the phonetic letters in studying the vowels and easily understood silent demonstrations. Cut the paper, go to
when doing Study Steps 2, 3, 4, 7... See paqes 28 and 29. the door, sit down and stand up, my arms are beside me...
d Read a translation in another language of familiar real~life
47 Fast Speech Pronunciation Drills materials and say it back into spoken English. Start with the
When introducing new utterances or practicing troublesome translations of the key sentences and whatever has been put
ones, write them on the chalkboard exactly as shown in fast ~ow~ in the student's notebook. See 62-22. If some Spoken
·speech and drill sound by sound. Give full attention to stops. ngllsh materials such as the Common Expressions, Real

34 31'>

Speaking speed Speech Correction

Life Selections have already been studied use their other I'm late and I've got to get out of here. See 32-d.

language translations. oim let amd oiv got tu get out av hir 5 5 x 28 sounds = 140

e Free interaction discussions 140 in 10 seconds .. 14 sounds a second

mle'nago'age'ou'ahir 8 16 sounds and 4 deletions
At suitable times whenever a student wants to talk about this 20 x 8 = 160 speech bits in 10 seconds
or that invite others to join in and make it an informal group At 16 speech bits, sounds, a second this becomes natural fast
chit-chat. If a speaker falters usually let the other students speed which has to be understood by ESL learners for practical
supply the needed words or corrections. Just note down the listening comprehension of American colloquial speech.
troublesome points and at a suitable break, lull in the conver­
sation, explain or clarify them to the group as a whole. Don't
interrupt a speaker's train of thought with a correction or The best way to get to speak acceptably well is to learn the
comment ... nor let the students kill time talking to get out of natural spoken patterns when first studying a word or phrase.
studying seriously! It takes a native speaker of American English to detect, catch,
point out the little unnatural variances and a knowledgeable
49 Many ESL learners, even advanced students, have trouble say­ ESL instructor to guide the ESL beginner into an acceptable
ing the simplest of things when they have to move their body, pronunciation. Advanced ESL students familiar with the ideas
do something physically active. Just standing up to in this book about sounds may well know how to correct the
respond inhibits some. A part of speaking practice unnatural things pointed out to them by a. native speaker .. who
is learning to so while being active, much like sing­ usually doesn't know what to do about them! See 37, 38.
ing while playing the piano.

If something, soon after learning it, is said unnaturally, im­
Create disconcerting circumstances. Students are properly, a few times (as little as 5 or 6 times during the first
to talk while sitting on the floor or standing on one week) very often that unnatural way is set, fixed in the mind
,7' foot. Two students get on a table, stand back to of the learner and if not corrected soon is apt to be said impro­

back holding an apple between them while they an­ perly to the ESL speaker's disadvantage for the rest of his life!
swer questions from others in the class. At least, while 52 Students already imprinted with unnatural speech patterns,
drilling a key sentence the speakers, and others too, are especially if supposedly British, may feel that their ingrained
to act out, make a suggestive motion as to the meaning pronunciation is the correct one. At least it's the form they
of what is being said. feel most comfortable with. They've heard it internally so
many times that it seems to be the only natural way. By using
excerpts from casual American speech written phonetically,
-~- (. [6 Always keep in mind that this is a course in they, and teachers too, can see, come to realize, exactly what
('-~- =- /' fast informal speech. The ESL instructor is
sounds Americans really do say.
~!J q-, "'::- to model, say the individual words, phrases
For both initial and remedial instruction use an integrated
or complete utterances at the speed of at least 15 sounds each short utterance, a complete thought unit, usually a sentence,
second. not just a single short syllable or word except to work on a
Count the individual sounds in the spoken English phonetic specific sound. Be sure the learners understand the meaning
version of a short utterance. Figure out how many times it is and have a version written by sounds for ready reference.
to be said in 10 seconds and practice saying it that many times Most of the routine work of instruction can be done by tea­
faster and faster until you reach the indicated natural speed. ch ing assistants with an English speaking native American
In this book a small figure after a phonetic line indicates how going from class to class for pronunciation sessions. One every
many times it is to be said in 10 seconds. Often forms and few classes, hopefully at least once a week, should catch and
patterns at that speed sound unnatural when said more slowly. correct, nip in the bud, improper initial imprinting before it is
It's something like being used to driving fast on the highway a problem to correct. See 37.
and then feeling it's unnatural to slow down in the city. When an ESL speaker says something wrong, imperfectly, un­
Work out the pronunciation of the fast sounds and deletions naturally, as judged by a native American English speaker. first
one by one, especially the t deletions between vowels. Little try to figure out what went wrong where. Are the right words
by little work up to the indicated natural fast speed. Used in the right places? Are specific sounds mispronounced?

36 37
Speech Correction Correcting Sounds

Do the words flow together naturally? How about the rise and 3 . Base forms not changed to fast spoken linked patterns
fall of the voice? ai gat the:-ar arli <end warkt ho-ard :>0 de base forms
1 - Structure Are the basic words suitable and in proper order? aga'the:-arrli'n wark'ho-ard:>o de 7 fast colloquial
Is each word one that is normally used to express what the ...,-.- .......... ~ ~

speaker has in mind to say? The rhythm is strong at 3 points, at 0.4 second intervals.
I arrived early there and labored diligently throughout the day. 1- ai often becomes a .. more natural among workers
This may fully express what the speaker has in mind and is The -d of hard is linked to the initial vowel of all.
understandable but it's more natural to say it without bookish The ar at the end of there and the ar at the start of early
and seldom used words and with there before early. become just 1 longer ar-sound.
I got there early and worked hard all day. The ordinary American speaking naturally fast says some­
ESL learners of spoken English would do well to learn first thing like this but doesn't know about what changes really
from real-life materials. take place. The ESL learner should be familiar with the
a - Excerpts from spontaneous, unprepared casual speech. phonetic principles of the Sound Changes, recognize them
b - Advanced learners often need work on vocabulary usage when hearing spoken English and use them when speaking
and structure (grammar) points that are hard to or can't be to Americans ... to be easily understood by them.
explained. They would do well to write in usual spelling

54 Some ESL learners do not take kindly to
every day some 35 to 50 words of connected thoughts as if , being corrected. They are naturally shy,
talking to a friend in the street or on the telephone. Then a \..,~ afraid to make a mistake, don't want others
a native American is to read through and make suggestions to laugh at them. are embarrassed. Mature
so that it all will sound natural. Any American ... a fellow , ,~ professionals often don't want others, sub­
student. a lady standing in line next to you at a bus stop, in ordinates and peers, to know of their mistakes or even that
a store, etc. would be glad to do this with a few words ... but they are taking English lessons. Give them some explanations
not 75 or a 100! It's a good way to start up a conversation in private.
to practice your English. (Excuse me. I am learning English.
In class instruction, listen to, go through the target utterance
Would you please read this and tell me what is not natural.)
fast and then analyze it sound by sound with special attention
Keep in mind how sounds change and the way words run
to potential problems. Then drill it..the whole class in unison,
run together. Write by sounds in flowing connected spoken
by groups (as by rows), several adventuresome students each
English. Read it aloud until it is easy to say and then have
alone. By that time the timid ones will have learned it, seen
another American listen and check your pronunciation for
naturalness. the mistakes of the others and will be willing to give it a try.
Don't interrupt a flow of speech to correct a mispronuncia­
2 - Specific sounds not said well enough.
Does the ES L speaker tion. Let the speaker complete a thought and then go back and
work on the error. Or for advanced students working with
- hear, discern, catch the sounds properly? See 45.
more extensive materials note down the errors and at a suitable
- have a correct memory of how he should hear himself say
break or towards the end of the class period review the errors
a given sound or phrase?
impersonally with the whole class.
- move the lips, tongue. throat and breathe in a way to make
the sound properly? 55 CORRECTING SPECIFIC SOUNDS
See 43-4 for the use of writing phonetically to determine Young children learn to speak just by hearing but older ESL
where a sound goes wrong. Review the vowel series on the ~earners should have some general idea of what happens where
back cover. Look in the alphabetical index under the In the mouth to make sounds. At some time show them a cross­
heading Sounds for the treatment of a specific sound. cut drawing, as in 25 and 26, and point to where and show
I got there early and worked hard all day. how a basic sound is made.
got, hard, all Are the vowels a. :> said well? Is the a in hard Consonants
longer than in got? Lips
here, early, worked, hard all have an ar which may need Tightly together for m, P. b but explode apart for p and b.
special attention. Is the i of here lengthened? See 30-6. The lower lip comes up and lightly touches the edge of the
38 89

Correcting Vowels Overcom pensation

upper teeth for f and v. an aluminum pie pan with a woman's sharp shoe heel. Drop a
Smile wide from side to side for r before a vowel. pin and then a pen into it. Hit yourself on the head with the
Tongue shoe heel and rub the hurting spot as you say pain. Drop the
the end goes up with a clatter and you have peen, pin, pen, pain, pan - pin
touches the under edge of the upper teeth for tho pm pen pen pam - i lee ceo Make the finger sign for each vowel.
is close behind or touches the back of the upper front teeth Trial and Error Correction. External - I nterior Conflict See 45.
for t. d and maybe for I before a vowel. t is the speaker's memory of his own internal voice pattern
touches the top of the mouth farther back for n, often for I is his guide as to what he is to hear himself say when he
the end drops down speaks later. Especially for the vowels use silent methods (See
midway in front of the mouth for sand z. The lips smile. to get the learner by trial and error to say, home in on the
behind the lower front teeth for sh, zh. Lips like for kissing. sound.
to the center of the mouth between sounds, as for a, ar. a sound is acceptable to a native English speaking Ame­
The back of the tongue goes up rican silently nod approval. Then have the student repeat it
to the top of the mouth and stops the air for k, g. exactly the same way several times while listening carefully to
but doesn't stop the air for h, ng. his own voice coming up through the bones from the throat.
Throat No one else should be saying the sounds or speaking because
down low the vocal cords vibrate for m, b, v, voiced th, d, g, the from-the-outside-in-through-the-ear perception may well
j, z, zh and the vowels. No vibration for the other sounds. cloud up, confuse, make less definite the learner's perception
56 Vowels of his own inside sounds which he has to duplicate later when
ESL students should all learn to say the 13 different vowels speaking.
from memory. (See the back cover of this book.) For ready re­ 59 OVERCOMPENSATION
ference have them say the vowel series at every opportunity. Overcompensation is doing a sound in an exaggerated way so
Say the whole series to bring to mind the interrelationship of that the ESL learner will in time slide into the way Americans
the American vowels to each other and to those of other lan­ say the sound. But if learners start by doing it the American
guages. Say a short series of several centering around the target way they may often slip back into doing it like some sound in
vowel needing mispronunciation clarification or correction. their own languages or the wrong way they've already learned.
Both the teacher and the speaking student should do the cor­ 60 Vowels
responding finger signs for the vowels being said. See 46-4.
ar Think of it as rising in tone emotionally.. as if surprised by
Next go back to the meaningful utterance (make a suggestive being 'goosed' from behind. Hold it 5 seconds to realize
gesture as to its meaning) and put the corrected vowel where it full well that the tongue does not move when saying it.
was mispronounced. Practice the whole utterance as a unit. By a! Exaggeratedly bleat like a mad goat, baaaaaa! Hold it for
doing the vowel series the learner recognizes, knows exactly 5 seconds so that the wide-open mouth muscles have time
what the vowel is, has a hook on which to place it in his mind. to get into position.
Then the tongue has proper gu idance to say it. a Hit yourself in the stomach and grunt. Hold it at a higher
57 Minimal Pair Drills tone than for the other vowels, especially in contrast to a.
For a pair of sounds which at first the beginner thinks are the aaa aaaaaaa 0, a a.
61 Consonants
same sound, rather than use pairs of words which perhaps are
of no meaning for the learner, watch for and use the confusing, th Firmly bite the tongue tip between the middle upper and
undiscerned sounds close together in a real-life utterance. tower front teeth. Sm ile so that it can be easily a
In rue got to get out of here gata and auta (got to, out of) are mirror by the speaker. Then an explosive puff of air out.
natural a -a contrast drills. Push the speaker out the door while + a vowel Students with no I in their languages, first bite
saying gata gc'auta. Make a chewing motion and point to some­ the end of the tongue between the middle upper and lower
thing you suggest is eatable .. a flower, a rubber band, a ball of front teeth like for tho Say u and the let the tongue move
paper .. and say Eat it! it It to say the following vowel. See 26.
If you want to use minimal pairs try to use words that are tan­ r + a vowel Put the point of a pencil into the mouth about
gible, meaningful. Make several dents (the action of to peen) in 2.5 cm. on top of the end of the tongue. Like for a kiss

40 41
Classroom Techniques 1..5 Classroom Techinques 6 .• 10

put the lips around the pencil and say u. Then smile as the
6 Pauses and Corrections
mouth moves to make the following vowel. Later in fast
Our spoken English study recordings have a pause of the
speech the lip rounding and the tongue not flipping up be­
same length as of the preceeding utterance. Stop the record­
come habitual. See 28.
ing during the pause for work on the utterance just heard.
62 CLASSROOM TECHNIQUES When allowed to run non-stop, Study Step 6, if a student fal­
1 Teachers Reference Books An ESL instructor should have ters there is time enough usually for the teacher, who is to
at hand some general books on teaching English as a Second follow along from student to student, to say a word or two,
Language and of techniques like given below. make a correction, before the next utterance is heard.
2 Post a schedule Show the details for the immediate future Speak softly directly into the ear of the faltering student so
as to not disturb the concentration of the other students. I f a
and an outline for the whole course.
student misses out on his turn.. messes up, doesn't respond in
- Students need to feel that there is a definite plan of pro­
time, don't stop the steady mechanical pace of the recording
gress with a sense of achievement as each point is reached.
but go right on to the next student. In real life almost never
Otherwise is seems like you're getting nowhere fast! A lot.
does anyone stop to give you a re-take on what was just said ..
of work, study without tangible practical results .....
..TV shows, public announcements, policemen and busy bus
3 Start instruction immediately on time. drivers... If you miss a bus, you've missed your bus! You'll
- have a key student start a tape and monitor the others. have to tryi to catch the next one.
Students listen and in turn repeat utterances, 7 Urge to hurry!
or write by sounds and correct each other's papers. Frequently look at your watch or a clock on the wall to give
Students repeat from memory ... the vowel series, numbers, the students a sensation that you are crowded for time. Give
the Introduction Routine. a slow student the hurry-up gesture like a cop speeding up a
Students practice reading aloud from materials written
Iine of traffic.
by sourrds..the whole class buzzing like a beehive! Have
the monitor see that everyone is reading aloud. S Stick to the lesson
Say as little as possible that is not directly related to the
4 Continuous Instruction study material. If you feel that the students should know
Don't let there be any breaks, noticeable pauses, lulls in something useful write it out by sounds on the chalkboard
the instruction. The sounds of someone speaking English and have them copy it into their notebooks. If it doesn't
pertinent to the study materials should be non-stop except merit their attention to learn it well, don't say it. Otherwise
when the class as a whole is writing. it'll blur, confuse their learning of what they should be con­
Fill any unplanned gaps with activities as in 3 above. centrating on.
5 Use of Recordings 9 Learning to Write by Sounds
If the teacher says, models what the students are to re­ Except for illiterates learning to write (See 110), without
peat they will want things said again, ask questions and comment point to. the letters as you work with the study
employ delaying tactics. But the challenge of an implacable materials. The students learn any new IPA letters along with
machine makes study more serious and urgent. learning the vowel series. The other sounds are written with
A small hlilnd-held tape player carried around from student the usua I letters.
to student is good enough for most classrooms. One with a 10 Defective Ear - helped by the eye
remote control cord is best. A stationary player should have Say what I say has its limitations because the ESL learner's
a remote control cord, with a silent switch, long enough to ear doesn't catch, discern certain sounds. If a
reach anywhere in the room. In this way the teacher can al­ sound isn't quickly said well enough from just
ways be near a student and silently control the 'implacable' hearing it show something so that the learner
recording. Reaching out to press a lever or the clicking of a will know what he is trying to say. Then home
start-stop button distracts, interrupts student concentration. in on it by trial and error. See 46,58.
If students sit one behind the other the teacher can walk be­ Don't let a rll never be able to hear and say it frustration
tween 2 rows to check on the students down one side and then develop because of a learner's unsuccessful attempts of trying
back up the other... not possible if the students are side-by-side. to say What you say by hearing you repeat it. (See 47)

42 43
Classroom Techniques 11.. 14 Classroom Techniques 15 .. 19

11 Use of the Student's Language Choral repetitions

The exercises in th is course don't need any oral explanatio Everybody together says the same th ing several times. Th is
in any language ... body language, yes - suggestive movemen helps to set a rhythm and loosens up timid, slow or new stu­
One or two words, a quick short explanation or translati dents. But don't do this very much because learners become
softly spoken into the ear of a student in his language can imprinted with what they hear others say and not with their
very effective and is appreciated. Softly and quickly said d own voices.

not disturb others who may speak another language or Individual Oral Repetition

concentrating on something else. 16

The learner has to imprint in his recall memory exactly what
If the students know that a teacher speaks their langua he hears himself say when speaking properly, hOt what he
there is a tendency to ask leading lengthly questions and hears others say. See 45.
tinue time consuming or deliberately time killing conve Have a student slowly work out the fast speed pronunciation
tions. And there is something to not speaking other Ian pattern of a target utterance sound by sound. It will sound un­
when learning spoken English, of thinking only in English natural until speeded up. At low speed the learner should, is to
Keep the pace brisk in English and converse in other Ian make definite stops, aspiration puffs, u before r and I which are
outside of of the classroom. However, the use of the studen before vowels (See 30 - 47, 50) and definite voicing of z. Be sure
written languages can be very effective in speeding up learn in to lengthen the vowels before voiced sounds. (See 30 - 6) Tone
See 40, Study Steps 1, 7, 8 and 9. and rhythm patterns come with increased speed ... if the sounds
12 Physical Action when speaking and deletion stops are properly made.
A person is more alert when standing as compared to sitti Have the learner say the utterance as a continuous flow of
(teachers too!). The action itself or suggestive cues, gestu speech 5 times, counted on the fingers! The last couple of times
as to the meaning of what is being said should always be m it will become smoother but more repetitions may lead to ad­
by the speaker, as well as any other students who should verse muscular tension and routine automatic mouth ing with­
paying attention to what is being said. out feeling the meaning. Go on to other utterances, each 5
Students learn better by writing, visual imprint with kinesth times, and come back to do the same thing later .. several times
tic reinforcement, than by just (apparently?) listening or each day.. with appropriate gestures as to the meanings.
making oral responses impractical to correct, refine or work 17 Recordings of students speaking
at the time in the course of an instructional sequence. A student hearing his own recorded voice speaking 'naturally'
13 Outrageous Actions will create interest but remember that a speaker's perception
Even unrelated actions aid learning, memory retention ... of his recorded voice will be at variance with what he hears
more shocking, outrageous the better. While introducing a himself say. See 45. He will hear, pick out some of his mistakes
utterance or practicing it take off a shoe, stand on one but only a native speaker of English can point out others. A
get up and stand on a chair or table, grab a girl's purse, jer student shouldn't listen to a recording of his own voice more
a pencil out of a boy's hand .. give him a Dutch rub (knuck than 2 or 3 times now and then because there is the danger of
gouging the scalp). threaten with a burning match or a shar his becoming imprinted with his own incorrect, faulty forms.
pin, burst a balloon, slam a door.... 18 Slow and Smart Students
14 Model Utterances, always speak, at fast speed I n going over previously studied materials begin with the
slower students so that they can have the privilege of being
This is a course of fast natural speech of at least 16 sounds
starters. For new material let the smarter ones have a try at it
second. Model, say even a single word, at this speed. A smal first .. as a challenge to them and for the slower ones to learn as
figure after a phonetic line indicates how many times the I the smarter ones struggle. Be more exacting with the smarter
is to be said in 10 seconds to set the pace, pattern for saying students so that they will feel that they are getting something
once as a model. Follow the second hand of a watch or c10c
out of what otherwise might be boring.
and bend down a finger each time you say a complete utte 19 R eward Success
ance. Then after 10 seconds count your turned-down fin
Repeat until it is easily said x times in 10 seconds. Later EspeCially the slower learners need encouragement. Nod ap­
it once at the same speed. See 50. proval, smile, clasp your hands above your head like a winning

44 46
·62· ..b:!.
Classroom Techniques 20 •• 22
Classroom Techniques 23 .. 24

boxer when one responds well. Just getting to relax is a kind Notebooks
of reward. Let standing students sit down as they respond satis­ 23
Anything worth taking the trouble to learn should be remem­
factorily. Keep them standing until they do. Good answers let bered. Not forgetting is just as important as initial learning.
those students leave the class earlier. Pass out prizes - pieces of Paper remembers. So write down everything you learn. The
candy, rubber bands, small coins, paper clips, thumb tacks ....•• physical act of writing it down helps learn it and what you
For poor performance make a student stand in the corner fac­ have written can be reviewed so as not to forget it even years
ing into it, sit on the floor, take off a shoe, stand on a chair ..... later. Soon after learning something make frequent reviews at
If after a struggle a student gets something right silently nod first, then longer and long time intervals between revlews
approval and go on to the next student. Just being released hour, day, week, month, every few months, yearly. III I I I I
from intense concentration is a kind of reward. A slight pause If you keep a good notebook you really don't need a text­
before you go on with the next student allows the first to mull book. Teachers are to see to it that notebook entries are made
over, consolidate in his memory the correct form he has tried in a neat orderly fashion.
so hard for. Student textbooks are available from the publisher ..but cost
20 Numbers rather than names money! So what do you do?! You get one copy and photocopy
Saying a personal name lets the other students relax, not be so pages as needed. And/or be sure that the students' notebooks
attentive. Instead of names use numbers. ESL learners need to are properly kept in detail up to date. Anyway, a personal
be conditioned to respond, understand, feel numbers automa­ notebook is essential and can be better than a printed text­
tically. Let the students count off down one row and up the book for learning.
next or have them pick up numbered slips as they come in the On the left page neatly write only the key sentences, utter­
classroom. Or assign permanent numbers based on the atten­ ances by sounds. Let the phonetic text stand out, be easily re­
dance book order and half-way through the class period have ferred to. Leave empty lines below so that the phonetic ver­
them say their numbers in ascending order to check attendance. sion to the left lines up, is even with, the translation in the-Stu­
dent's language over across on the page to the right. Below the
21 Lesson Content translation, underlined for easy reference, Study Steps I, 7, 8,
In this basic course most key sentences, although often one 9, 10 (See 40) , ',p I e' h. tJ/l.a
"I'~. l ..L I i
tit tiV;7l1f cX1Ile/flitt'f1l1'de;'7e"fIf/" C/I.I.£...
of a series or related group, can be presente"d as a separate, in­ make any l j J . • . .. ;I
dependent short unit of instruction. (See 134 . . . . ) Several se­ ' ..5a./I/JII"- dt qf~'
nota t lon~. " .f(,-atrd'>£;Jo /tIt wie.
lected ones can make up the material for a full lesson period. explanations or comments ~!lfJ if- <1f!l(r~ de t3tri
It is better to use only 1 or 2 examples of each of several per­ which may clarify the key >wRI,;'$; a;K jut~,.!}e,~
haps different structures than several variants of the same one. utterance ~. \? ~r-\.' ~. :'\: -...
. t. a.~ hJ'" ,/)1
"'. ~I'",
9' -t
1fJh;..lufi ?J.!I ' ve 1u
See 12. <Au§?, 0",
Thus by using short self-contained key sentences any first
-tv /~f or<f 111-f't'~ n
time, visiting, itinerant or unplanned drop-in learner gets a
complete practical lesson any time he shows up. Or a student wJch'd nE:'m t
.5 e jJqt!.'f, fh Pcf .

in regular attendance gets the whole pictl,lre of spoken English

(/II t ?is 51. Y)-ff}4J~
, '-de. u,;>h'/, C

as the class progresses through the course. 1I!tt/~r.+l:;' !10lA" Yl A rile

ivl,(),I'5. 't~
22 Sound Changes L 1/-1: 5 h It y nI' In
YIN 'i1? Z.
Base forms (classical, dictionary, word-by-word pronunci,,· L' h.1r rl {' 1>1
tion) change to faster forms by definite phonological principles. '­
These are indicated by the little cursive numbers between and
24 ReViews I u:> ..:.-1.:) Yle JA'I
at the end of Iines. They refer to the Iisting of Sound Changes Use the notebook for fast study and' quick reviews.
inside the back cover and detailed in 30. They are best learned 1 Read aloud the utterances written by sounds to the left
as each comes up in context. Usually go directly to the final until you say them smoothly.
fast form shown in the last lines without comment or explana­ 2 Read the translation to the right and write in spoken
tion unless some student already knows the base form and has English sounds and patterns.
a question. 3 Read aloud the translation until you can say it smoothly.
Gestures In teaching Foreign Accent

25 Flip Cards
gust. Put a hand out like for hold but rock it from side to side
Write the idea by sounds on one side of a little card and on or make that gesture with both hands.
the other side write the translation and explanations. Then Running words together Hold up a hand, back towards the stu­
when you can read the translation and easily say it in spoken dents, name the separated fingers from right to left (as seen by
English put the card under a future date - next week, in two the teacher) and then bring them together side by side to show
weeks, next month and then several months later. At that date how the words group together. As seen by the students the
read the translation to check if you still remember the spoken finger in the middle of It is not goes to their left for it's and
English well.
then to the right for isn't. It is not ­ It's not· It is'nt
What does this mean? How do we say this From your language say Don't you want to would be shown as doncha wanna (2 pairs
How do you spell it? in fast conversation? this in spoken English. of fingers) then as donchawanna (4 fingers tightly together
side by side).
) lhua.i \1) Go. Same - the same quantity or ~imilar Give names to each hand
th,th';Cdtl Jtj,a!i. and hold them palm upwards at the same level (did go = went).
Move more, draw attention to the more important or items
h uaq~ df.l used more (did go = went, went, went). In some languages is
~~t? and are are the same word. Name one hand is, hold up 1 finger
and at the same level hold up 2 or 3 fingers for are.


.;Jilt? ~f} ',-'.~
j .........

,.:: .....J
63 GESTURES - Silent hand cues
For the silent cues of specific words see the alphabetiC mdex.
... run, arrive, return, buy, sell, turn off, get... Talk - speak, say Put the 4 straight fingers together side by side
Again - continue A palm of a hand upwards. Bend the tips of 2 and move them up and down from and to the thumb held ho­
or,3 fingers down in and up out emphasizing the closing with­ rizontally ... opening and closing like the beak of a talking bird.
out bending the wrist. Don't talk Cup a hand over the mouth, after making the stop

Attention Snap your fingers, knock on something, drop some­ gesture perhaps.
thing heavy down on the floor, stomp a foot. whistle. Look at,
point to the student who is to respond. If he doesn't, motion
for somebody nearby to touch him. A. foreign accent is a way of speaking English . ';"dl~
Come A palm upwards bending the fingers and wrist towards wh,ch sounds unnatural, strange to the listener ~. I

yourself as you move the whole forearm upwards a little. who IS a native American speaker of English. It "
Go Turn the palm out and push away with the hand. becomes troublesome when the listener's atten-' " c .

Hold in suspense, as to complete a response later. Hold up a tion is diverted from what is being said to how ~ .
hand towards the student(s like a traffic cop holding back a the sounds are being said. Such linguistic stoplights interrupt
row of cars or pedestrians. communication. Or they becomes a real problem when the lis­
tener just doesn't understand or misunderstands.
Hurry up A hand swings from out to the side across the body
An, Austrian biochemist, who at home spoke German with her Rou­
like a traffic cop speeding up traffic. ;naOlan husband, wrote excellent English but her colleagues could hard·
Louder Cup a hand around an ear as if hard of hearing. Y understand her in group discussions at work and she simply wasn't
Next With one hand pointing to the student who is now talk­ unde~standable when reading, giving a paper at scientific meetings. An
expenenced RUSSian public works engineer after 10 years with an Ameri·
ing or has just finished point with the other hand at the next ~~n projects development firm could only be a draftsman and not use
student who is to respond.
No - not good Turn you head a little from side to side in dis­ d ~sIScUssions.
special expertise because he could not participate in engineering

48 49

Foreign Accent
Foreign Accent
What makes up a foreign accent?
1 Not saying the sounds properly, like leave for live, cop for cup. think my way of speaking is cute!" A famous naturalized
Flipping up the end of the tongue where r is seen in a word. figure prides himself of the fact that his 'foreign accent'
Not using the 3 patterns of r and of I. gets people's attention. But he isn't aware that some of his
2 Not changing sounds to group words naturally,like for used to sounds, rand th, cause his listeners to break their concentra­
saying yuzd tu and not yustB. tion on what he is saying to think how he said the r. I heard
3 Using bookish, classical words in casual friendly conversations. one chap say, "If he's all that smart, how come he can't say a
4 Using a word in the wrong place. decent r?"
5 Not making the tone of the voice go up and down naturally. 69 When the pecularities of their foreign accent are mentioned
65 Getting rid of a foreign accent - ACCENT REDUCTION to them some feel it's an affront to their personal dignity.
Of course the best way to deal with a foreign accent is to "How come you dare citicize me about how I speak when no­
body around me, my friends and acquaintences never say any­
learn to speak naturally from the very start of the study of
thing about it?"
English. To lose, get rid of, correct a foreign accent is much
Those friends know that if they say anything the ESL speaker
like starting all over again ... plus learning to break old bad ha­
will get irritated and be resentful towards them. So they keep
bits! Learn exactly what natural American speech really is and
quiet. Close friends and relatives may no longer notice a per­
then re-train yourself to speak that way.
son's foreign accent. Native English speaking children of im­
But knowing how to in the head doesn't make it easily come
migrant parents are unaware of their parents' broken English.
out the mouth that way. You may have been saying something
"That's just the natural way my father speaks."
in an un-American way for so long that speaking naturally as
Americans really do will seem to you to be improper, a sinful 70 Americans around you may want to help you speak English
violation of what you learned before from purist academically better but they don't want to offend you or cause you to dis­
orientated teachers.. perhaps British. Be sinfully courageous! like them. They may well notice your foreign accent but don't
Say it differently, but exactly like the ordinary Americans do. know exactly what's wrong, nor how to correct it if they did.
So you have to find someone, a native American, who will
66 Often there are unrecognized underlying psychological and
tell you when you say something unnatural. Even many ESL
cultural factors. To speak as Americans do you in effect have
teachers can't tell you exactly what to do to correct your pro­
to become an American .. at least when speaking English. If you
nunciation. They may know grammar well and the correct pro­
think, feel that your own native culture is older, better, more
nunciation of a word by itself but are weak on phonology
effective than that of the Americans just relax and say "Well,
(how sounds work together) and articulation (just what moves
if that's the way Americans do it, rn do it that way too when
among them." and where to make a sound). So it is up to you yourself to
know how you, with your un-American accent, should be try­
67 This may mean a change in your attitude. Be informal, to say certain sounds and groups of little words.
over-friendly without being really serious about it, dress care­ 71 You can pick out a number of your errors by listening to a
lessly, don't be so polite. Watch and imitate how Americans
recording of your voice talking informally with others. Put a
move their head, han ds, body, way of walking, facial expres­ microphone in the center of a table where everyone is talking
sions, use of the eyes and voice.
freely. Listen to how the others speak and for errors in what
Your non-American attitude, body movements, tone of
you say. A recording of your voice on a telephone answering
voice may make Americans unconsciously uneasy, nervous, machine is good too. Often you and the other person will use
tense or even irritate them. This may cause them to be inat­ the same words, compare them. But don't listen too much to
tentive, not care to listen to what you say, even reject your
YOu~ Own voice because you may become so accustomed to
ideas a priori without considering them well. Not so much be­
cause of what you say but because of how you say it.
~earlng your own mistakes that they come to sound natural
o you.See 45.
68 Some speakers of English as a second language even feel that 72
How mUch do you want to improve Your speech?
their foreign accent is an advantage. It draws attention to them.
Do you want people to notice you? Often those who should or would like to improve their
speech, lose a foreign accent, don't because
A pretty German Bulgarian dancing instructor spoke of her
prize winning metals when she meant medals. She said, "Peo­ Id Tt er 7 is no urgent, critical need to speak English better. The
e ectlve speaker already can and does go about his daily
73 ,.
Foreign Accent Foreign Accent

activities with his poor English. Getting a better job or enjoy· the classical pronunciation of can means can't.
ing life more would be nice but these are not vital to his stay. 9 Do you listen, pay attention all the time to what Americans
ing alive. say around you to learn more English?
2 Frustration has resulted in resignation. "I'll never learn 10 In learning new expressions do you think word-by-word
English well." They've tried to learn but didn't make suffi­ without thinking of the exact sounds people say?
cient or satisfactory progress. Sometimes it's because they 11 Because you can't hear your own mispronunciations do you
didn't have knowledgeable teachers, were not organized or have an native English speaking American to tell you what
didn't really prepare themselves to study seriously. you say that is unnatural?
3 They make the excuse, ''I'm too old to learn." Age makes no 12 Even in some little way do you speak better today than you
difference if you really want to learn. Little children learn did yesterday?
just by listening and making mistakes in talking. But an adult GETTING RID OF A FOREIGN ACCENT
has experience and knows other things that help in learning Re-Iearning how to speak English naturally like Americans is
English. In fact, mature adults are the fastest learners. much like learning English as a second language the first time.
4 They lack education. A person who did not go to school It's well to recognize your problems and then you have to
very much does not have the discipline or know how to learn exactly what the sounds and pronunciation patterns are.
study. He has a short attention span, perhaps doesn't read or So go through this book just like a beginner who has never stu­
write any language very well. Such persons learn better by English before. In fact have you ever studied spoken American
studying in many short lessons ... 15 minutes in the early English before? Think of it as a new language!
morning, at noon or in the evening every day! Remember that re-Iearning, breaking old habits, is harder
5 No one is interested in their learning. They need a support than learning something for the first time. You do have to
group, someone to help, share. A member of the immediate study harder.
family is best - just a few minutes every day at the same time. 75 Time is the Greatest Problem
Arrange to study with friends..every Sunday morning. Persons who have a bothersome foreign accent are usually
to classes together. busy people. So you have to make a definite fixed schedule for
6 Too tired. Maybe you are a little lazy and this is an excuse. studying .. let's say 30 minutes at the same time every day. It
When are you not tired? Study at those times .. early in th must become a fixed habit like brushing your teeth, eating
morning, Sundays.. breakfast or going to work.
7 No time. Do you just eat at lunch time? Why not practice, Get up 30 minutes earlier every day and study then.

study English then ... and when in the bathroom too! How For a few minutes when you wake up.

about when you are waiting for a bus? See 74. While getting up .. you can listen to a recording

While in the bathroom .. listen, speak read something on the


What are the unnatural (non-native) things you say? After dressing before eating breakfast.

Sounds Just after breakfast before going to work.

1 Do you have an exact idea of each of the 12 simple Ameri· With earphones while

can vowels? waiting in line for a bus

2 Which American vowels are also in your own language? driving to work in a car

3 Do any 2 English sounds seem to be like just 1 to you? riding on a train

4 The letter R has 2 sounds. You should not move you During the lunch hour, or a coffee break

tongue for either of them. After work just before returning home

5 The letter L also has 2 sounds. Do you know them? Jus~ after you get home

6 Can you say a good buzzing zzz? price - prize, prais - praiz While and after eating in the evening

7 Do you know some general rules of how sounds cha When lYing in bed before going to sleep.

GOing to, want to, can't you = gonna, wanna, cancha W ~ definite, regular, habitual time to study each day is perhaps
8 Do you use 'school' pronunciation for the little much-u e rnost important thing in getting rid of a foreign accent.
words? Do you have a can - can't problem? Speaking

Urgent Survival Survival Sounds

76 fFL URGENT SURVIVAL sound and its use.. among other things! We're speaking of
Many speakers of other languages ur­ immediate urgent survival and maybe only 1 or 2 formal
gently need to, suddenly have to talk to lessons in a lifetime.
and understand Americans just to keep Structures ~ Word order, grammar
alive, make a living immediately, move Informally spoken American English sentences are usually
about among Americans ... refugees, iti­ short and simple. But the word order may be strange to many
nerant farm workers, recent immigrants, ESL learners, as is theirs to us.
foreign students, laborers working with I give him the book - 1 give the book to him. Confusing English
Americans abroad (such as illiterate Arab him it gave 1 to him the book Sa 10 di yo a el ellibro Spanish
oil field workers with Texan roustabouts) him to book give (1) did kare ni soreo ageta Japanese
Often the spoken English they have to deal with is not like The most-used and versatile verb structure of spoken American
what they would get in formal language classes but is down-to­ English is the 2-word verb: come, go, put, take + in, on, off ...
earth earthy rough talk. And they have little or no time in This mechanism is to be implanted in the mind of the survival
which to learn it. But in a single class they can be given the learner as quickly as possible.
basics and get an idea of what it's all about and take it on their Take off your coat = Take your coat off Same meaning
own from there. Get off the bus is not the same as Get the bus off.
77 Sounds 80 There are rules about how sounds change (t + Y ::::: ch, can't
The practical basics for immediately handling sounds (hearing you = canchu), for indirect and direct objects with to, for
and saying them well enough to get by) and word order (the noun and pronoun objects with 2-part verbs. But even if you
structures to express simple thoughts) can be covered, hope­ get over the language barrier to make explanations will they be
fully understood and initially learned in about an hour, even really understood, remembered and applied?
by illiterates and small children. The best practical, fastest way of learning such th ings is to do
To use the sounds and express simple ideas to a practical de­ an action and repeatedly hear yourself say what is being done
gree takes a few more hours .. if they're lucky enough to get until a typical expression sounds, feels natural (is internalized).
more instruction. So what is learned in the first class(es, hope­ (TPR . kinesthetic reinforcement of cognizant internal imprint fixation)
fully from knowledgeable teachers, may have to do, serve the
ESL learner for immediate survival. ..and even for the rest of 'SURVIVAL' SOUNDS
his life! The first lesson of spoken American English, especially for
Getting a good idea of the vowels should be first because urgent survival, should give the learner a good idea of the main
they are the most critical factor in handling, working with spo­ things about the sounds of fast naturally spoken English and
ken English. Get your vowels right.. ... and most other sounds a practical, useful set of the words which are used the most.
will fall into place well enough. Adult learners simply cannot 81 Vowels
learn, pick up, discern several key vowels of American English The overall concept of all the simple vowels in a natural order
just by hearing Americans say them ..even in the classroom by can be taught in about 5 minutes by a knowledgeable experi­
teachers, much less so in the disorderly noisy hustle-bustle of enced instructor. See 96 for the demonstrations and 89 for the
real life. This is also true of the 3 patterns each of the Rand L presentation drill. Seeing the sounds in some 5 different ways
sounds. (See 46) and following a natural order make for fast learning,
78 Words - Survival Vocabulary getting into the head what each vowel sound is and its place
Some 800 much-used little functional words make up maybe among the vowels. With this in mind the ESL learner begins
90% of what Americans say in their daily life: is, are, of, than, 8 to hear and say them in an orderly fashion.
and, go, come up, get down ... Most are used in groupings of re­ 2 Consonants
duced forms, such as doncha wanna get outta. Most languages have most of the English consonant sounds.
Shouldn't the high frequency 'er' ere) be learned first and ~he special, problem causing English ones are best learned one
much later the less used form that sounds like the letter R 2~ one as they come up in context. Refer to the drawings in
(are)? Many ESL learners don't catch 'er' or think it is 'uh' or , 26, 27. Put them on the chalkboard for the students to
maybe 'ah'. The first class for urgent survival is to clarify this COpy, if time allows.

54 66
Survivil Sounds Survival Instruction
th Let the beginners see you bite the tip of your tongue.
Have the students stick out and bite the tips of their own SURVIVAL INSTRUCTION
tongue and feel of them with a finger. After stopping the ESL learners should always know the meaning of what they
outgoing breath let a sudden puff of air burst out. are trying to learn to hear the sounds of and to say. After
Push a student towards the door as you say Go to the door. working through the vowels, with finger gestures, the instruc­
Everyone points to the door as each in turn says go t'th'do-r. tor does the actions of the Routine series so that the students
Next practice just t'th'do-r with t'th' by itself at times ..2 know what it's all about as to meaning. Suggestive gestures
voiceless stops of t~e air. Everyone can easily say t' (tongue and pointing to the drawings on the text sheets should keep
behind the upper front teeth). Then bite the tip and release the meanings vivid in the minds of the learners as you go along.
a puff of air for th'. (Only say too thee to clarify the words For full details see the Introduction, 97 .. 103.
to the for someone who already knows some English.) See 25. For urgent survival use the Introductory Basics recording
r + vowel If someone flips up the tongue for something like from the VOWELS through the routine ending with I look at
a trilled r, put the sharp end of a pencil straight back into you. Use a long remote control cord or carry along from stu­
the mouth about 2.5 cm. on top of the tip of the tongue. dent to student a small cassette player to be near each student
Circle the lips around the pencil like for a kiss and say 00 start-stop the recording as needed. (62-5,102)
as in Who, you two too?! Then smile as you go on to the 86 through the first time the class in unison repeats
following vowel. See 28. each utterance. After that each student, alone, repeats what he
This pre-vocalic r first comes up in the Routine in front has just heard 5 times. Hold up the left hand with the fingers
and then in right. Say 00 around the pencil, foorunt, oorite. 51 ightly spread apart and then bend a finger into the palm for
I + vowel Some languages don't have this sound. For such each repetition. With the right hand make the finger signs for
beginners bite the tip of the tongue first, then say 00 but the vowels or gestures as to the meaning of the utterance.
don't smile as you go on to the following vowel.See 26. As you walk around see to it that all students make the pro­
Face away from the class and motion to the left and then per hand signs and gestures. Stop and move a student's fingers
to the right. Pair drill oooleft - oooorite (uleft-urait). Turn into the proper position. Unexpectedly from behind sort of
your head sideways so the students can see you not smile hug a student as you with both hands adjust the student's
and then do smile, left - right. Later pair drill right - light, fingers beside the mouth for a given vowel. Not only will that
with each student after 00 smmng and not student be brought back into learning consciousness and feel
sh change sss into sh by pushing the lips out like for a kiss. the exact sounds to be more tangible but the others will laugh,
Also push the center of the cheeks into the back teeth. snicker (relieve the tension) and correct their own hand signs
sue - shoe as they reflect on exactly what the sound is. Habitual cons­
ch With the lips for a kiss. and the cheeks for sh flip the ciousness of the exact vowel is to become automatic.
87 After working through with 5 repetitions of each student
tip of the tongue up for t and then slide down into sh. See
the last drawing in 26. play the tape without stopping or at most don't spend more
83 Voicing From the start beginners should know about voiced ~han 3 seconds for a student response. Without stopping the
and unvoiced sounds. For urgent survival just practice Imp~acable march of the machine you usually can say a cor­
ssss - zzzz. Hissssss like a sssssnake for sss and buzzzzz like rective sound or word softly into the ear of a student who
'bizzzzy' bee forzzzz. arms-legs oarmzzzz-Iegzzz See 29. falters or messes up. I n this way the concentration of the
84 Stops Even beginners in the first class should learn about
?thers is not disturbed and the steady fast pace of instruction
IS not broken.
short, quick, silent stopping of the voice or flow of air, I
in the voiceless t'th' of to the. Make definite stops, jerks. f a.mount of material and speed of presentation will con­
half grunts where consonants are dropped after vowels. .;, dismay some learners at first. But in a few minutes they
vowels are cleanly cut off. A long vowel cut off is for o I!I get the hang of it. The first survival lesson is for general
missing -d, a short vowel coming to a sudden end sh urJentation as to the vowels, where things are and the the most­
that a -t has been lost. (See 30-6,23). Don't explain this to a~ed actions of daily life. Subsequent classes, hopefully there
beginners but in saying the Routine do make a definite a.~ ~~me, reinforce the first learning. After getting the urgent
an incomplete -t for get, sit, light, put, it - gE' Sl' lai' pu' i of ~ lne well in mind, if time allows, work with the variants
he Routine said by several \Ioices and the exercises taken
56 57
Introduction Introduction
from the Introduction, as seen in 110 ... 112. See the phonetic Be very exacting on all points with advanced students work-
transcript of the exercises on the Introductory Basics tape in 92 ing on. converting t?, .American ~poken ~nglish,. as well as
132. long-time speakers Wishing to get rid of their 'foreign accent:
They may find it boring, tedious but it must be done.
89 For foreign accent reduction and advanced students working
on listening comprehension of fast natural speech also work Start by working out which basic vowels of their languages
through the second side of the Introductory Basics cassette, are in English. First have them learn to say from memory these
Real Life Selection 22, Jobs. See the section, Learning Ameri­ base vowels in the order they are in the vowel series sequence
can Spoken English - Teachers Guide (Seminar presentation), here. The Japanese say a i u e o. Spanish speakers a e i 0 u.
starting at 114 for other additional details and for the text of When their order in the English series is well in mind, i e a 0 u,
have the learners put the special English vowels in between
Selection 22 see 132.
their vowels. i I e, a :> 0, 0 u u ....
90 Introduction to Real Life Spoken English To speak like Americans do, students with a background of
British speech will have to re-Iearn 3 vowels and the usage of 2
For regular classes of younger students
Anyone taking up the study of American spoken English Implant well the oVercompensating steps of pronouncing
would do well to start with this Introduction to Real Life the American R before vowels for most learners and of L be­
Spoken English to know, understand, use fore vowels. (See 28. 25) Refer to the phonological principles in
-- the vowels exactly, the listing of the Sound Changes. (See inside the back cover of
., the changes of sounds and how they run together, this book.) Be exacting in that the serious learners speak pre­
-- the patterns used most to express actions. cisely as shown in the phonetic transcriptions.
Small children learn this well. by hearing, seeing, doing and As a course of study in regular school classes, beginners and
saying what they do. Older learners see also the exact sound illiterates should carefully do all of the study steps, 1 .. 4.
in several ways which speeds up their learning (46). Everybol'l, More advanced learners too would do well to go through the
unconsciously learns to read by sounds, illiterates too, just whole 60 minutes of the Introduction recording step by step.
going through the vowel practice and following along the lin At first glance they may feel that this material is too simplis­
of the phonetic text as eaCh utterance is demonstrated and not worthy of their serious consideration because they al­
peated several times. ready know all of the words and structures. Have them listen
Many ESL learners never become natural speakers bec to and try to say without stopping the recording a few minutes
they have never learned to say anything naturally. After of the last part of it, 16f, 17 for example.
initial overall presentation is worked through it is devel Relearning the vowels, Rand L, the scientifically evolved re­
into natural pronunciation and fluency by frequent repeti vised speech patterns and working up to natural speed speed
of natural patterns. The vowel series and the sequence of take much more serious study and repetitive oral practice than
nected actions in the Routine are to be heard, read and I the simple words would indicate.
repeated aloud by memory like natural speech, all in less th
45 seconds. Once an ESL learner can say this Introdu
Routine naturally he becomes conditioned to say everyth Introduction to

that way and has a ready reference for identifying the

and use of new words taken from real life. Real Life Spoken English

91 For Urgent Survival you work for a reasonably u

able pronunciation, but in this Introduction pay special This Introduction to Spoken English is to be used for all, from tiny tots
tention to the vowels, especially the hard to catch and say ~~ sophisticated professionals. just anyone' who starts the study of real­
meaning are. Be sure the learners understand and readily tl~e spoken English. It's good for anyone who has trouble hearing or say­
e ~ounds the way Americans speak naturally in daily life.
the pattern of the 2-word verbs such as cornel go out, get It Immediately satisfies the desire of the beginner to be able to say
turn on, come back in.... Once a learner has well in mind SOmething useful, effective, practical in English.
vowels, how to say where things are and the actions used a t Vowels . a clear idea of each of the basic vowels. their relationship
most he has a good practical survival base for getting along b ~each other in English and to the vowels of a student's language.
daily life. here things are - behind, left-right, beside.. and not are-is but 're, 's

58 59
Y4 97
Introduction- Vowel Drill Vowel Demonstration

c The most-used verb structure, the '2-part verb' - put, take, get, go,
turn + on, off, down, back....
97 Demonstration of the Vowels
While listening to the recording (better than the teacher),
d How sounds work together - sound groupings, rhythm
e A 'line of thought' to follow in practicing alone or in class.
the teacher makes the hand signs, points to their equivalents
on a charLa diagram and/or phonetic letters for the student
Introduction to Spoken English
to see exactly what the target sound is and its relationship
to the other sounds. The students, too, are to make the
Excerpts from the Teachers Guide hand signs from time to time, especially in the beginning. ~
This is because a person does not clearly sense, feel, the ]
Vowel Drill positions of his own mouth, lips and tongue nor how they ex::
94 At the start of every lesson, refresh the students' minds by really move. But by moving his own fingers a student more S
going through the whole series of vowels around and around, clearly comes to know what should be going on in his 5
steadily going on through a to the a of ai 'in a continuous :g
mouth for each sound. By seeing his own fingers move he ::I

circle. Work for a good contrast between a and a, which may

mean splitting up ai and repeating a-a, a-a in contrast drill
gets another kind of visual imprint with kinetic reinforce­

ment from feeling his own muscles of the hand move.

several times before going on with i I e. Similarly i-I, £-II!, a Hand Signs
-:) often need extra separate drilling. When a vowel is not 98
said well enough shake your head and silently point back to
;?: '7ij a!l~~ ~ ~ U ~ ~~
?,L-' ~L!)i; '1'ft'J I ij6
?o ~ ~ ~~
the letter or make a hand sign of a preceeding sound and
work up to the target sound for which you shake the whole
hand a bit to emphasize that sound. oi is really 0 + i. The a position is with the fingers (straight

This round robin drill is be done for the first few minutes and close side by side) wide, as far away from the thumb

of a class period while the late comers get seated, whenever (horizontal beside the cheek near the mouth) as possible.

you need a filler for a few minutes or to break the strain of The fingers then close down towards the thumb into the i

intensive drilling. position about the width of a pencil above the thumb.

95 Intensive drilling means keeping the students' concentra­ Here aj is presented as if it were just a simple basic vowel

tion, attention at a peak all the time by lively, unbroken because native speakers of English think of it as one sound,

drilling. This is best done by using the recording .. without written with just one letter . .'i' or 'y: and it acts like a sim­

stopping it. If a student misses his utterance just point to ple single sound too. In this series, as you go around and

the next student to pick up on the next thing coming up around, the last sound 13 a falls just before the 0 of oj and

from the recording. Walk around the room to be near the you get a side-by-side contrast of a and oi .. o u ar a o-j j I ...

student speaking to make a quick cue as to sound or mean­ i . - 0 The mouth opens step by step, so with each vowel

ing without distracting the rest of the class. the fingers separate away from the thumb. In reality the

Drill 1) the class in unison, 2) each student says one sound change from i to 1 is very little. For j the forefinger (with

.. going down one row and up the next to give students a the others flat beside it) is about the width of a pencil

chance to prepare for their sounds, 3) skip around with the away from the thumb, and 2 thickness of a pencil away

teacher pointing to different students here and there or let for I. Then the spaces become increasingly wide as you go

the student reciting point to the next student somewhere, on through e t II! to a where the fingers are as far away

4) each student says the whole series fast as possible. from the thumb as possible. Or a person can hold a big

Cuing with Hand Signs book (the back cover down, level) partly open at different

96 Students soon learn to 'read' the hand signs wherever the angles and let some student try to say the sound the angle

teacher may be walking around and so immediately and ex­
actly know what is the target sound -- especially if you do o - -.u Start this series of lip rounding with the wide open a

a short sequence before and after the concerned sound, as POSItIon. Then make a big circle with the 4 fingers and the

for :), •.le a :) 0 u .. jerking the hand a bit at :) as it is the tar­ ~humb, like holding a basketball or a balloon of that size,

get sound. Or for I, just j lei lei 1 e around and around and or::l, Bring the finger tips into a slightly smaller circle,

shaking the hand a bit each time for I. Making the contrast­ as If holding
109 ,
a tennis ball, for b', closer together as for hold­
ing positions for a (fingers slightly cupped up) and a (quick­ f a PIng-pong ball for u and a grape or marble for u. It is

ly tum the hand over (straight index finger, with the others r un to use the objects themselves as cues for each of these

flat close beside it, far up from the level thumb) is very eff­ r~unded sounds. Toss around the round objects with the

fective in establishing those sounds.. Of course, it is good to ly ce~ver saying the corresponding sound. If said incorrect­

also point to the sound in question on the vowel chart (see so' ~ve hIm toss it back to the thrower for the correct

the back cover of our books). This way the student can see ar un ,thusly back and forth until both say it correctly.

both the phonetic letter and diagram, similar to the hand ~ a ~he tip of the tongue is more in the center of the

sign, for additonal visual imprinting. ou and can't be seen at all. so use hand signs. Put your

60 61
Teaching Techniques
I nstructiOI1 Steps
.c done rather quickly. So in advance, see that an electrical
:! wrists together and turn them so that one hand is above :§
switch, a chair and a door are close together. Quickly point til>
~ the other. To·show the ar-sound cup the finger tips of the to parts of the body and positions - up, down, in, out... c
.,c lower hand upward into the center of the palm of the up­
Actually stand up on the chair, or at least put a foot up on ~
~ per hand cupped downward. Say a' long drawn-out clear

at all .

arrrrrrrrrr with no movement of the finger tips it as a suggestive clue. For 'go out, come in' stand in the
open doorway and look, lean or take a step out and then
turn the body and do the same inwards. Flex the knees for
99 Because the letter 'r' is used to write this sound, a student ;J
Ol 'sit down' and straighten up the body for 'stand up'..just
may flip the tongue to hit the top of the mouth to make some suggestive motion to cue a student or for students to
ex: the r-sound of his language. Insert the sharp point of a pen­ ~
.s cil straight back into the mouth about 2 cm.(l inch). This
show that they understand .
5 Step 3 - Hear, read lsay)

makes the tip of the tongue double up and unable to
move. Have the student make a long-lasting unchanging
clear vowel sound for this ar.
Now the students, pointing to each word with a pen or
pencil point, follow along the printed text as they listen to t
For a, relax the up-cupped finger tips of the lower hand
and let it drop a bit. Hit youself in the stomach for a good
the recording and are to begin to say what they hear. Even
stop the machine at times to practice some more difficult
worri a bit. Do this pointing exercise slowly and several

'uh'(-a) grunt. Be on the watch for some student uncon­ times lo that the students 'see' each sound, develop a good
sciously making this a-sound when laughing. Then imi­ visual imprint. A little bit of reading practice might be in
tate him and have him say it again. order but don't be too critical about pronunciation yet.
100 Parts of the Body. Positions and Actions Next, have the students write each thing they hear. This
First the teacher goes through the whole series from means stopping the machine after every utterance. At some
feet are in front.. .. .Iook at you:' pointing to parts of the bo­ point .do this as a test and have the students exchange and
dy, positions and doing actions while saying what is being correct each others' papers by checking with the printed
done. This is to give the students an over-all idea of what text. Then have the students write the whole sequence of
they are to learn and that it is moving, alive and practicaL. actions from memory and correct their own papers. This
something to be experienced personally. This learning has 4 will show if a student has the right concept for each sound
factors hear, see, do, say. We (teacher and students) just in his re-call memory. Be rather insistant that this be letter
'do' rather than 'explain' English ..first the key words and perfect according to the text... all sounds exactly as printed.
keep adding little by little to reach the complete forms of (Was it 'a' or 'the' chair, 'light' or 'lights', is 'of' av or just a,
normal fast speech (some 8 sounds a second). should 'is' be -z or -s here?).
In this way, the stlldents will begin to realize how the
101 Instruction Steps sounds and words change. Some of this may come as a bit
Step 1 - Meanings
of a shock, surprise, to advanced students.who are studying
Students really must first of all understand well the mean­
this to improve their fluency in dealing with fast informal
ing of what they're trying to learn. The text of this Intro­ conversation.
duction follows an easily learned sequence of actions (point Step 4 - (Hear-read, hear-)Say
16). The teacher first goes through the whole sequence and First have the students read as they hear - say. Stop the
has the students do it until it is well memorized. Thus they machine and cue as to the correct sound when needed. Next
have a 'line of thought' to follow which they can practice they are to hear - say without stopping the recorder. This
with anywhere, anytime until they have an ingrained auto­ makes them catch sounds, umferstand and react at the
matic response to each part of it. Saying to yourself what speed of normal (fast) conversation. The final objective is
you are studying helps in learning, so if a student goes along for a student to say all of the action sequence (point 16)
mumbling to himself, fine. But don't interrupt the concen­ from memory in not more than 45 seconds (Teachers in
tration on learning the meaning. That is, don't pay any at­ not more than 30 seconds).
tention to pronunciation during this step, avoid working on
it at all, even if a student has a question or problems about Teaching Techniques
sounds. As this teaches normal fast conversation, an English speak.
~eacher when modeling a word, phrase or sentence is to
Step 2 - Hear, do say It always at the speed of some 8 sounds a second. That
Here we begin to create an automatic response to what is IS the speed of saying the whole action sequence (point 16)
heard. Play the recording and point to or do the actions.
In not more than 30 seconds. Use the recording as much as
The recording follows the general sequence but does mix Possible. It works up to the normal fast speed and always
things up a bit. So it becomes a challenge, game, to do - say
~ays the same thing in the same way and presents a chal­
what you hear before you hear the next thing. Have the enge for the students to keep up with it.
students do the actions or make suggestive motions but
don't work on pronunciation yet. j A~tually, the teacher, only as a final resort, says anything,
us a sound now and then perhaps. It is best to make a
If you don't stop the recording, the actions have to be

62 63
Demonstrations - feet, front, are Demonstrations - beside, behind, left, right, arms, hand
fil hand sign or point to a sound in the vowel chart (on the the weak final -n (The t-sound is recessive, disappears after fil
:g, n.) because if you don't catch it in real life you understand
back cover of our books) and have the student, by trial and
~ ~
error, say the sound well enough. Compliment him and go or(are) which is just the opposite. So practice ·arn well

on to the next student. To indicate meanings cue by making
a quick short suggestive motion but say nothing.
In using a recorder, it is well to be able to move around in
10 3b My
here in the beginning of the study of spoken English.
arms are beside me m'arrnzar b'said ml
my becomes m' before vowels, m_arm= m'arm_ Don't for­
;:3 the classroom. For a small room, a little recorder can be get to thump your chest for m'. ;:3
carried around with you. For larger equipment, a TV-radio arms armz o-ar-m·z, a clear definite a and separately ar. (i!

~ repair shop can make a long cord to plug into the 'remote Don't slide from a into something indefinite but make a ~
.s control' hole. Or put a switch at the end of a long enough clean break between 2 separate clear vowels. Make a nasal S
grunt 'with the lips closed for m.
electric cord and splice the 2 wires of the other end to the
~ cut ends of 1 wire of an extension cord to which you con­ armzar Hold the mmmm a long time to build up the voic­
j l03a
nect the recorder.
ing in the throat to lead into zzzzz then add ar. Work for a
good clear -zzzzar here because it occurs often in English. ]
oS Cross your forearms and alternately slap an upper arm oS
Here are some pointers as to sounds and how to show the
meanings in the action sentences. with the palm of the other hand. Hold up 2, 3 or 4 fingers
from time to time to show a plural sense for either -z or ar.
My feet are in front of me *ma fitarn franta ml * Here ar (are) follows a voiced sound, and -ZM becomes a
my moi=mo=ma=ma+consonant=m'+vowel Point to and unit indicator of plurality.
beat one's own chest (like Tarzan), making a thumping beside b'said In the other language explanations we say

sound with the palm of the hand. b' means that "something is at a place": This prefix be- has

feet fit Put both feet down on the floor and stomp loudly, the pronunciations bi, bl, ba, b'. Here use only the fast

making a loud noise (to wake up the class!). Point to each forms ba or b'(just a puff of air!).

foot with an index finger. Two fingers pointing at 2 feet side said With the knuckles rub the ribs around at a side,

give the idea of plural. If someone happens to say 'foot: up and down, to produce a good rubbing sound.

make him put one under his chair or draw it back under arms beside armz b'said At first leave out the 'ar for 'are'
him. With just 1 finger point to the extended foot and and hold up 2 fing~rs for oz. Let the arms hang down at
say 'foot: Have him put the other foot out in front again the sides. Swing them back and fort a bit, maybe brushing
and say 'feet: against the clothes to make a rustling sound.
are or= ar Hold up 2 fingers and sayar. (Say or only if a stu­
dent who knows some English is puzzled.) Point to vowel 103c My left hand is behind me "rna left hamz b'hain ml *
12 ar. Teach only the most-used form of the word and left - right lEft· rait With the arms fully outstretched to
start the students to hearing and practicing the ar-sound, the sides, straight level with the shoulders, snap the fingers
after an unvoiced consonant in this case. The object is to of the left hand for 'left' and those of the right for 'right'.
imprint ar (not or) to give an automatic feeling for the Caution: Be sure to face away from the class or in the
existence of plurals. same direction as a student. Otherwise, your 'left' will be
in front of At first use 'front' alone and somewhere along imprinted to the students' 'right' face away and avoid
the line start saying 'n franta just like one word. For the a lifetime of confusion..due to wrong initial imprint!
r-sound, see 'left-right' below. l-,r- For students who don't have the English pre-vo\:alic
front Extend forward both arms straight out from the ,- or r· put an u before these sounds. For I· first bite the tip
chest. Also put the feet out forward as much as possible. of the tongue. Let it show through the lips rounded for u.
Even have a student slide down in his chair to get them Say a clear lengthy uuu, quickly release the tip of the ton­
way out there in front. Clap the hands together and hit gue and go into the following vowel.· While saying the u
the feet against each other. Then point the index fingers before r- put a pencil in through the rounded lips about
straight forward. 5 em. (2 inches) down along the top of the tongue to keep
in 'n Drop the vowel and make a quick nasal grunt with It from flipping up to make an r-sound of other languages.
the mouth open. And smile widely as you quickly go into the following
of av+consonant = a+vowel 10 o'clock, cup 0' coffee vowel. At first insist upon a clear u. As a student learns to
me In fast speech mi becomes ml (all clear vowels often are speak faster it will disappear and the muscle movements
reduced to the neutral vowel a , even farther to I at times. will slide into those of a native speaker of English.
Use the same demonstration as for 'my' above. Contrast hand hen" After n, d is recessive, disappears. Clap your
drill ma·ml, rna fit - nfranta ml, thumping the chest each' hands together to get attention, then hold up one and
time for rna and for mi. wave it as you say 'hand'. Lower it and raise the other,
feet are in fitarn Say it like 1 word rhyming with 'eastern, ~aln saying 'hand' and holding up 1 finger. Caution:
western, turn: This ·arn syllable occurs so much in Eng­ o not put the 2 hands together or move both at the
lish, as in orn (aren't) where it is very important to hear same time, except to clap at the start. Here, let hanz

64 65
Uemonstratlons - ocuwetn, letS, Brand up, go to, Sit doWn
Demonstrations - gel to, door, and, go out
.;j (hand is) become implanted as 'one hand at a place: As
a general rule, while teaching this Introduction don't First point downwards and repeat dou-na. As you lower ~
!al use forms not in the text. But if you use the plural
'hands' be sure to add ar and practice haenzar.
yourself say sidouna.
sit· seat Sit - sit While sitting say just Sit several times as
band is haend IZ = halnz The mouth is wide open for al... you pat, rub your hips. Many stUdents will say sit (seat) ai
~ Bleat like a mad goat baeaealal. Hold the aealalae a long for 'sit' so contrast drill j I i I j I i I and Sit - sit (sit seat), ~

~ time to give the vocal chords down in the throat time to alternately slapping the hips and knocking on the ,seat of (/l

~ ~
adj'l).st. Hold up 1 finger to show that ·z means singular. the chair on which your are sitting.. Afterwards, point to ~
c behind b'hoin" After n, d often is weak, disappears. a 'seat' of any chair whenever 'seat' is said. 'iii
~ hind Slap yourself on the rear and say 'hind? Look back
.s stand up stalndap Here -d is heard as it joins the vowel af­ ~
over a shoulder and with the arm of the other side in front ter it. While still sitting, point upwards and say 'up, up, B

around the neck point down behind you and say 'behind.' up, up' and 'stand up' as you rise to your feet. Caution:
Or have a student stand sideways in front of the class and
then, facing the same way, stand in front of him and say,
During the circular drill of 'stand, sit down, sit, stand up'
do not use the forms 'standing, sitting' nor the word 'get:
'front'. Next, walk around behind and facing up close
against his back say 'behind: But best of all is to twist a
go to go tu = got a The u of 'to' usually is weakened to a
which in turn is often lost. Point to and take a step or two
student's left hand up behind his back high enough to be a towards ..the door, in this case.
bit painfuL Make a slapping sound by hitting the back of to the tatha t'tha Often 'to' becomes just a voiceless click
the hand against the backbone. . of the tongue. Usually before consonants 'the' is tha so do

not say thi nor thl in this drill. For the th-sound, first say

l03d My right's between my legs*m'roits b'tuin ma h:gz* tatatatata then show the teeth biting the tip of the ton­

my right m'roit My loses its'vowel before vowels. Here it gue' every other time, tathatathatathata. Insist on seeing

is before the u of the lip rounding fOJ; r before a vowel. the tip of the tongue for every th until it becomes a habit.

m~uroit = m'roit Just stick out your tongue at a stUdent when he doesn't

right is roit IZ = roits By not saying 'hand', 'is' follows an get a th-sound quite right.

unvoiced sound and becomes -s (hold up 1 finger) and stu­ door dor A vowel before a voiced sound is longer. Final -r

dents learn to use an adjective as a noun. is the vowel ar and so is a voiced sound making the 0 be­

between b'tuin fore it almost of double duration, d-oo-ar. Make a definite

-tween tuinHold up 2 fingers in a V-sign and say, 'two: Put break, pause, between the lengthly 00 and ·r(ar), doo-r.

a finger (of the other hand!.) or a pencil between them. As Caution: When saying 'the door' be sure that it is the

you move it up and down say b'tuuuin. Later add -a to main or most-used door of a room. As yet, don't use 'a'

bring out the n-sound, b'tuina, in preparation for learning for any other door.
'twain, twin, twenty? and aend = aln = an = n = ··p+m Here after p you might
legs legz Open and close your knees and point to your legs say m, like in 'cup m saucer; just a nasal sound tacked on
as they move back and forth. to ap, ap'n much like 'open' but the lips lightly touch
If there is any trouble with 1- see 'left' above. Here &may each other.
tend to become al, so maybe contrast drill &-al. After the As 'and' is a connective between two ideas you might
voiced g the plural indicator 'os' should be oz. Intersperse use the 2-finger V-sign, with the palm of the hand towards
a .. u-Iegaza. you. Give the finger to the right the first idea and the one
right between legs Put the right hand down between the to the left the second idea. As you go from your right to
legs, knees, and slap the back of the hand against the right the students facing you read left to right. In between
leg and the palm against the left one ..good loud slapping. say n. 'Stand up'(right finger), 'go to'(left finger) with
'and' in between gives stalndap m gota.
l03e I stand up and go to the door *a staln dap'n go t'tha dor * l03f
I oi = a Beat your chest as for 'my,me' and go to the fast I get to the door and go out *a g&tatha dorn go out*
form a immediately to imprint from the start the more get to get tu = g&tu g&ta Of 2 same or similar sounds to­

often used a (rather than oil. gether, the first is often dropped and vowels change to a.

stand - sit down· sit - stand up staln" sl'doun Sit stalndap Walk all the way right up to the door and even bump the

stand Make a show of coming to stand rigidly at attention nose into it in a sudden stop as you say geta. Or follow a

Repeat 'stand' several times ..a strong wide upen lengthly student to an open doorway and just as he reaches the

alalal. As there is no vowel after the final ·d you can al­ door, from behind with both hands on his shoulders sud.

most not say it at alL denly bring him to a quick stop at the door as you say

sit down sl'doun As t and d are the unvoiced and voiced geta. The quick cue is to move a flat hand in the direction

forms of the same sound, when together the first tends to of the fingers a foot or so then suddenly turn it up as if

disappear. But we do want to practice a strong final ·n so ihe turned-up palm has just slapped into a walLa smooth

add an a, sl'dou-na. t~vel forward movement then a sudden stop as you slap

e turned-up palm against a vertical surface.

..: for 00 and ar). Point down between your feet at the floor .,
'" door and dorn The same ·arn as in fitarn, doo·arn. while stomping loudly on it as you say 'floor: ~
c go out goaut Work for a good final ·t, perhaps add a, au·ta. get down on ge dau nan Spread a newspaper or towel out
c Push the student on out the doorway, or take a step or on the floor, or see that there b a clean spot, and lower
two out.. even around to where the students in the class·
room can't see you.
the whole body down on it. Lie on one hip and rub the 8.
('Jl surface of the floor when saying 'on.' For this Introduc­ .:!:
.:!: 103g I come back in and get down on the floor*acam bceklnn ge' tion do not use 'sit down on the floor.' ::J
::J *daunan tha flor h I get up and get on a/the chair * age tap'n ge to na cher* «I
'iI come cam From the doorway walk towards the center of get up ge tap Join -t to the vowel after it. From down on '"
r:I:l the c1ass(room) saying 'come' several times, then turn a· the floor point upwards and say gebp as you get to your .sc
.s round and go back towards bhe door saying 'go.' At a mid­ feet. Do not say 'stand up' when rising from the floor.
point halfway to the door stop walking and turn the body
towards the class. Take a half step as you say 'come'. Next
up and ap'n rhymes with 'open: ..

turn the body and lean towards the door as you say 'go.'
back Bleat like ~ ingry goat holding the ce-sound a long
time, bce~. In this Introduction use it to mean only
get on g& ton Work for a clear a as you do for nan..tan
not tan(ton - 2,240 Ibs_) Rub the seat of the chair as you
say 'on.' Then say 'get on' as you step up on the chair.
While standing on the chair, sort of bend down and bring
'return to where it was before.' Walk away from the class one hand up from your feeL as you say, 'get on train, get
and make a great show of turning.Stomp the feet on the on bus ... ' Do not yet use 'get up on.'
floor, arms spread out high up in the air. Just as you com­ a/the chair When drilling with 'a' use a different chair each

plete the turn say 'come back'. Walk a few steps towards time.. one of several out in front·.of the class. And here

the class, turn stomping the feet and as you go away say never use 'a' for a reciting student's own chair. Only use

'go back.' Tell a student, then have him say,"Go, come 'the chair' for one way off away from the others or of

back, come, go back" making U-turns then saying 'back.' very special appearance.

Short cues - make a looping motion with a hand ..say

away from the body, bend the wrist pointing the fingers 103 i I get off of it to turn a/the tight(s off and on *ag& h fa VI ta
back to the chest then thump it as you say 'back' or draw t'tarn altha lai toltso fa nan *
a loop or long U on its side where all can see it. off· on Contrast drill 0 • a, of . on as you ~lide something
in . out Move something in and ouLof a box, your ton­ on and off a table or chair, With a big bang slam a heavy
in and out. Stand sideways in a doorway. Point and lean book down on a table or chair where all can see. Slide the
towards the class for 'in' then look, point, lean out of the book back and forth a bit on the table while you knock
room for 'out.' on it and say 'on.' Now at the same level slide the book
come in· go out cammm· go aub At first walk in and out off the side a few inches and hold it suspended in the air.
through the doorway. Later just stand sideways pointing, Tap it and say 'off.'
leaning in and out while stepping in place. Don't drill or Always sliding the book back on as you say 'on' take it
even use yet 'go in, come out.' off and lower it almost to the floor or hold it high above
in and 10 cend 10 and = man = IOn Often after an n-sound the table saying 'off' each time you take it away from the
'and' merely makes that n longer with no pulsations nor 'on' position. Move it off and on your head in the same
'} way.
separation for the 'and' meaning. Contrast drill 10 • IOn. In
drilling you can make sort of a stronger pulsation or ac­ get on • get off Put a foot up on a chair seat for 'on' and

cent at the end of the drawn-out, longer nn-sound to give back down towards the floor for 'off' several times.

the 'and' feeling. From the very beginning of the study of Then get up on the chair and step down off it for 'get

spoken English students should be aware of single, double off.' Have the whole class get on and off their chairs.
and triple length sounds (n, vowels - ar in particular). Caution: For this drill be careful to NOT say 'get up
Point out to the students the double nn in the printed on, get down ·off.'
text and be sure they practice it well. Note: In this Introduction 'get' is used only to mean
get down ge'daun As with 'sit down' here the t before dis "change of location .. start from one place and arrive at
often dropped. Maybe there's a glottal stop where it ought another." So until the students learn this Introduction
to be that native speakers of English may unconsciously wei! avoid using 'get' in its extended meanings like "go
react to but adult learners don't perceive it. get the book" (a type of changing location) or "I get
tIred" (a change of condition).
down on dau nan Make a separate syllable by joining the
final ·n of 'down' to 'on' .. nan. Work for a clear a and g~~ off of it ge to fa VI tit Break it into consonant-vowel syl­
keep dau and nan separate until a good definite a is habi­ abIes and add a weak a to bring out the sound of final .t.
tual in nan. This sets up the groundwork for diff~renciat­ '[he lower lip touches the edge of the upper teeth for both
ing between nan and nan later on. Do not let a student and v. For V, work for a good vibration of the lip caused
say 'dow none' (dau nan). the bUzzing down in the throat. Contrast drill fa· VVVVI,
floor fuloo·ar (See 'left' for the f and pre-vocalic I·, 'door'


Demonstrations· turn on/off. sit down. take off, put on, look at Comments· Points 1 .. 8
'iii> fa a silent puff of air, VVVI . the buzzing of a very angry bee. it Point at the shoe and review 'get off of it' where you
c: .J::
It Just point to the chair after getting off of it. point at a chair.
to turn tatarn = t'tarn Review the sound of tarn in ma
fibrIl frant mI. Then say tatarn and perhaps contrast drill
back on and bee kann A long strong ee with a looping mo. j
~ tion, a clear 'ah' and a long pulsating final ·nn.
ta·tar for a quick soft a and a long clear arrrrr. Add na and put . take Dramatically put a thing where all can see, with·
gradually drop the a to leave just a tongue click for t be·
fore tarn.
draw your hand, then r~ach out again and take it as you 8.
'put' and 'take' . a shoe on a table, a lipstick in a boy's ~
turn Make the 2·finger V·sign and put a pencil or pen in shirt pocket, a $20 dollar bill under a student's book... :J
down between them and rotate it. Stand at attention and take off· put on Take off and put on a shoe. Put a big 7ii
.s do a military about·face. Walk a few steps in a straight book on your head and then lift it off up high. Slam it ~

line. abruptly turn to the right or left, or back around say· down on a table top then grab it up and walk off a few S
ing 'turn left, turn right, turn back.:. steps. S
Keep an index finger very straight, push the tip up an
down so that the finger 'turns' at the knuckle. Then move
look at lu kat Make a 2·finger V·sign with the back of the
hand against the mouth and the tip of a finger before each
.5 it up and down by itself and with the other forefinger
point at the moving knuckle and say 'turn: With the other
eye, then extend the arm towards what you are looking
at and point the 2 finger~ like a snake's tongue at it.
hand moving the tip up and down it is the same action as at you eet yu = at /iu = achu t+i+ vowel = ch + vowel
most wall light switches. Thump your own chest saying "I, me" and then point at
turn a/the light(s off and on tarn altha lai t:>/ts:> fa nan If the person you are speaking to and say, "you.~ Only say
you are demonstrating with one light of several in the oi (thump your chest) luk eet (2 finger tips going away
room say 'a light: If there is only one, use 'the: If the from your eyes and changing to 1 forefinger pointing at)
switch controls all the lights in the room, use 'the lights: yu just 2 or 3 times and then go to the fast form alukachu.
It is best to use a switch which rotates, as some lamps
have, or a radio with knobs. Be sure the students use 'a, This whole sequence of actions, "My feet are in front...

the' properly and catch the presence or absence of·$ in look at you," is to be so well practiced that the students can

'light . lights: Caution: In teaching this Introduction, once say it in 45 seconds. Make a game of timing them. English

you have used 'a ...' do not refer back that same object as speaking teachers should say it in not more than 30 seconds,

'the -.. '. and always say the words of this Introduction at that speed.

off and on :> fa nan lait:3f = lait:> fa nan lails :>fanan =

104 Comments about the Numbered Points
lai ts:> fa na n •

on and off laitann:>fa, laitsannofa Note the long nn­ 1,2,3 Numbers
sound in the middle. The text reads 'off and on' so better First you hear a small bell, chime, and then a voice saying

start with the lights, electrical apparatus 'on'. The class gets the number. A high tone means '1' and a low tone '5'.. 2

a kick out of being in the dark when you turn the lights lows and 1 high indicate '11: Younger students find this a

'off.' delightful game and quickly catch on as to the numerical

103j Then I sit down and take off a shoe.*thcna sldaunn tebfa meanings of the chimes. Also, the teacher and students

shu hold up fingers to show the numbers. Above '10' hold up

then All this series moves rather fast with 'and' being a all the fingers of both hands, quickly close them for '10'

connective. But as you come to 'turn..on: turn the lights and then hold up only a few ... say, 3 for a total of '13:

on and pause, made a definite stop, say nothing for 3 or 4,5,6 Vowels

4 seconds. Then sort of leaning towards the class as if First you hear a number and then the corn'sponding vowel

waiting for something to happen, say "Then .. ~ With this Sound, which is seen under each number in the text. From

air of expectation, saying "then ~ falls in with the unspo­ now on, use the numbers to indicate vowels get practice

ken question of the students, "What happens next?" In bUilding up an automatic response to numbers and for

sit down See the circular drill with 'stand up' above. 5833.7 qUICkly indicating a target vowel.

down and daunn Students must learn to catch this longer 7, 8 The Alphabet

final-nn as having the meaning 'and' in it. (back in and). ). hThis is jUst to learn the names of the letters irA English. So

take off a shoe te k:> fa shu Don't use 'the shoe, my shoe' ere dOn't go into how they are pronounced when used for

nor the plural 'shoes: If a student says chu instead of shu, ~Itlng words. You might contrast drill b . v . p, c· z, g. j.

have him put the point of a pencil (3,4 cm.) back along ohce
the top of his tongue to keep it from jumping up. Actual­ o that I ends with its vocalic form which is much like
ly take off a shoe, smell it and drop it on the floor, thud. lo.. t . For b p m the lips touch each other. For f v n, the
OWe r .
n t .r Ip Just touches the edge of the upper front teeth, but

l03k I put it back on and look at you. *a pu tlt(a bee kann lu ka r~bbthe other lip . hold it up with a finger, like a sneering

chu 'Put· look' and 'shoe - you' are pairs having the same dow It'. For b v n m z work for a good vibration starting

voweL Contrast drill put - shu, luk • yu. n In the throat. For z, some students who already know

70 71
Class Instruction - Homework
Comments· Points 9 •. 17
Class Instruction ~
the British 'zed' for this letter are surprised if not shocked 106 'Q
to know Americans call it 'zee.' And w, 'double you: ori­ You can't go wrong by just following the recording, as
r!S shown in the printed phonetic text, either for self-study
ginally W, has the fast form dabaya.' I:
Iii with an explanation writtten the language of your choice or '"
1 9 Vowels· Letters
Compared to some other languages, some of the names of
for classroom instruction. But with a live English speaking
teacher, before drilling with the recording, teach the vowels
.'!:l the letters in English are just turned around. (Spanish speak­ and the meaning of what the students are going to learn. ;::j
ers say t. i for 'e, i' but their Spanish names are our letters O!
~ 'a, e.' And the names of some of our letters for vowels don't
match up with the vowel sounds. So to straighten out this
At the beginning of each claes, quickly go through the
whole text.. vowels and key sentences. This refreshes the
possibly-Iasting-a-lifetime confusion at the start, we have material in the minds of students who already have had a 6
:8 this exercise to condition an automatic response as to lesson or two and gives the new students an overall view of :c
i.s what is the name of a letter in English and what is a vowel
sound (spelled every which way! ). Numbers are mixed in for
additional conditioning to them .
End of the first half of the I-hour recordinq
what is to be learned. A student repeats the l·hour classes
of the Introduction until he 'graduates' ( ..into the Basic
Course) by being able to do-say the key action sentences in
45 seconds or less.
105 10 -12 Parts of the Body - Positions After the initial overall 'preview' work on learning the ma­
The little drawings show the meanings. A number with its terial well. First a run-through of the vowels and the key
vowel after it shows the vowel of the following word. words of the whole text, in much the same style as outlined
12 - 13 Actions in the Sales Presentation (page 28). For beginners, just
In spoken English we express most actions with 2·part work for an improved or sufficiently good pronunciation
verbs -­ a basic action word and somewhere after it, some­ each time they recite. For advanced students seeking fluen·
times several words later, a little completing 'companion' cy, be much more exacting and have them each time say
word. Here we practice the 'most-used useful ones .. come, more than the others. In this way you can handle new stu­
go, put + in, out, on, up, to ... dents, slow repeaters and advanced students in the same
14 - 15 Action Sentences class.
Now here are the complete sentences showing the slow, 107 Doing a serious study of all the material at one time may
formal classical pronunciation and progressing to the nor­ be a bit much, so break it into some 5 parts and drill each
mally fast forms. part around and around, first each key word separately then
16-a,-b,-c,-d,-e,.f . linking the thought segments together.
Here are several versions of the action sentences. When stu­ 1 the vowels
dents say or write what they hear in these variations be sure 2 feet· front, arms - beside, left - hand - behind, right
they use the exact sounds as shown, several forms of 'I, m:'.' between - legs.
Is it 'a' or 'the' (door, chair) and 'light' or 'lights'? 3 stand - up, go to (gata), get to (gth), go - out, come
17 Additional Practice - in, sit - down (sl'daun)
The same words are used to express other ideas by several 4 get down (gt'daun), get up, on, off, get on, get off,
voices. There are some new words, 'foot, your, them' and va­ turn, turn off, turn on
riant forms of 'I, at.' 5 take, put, take off, put on, look at
Numbers - Letters - Drawings Spend only some 5 minutes on each of these groups and
Just follow the arrows of the numbers and letters to learn the rest of the time listening to students going through the
how to write, (hand print) them. The drawings show the action sentences. Give special attention to saying well the
meanings of the words near them. Or if you don't know the sounds of arn, -zar, -f(t), ce. r and I before a vowel (furant,
meaning of a word in the text, look for it here and look at urait, ulcf, ulcgz), a-a, the double -nn and the z-sound.
its drawing for the meaning. Watch out for the proper use of 'a-the' and the plural os.
16 - 17 Written English Homework
To learn how to spell the words of this Introduction in the Our instruction is based on the students learning from the
old usual way (T.O. -Traditional Orthography), listen to the recording outside of class. This lets the students progress at
recording or read the phonetic forms (sounds) of 16 and 17 their own pace, pay less and one (native) English speaking
and try to write them in 'Written English' as seen at the end. teacher can 'polish off' so many more students. _That is,
Caution: Students should already know well the pronuncia­ ~uch a teacher is just to make certain clarifications and
tion of any word before learning to write it in 'Written Eng­ correct pronunciation...after the material has been learned
list'!:' Only after a student can say all of the action sentences and practiced elsewhere.
is he really ready to play around with learning to spell!

Supervised Study Text - numbers, vowels

.s; .s;
'Q 108 Supervised Study forms of 'I.'
For school kids, (functional) illiterates and schools want­ 6 Say the whole text from memory. All of the action sen­ ~
rzl c
I:: ing to add more courses, the 'homework' of listening, writ­ tences are to be said in not more than 45 seconds be­ rzl
ing and speaking needed in preparation for an English speak­
ing teacher to give final touches, can be done in class under
fore going on into the Basic Course.
7 Learning the Usual Spelling At the very end of the

~ the supervision of almost any adult, no knowledge of Eng­ printed text are points 16 and 17 written in the usual CI.l
;J ~
lish needed: way of spelling. A student wanting to learn to spell, ;J
ca Perhaps 4 hours of supervised study to 1 hour of oral reads the phonetic form, or listens to the recording and ca
c::'" tries to write 'Written English' as seep there.
drill with an English speaking teacher is about right. Looking c::'"
.s at the printed text, a study supervisor may well keep the B
following points in mind. (The black circles in the margin
can be used as guides for the kids, and others?, to know
Real Life Spoken English §
~ "
where to look in studying.) With this you learn to understand and speak the way
..5 1 Go through, demonstrate the vowels and actions of the Americans talk naturally to each other.. very good for lit·
tle children and beginners all ages. Little bells give the
key sentences (point 15).
numbers which then make you sure of the vowels. You
2 Have the students listen to the recording and do the ac­ hear many real-life voices, do-say the most-used praciical
tions.. holding up fingers for the numbers, hand signs for actions..up to 200 words a minute, a l·hour recording.
the vowels, softly repeat the letters of the alphabet. As Explanations in many languages for self·study or to

teach others. Detailed Teachers Guide for class use.

the recording mixes these up a bit, you may have to

stop it now and then to give the students time to react.
This step is to establish the meanings in the students 1 nambarz (Numbers)
minds. If the students mumble the sounds a bit, O.K. '1 tu"2 thri
o wana '''3 for
""4 faiva
-5 -'6
5lk~a 5tvana
-" 7
but don't work on the pronunciation yet.
3 Have the students listen to the recording and with the -"'8 -""9 --10 --'11 --"12 --"'13
eta naina ttna altvana tutuva thartina
point of a pencil or pen follow the figures, letters and
words as they hear them. Students will be inclined to '1,."'3, -5, -"7, -""g, --'11, __ 13, "2, ""4,

say what they hear but don't work on the pronuncia­ -'6, -"'8,--10,--"12,12,34,56,78,910.

tion even yet. 11 12,13,123,456,789,1011 12,13,1 23

Students who cannot read the Roman letters used for 4,5678,9101112,13,12345,678910,

English may need some special instruction to learn to 111213,1,3,5,9,13.

read and write. Have them follow the arrows alongside 2

the handprinted numbers and letters on the text sheet 4,6,8,10,12, I, 4, 7,10,13,2,5,8,11,3,6,9,

or on page 20 of the Basic Course. You learn spoken 12,1,5,9,13,1,6,11,2,7,12.

English best if you read and write the exact sounds. 3

4 Hear-Write-Read The students now write the numbers, 8,13,9,5,10, 1,7,9,7,6,9,3,7, 11 I-levan, 5,

letters and words they hear. This is to be sure that a 9,3,13,2, I, 2,4,8,7,6,3,2,6,10,11,5,4,1,3.

student has the correct concept of what sounds he

should be trying to catch. While they are listening and 4 va uoz (Vowels)
writing don't work on pronunciation. Once they know 1. 2. 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13
quite well what the sounds are, have them read aloud
what they've just heard. Next have them read aloud
01 I I e 8 reaa J 0 U U or dQ,} Q,}
without hearing the recording.
During all these steps it is well for the students as they
Q.c:::LLL.LLOO 0 0 ~ ~
go along to make some sort of a motion as to the mean­ 00 1 ai, 2 3 i I, 45et,67a!a,89:>o,10 11 u u,

ing of what they hear, say, write or read. The teacher 12 13 ar a, 2 3 ii, e t, a! a,:> 0, u u, ar a, 1 ai, 2

just silently cues a motion or a vowel as needed. Have 3 4 i I e, t a! a, :> 0 u u, ar a, 1 2 ai i, 2 3 4 i I e,

the students correct each others' papers by checking 3 45 let, 4 5 6 eta!, 5 6 7 t a! a, a! a :>, a :> 0,

them against the printed text. All this helps to visually 5 0 ' u u, u U ar, U ar a, ar a.
imprint the exact sounds. 2 3 1 i, 4 5 e t, 5 6 t a!, 6 7 a! a, 780 :>, a :>,8 7

5 Hear-Say. Now without reading, the students try to say :> 0,:> a, 8713:> a a, 713 a a, a a, 137 a a, a a,

each thing they hear without stopping the recording. By ? 8 a :>, 0:>,87:> a,:> a, 87 13:> a a,:> a a, 25

the end they will be speaking complete sentences nor­ 1

6 t, i t, 2 3 i I, i 1,35 1 t, 1 t, 3 4 51 e t, 1 e t.

mally fast. Point 16 has several variations using some 5

or 6 voices and alternate forms. Be sure the students ~ a!, a!, t, 5 t, t,:>, 8:>,:>, 0:>,78 a :>, a:>, u u,

catch -z, -5 for 'is' and plurals, 'a' or 'the' and the several 011 uU,uu,aa,137aa,aa,It,351t,aa,

74 75
Text· alphabet, positions
Text· actions

7 13 a a, a a, I, 3 I, I, a iii e, e al a :>, 0 u u, ar a,

ai i lee al a,:> 0 u u, ar a,ai,i,l,e,e,al,a,:>,o,u,u,ar,a.

7 alofabet (Alphabet)
O a b c d e f g h IJ k I mnop
go aut, camln, get daun !da."_n~·Agetap,
aut, camln, get daun an flor, fit frant, armz ba­
said, left halnd bahain, rait batuin legs, rait
00 e bi si di i ef ji ech ai je ke eu em en 0 pi
q rstuv'w
kiu ar es ti iu vi dabaya/daboyu eks uai zi
x yz
haln batuin legz, getap, go aut, camln, ge'daun,
get ap, gota chcr,
---"j getan
.~ on.,_. ,
Hi nrl"
hi) gebf,
t i
abc, d e, f g, h i j, k 1, m n, 0 p, q r, s t, u v, w x, '­ :i
~ y z, abc, d e f g, h i j k, I m n, 0 p q, r s t, u v w,
x y z, abc d, e f g h, i j k, I m n 0, p q r s t, U v
.'. ge'daun, getap,
get an, get :>f, ga aut, camln, get daun, getap, .,
B w, x y z, abc d e f g, h i j kim n 0, p q r s t, U v get an, armz basaid, left h<end bihain, rait halnd
batuin legz, get of, gota sUlch, geta.- .... B
6 w x Y Z, abc, I m n, r s t, U v w.
~ 8 C) 1--... tarn:>f, tarnan ~:'

d e f, k I, 0 p, U v, x Y z, q r, j k, f, j, m, s t, Z, y,
z, d, d e, g, gh, m, no, p, pq, t u, v, U v, a b, 0 p,
,,,~ !) . /'1
.s abo p, b p, 0 p, U v, 0 p U v, p v, a b, a p, U v, a go aut, camln, gota lait sUlch, getu, tarn:>f.
bopu~bp~q~ab~xy~b~y~c~b~ 13
n m, Z c, v b, m n. ge'daun. fit frant, getap, tarn:>f, go aut, caml n,
1 2 3, abc, 4 5 6, d e f g, 789, h i j, 11 12 13, , ' ht Sit daun, stalndap, sldaun, 613 al a,
kim n, a p q r s t, U v w x y Z, x y z, 1 2 3 4, a i st<endap, 3 7 10 I a u, sldaun, I a. u, i a u, Sit

i I e, e al a, :> 0 u, u ar a, abc, ai i I, d e f g, e e daun. sldaun, al a stalndap, -ndap, e au, sidaun,

al a, h i j, :> 0 u, kim n, u ar a, d e f g, 89, al a, fit frant, rait h<end batuin legs, stalndap, getan,

x y Z, ar a, 7, a 0, h i j, i lee, abc, al eel i, e f' gebf, gota dar, go aut, camln, sidaun,

g, 1 i ai, i j k, a :> 0, 0 p q, u u ar, r s t, ar r, 3 11

i u, U v W, al 6, f, q, ar, ar 12, al, al 6, U v, 1 e, I e ~~, tekof
__ ~ ~---~
putan, tek:>f putan,
34, I m, 9, i I, i I 23, e al, e al 5 6, g j, a :>, a:> 7 4 8 e :>, tek:>f, e 0 tek:>f, 10 7 u a, putan, u a

8, I e, a b, I i, fe, a ar, s r, I i ai, k j i, c b a, a al putan, e :> tek:>f, u a putan, tek:>f alnd put an,

e, i y, s f, t d, j g, a h, q. tek:>f n put e balkan, go aut aln cam balk In,

10 t~ • 0" lukat, 10 13 u a lukat,

luk if\luk ..1
00 fit ~Iegzn halnz ~r ~ armz lukat rait halnd batuin legs.
2 i fit, 5 e legz, 6 al haloz, 7 12 a ar, a-ar-mz, 14/Xl . . .
armz, fit, legz, halnz, armz, halnz, legz fit. \;V'0"m"mOlmai fit ar In frant av mi, n frant'av
halnz, legz, armz, fit, frant, __I,,/~).. __ basaid mi, mai fit rna fit, rna fit. ar = ar.•e2 ••• +? ,.
~... "'v''''' . b ha'ln' ···,·••••... 2+? ... In frant av = n

left\/ ;.)rait a ­ franta, n franta. mi ; ml, rna fitarn franta ml,

13 a frant, 13 1 a ai basaid, bisaid, 13 1 a ai mai armz ar basaid mi, 'rnai armz ar ; m'arm­

bahain, bahaind, basaid, bahaind, basaid bahain, zar, m'armzar, m'ormzar bisaid mi, mai left

5 e left, e e left leg, rait, left, fit, halnz, rait,ba­ h<end ,z bahaind mi Iz·el mai left halnd IZ;

said, armz rna left halnz, bihaind mi = bahainml, rna left

halnz bahain ml, mai rait IZ batuin mai legs,

11 fit frant (pr) armz left

rna i rait IZ m'raits, m'raits batuin rna legs,


rait basaid halnd
hand - -0- bahaind ai stalnd ap <end go tu tha dor, ai stalnd ap

astalndap, astalndap, <end go tu tha ; n gobtha,

:"''' 0-0 ' n 90btha, astalndap n go ta tha dor, ai get tu

. \. '\ . batuin legz

tha dor alnd go aut, ai get tu tha dor = a get ta

fit fr;nt, left halnd bahaind, armz basaid, tha dor, agetatha dor, alnd go aut = n go aut, n

rait halnd batuin legz, fit, legz, hamz, armz, goaut, agetatha dorn go aut, ai cam balk In alnd

frant, basaid, bihain, left rait, fit frant, armz get daun an ... l ... tha flor, ai cam balk In acam

basaid, left halnd bahaind, rait halnd batuin b<e kin, acam balk In, alnd get daun an tha flor,

legz, left leg, raitarm, left arm, rait leg. n get daunan tha flor, n get daunan tha floil, a

12 <ekshanz (Actions) cam b<ek Inn get daunan tha flor, aj get apt oi

ap 9ttap, aget apt alnd get an a cher, n getana cher,

n getona chert ai g£1 apn getana cher, ai g£1 of

stalnd ap, stalnd, gab . geta goaut, cam In
av It, ai ge 1:> fa vlt, ai gebfavi"t. tu tarn tha lait

of <end on, tu tarn ~ t'tarn, t'tarn, :>f alnd an =

dor dor :>fanan. :>fanan, t'tarn tha lait :>fanan. then ai

Sit doun thena sldaun.

Alphabet. drawinQs. written Enqlish

Text· Complete routine
.. ,.o,,"
th£na sltdaun, mnd tek :If "a' shu
n tek:lfa shu
\t;" 110
ai i I e £ m a :I a u u ar a a ar u u a :I a m £ I i ai .;;


ai put I'~
I 7*-- ii /0 Ii J1 T3'
i 3;' if;5 {f ~

1.rn ~
aputlt bmkan, mnd lukmt yu
i/ f1i~ l l€ t (tJ; {l' ::J 0 U U' at CJ ~
~ ,-:; n lukachu i " " ~
O! 16 a
b.,k - nlukachu' Cl' b G di'l3f -r( f'-/1:1f 1m n ;J
ma fitarn franta ml
m'ormzar basaid mi
o p q:r 5 t at v W x' yt . <II
ma Ittt hmnz

ma I£gz
111 Idt
~ . .""""r

bo'oid". ·••bo.aid .; "'\.

} J
...... ,'\:

1.5 oi g£tatha
darn go aut
gtt daunan tha flor '0 f r .~n
ba'h~ind ~. \ ,/,~ olJ\ 00<.,
oj getapn
51 doun n
tha loit
::Ifnon 1


/ II­

/ ... j



,) A~ ~
• ~ ~ • • '.
go to

(4,1 !

.. j './
16 b b8'SOld Itlt h.ind
ma fitarn franh ml baltotnd 1£9Z
m'armzar basoid m. f1t ~, ,'..~~~ .$
• ... 0

~- do'~~ ~/l Ii' hlt A
ma Ittt hmnz bahoinml ~.
m'roits batuin ma I£gz 10lt
... \.,~

HI [~ I~ 'ij
astmndapn gotatha dar tffl'l "J1
oigetatha dar
acam b3!kl n n
n go aut
gEt do unon tha flor
o,<mO~ 9</~,., ~ :17'"
J 'rtrl':/~ ;:;1
oigdap n get ona chEr I I "'',))1\' '"
oigd::lfavlt t'tarn tha loit ::If nan go tu dar 9tt tu go out caml"
th£na sidaun n tek::lfa shu A .
aputlt b3!konn lukachu ~ ~1.. lut .;, 'f/ /F .~:.
16 c ·S"~ <.llek l'~ "\'....
••• n g£'dounan tha floor... •..gtton tha ch£r ... put-" • put 00 ... i_k :), d.u V. thEm
112 16 Written English o,.m'.mo l am
16 d I£gs.. .. ag£tatha.• .. g£'daunan .. laits::lfnan, .. My feet are in front of me. My arms are beside me. My
..•th£noi... ........oiputlt.... ..
left hand is behind me. My right is between my legs. I
stand up and go to the door. I get to the door and go
16 e out. I come back in and get down on the floor. 1 get up
...m'ormzar......bihaindmi......go tu tha dar... and get on a/the chair. I get off of it to turn the Jight(s
...oi cam .........gEt daun an tha .•• ... ai gEt ap mn off and on/on and off. Then I sit down and take off a
gdona... ...tarn tha 10£n oi... shoe. I pu t it back on and look at you.
16 f 17
mai fitarn....I£gs....oi stmndap....oi g£'t'tha dar. I stand up to go get between a chair and the door.
.. oi cam In En g£'doun gdap n gdantha chEr The door is in front of me and the chair is behind me, g£t::lfavlt..loitsonn::lf...daun an tek ::If... and (I) look down at my feet on the floor .
My left shoe is beside my right foot. (2 feeLl foot)
Then 1 turn off the light and go out the door.
17 You turn the light back on and sit down on the chair.
illst3!ndap t'go gEt batuina chErn tha dar 1 come back in and put my right hand on your left arm.
tha dorzlnfranta mi'n tha ch£rz b'hainm, You take my hand off of your arm and get up on the
n luk doun a'mai fit on tha flor chair.
m'l£ft shuz b'soid moi rait fut (2 fit .. l fut) Then I look at you get down off of it. You get down and
thEnai tarn::lf tha lait n go aut tha dor go back to your chair. You sit down and take off your
yu tarn tha lait bmk ann Sit daun an tha ch£r shoes and put them down on the floor in between your
ai cam bmk Inn put mai rait hmnan yur Itttarm
feet. ('em = them..your 2 shoes)
yu tek mai hmnd::lfav yur armn gd ap an tha


thEnaa lukachu gEt daun ::Ifavlt

yt get daunn go bmk t'yur ch£r

yl Sit daunn tek::lf yur shuzn putam daunon tha

flor In b'tuin yar fit (am ~ th£m ... yur 2 shuz)

78 79
Picture Test !:) Tliefors In leallll"Y

113 Picture Test - Beginners are to figure out the key ideas as shown by
larger darker letters. Add more words for the more advanced students. LEARNING AMERICAN SPOKEN ENGLISH
114 II>
1 left ruend 2 SIting 3 tha d:>gzin frantathe fit 4 hlz fitml frente Introductory Basics, Urgent Survival, No Foreign Accent 'Vi
5 tha shuzer b'said the chter 6legz 8 raitarm 9 shi tmlz the laitsaf81 aJ
10 gOlD 11 tuz raitarmz betuiruz legz 12 tuz rait hrend 13 hlz SEMINAR - Teachers Guide
besaidJm 14 SIting 15 shis strending b'hain tha dor 16 kamm 17
18 tekaf pamtihoz 19 the81 SIting 20 thcr fitml frant8 them 21
shu 22 chter 23 siting 24 hi goz tathe dor 25 geton a baiSIko
ESL teachers starting spoken American English, advanced ESL
students who do not get along well in colloquial American Eng­

hrend 27 lukat81 28 tuz rait hrenz .bahaindlm 29lukatIm 30 h81

armz b'said81 31 daun 32 ap 33 hiz daunon the f10r
lish andESL speakers troubled by a foreign accent all should go
through an orientation as to how Americans really do speak
English before using, seriously studying, real-life spoken Ameri­

Picture Test can English materials.

Pre-school and younger students, illiterates and those needing
(i)/fII) . to get along in spoken American English for immediate survival
~J::> CD:CP.",
T ):

~' ~~
_~_ .•
start right out too with the I ntroductory Basics as heard from
the recording and seen on the textsheets which show the exact
~ii'\r~"~' (i) ~.~
sounds. (Even pre-schoolers and illiterates learn to read without
comment, no special attention.)
\~lt\ .~., . ~

115 Learning American Spoken English· Sound Changes

Everyone should have the textsheet, with the Sound Changes
on the back, for ready reference. Hold it up, point to and quick­
ly read aloud through the 5 points of what it takes, what one
must do, to understand and speak like Americans naturally do.
Then go back and explain each point in more detail as needed.
1 Exact Sounds You have to know exactly each individual
sound, especially the vowels. The words cat, cot, caught, curt, cut
all sound like cot to many ESL beginners. Say these words and
notice the confused, dismayed or blank looks on their faces!

Say cop - cup. For cop point to a picture of one, also say
policeman. For young beginners, have one stand up. Get behind
him. Put one hand on a shoulder and with the other hand twist
an arm up behind his back. Beat your chest and say rm a cop!
IL.; and That's a cup as you point to one. Pair drill the 2 words.
Advanced learners will probably have run into the leave - live
confusion. Drill them a bit then thrust something not eatable,
such as a piece of chalk, wad of paper or a key towards a stu­


dent's mouth. Tell him to Eat it! Many with relief will hear the
difference between eat and it and by transference say leave -live
mUch better.
Put a thumb beside your mouth and make the finger signs (See
details below.) for the vowels as you say eye, ee, ih, A, eh, aaaa,
a~, oh, 'u' (as in put), 00, er, uh (i I e £ te a:) 0 U U ar B). Do

®+ @t thiS several times for the students to realize that there are many
more vowels in Engish than in their languages and that there is a
physical, logical, relationship between them.

2 Know the Sound Changes Slowly say going to - gonna, want
to - wanna, can't you - cancha. Point to Sound Change 41 on
the back of the sheet and write t -+ Y = ch on the chalkboard.

Vowels Intermediate Vowels

Say canchu, a clear 000, point to Sound Change 2 and write Bend the tips of the fingers just a little, as if holding a basket-
canchu = cancha. This is to impress on the students that there I and with great disgust say aw. The finger tips make smaller III
';;; are definite phonological principles, sound change rules, for u
and smaller circles, as if to hold a tennis ball, golf ball or a grape, 'iii
m the changes in pronunciation. as you say oh, u (as in put), 00 (:) 0 u u). Point your rounded '"
...>- For advanced students, carefully say Not yet. I don't know lips out and smack them like a juicy kiss for 00. ...>­
~:::s then quickly nochet uhduno. Shrugging your shoulders and
Turn the hand over, move the upward cupped fingers up a .su
feigning ignorance as you say adana usually gets a good laugh. :::s
as you suddenly shriek like someone had 'goosed' you be­
o '0
S Join words together Hurriedly look at your watch, run to tween the legs from behind! Say a long-lasting rising errrr. Then .......
and out th~ door as you say rm late and rve got to get out drop the fingertips a I ittle as you h it your stomach with the
here. (This is the first sentence in Common Expressions and other hand and loudly grunt uh.
from an Archie Bunk~r TV program.) Point to 3 on the sheet Repeat the series of finger movements and sounds 2 or 3 time~
Repeat uh gatta get outta (agab gdauta - aga'age'au'a) sever then motion for the students to put their thumbs beside their
times. Then comment that in real life nobody says I've-tlot-tD~ mouths and say the corresponding sounds. Go back to cop - cup
get-out-of as separate words. and leave - live. Fingers up far from the thumb for the a of cop,
4 Physically practice Now have everyone practice saying the hand turned over and relaxed for the a of cup. Barely move the
Fast Natural line. Teachers should practice it beforehand to straight fingers, 5 mm., up from the thumb in going from eee to
say it 7 times in 10 seconds. ih (i-I).
Mention the time class is over. We've got to get out of here 117 I n a horizontal row draw the progressively opening angles and
4 o'clock. With this in mind have each student repeat 5 ti narrowing circles for the vowels. At the right end add an upward
We gotta get outta here. wi ga'a g~'au'a hi-r Make the t's i arching arrow for ar and a short slightly lower downward one for
very short stoppages of the breath, something like a voiceless a. At the far left end draw a wide angle, like for a in the cp.nter.
grunt down in the throat. Write 5 x 10 50 on the chalk Inside the far left wide angle put the sharp angle of i. Tap the
After 5 repetitions it becomes easier to say. Do this at 10 d wide angle in the center as you say a and then the sharp angle
ferent times to learn to say it well. of i. Combine the 2 at the far left as you say ai, like eye. Altho
5 Proper order of words Go out the door, come back in, this is really 2 sounds it works like a single simple vowel in Eng­
midway then continue on to where you first were. Ask the lish.
dents which is the best order of back, on, come, in to ex Write the phonetic letters above the angles and circles as you
this action. Come back on in makes the most sense. open the mouth, bleat, pucker the lips to kiss, shriek and grunt.
Advanced students don't need more grammar that can be Then number the vowels for easy identification. Students learn
plained but do need help to say words in their natural order. the vowels better if they copy what the teacher writes on the
Others need practice in learning to express themselves in chalkboard.
lish. So have them write 25 .. 30 words each day like talking Circle the vowels 2, 7, 9, 11 - i a 0 u. They are in all languages.
the phone or in the street. A native speaker of English .. a fr See the textsheet for these written in traditional English spel­
schoolmate or anyone nearby .. is to check, quickly read it ling, French, Spanish, Japanese and Chinese. After the arrow
naturalness. The writer is to practice reading it aloud each student is to write them is his own language. if it is not
times while keeping in mind the possible, probable changes one of the above. Drill them well in this order several times.
sounds. Look over, study the listing of Sound Changes.
Intermediate Vowels
General American English f With the fingers straight, side-by-side up as far as possible away
116 Before working with the vowels, become familiar with the /om the thumb and the mouth wide open say ah then circle the
ger signs and use them when saying the vowels. Clap your ha Inlger tips as to hold a tennis ball and say oh. Point to their equi­
Va e t .
snap your fingers for everyone to look at your thumb level b n s In the other language(s as you drill a - 0, a - 0, 0-0. Then
the side of your mouth. With the fingers straight side - by ­ s~rely, ,only just a little, bend the tips of the fingers for a into a
bring the forefinger down on top of the thumb as you say twggestlon of a circle, like holding a basketball, as you put:) be­
Then with definite jerks, steps, open the fingers up away of ~en ~ and o. Think of :) as being a hardly perceptible variation
the thumb as you say ih, A, eh, aaaa (bleat like a goat), ah (i Will With a much greater change on from :J to o. Many students
II; lie a). stud repeat ~ a or slip ahead into 0 o. Keep working with such a
ent until he hears himself say 3 different sounds ,.. a clear a

The basic concept to leave in the learners' minds is that between
with something different in between and then a clear o. their own vowel s they are to learn to say the special vowels of
u Tap the other language letters for 0 and U, 9 and 11. Everyone English. When they can hear themselves say, from memory, 13 !3
';;:; ';;:;
with the finger tips like holding a tennis ball says 0 and then like different vowels they are ready for an English speaking American '"
for holding a grape says u. Go back and forth several times. Put to help them say the vowels correctly. Knowing the vowels well
...o>­ the fingers as for holding a ping-pong ball and repeat 0 U u. ...>­
....U is the most important thing about mastering spoken English.
each student alone makes the signs and clearly repeats 3 differA.... i ~
::J Use of recordings The learners repeat aloud, in groups and then ::J
o... sounds. For u some students sayan indefinite tensed-up sou 12 3 -g...
...c: much like 8. Have them look at your mouth or in a mirror to
individually, what they hear from the recording and see by exact
sounds. One hand, with the point of a pencil, follows along the
3 decreasing sizes of circles for the lips. Try the words look, pu phonetic text and the other hand makes the corresponding finger
book in which some already say u correctly. signs for the vowels. Both the teacher and the students make the
120 For working into ar first hit yourself in the stomach and grunt finger signs when working on the pronunciation of a sound.
uh loudly. Pair drill 1.1 - 8 a few times then after u startle the c To start and stop the tape player it is better to use a remote
with a shrieking tone-rising errrr as you go on to a.After ca control cord, perhaps lengthened to reach anywhere in the class­
down most learners make an acceptable American ar with room. Pressing a lever on the machine takes more time, keeps the
ther instructions. The position of the tongue takes care of teacher from moving around freely and the clicking sounds dis­
automatically. It touches nothing and doesn't move at all. tract the students.
the arararar for about 5 seconds so that learners are aware that Each student, alone, says what was just heard from the record­
is a simple vowel during which the tongue does not move. ing and makes the corresponding finger sign. This shows that the
121 Pair drill A - eh ( e-e ) with 2 positions of the angled fingers learner knows what the sound is. Learning to make the finger
from the thumb, midway between the positions for i and o. signs helps learn the sounds and their use cuts down on teaching
e is really a simple vowel. Avoid saying eh-ee - ei. Try holding time.
as an unchanging sound for 5 seconds, eeeee in contrast to If a student does not say a sound well enough, quickly stop the
P'rench is about the only language that has a way to write recording. Silently make finger signs to guide, show the learner
2 sounds, e-e. When spoken rapidly Spanish entre and JapanAc. the exact target sound(s. Also point to the desired sound on the
edamame have e at the beginning and e at the end. entre, text sheeLanother silent visual imprint. Silently mouth, but do
mome. But speakers of those languages are not conscious of not really say, the target sound to get the student, by trial-and­
differences and so at first don't hear them in English. error, to say it properly. Nod or shake your head during the tries.
The reaction of the other students, who often mumble along, al­
Pair drill well long-lasting eeee • eeeer: while moving the f so helps the speaker to know when he says it right. Then he is to
up and down a little. Teachers especially should make the repeat it 5 times to set it in his mind. Only as a last resort is the
ponding finger signs because otherwise the learners will not teacher to model, say the target sound. It is the speaker's mem­
which sound you are saying, what the target sound is. ory of what he hears himself say which guides him to say it pro­
After e and e are well in mind pair drill e - 0 (not ~ - 0 pie perly later. His impression of the sound said by someone else is
Unexpectedly put in a!. Bleat loudly like an angry goat as you somewhat different and may be confusing. (Does your recorded
from e to o. eeer:· ba!a!a!a!a!a! - 0000. Separately hold the ie voice sound like you to you?)
about 5 seconds to let the back muscles to fall into place. On the Introductory Basics recording after the vowel drill, 5 to
sure that the mouth is as wide open as possible. 13 are for re)learning the key words of the following Introduc­
122 For I first review e - e. Then contrast drill i - e (not i - e please tion Routine. Read the detailed explanations for the routine be­
After a few times put I in between them. Insist that each fore doing 5 to 13.
carefully make the finger signs. The forefinger first down on Speaking Naturally
thumb, up just a little (about 5 mm.) and then up farther (1 Many ESL learners simply never learn to speak with a flow of
for i-I - e. Many I.earners repeat i - i and often open up to e, speech in a natural way like native speakers of English do. Each
stead of saying e. Drill e - e well to fix e definitely in the m a~ the start of the study of English should learn to say automa­
as a base for saying'l. If the I is still not good in i - I - e, have tically, smoothly, a short selection of continuous informal speech
learner put a little finger into the mouth and I ightly bite the as ~ model of what speaking naturally really is. It will serve as a
joint. ijjjii - then say 1111 while biting the finger and on to f Ulde , model, and carryover into whatever else they learn to say
student must really bite the finger, not just touch the teeth ater. It should be something practical, immediately useful ..... in
it! Practice until a sound definitely not like i is said.

84 85
I ntroduction Routine - a I ntroduction Routine· b .. f

contrast to academic linguistic gymnastics or formulations., in front of Point out forward from the chest,

'"u Introduction Routine fur-- A definite lip-rounded u at the start of r+vowel. This u

'iii makes it harder for the tongue tip to flip up. If it does, '"u
co 125 So that the students have an overall idea of what they are while saying u stick a pencil point straight in about 2 cm. co'"
...>.o ing to say the teacher first does the series of actions, or
on top of it. ...>.
....U as to the meaning of what is being said. Whoever is speak
3-n Insist on a lengthened definite a- before n. .su
::I make gestures, suggestive motions, actions about what is sa
"C nfa No break in the air flow for the t dropped after n. ::l

126 Normal fast speech forms may not sound natural at slow me The speaker taps his own chest, ...o
c Teachers should always speak fast, at around 15 sounds or .....
b My arms are beside me. c
a second. At the end of the last lines of each sentence is a
The speaker rubs, swings his elbows back and forth across

number which indicates the number of times the sentence

the sides of his torso. Punch the sides of the rib cage of a

be said in 10 seconds. Time yourself so that you can say the

couple of students as you say side, side, side...

tence just one time at that speed. ESL learners of spoken

lish should practice these sentences over and over many ti
arms Lengthen a and ar as 2 separate sounds. 0-, ar­
ar ('re) Again hold up 2 fingers, point them at the 2 arms.

until they can speak at that speed.

soi-'91mi Make a definite clear longer i before where the

127 For Urgent Survival, just work for the learners to say anyth d is dropped before m without a break or deletion stop.
which is readily understood. But they should be able to re e My left hand is behind me.
what they hear at normal fast speed here, as from the record Pair drill left - right while holding the respective hand far

They'll have to recognize these fast forms in real life. out to the side shoulder high. Caution: Face away from

Persons working to speak without a 'foreign accent' should the students while doing this. See Sound Changes 47, 50

the following explanations to know how to change some of is -5, -z Hold up 1 finger and point to a hand. Condition
ways of saying sounds and then work up to saying these rou the learners that when there is no ar after -5, -z the mean·
sentences at the indicated speeds..of x times in 10 seconds. ing is singular, except when at the end of a sentence.;
128 The detailed explanations given here for the sentences of behind Twist a student's arm painfully up behind the back!
routine are for advanced learners and native English speakin d My right is between my legs.
structors. Work first with a few words grouped together like Drill My left hand's behind.. My right's between.. to con­
long word then put the groups together for a complete dition the stUdents to the dropping a noun in repetition.
Look at the rather short cryptic formulas and the Sound Ch between Make a V·sign with 2 fingers and place a finger of

to which the numbers refer .. to understand better how the the other hand in the V. Stress the two of b'tu i-n. While

base forms change to the fast spoken forms. seated slap a flat right hand back and forth between the

129 a My feet are in front of me. The old traditional spelli knees,

moi fit or In frant av mi Formal, classical base legs I nsist on a lengthened l!:e:t before 'g, but let the sen­
2 2 36 50 35 3 See the Sound Changes tence final ·z drift off into a fading -5SSS -Z5SSS
ma fitarn fura-nta mi Slow colloquial e I stand up and go to the door.
4 23 6 18 Faster speech changes The speaker gets to his feet and walks his fingers towards
m'fi' am fra-na milO Natural fast 10 times in 10 the main door used most to go in and out of the classroom.
Seated with both feet stuck out in front. the speaker stand, door Be sure the. and 0- are lengthened.
at them with both forefingers. up and lip n - ap'm After -p and ·b and is often m.
to the ta tha . t'th' 2 voiceless tongue-tip stops. Native
My The speaker taps his own chest.
m'f-- m is a weak vague voicing with the lips not speakers understand this double length silence to mean

the lower lip is moving towards the lower edge of the to the so don't clearly say t'th' during the time for it.

front teeth to make the f-sound. f I get to the door and go out.
feet Point at them. Walk 2 fing(!rs towards the upright palm of the other hand.
fi' Be sure to make a hardly perceptible -break in the Then slap it with the walking hand as you say get to, and
of air for the t dropped because it's between 2 ,continue walking the hand on out around the upright one.
ar Hold up 2 fingers and point them at the 2 feet. gt t'th' - 3 quick almost unnoticeable stops of the air flow
should be conditioned to ar ere) to indicate plural out Make a and u 2 separate definite clear sounds o... u...

86 87
I ntroduction Routine - g__ k Additional Introduction Routine praciice

g I come back in and get down on the floor. 0

)3 (Excerpts from Introduction to Real Life Spoken English)
U Thet~ach~rdoesso!
'v; Several voices say the Introduction Routine. Be sure to catch
back Make a U-turn looping motion, extend an arm and
double the flat hand back towards yourself
the difference between light - lights, off and on - on and off,
(; get down Actua"y sit or lie.. maybe just kneel on the floor. a - the. An a has a clear, definite a. The th of the may be almost
U down Like out, make a and u 2 separate definite sounds. voiceless, with or without a weak a of perhaps a higher tone
"C down on Be sure the u is noticeably lengthened before n, than for a. a tha - th'
....t:~ then say nan separately with a clear a. Perhaps contrast In th is practice just saying in your own way what you've just
drill a· a. nan would be none or nun. Explain their heard shows that you understand. But it you want to speak the
ing. If daunan issaid ask if it's a woman or nothing! same way native Americans speak English (without a 'foreign'
floor Pair drill with door. floooooar - doooooar accent) you must learn to hear and habitually use the different
h I get up and get on a chair. Have several students rise and faster forms. For serious study, as in working to get rid of a
. step up on, stand on a different chair each time. foreign accent, write by sounds what you hear and compare
Caution: As yet don't say Get up on. Keep the 2 con what you write with the printed text.
separate, especially for beginners.
Also practice saying Get on a bus, get on a train, get on For 17 the teacher should demonstrate the meanings of:
an airplane. get between - get in between Place a chair about 2 meters from
a chair Use a different chair each time to instill the sense the door, walk across the room and stand between them as you
of a, in contrast to the for the door, the floor, the light(. say get between. Push the chair to about 30 cm. from the door
which are one of a kind or special things. and squeeze in between it and the door as you say get in be­
I get off of it to turn the light(s off and on. . tween which is for narrow spaces. (See the last sentnece of 17~
The speaker gets down off the chair, reaches out (toward foot Have a student take off both shoes as someone says take
a light switch) and turns off a light (turned on beforeh off my!your shoes. Hold up 1 finger and pick up 1 foot as you
of it Here of is before a vowel so is avo See Sound Change 35 say foot. Hold up 2 fingers and point them at the 2 shoeless
it becomes I'. As you point at the chair say I' cut off feet. Alternately bend down a finger and pick up a foot for
with a sudden grunt-like stopage of air in the throat. foot .. 2 fingers and 2 feet up for feet. (Beginners will take foot
turn Make a rotating motion with a hand. to mean shoe if a foot has a shoe on it!)
turn off - the I ight goes off look down at Point 2 fingers out from the eyes. The other hand
turn on - the I ight comes on points downward and then at the feet.
arn Pair drill tarn - fitarn (feet're in). add do-arn (door turn back on First turn out the light then say back on as you
off and on Pair d~ill dau-nan - :>fnan ..clear definite a's turn it on again.
j Then I sit down and take off a shoe. I put my right hand on your left arm. Practice this slowly with
Do so and smell of the shoe for laughs! several students. It may be a bit confusing as the speaker's right
then Repeat several times I turn on the light, then I sit hand is on the same side as the left arm of the person spoken to
down, using then as a connective between actions. who is to say left arm as he touches it with his right hand.
down and dau-nn Exaggerate a long lasting rising tone your arm has a weak ur. yuaruraarm See Sound Change 52.
nnnnn. ESL students are to be aware of and distinguish t?ke off your shoes Be sure a student takes off both shoes shuz
a longer and a shorter n-sound. In contrast to the singular shoe in the routine. Regarding shoes
a shoe - 1 of the 2. Do not say my shoe. my / your is usually followed by the plural. At the start of 17
k I put it back on and look at you. shuz is also shoe is so hold up 1 finger then.
Make a looping U motion as you say back and then po them '= 'em am Hold up 2 or more fingers as you point at the 2
2 fingers from your eyes at the person spoken to for ~~oes in between the feet as you say am, the most-used form of
it is again I'. Point at the shoe when saying it here. em. Don't even mention or say them unless to clarify the
back on I nsist on a clear bleating ae and a defin ite a. word for some student who already knows it.
Perhaps contrast drill back on, bacon, becken After 12,13 and 15 you hear variant parts of words or phrases.
baekan beka n beka n.
131 Learning
AMERICAN SPOKEN ENGLISH t oduction Routine - Learn to say it all in 45 seconds or less.
fo understand and speak like Americans naturally do, you m
1 Know exact sounds leave-live, eatit, cop-cup liv IIv, it It, kap
1ll fh e <mall numbers refer to the Sound Changes on the back.
2 Know sound changes Can't you kamt yu keenchu keen ai i I e £ ee a ::Iouuara '"u
t + Y = ch, U = a SOund Changes 41,2 My feet are in front of me. ai, a = a 2, in = n 36 ..,

'" co
3 Join words together
Word for word
I'm late and I've got to get out of
aim let eend aiv got tu get aut av h
rn ai fit or In frant av mi av = a 35, i 3 ',=
itar = j'ar 23, ra = ura 50
rna fltar n franta ml
Careful speech am let andav gata getauta hir
m'fi'arn fura-na ml 7 a ' 4, an = a·n 6, nt = n 18
o Fast natural 'mle' naga'agt'au'a hir a
4 Physically practice much...until this is said 7 times in 10 secon rli
5 Use proper order Wh ich is natural? Come in back on. Come My arms are beside me.
bacli in. Come in on back. Come on in back. Come back on rnai armz or bisaid m, a-ar- 6, i I = ; 2, 4

C Every day write 35-50 words like you talk freely with friends and
c;Am 17
VOWELS an American correct anything unnatural.
b rn' o-ar- mzar b'soi-'ml 8

• 1 • 2:~ S fi
1 H H 10 11 12
a My left hand is behind me. (G1~ left lefiltil 5
/~ r~ rc=

. /~/~~
? / ?L:;=.
~ .~
mai left heendz bihai-nc;A mi;;-:, 8m, aid = CIl-n, oi-d 6, nc;A 18
c ma left hCll-nz b'haj.'ml 8 ~I c;Az 30, ~m 17


ai I e £ ee a ::I 0 U U ar
cat aw oh put 00 er My right is between my legs. d ~ right is = right's
eye ee ih A eh ah
a'i i e, au ou
ma raits . ra = uro 50, cg = c-g 6
batuin rna Icgz
e 's 20, ~rn 17
ay i
·~7 :It t) d m'uroi's b'tui-'rnllc-gzss 71 I ts =

It ti.
-( %. ':...

Itiif It
• ~
I stand up and go to the door.
oi stamd ap eend go tl tha do-ar
/ in = ion 6, -z = -zss 40

If'tf-t JLg.. -.. II

-d ap = dap 5
~1 anc;A 2, 4,18
L~ ~..::::::.. L L L 0::I 0 0 0
e astce-ndlpR, go t'th' do-ar6-i/l ! I' ai =a 2, ... 0-6
l. and=m 36
ai e £ ee a 0 U U

a-ar·mz 5 fit fi' I get to the door and go out.
ai I e £ ee a ::I
heend hcen'
ar a
ule-gz oigdtu thi dor ;end go aut ~ U, i =a = ~ 2,4
a ::I 0 door dOor fuloor agc't'th' do-arn go aut Jc.;l tt 't 9, _t24
0::10 che-ar che·r ulait lai'
2 o U 6 uleft lef' urait
o u U I come back in and get down on the floor. !~ 1 nn 9
ouu n fura-na nfra-na
U a b'sai-d b'sai-' oi kam beek In amd get doun an tha flor!:) i /~ l fdlO
u ar a b'hai-nd b'hai-n' akam bcekm n gc'dau nan th' flo-ar 5 L_ j)\,'-. fUl047
o u u
o ::I 0 U U ar a
u ar a
7 a::l a n ::If beek ka
ge' ge'af
ge'an ge'::I
8 pu' tek pu'an
I get up and get on a chair.
oj gct ap amd get an I chcr
1I :./( Ii et I, ct a = c'a, c'a 23
3 e £ tar-n ulukcet agc'apm gc'anl ChC-Br6:-t:t. ana=anl5, c-ar 6 t

e ee a

stCll-nd stCll-n'
51' sl'd au-n
9 fi'nfura-na a-ar-mz
I'!et off of it to turn the light off and on
01 gct :>f av It ta tarn tha lait ::If and an
11 e
~ // \ '
rr2l %U~
geea ulef'hCll-n' lef'hCll-n'b'
rai' b'tui-n le-gz s 2 23 5 94 4 47 23 5 18 5 •
e 10 stCll-nda p go t'th'd agc':>fa VI' t'tarn th'ulai'::Ifl nan 4 ~l-i!l':~
I. I e ge't'th'do-r go au'
II e
e £ 11 kam bcek kamm
--.. ~ sit down and take off a shoe. I Q ~. td = 'd 10

teea ge'dau-n an th'flo-r

01Sit daun and tek ::If a shu ,iZ:C. I~· l cend'and n
4 .
ge'dau-nan th' flo-r
12 ge'ap ge'ana che-r a sl'daunn teko fa shu 5 nn \ I 2 18 4
ge'::Ifavl' tar-n::lf
01 I Ie
13 sl'dau-n
tek::lfa shu
Put it back on and ·lopk at you. 1.---1,
It b<ek an and lu~ eet yu ~
!J(?;___ ~ r'\
ut I u', 23
t b = 'b 11
0::10 p~'an pu'l'an \?U'I.' bee kan n lu ka chu l () t y = ch 41
ouu al yu-a ya mal ml­ I' 5
.. u ar a ai lukce'yu a lukacha
01 I I e ! ee a ::I 0 U U ar a
90 91
Understanding real-life speech
Understanding real-life speech
Real Life Selection 22 - Continued
22 Jobs A famous comedian talks with a lady factory '"
1 huearar yu fram estar Where're you from, Esther? eu whadldtha forman se Well, what did the foreman say then? a!
o II oi waz bornln meta moras (Oh) I was born in Matamoras 1 I Ityu buch thiS job If you butch th is job
t: pEnsavenY3 .. ,ts.. ,'sa.. Pennsylvania. It's.. It's. a .. ~
a spellt (Uh) Spell it.
auchu go
out you go!
"~ 2 "em e ti e em 0 or e as (Uh) M-A-T -A-M-o-R-A

oj buchtlt

What happened on this one?

I butched it!
metamoras Matamoras. 12 hu wazha ntks'Jmployar Who was your next employer? ....c
I'S go'about sevanar et It's got about seven or eight oj wen'twark f'tha govarmant I went to work for the government
handar'pipo ~ hundred people. In deth klemz amd ratairmant in death claims and retirement.
3 dlju wona bia Did you want to be a 13 hau bng dlja warkin washingtan How long did you work in Washington?
baele daensar ora roi'ar ballet dancer or a writer? )4 a ntlloi brok mai ~ngko Until I broke my ankle.
nooi wen'tuarkna No, I went to work in a yu hawa job noo? You have a job now? nu ...[
hpstik f~ktn lipstick factory YES oi warkat lokhid Yes, I work at Lockheed, ]
whena go'ou'av skuo a when I got out of school. I' na'san bou'san sUlchlZ nuts and bolts and switches..
4 a houja loiklt (Uh) How did you like it? OJ oi k'n glvya la'sav port nambarz I can give you lots of part numbers.
a ,'was prill mlsarbo Oh, it was pretty miserable. nambarz par'nambal'z Part numbers? ~
5 whoi Why? 16 em es tu wa'nain wa'nain MS21919
WEU I' I'S jlsth!l thlngz Well, it.. it's just the things daboyu diji d~sh thartl stvan WDG-37 swile
the ~skchl t'du they asked you to do. 17 who' what Izmt Wha'.. What is that? ~Iamp
yu no the war •. You know, they were .. th<e'sa kl~mp That's a clamp.
6 whodtthe esky, t'du What did they ·ask you to do du yu h~v inJ ou'soid habJz or Do you have any outside hobbies or
wark Work. mtras's interests?
7 oa he'tu .. " preSa .. all'o "'~ I had to (uh) press(uh) a Ii ai laik t'sing n ai laik t' d~ns I like to sing and I like to dance
levar ~nda... D...,"''' lever and(uh) n oi laik t'l~f n ai laik t'tak n and I like to laugh and I like to talk and...
It wud prlna It'o nem U it would p~int a little name•. kuiu slOg asa we.starn S::lOg Could you sing us a western song?
8 ba'" oi a h~'a ven bced \ But (uh) I (uh) had a very yes oke Yes. OK.
kou n cold and
aam mekan baliv I'm making believe..
ai h~da klineks nmoi I had a Kleenex in my

pokat pocket
NoW, om;","
a minute. I~I
bat oi kun stop t'tek" but I couldn't stop to take
aam mekan baliv .. th~t...
I'm making believe .. that.. '1.:. . '
ou't'blo mai noz out to blow my nose
thmt yu stlulav mi
that you still love me, .). ,
9 ~nd ai prestha levartu hard and I pressed the lever too
liv mi alon
leave me alone .
nl'brok tha doi and it broke the die.
<en fllanso blu
and feeling so blue.
10 the gevyu anathar job? They gave you another job? yur sambadiz lav
You're somebody's love
yu Yeah. bachuo nevar bi main
but you'll never be mine.
where· huur where're - hUl!8rar or often tu ~r - tw~r Differ for native
erar becomes a single sound a little longer in a 'na Sound Change 36 P'In1a Sound Change 18 government gov8rm.n' Sound Change 17

than in where.. ESL learners should be When 1 hue:na l· ai ai ai III but b' Sound Change 36 13 did you dlja See 3 above. Sd.Cg~ 42.Z

aware of short, medium and longer ar's. gqtauta Sound Changes 23, 8 " 0\' Initial repeats See I' I'S in 5 above. untill antlulai Sound Change 49

a is a preparatory soulJd when starting to speak. How school·-I = 0, u Sound Change cold kou Sound Change 26 14 at let = at Sound Change 2

Sometimes written as oh or maybe uh. At the 4 hau'd did you ~Id = 'd, d.j:y In my omai nm. lips apart then together na,san bou~san Sound Change 20

end or between words (see 7 and 8 below) ya = hauja So. Cga 9. for m. Almost like Sound Change 17 t'm 15 can ken k'n See kun in 8 above.

it's a 'fillei' said while the speaker is undecided a = Oh and 1 as in 3 above. COuldn't ·o;Int kun Sound Change 18 part namb.rz Sound Change 18
what to say.The words 1 and a are also ". See it waz = it uaz - I'U~Z Sound See can in 15 below. one nine w"t'nain Sound Change 9
or a. in a and when 1 in 3.
waz priti = waspriti -zp- = -sp- Out to ·tt· Sound Change 9 16 who' what See j' i's in 5 above.
Pennsylvania -syl- SIU, sao becomes -sao.
5 Well we:u Sound Change 48 Pre&;ed the prEstth~ Sound Change 21 is that IzWtaet Sound Change 29
2 Its gata ba- Sound Changes 20. 23, 8 I' j's Speakers often repeat Gnd it broke nl'b... Sound Changes 36. II thaets Sound Change 20
about, at Final 1's clearly said here. while thinking what to sa~ !ell, What did the See 5, 6 above. 17 autsakl. intrasts Sound Change 20
100 handre:d - handar' -~ p- Sound Changes 7, 11 just the jf'sttha a '" I Sd. 141 v".. Quchu Sound Chage 41
talk bk· General American but many

people -Ie = 0, U Sound Change 48 asked you aesktyu leskchl like Sound Change 11
say tlk. II - a sound between a and :l

3 did you - dIju Sound Change 42 you to Ylta· Ylt' Sound all Qn = 3n Sd. Changes 18,2 18 could you kudyu. kuju Sd.Chn!J42

want to - want tu - wana Sd. Changes 9,2 6 huatdl~th.s Sound Changes QIIIS Sound Change 28 making -jng = -an Sound Change 32
writer Sound Change 23 7 hlll!iltu Sound Change 10 lr W1zyur wnhlr w"zh. Sd. Chs. believe biliv. baliv Sound Change 2
went to = started to otto -1t; Sd. Changes 9,2,4 ..a, -sa.. -da .. See a in 1 lIeks, Sound Change 25 (44.2,2 19 wet" mim' Sound Changes 23, 24
work in factory - work for government See 12 little lito - "'0 Sound for far fa f' Sound Cha~ 36 20 stili, '1/ Stlu I stio, -u I -0 Sci. Change 48

_lid 3nd e:nd e:n an, n SII. Ch.36 but you bachu Sound Change 41

Recording - Test - Study Steps The Introduction Routine said by different people
16d A young lady with a slight 'high society' accent
Glossary· Selection 22 School - Age 11 - their probl rna fibrn frantav mi marmarz b'said mi mai Ie:f' henz b'hain'mi
John F. Kennedy - 'Ask not rnarai's batuin male-gzs aste-nap n go t'th'do-ar ai gd t'tha do­
Words not in dictionaries
~ Miss England ..troubles in US arn go aut aka m bek m n get dau-nan tha flo-ar ai ge:'a p n ge'
'iii Where are/ is from - What was Child Actors - icecream, work ona che:-ar ai ge'::Ifav.t t'tarn th lai's::lfnan the:n ai s.t daunn
CO your home place as a child Life Saving - frog hunting
tek::lfashu ai pu'.t bekan n lukachu
was born - started life Swimming - in the nude
~ 2 Pennsylvania - a state midway Circus - 9-year old performer 16e A little girl 8 years old
ti::I between New York and Kansas City Banker - dinner rnoi Warn frana mi maaarmzar b'sai-dmi mai lef'henz bihai-mi
Washington D.C.. Little White Duck· child's rnajrai's b'tui-nma le-gz aste-ndap n go t'tha do-ar ai gettu th'

3 went to work· started working
lipstick lip+ stick - 'pencil' for
the lips
got out of school· stopped go­
Red Toenails - a Bob Hope
Introductory Basics
do-arn go aut ai kam baek m n get dau-n an tha flo-ar aj getap
~n get an th' che-r aj gd ::Ifav.t tu tarn th'laits::Ifnan then ai
sltdaun n tek::lfashu aj put It baekan n lukachu
ing to school 16f A 13-year old boy
Example utterances of the 5
4 pretty - very much rna; fitar m frana m. mo-arzar b'saidmi mai left haenz bahai-n
learning to understand and
5 kind of - somewhat, a little glish like Americans do. rni maj rai's b'tui-n rna I&gs ,ai stenllp n go t'th'do-r ai gettu
7 had to - past of have to - must 1 ... 4 - Vowel Practice tha do-rn go aut ai kam bek'men gddau-n an tha f1o-r ai get
would - some other action 5 ... 13 - Key words of the Ro ap ngetan thache-r ai get ::Ifav,t t'tarn tha laits an n ::If thena
made something happen Introduction Routine sltdau-nntek::lfa shu ai pU'lt bekann lukachu
8 Kleenex - a paper handkerchief
blow nose - make the air push
Real Life Selection 22 - Jobs 17 A mature man For the usual spelling of this exercise see
Separate thought segments wi the Introduction to Real Life Spoken English.

something out of the nose

Original sound track (TV talk
9 broke· did break ai staendap tugo get b'tuin ache-r n th'dor

die - a metal piece that makes Listening Comprehension

th" do-arzm frana mi n th'ch£rz b'hai-mi

a letter on something hard Stop the recording in the

n I uk d au-n a'm ai fit an th 'flo-r

10 butch - a form of botch b::lch each segment of Selection

what you think you heard. rna le:ft shuz b'said mai roit fut

ruin, spoil by poor work thenai iBrn::lf tha lait n go auttha do-r

11 job - specific work to do words you wrote with the

letters. Multiply their total yu tarn tha lait bekann s.tdau-n an tha chlH

12 'the government' - the US,

national government the percentage of how well ai kam bekmn putmai rait hen an yur left o-ar-m

death claim - ask for money stand compared to average yu tek mai hend::lfav yururo-arm n getap an tha cha-ar

when a person stops living Beginners - Urgent !hemal lukachu getdau-n ::Ifav.t

17 outside hobbies - th ings you To get some needed ex yu ge:tdaun ngo bek tu yur che-ar

like to do when not working life American speech yu Sit daunn tek ::If yur shuzs

18 make believe - pretend, act few practical sentences of yu putam daun an th'flo-r in b'tui-n yur fit

tikI" something is true Study Steps yu sltdaunntek::lf yur shuz n putam daunan th'flo-r m b'tui-n

20 blue - sad, unhappy, lonesome For ESL students and ESL yur fit
REAL LIFE SELECTIONS lose a foreign accent, 12 ste-ndap sten' go ta (dor) ge'ta (dor) goaut kamm goau'
Auto Racing - a drivers' meeting 1 Work out the meaning first kamm ge:tdaun ge:'ap goaut kamm getdaun (an flor) fit fra-n'
An Irishman Visits the USA lation into your own language armz b'sai-d left hend b'hain' rait b'tuin Ie-gz s rait haend b'tui-n
2 Listen and silently read the te
Perry Mason Eats - various topics sounds (phonetic version~ legz ge'ap go aut kamm getdaun getap gota (che-r) getan
Airline Stewardesses.. and their dates 3 Listen, stop in the pauses and ge10f getdaun getap gelan get::lf goaut kamlO getdau-n
Robert Kennedy - life as a child each segment until said sm gElan armzb'said
False Christs - Billy Graham stories 4 Listen to a segment, stop

sounds (not in the old trad

1,3 tek::lfaenputan tek ::Ifn pu'I'bekan go aut end kam bek 10
Bimbo - A Texan nursery song 5 Without hearing, read by

Australian Stowaway..girl, US navy the text until you speak,

f~tktt IUkat rait hend b'tui-n legz mai fit or 10 frant av mi ma*
Bugs Bunny's Lamp - fights a genie 6 Read your translation al
I ma fit In franta nfran' mo-ar.mzar maarmzar bisaidmi
Forced Landing - in a small plane into spoken English by so
moileft haend bahaindmi m'rai's b'tui-n mai le-gz
7 Read the translation and
Allergic to Old Men.. rat poison Eng'lish until you speak ei oi as~~ndap ngo tu tha aste-ndapn go t'tha do-ar
Food and Dance .. at a party
Insects - humorous facts
8 Do 7 and have an American
to correct anyth ing that sounds 0*tE t tna do-ar en go aut ai ge't~tha do-ar n go aut
n am blekln n get dau-nan tha floa* ai kllm bekmn get dau­
Titanic - a survivor talks
Golf - a hole-in-one champion
Teaching - for detailed; aian tha fl?"r agetap ngetana ch&ar* ai getapngelana ChWf
Kissy Face - she likes to kiss!
cedures see the Teachers do~Eb!avl t tu tarn of n an t'brn th'lait ::If nan thenai sit
Southern Girls... also kiss Copyright 1991 © D G * Sn n tek::lfa shu ai putlt baekan an lukaechu

outhern 'black' form /

94 95

134 American Spoken English by teachers and eventually said by students at the speed of reo
peating it that many times in 10 seconds.
Basic Course Can't you understand me? Traditional Orthography - TO
k.ent yu andarstend mi Classical 'school' pronunciation
This course of study covers all of the basics of how America 41 3 21 6 17 3 Applicable Sound Changes.
really do speak English in their daily lives .. at home, at k.enchl an'arste-'mi 9 Say at the speed of 9 times
in the street. on popular TV shows, etc ... the sounds, cha in 10 seconds.
in sounds, groupings of little functional words, the order *41 t+y=ch, 3 u=a,I, 21 n~, 6 longer vowel, 17 nm='m
which the words used most are used to say what Amer 138 On the recording a pause of equal length follows each utter­
talk about in everyday life. Around 90% of what is usually ance. Stop the recording during a pause for study and practice
is said with less than 1,000 different words. It is the use as needed. (See 40, Steps 2, 4, 5, 6). After some practice the
these relatively few words, rather than knowing many d learner, without stopping the machine, is to say during the
words, that is the secret to getting along in naturally following pause what he has just heard .. before he hears the
American English. That's what this course is all about. next thing. This makes the learner speak naturally fast.
135 There is no need of oral explanations in any language here Younger learners need frequent supervised practice. Older
cause initial learning is by hear-see-do-say. Beginning learners can practice alone on their own between lessons. It
hear someth ing and see what it is or means and do some is well to keep a record of when and how long they practice.
of action as they say what is done or seen. Advanced stu If their progress is too slow insist on checking this list of
learning to speak naturally like Americans do, probably practice times. If you bring out in th is way that -they are not
the words but they need to know how sounds change and studying enough they can't complain about not learning fast.
together. Translations in other languages are available for A native speaker of American English should check. correct
ther clarification as to meaning_ (See 40, Study Steps 1,7,8) a learner's pronunciation before bad habits develop. See 45.5l.
New items (sounds, grammar, words) are learned as they 139 THE ALPHABET· The names of letters and consonant sounds
urally come up in context. Look in the alphabetical This course starts with the alphabet because
the detailed listing of contents for anything of specific .- Learners need to know the names of the letters from the
136 Most of the example sentences, prototype utterances, beginning of the study and use of English.
learned separately without any previous study of English, -- Even beginners often already know some of the letters. So
though they may be one of a general related group. Thus they recognize something familiar and progress from the
ginner in the study of informal spoken English can start known to the unknown.
where, any time, in the course. A one-time visitor or a -- The names of some 20 letters have in them the sounds they
irregular attendance learns something practical, complete, often represent. Sounds not having letters of their own, ch,
time he shows up. Regular attendance gives the learner ng, sh, zh, th, wh are shown alphabetically among the names
progress through a complete course of study. of the letters. Work out their pronunciations as they come
137 Each example sentence is shown in usual spelling (TO ­ up in the study materials.
tiona I Orthography) Next you see, more for reference th
-- English vowel letters have names that are different letters in
pronunciation practice, the somewhat formal colloquial
other languages. Many ESL learners have to re-Iearn the
forms' (as found in dictionaries) written by sounds (
names of their vowel letters for English.
transcription). Between the lines at appropriate places
cursive letters, italics, wh ich refer to the corresponding Caution: While working on the alphabet do not use the let­
Changes (Phonological Principles) seen inside the back ~ers to spell words because the old spelling (TO) gives wrong
this book. ~deas about how to pronounce a word, especially the vowels,
Study these phonological changes well to understand
tionship between careful (formal) and real-life (inform
In abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz
fast conversation.

Lastly you see the whole utterance written by sounds

said fast· in real-life conversations. The little numbers ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ
end of that line shows that the utterance should be
96 97
a- j k-v

First you see here a letter of the English alphabet. Then k. khe Kaye See Sound Change 53. When said alone the name
side it its name written by sounds in phonetic letters and I J{ of this letter has a puff of air out after k, kh •. 9
how the sounds of the name can be written in usual Engli h i j k - echaijeke as a second word-like part of the alphabet.
spelling. English letters have 2 printed forms. 1 (;0 ell With no vowel after it I is much like o. See Sound
a ei eh-ee The name of this letter in English is much like 1- Changes 47, 48, 49. e then a weak rising tone 0 or U
A simple vowel sound e which in other languages is III Em' Emma· eh then with the lips together hum mmmmm
name of a different letter. It has many sounds. r.I ending with a weak uh as a letter alone. &•. mmma
b bi bee With the lips tightly closed together start by h o En en-joy eh then with the lips separated hum nnnuh.
B ming mmmmm then explode the air out as you N Push the upper lip away from the lower one with a
ee (i). See the drawings in 25. pencil point. Hold it up away with a finger.
c si see, sea With the lips separated in a smile from side ng n + start of g. The back part of the tongue stops the flow
c side say ssss then add ee. ssssss - ee. Japanese of air, then releases, lets it out in a puff up and out
ners would do well to work through the series sue,
through the nose. Do the flame test. Page 22 , 30 ·53.
sah, say, see - SU, so, sa, se, si, and contrast she ­
smiling wide from side to side for see. shi - si o 0 oh No problem. All languages have this sound.
ch is a sound without a letter of its own. It is t+ sh. p phi pea To distinguish it from b it's better to release a puff
the tongue tip up for t and then it comes d p of air. See Sound Change 53. p ... h •.i
little for sh with the lips like for a kiss. Can't she 1m n 0 p - eol&m&nopi as the third word-like part of the al­
comes canchee. See the last drawing in 26 and phabet. &0 becomes &01 before &m. Sound Change 49.
Sound Change 45. deutsch - tchecoslovaque q khiu cue, key-you For kicks, practice the flame test given
d di dee Japanese to lead into it by saying doe, dah, Q in Sound Change 53. See 30·53, page 22.
D dee - do do de di. Perhaps start with a weak n, nd r o-ar are The a is lengthened before voiced ar. The tongue
in undies. R really doesn't move. It helps to round the lips like
e i ee This sound is the name of a different letter in getting ready to say U .at the end.
E languages. s es eh-ss If the -ss is not clear add a weak a. &SS, Sd. Chge. 5
f eta eft Be sure that the lower lip continues to touch sh shshshsh Put a finger across the lips making the sign to
F edge of the upper front teeth during a long be quiet. Round the lips like to kiss and whistle.
preparation for v later. Silently blow the air out Don't change the lips and say ssss. Also with the 2
to end in a weak uh - a. eh-ftfff-fuh - dfffffa See forefingers push the center of the cheeks in against
g ji gee The j-sound in this name is the voiced form of the back teeth. See the drawing in 26.
G see above after c. Practice chee gee - chi ji with t thi tea, tee It's better to say this with puff of air out. For
buzzing for jjjiii. Perhaps start with n, chi njii. '1' Japanese work through tah tay toe tee - to te to ti.
abc d e f 9 • &ibisidiiEfji Write the letters on the chal q r s t i- khiuo-arur&sti ar before & becomes arur. Sd. Change 52.
and drill this until everyone says it like one Rhyme this with curiosity. khiuo-arur~sti - khiurbsiti
at least 5 times in 10 seconds. Native speakers; th Bite the end of the tongue between the front upper and
model it at 7 times in 10 seconds. Perhaps make lower teeth. Stop the air, then let it out with a puff.
the first of several lessons in learning the alph For the voiced form start with a weak -n, nth.
h echa A-chuh, 8-chuh. See ch above. Because the sound and then that thin thing - nth e:nth~'thhin thhing
H this letter represents is not in its name teach its lit) iu you
nunciation as it comes up in a word.. See 26 • vi vee, V-day The lower lip slowly comes up just like for
it oi eye, I. Point to your chest. I, and then to an eye. f as you hum, buzz uhuhuhuh - aaaaa strongly until
j je jay Review the learn ing of g above and change ee the lip vibrates against the lower edge of the upper
J i to e. Write g h i j on the chalkboard. Tap g front teeth caused by the vibration down in the
then j to contrast drill gee - jay. Have everyone throat. Then the lower lip goes down a little as you
jiechaije as one word. 10 times in 10 seconds. say iii. aaaaavvvvviiii. I
98 99
Numbers 2.. 5
Be sure the upper lip is raised to expose, show
wa-n ... or something more like won't or want.
upper teeth as you say vvvvv. Even push it up w
the point of a pencil or the speaker holds it up w I n fast speech the ·n becomes weak or disappears leaving
a finger. The vvv is a slow weak starting ~ the vowel before it nasalized. wa-n = w'i-. Sound Change 37.
stopping sound, like a buzzing fly coming and goi 2 twO' too, thu Hold up 2 fingers in a V·sign. Let out a puff
on by. wvvvvvvvWVVVVWVvvvvvvwv of air after stopping it for t. Contrast drill to do. thu ndu •
a puff of air enough to cause a burning match to flicker and
Contrast drill b - v. For b the lips are tight togeth
a nasal coloring as you start d. With a lifetime of speaking
and then explode apart. But v is a long-lasting
English ahead beginners should know about aspiration. It
strong-weak sound. a continuous air flow. Also
soon becomes automatic. helping you sound like a native
trast f - v. without and with the buzzing causing
speaker. See Sound Change 53.
lower lip to vibrate. For Japanese work through tah tay toe too· to te to tu
w daboyu double-you· duhbuhyuh, slow and fast forms
w da baya the name. UU = W = w
3 three thh uri Hold up 3 fingers. Unvoiced th lets out a puff
of air before the u of the lip rounding that starts r before a
wh This is really h ani u said at the same time. or you
vowel. See Sound Changes 53,50. If a student flips the tongue up
say h first. hu. u = hu. The Japanese can use a
for r put the point of a pencil straight back into the mouth
short ho. Many people don't say the h. what =
about 2.5 cm. on top of the tip of the tongue, and form the
x sks X-ray Perhaps start by saying ekasa. Sound Change lips around the pencil for u. See the drawings in 28.
y uoi ooh-eye a th The front teeth bite the tip of the tongue and stop the
z zi zee (The British call it zed.) For the Japanese work air from coming out.
out through zo zo zu ze zi. b The tongue tip lets out a puff of air as it slides back in and
zh It is the voiced form of sh heard in pleasure· pi down behind the lower front teeth. The released air is to
Practice sh and add the throat buzzing, sh • zh mak.e a flame flicker.
u v w x y z - yuvidabaYleksuaizi -ya = yl before e· s. c The lips are rounded like for a kiss to say a soft u. around
Have the students rapidly say the alphabet like the I the pencil if a pencil tip is in holding down the tongue.
American kids do. ebisidiidji echaijeke eolemenopi d The lips smile from side to side while the tongue does not
khiuo-aruresti yuvidabaYII~ksu move.
e Say the following vowel, in this case i.
l~ NUMBERS 4 four fo-ar Hold up the left hand, palm towards the ciass
Beginning students of spoken English often already can with the thumb bent into the palm and the 4 fingers sticking
some. So the numbers, like the alphabet. can serve as a fam up. Count them. 1, 2. 3, 4. Move the forefinger a little and
base for re)learning spoken English pronunciation. Don't touch it witb the thumb as you say fffff. Then the thumb se­
too hard on the vowels yet. First learn to understand and parately touches the middle and ring fingers as 0 is repeated
the numbers fairly well. After intensive drill on the vowels, for each. (The 0 is lengthened. here it's doubled, before the
in 144. come back and work on the pronunciation of the voiced ar. See Sound Change 6) Bend the first 3 fingers into the
bers. Palm leaVing the little finger sticking up in the air. Thrust it
1,2,3,4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 upward as you shriek arrrrrr as if someone had 'goosed' you
1 one • 'wun', ua-n. Hold up a forefinger. 00 uh n uh , u between the legs from behind!
Lengthen the a in the middle because it is before the vo Have the students repeat the finger movements. Impress on
·n. Add a weak a to bring out the -n at the end. Sound jhem that four has 4 sounds. ffff 0 0 sr. Do the same later
6,5. Say the a with a rising tone. wa-na. 5 o~ door, floor, chair, more, poor, arm· aaarm, etc.
If a student says something more like wan wan (the f flUe faj.viJ Hold up the 5 fingers of the left hand, spread
pale, tired, sick. sad) or wanna wana (want to) contrast ~~art with the palm towards the students. Start with the
a • a. Hold up 1 finger for a and a pained face, moufh ~mb and count, 1,2.3,4,5.
and make sounds as if about to throw UP. vom it, for th engt.h~n the i before the voiced v. Blend it into s to start
wa-n • wo-n. Put a hand on your stomach, belch and 9 e VOICing of vvvvv as the lower lip slowly comes up and
to throw up every time a learner mistakenly for wa-n ently tOUChes the upper teeth, just as it did for ffff. Be sure

100 101
141 l~l

6 .. 11
12.. 90
the upper lip is up away from the lower lip. End with a also il.., ,/.., el ••. are also heard and little kids say 'IEvn.
nite -a to strengthen the v-sound to make 5 distinctive 12 twelve thueovil. Review 2 thu. With no vowel after it I is
9 in fast speech. See 9 below. fffffaiiiiiavvvvvva Sd. Change much like 0 which leads into the voicing of -vvvv. Add -8 for
6 six sick-suh Hold up the spread fingers of the right better voicing. Sound Changes 53,48,5.
palm towards the students, and the left forefinger. If -ks­ 13 thirteen thhUllrti-n With the palms towards the class hold
hard to say put in a. s,k~s~ The a's fade away as you up 3 fingers of the right hand as you say three and then flip
faster and faster but the ks stay good. up the 5 fingers of the left hand 2 times as you say ten. Do
When someone says seeks siks instead of six siks this several times because 3·10 in other languages means 30.
seeks as you start looking for something .. under chairs, Then say the variants three - thir and ten - teen and practice
students' pockets or hair, etc. Contrast drill I - it s,ks ­ with thir.. teen. Break thir- into 4 parts and insist on a clear
up 6 fingers, siks - bend down searching, looking around. lengthened eeee in -teen with a weak -n (in constrast to the
Some students will not hear the difference. At this shorter vowel later in -ty of 30, 40.. ).
just impress them with the fact that there is a diffe~o",-,
1 th - bite the end of the tongue between the front teeth to
As soon as the students have been drilled on the stop the air flow.
Series, as seen on the back of this book, come back 2 Push out a puff of air. Make a match flame flicker.
contrast drill six - seeks. Meanwhile start searching 3 Round the lips like to kiss and say a weak u.
seeks is said! 4 A definite IIr with u-ar much like were. In faster speech
7 seven se-va-n Hold up the spread fingers of the right the u disappears but the lip rounding remains to help
towards the class and the V-sign with 2 fingers of the say IIr. Sound Change 51.
hand. Lengthen the vowels & and a before the voiced -v 14 fourteen fo-arti-n Review 4 in 140.
on. A slowly rising and lowering lip for v, no b explosion!
15 fifteen flhti-n Much like for 13 above, The 5 fingers of
8 eight ate et With the thumbs bent into the palms hold the right hand up as you change from five to fifo. The ai
fingers. Contrast drill the name of the letter A and 8. A changes to I and v before unvoiced t· becomes f. If -ft· is
vowels, ti with the i fading out. The e of et is better hard to say put in a weak II. fai-vti-n = fIf~ti-n. Contrast drill
short single pure vowel. The -t is often dropped leavin I and i-. f, - ti- Sound Changes 3,39,5.
short suddenly cut off e'. 7 - 8 - 9 ss-va-ne'nai-n 7A,9
16, 17 Review 6 and 7. Then add -teen.
neinain. A10 - 8:10 eite;.n ette;.n So don't work for a
-t at the end but for a clear, clean short e with a faint or 18 eighteen e'ti-n A short, clearly cut off e because the first
-t is dropped. efti-n e'ti-n Sound Change 9.
-t after it. et et. A8 sie'
9 nine nai-nil .. nai-nllr. The fingers of 2 hands up but 1 19 nineteen nai-nti-n nani=' Say clear longer i's but the
-n's are weak or just nasalize the i's. Sound Change 37.
bent into the palm.
In radio and telephone communications often only 142 10,20,30,40,50,60,70,80,90
part of 5 and 9 is heard. fai-v- nai-n So the police and Review 13 .. 19 in 141 above and in place of ·teen say -ty.
plane pilots say niner nai-nllr for 9. I f there is no IIr they Change -ii-n to -tl. If for -il you say -tee be sure the ee is very,
it is 5. But for ordinary people, like when saying num very short and weak. It must be in sharp contrast to the longer
the telephone, it is well to say uh a at the end with a eee of -teen which may have almost no final n-sound. It is bet­
clear vvvvv for 5. fai-vvvv~ - nai-n~. See Sound Change 5. ter to say -tih, ih as in it. Most ESL learners would do well to
Say -teh te:, especially the Japanese. Americans will definitely
141 lOt 11, 12t 13 t 14 t 15, 16, 17, 18, 19
~nderstand 50 when they heard flfte but may well think 15
Hold up all fingers of both hands for 10. Close them i
~h an ESL speaker says fltti - fihftee. And the ESL listener
palms and then hold up from 1 to 9 fingers for larger nu
c ?uld be aware that a clear, longer tee (probably with unper­
10 ten the;.n Let out a puff of air after stopping it for t· ~ved nasalization or weak on) means 15.

e longer before the voiced on. Perhaps contrast drill ten· Or ~ hfor 30
'" 90 review the teens of 141 above and add tih
as in tendency, 10 dens.. th&-nd&nsi, th&nde-nz. The f
leads into the voicing of. d. No puff of air out after
20e - tl ,....
t'" I
2;nd 90 often after -n 'lose the t. Sound Change 18.
sounds. See Sound Changes 54, 53 and 1 for voiced soU C thue-nti • thuen'l - th U!.:"I 90 nai-ntl - nai-n'l • nai-'I
11 eleven ale;.va-n is used most in spontaneous fast Ontrast drill 13 ·30, 14·40;.....18 - 80, 19 - 90.

102 103
lUU .. 1,000,000,000
Basic Course - VOWELS
thhuarti-n thhuartl. fo-arti-n fo-artl, f.fti-n flttl, siksti-n SI
St-va-nti-n s6-Va-ntl, e'ti-n e't., nai-nti-n nai-n', VOWELS - See the back cover of this book.
.' ~­
143 100 1,000 1,000,000 1,000,000,000 It is essential that ESL learners of
hundred, thousand, million, billion American spoken English have a clear
100 handrtd classical one hundred - emphatic, concept of and be able to say each vo­
handrad careful speech a hundred - usually sa wel properly. Start by getting a good
handard usually said hundred - 1 under idea of the overall pattern of vowels,
han'ar' fast speech See Sound Changes 7.18 the relationship of the American vo­
102 a hundred and two ahan'ar'nthu
wels to each other and to the vowels
hundred two han'ar'thu
of a student's own language and to
one 0 two wa-no thu
those of British English if known.
The letter 0 is often used in saying several figures Say the vowels by opening the mouth step by step, rounding
gether as in addresses, telephone numbers, in lists the lips for a kiss and raising the voice in a shriek to a grunt!
items with numbers.•..
Under large phonetic letters on the chalkboard, ar and a to the
10010 hundred ten han'ar'the-n (as for a ZIP Code)
right going up from the others, draw the diagrams of wider and
110 hundred and ten han'ar'ntht-n (Notice the n for
wider angles, smaller and smaller circles, an upward arrow and
Conrast drill han'ar'te-n - han'ar'nt&n. Work up to
short one downward.
the two 6 times in 10 seconds. Write them randomly
all over the chalkboard and point to them rapidly. Th
to learn to hear and say or not hear and say a weak n
bigger than, shouldn't, get in - bigarn, shu'n, gt'n.
the negative to be positive can be fatal and not heari
in numbers can get you fired!
aicbi e8ffi(g)iQ)L@af
~·=-~L L L L_ 0 0/

1492 One thousand four hundred and ninety-two. ~ C!}- YeI,s9 4 ;:if ~
Fourteen hundred and ninety-two.
Fourteen ninety-two (Columbus sailed the ocean I-{ Joy:
fo-arti-'nai-'OIthu -teeflninety - fin Sound
1,995 One thousand nine hundred and ninty-five (a qu ,K t1f1 1Y\;5 /~

wa-n thauzannai-n handar'nnai-'OI fal-v

1995 Nineteen (hundred) ninety-five (a year)
., ~ i t: tHt ott
$19.95 nai-nti-n nai-n', fai-v (a price) Facing the class, back to the chalkboard, put the left thumb
$8,963,475,831 eight billion, nine hundred and SlXry-rli horizontally near the side of the mouth and make the finger
million, four hundred and seventy-five thousand, eight signs of gradually separating the fingers, straight side by side,
hundred and thirty-one dollars. . step by step up from the thumb. Then spread the tips in larger
e'bluyan nai-nhan'ar'n sikstl thhuri mluyan fo-ar han to smaller circles, like holding a basketball, tennis ball, ping
se-va-n', fai-vthauzan'e'han'ar'n thhuartl ua-n dalarzsss ~ong ball and a grape. Lastly cup the hand upward and relax it
Sound Change to,r /Jr, and a. With the right hand tap the corresponding geome­
ric dIagrams and arrows under the phonetic letters.

1991 12 3
oi I'


/$ '?,L.€

\::, ~~
/2::::.I?.:::::::.·~ . .
7 8

~ u~ u~ en-~ Cl~
'ijb 0

fHav e the class in unison say the series of vowels and make the
b~rr si~ns. A beginner cannot;really feel his own mouth move
9 1.0 II 12 13

1661 456
f:elrng and seeing movements of the fingers and the corres­
lid1ng geometric diagrams and phonetic letters make learn­
9 more effective, faster and fun! (visual imprint with kines­
American vowels in between
English vowels in other languages

thetic reinforcement). Ask several of the more adventu practice e· at the beginning of words.
brighter students, each alone, to follow the teacher in Japanese - Use edamame - sakana Eda mame • sakana said at
the vowels and doing the signs, as best they can on a trial normal fast speed for e.. .. e, a.•a contrast.
through trying to approximate some of the sounds they Russians say aw for oh, :) • 0, but always say a good 0 in the
145 Say and circle the vowels that are in all languages, 2, 7, key word komnata. Use it for reference in saying o.
- i, a, 0, u. These are used as take-off bases to learn the If yOU don't have a convenient reference key word in the stu­
vowels of American English. The new sounds go between dents language keep in mind the last paragraph of 146.
they already know well. i e a 0 U 1 Steps in Learning the American English Vowels
AM 00 46
I i-a - 0 • u Go through the complete series of the vowels, as
Students learn better if they write out, copy from the shown on the back cover of this book, several times then the
board into their notebooks the chart of vowels being students are to say from memory i a 0 u, always in that order,
out on the chalkboard. Below the American vowels they as circled in 144 for ready reference.
write in their own languages the American vowels they h 2 a:) 0 Say a then 0 as you make the finger signs. Start with
their own languages, starting with the base vowels i, a, 0, the fingers straight, side by side up as far away as possible
there is really no close equivalent don't write anything. from the thumb as you say a. Then curve and spread the fin­
Spanish speakers use pronunciacion figurada and the Ja gers as if holding a tennis ball while saying o. Go back and
their kana to approximate special English sounds. By forth from the positions for a and 0 until both sounds are
this the beginner gets a distorted, wrong idea of some clearly said. Some students will have trouble saying a good
In Polish the letter y is a sound much like ih in it (No. clear 0, especially the Russians .. and some Spani,sh speakers.
Koreans have a way to write iE, as in at. Chinese can
(a little child). The French have El, e and the e muet Then from the a position, spread the fingers just a little and
for e, t and 3. If a student thinks he can write an barely curve the finger tips, like holding a large beach ball, as
vowel in his language, have another speaker of that la you in great disgust say awl Curve and close the fingers much
without hearing the first student or anyone say the more for o. Think of aw, :), as being closer to a than to o.
sound, read aloud what the first student wrote. I f the Each learner is to say, repeat alone, a:) 0 until he hears him­
student doesn't say the target sound well don't use th self say a well-defined :).
of writing as a guide to learn, say, the English sound. 3 0 U u From the 0 position curve the finger tips closely to­

There are some English sounds in other languages but n gether like holding a small grape or a pea, and say u with the
to write them individually, specifically, in those langu lips like for a kiss. After a few times back and forth for 0 u, 0
u from 0 position the fingers as if holding a ping-pong ball
fact the speakers of those languages don't know, realize,
and you say u as in put book. Beginners will often tense up to
say those sounds unless it is brought to their attention
say something like uhf a. Have them carefully, attentively,
are drilled to hear them. I~ok at the fingers, and lips, go through the 3 definite posi­
In many languages a+ a consonant+a is a+C+ a in tIons for 0, u and u, as 3 forms of the same thing. Have them
ings as -asa, -ana, -a18 - asa, ana, ata. But the Russian say look put book while watching you put a book somewhere.
room, komna18 has 3 ...0, komnata. At the beginning of
f After practicing 0 U u until said fairly well, each is to say
words e- is eo, but at the end of words is -e. Look for
rom memory while making the finger signs a :) 0 U u.
such words to set well 0-3, e-e as for English in the m
4 ~ ~ Many languages have both sounds with no need to know
speakers of other languages. .
Spanish - Quise que me hablara ayer. Manana me naDJaCiI>
7 Ich is Which, except French who write e, e. Look at the
ooaa 001' 00
tger signs in 144. From the half-way open position of vowel
Point out that hablara and hablara have -a and -a at I' e, open up just a little more for 5, e. Have every student
and is the difference between cup - cop kap - kap in vearn to hear h"imself say; by repeating aloud alone, the simple
aO wel e followed by t. ee, ee, et... Refer to such key words
Such speakers have trouble saying 3 within or at the
,/. ~·n.tre, edamame given in 145. Point out that in such words
ning of a word, as in abundant abandant.
~s fIrst and e is last but here the natural vowel order is e.. e..
For t-e use entre entre or for greater contrast
trast drill ain't - end ent-end, 8/ate-et cetera et·d G learn I and ce well e-& have to be firmly set in the mind.

·146· 148
more intermediate vowels British Vowels

5 &.te a With the fingers a little more than halfway up oi i I e 6 ee a ::I 0 U U ar a

tightly against the thumb up to wide-open for a saye. ESL students or ESL speakers wanting to speak like Ameri­
with the fingers as far as possible up from the thumb cans are to learn to say this vowel series by memory. See 144.
Have everyone do this several times and then position When a learner doesn't say a vowel well enough or makes a
fingers for and say e, open them up a little and say 21! 0 mistake don't say anything but silently cue the correct sound
way to o. Do this again and suddenly startle the class by tapping a phonetic letter, number and diagram, as seen on
ing loudly like a mad goat! And then go on to o. Go back the back of this book. Make a series of finger signs, leading
have all the class bleat like goats until everybody says Ie up to the target sound.
Drill e ee a several times holding the ee for 5 seconds. Each student should repeat all or part of this series alone
at a watch for the 5 seconds. It takes that long for a beg and by trial and error home in on the proper sound, known
to home in on, his muscles to adjust to, this sound. Many to be correct when approved by the teacher. Let the learner
learners don't hold their mouths open wide enough. T carefully listen to his own voice (no one else speaks) repeat
pry the mouth open with 4 fingers, one above the other the correct sound several times to imprint it into his re-call
loudly every time a learner doesn't say the sound well memory for a guide whenever he wants to say it later.
Go through the series e e: ee 0, have the students write British Vowels Some of the vowels of British Accepted
into their notebooks, to clarify that ee is between e and Speech are a little or a full step to the right of the American
between e and o. vowels.
~ 3 .. S ~ Y 10 II Il 13
6 i I e Review e - e, of 4, above, to set e firmly in the lea I h i

minds. Then pair drill i. .. e, fingers right on the thumb

halfway up. i e, ie, ie then slip in I, i I e. Have each (Ii i leE (E a J 0 V U (3r (3
turn say i I e. The fingers up to about 5 mm. from the
for I. If after a few tries a student is saying i i e or i e e or
us British
i e e:, have that student put a little finger into the mou ce a a sound between the American ce and a
firmly bite the first joint.. in about 2 cm. Fingers on Can't ask keent cesk - kant ask
for i, bite the little finger joint and try for I, then on to a ::I a full step shift on an·::In
a token gesture of touching the teeth with the little fi o ou The British sound slides towards u a little.
using a pencil instead doesn't work. Keep working with Go home go hom - gou houm
dent until a good I between i and e is said. listening to ar a a full step shift over there ovar thtar - ova thea
students doing this helps learn to say this sound. INTRODUCTION OF OBJECTS
7 u ar a Hit yourself in the stomach and grunt loudly When first learning a new word, be it a thing or an action,
Put the finger tips together like holding a small grape, learners should perceive, know of it with as many senses as
the hand over fingers curled up a little and relax them possible .. see, hear, touch, get an inside feeling of the mean­
Pair drill u - a, tips together ... hand over and relaxed. Ing. Make a suggestive movement to catch the attention of
a few times, just as you turn the hand over with the ~nd imprint the eye. See and write the sounds because the ear
tips up scare the class with a murderous rising sh i oesn't hear some sounds accurately or perhaps not at all.
arrrrrr, as if someone had 'goosed' you between the legs ithe act of writing focuses attention on each sound and gets
behind~ Almost everyone says a goodar after this. Drill hsl concept into the brain. The sensations of moving the hand
well. Hold ar for 5 seconds so a learner realizes e Ps to remem ber
ih .
tongue does not move. Maybe it's curled up back a u~p, click, rattle, scrape .. all such sounds add to under-
don't try to explain it. Just put a pencil point in about ding the meaning. A sudden sound, shriek, raising or low­
if a student flips the tongue up. See Sound Change 54. .' ng .the voice, push, pull, a threatening action add reinforcing
8 oi Say a and point to vowpl 7 with the fingers wide
Then close down the fingers onto the thum b as you learly. hearing oneself say a so'Und, repeating it several
vowel 2. Say oi when closing down the fingers and this i~~th a native speaker nodding approval, helps put, im­
the first vowel oi. Although it is a diphthong it acts, In the recall memory. You can work for just an accep­
like a simple vowel changing to a or I like the other pronunciation for good practicability or pay close atten­

108 109
r _. '"" Y""··_··, "'VI"'~', n.t;J, VVUf(,t UU;X;

tion to those details most native speakers are unaware of but short duration. In the unstressed par the p has no puff of air.
which contribute to an ESL student's learning to hear and talk Review u ar a for a good ar in par. u ar a, u par a, pe-par.
like a native speaker of American English. key khi Use a large key or tie a string or tag to a little one.
Keep in mind Sound Changes 53, 54, 55 of which keeping Drop it with a clatter on a desk top, click it against something
the tip of the tongue back in the center of the mouth is per­ hard. If on a string lash, swing it against a wall or a head!
haps the most important. Learners should often practice speak­ Stop the air with the back part of the tongue and let it out
ing with a point of a pencil stuck straight back into the mouth. with a puff that makes a burning match flame flicker. kh .. i
This aids aspiration and voice projection. Regularly point up book buk Use a long, thin, narrow or small book easy to
by the nose and out through the forehead to show, keep in handle. Slap it closed with a bang or thump it flat down on
mind the resonance path of sounds going out. a desk top, or a student's head.
Here when introducing objects hold up, show, make a noise Scar~ a student by shouting boo! Then thump the book and
with one hand but keep the other out of sight or motionless. say the bu of book. Contrast buuu - buu. Then add the air­
stopping kh as for key above. Or end with ka. bukh - buka
box baks· bakasa Pass around a small box with something in
it to rattle. Rattle the box, knock it against something.
Clearly say ah - a (rather than the British :». If -ks- is a
problem put in a's. -kaSil. See Sound Change 5. Or say the end­
ing -k of book and add suh. book-suh - bahk-suh ba kh sa
Each student names an object as he passes it on to the next
student. Towards the end of this drill pass around one by one
pen pht-na A native speaker of English in preparation for several of each of the kinds of objects.. 2 boxes, 4 pencils, 3
teaching would do well to say strongly out loud pen - Ben books, scraps of paper .....
and note the h in ph of pen in which there is a very little, The teachers should model the pronunciation at the speed of
weak release of air for maybe 1/50 of a second when p is reading a list of the 6 items 5 times in 10 seconds.
said. The t is lengthened slightly before the voiced. on. Note pen, pencil, paper, key, book, box
the difference of pe in pet - pen. Even if you don't feel it 149 THE This word at times is slowly pronounced thi and is com­
yourself have the students lengthen the t before -n to be monly thought to be tha before consonants and thl before
better understood. As pen is a content word, not a func­ vowels. I n fast natural speech it is often more of a voiceless
tional word subject to reduction, you can add a weak -a th', a sort of a constricted passage of air out over the tip of the
to bring out the word final on. pt-n.. Sound Changes 6,5. tongue up behind but not touching the upper front teeth.
Use a pen which is noticeably different from a pencil in
looks and touch .. an old-fashioned ink pen rather than a For beginners, bite the tip of the tongue between the front
ball-point pen. Slap, knock it lengthwise on a table top or teeth, stop the air and then let it out as a puff of air.
wall to give it a distinctive sound. Pick out the most distinctive, outstanding, eye-catching of
pencil pht-nso Tap the point against something hard for a each of the 6 items.. a gold or large black ink pen, a brand-new
distinctive sound. Say the same sounds as for pen and add unsharpened pretty yellow pencil, a bright slick multicolored
-so. See Sou nd Change 48. piece of paper, a square of toilet paper or cleansing tissue,
If you feel that there should be a definite I-sound make an ornate over-sized key, a big dictionary, a carved jewel or
the 0 longer with a rising tone ending with u. sou Ameri­ tiny pill box .... Treat each with deference, special care. Put
cans seldom bring the tongue all the way up to the top of all such ordinary items out of sighLbooks under the chairs,
the mouth for I with no vowel after it. The tip tends to boxes down out of the windows, pencils into pockets, loose
stay in the center of the mouth rather than go up. papers put away. Leave only the 6 target items in sight.
paper phepar For easier handling, fold a piece of paper into the pen, the pencil, the paper, the key, the book, the box
a strip about 2 inches, 5 cm., or less wide. Noisily rattle. rustle tha tha tha tha tha tha
it. Brush it against a student's cheek or hand. th'pht-n th'pht-nso th'phepar th'khi th'buk th'baks
A puff of air out for phe. The e before the voiceless -p is of The teacher to model each thing}it the rate of reading all
What's this? It's the .. Is this the .. ? the-a

of them 3 times in 10 seconds. the answer, at the end slightly up and quickly farther down. If
150 It's the -­ in a wh- word question the tone stays up at the end it indicates
Point at the distinctive items placed in easily seen. perhaps doubt, suspicion. In th is drill lower the tone at the end for
amusing places around the room, such as:

key - in the key hole of the door. tag showing

such questions.
_ ?
. ....
, ,
/ ..
pen - over. held behind a boy's ear
Teachers should model this question-answer at the speed of 10
pencil - stuck into a girl's hair
times in 10 seconds. Have the students repeat the QA over and
paper - tacked to the wall, lying on a head
over.again until said in less than 2 seconds.
book - balanced on the top edge of an open door
152 Is this the --? Yes, it's the --.
box - on a chair over in a corner. . Like in 151 the object remains in the questioner's hand until
I n it's the the t before 5 is weak or dropped. See Sound Change after the answer. Is this IZ thiS becomes IZIS. See Sound Change
20. The -s blends ino the th' to make a kind of voiceless rising 29.
hiss, sst h '. Make a definite stoP. almost a grunt. aft,er I'. Then Contrast drill sssss zzzzz then reverse the order, zzzzz S5SSS
release the air into -55. Go up with th' and release it with a puff and lead into IZZZZ ISSSS shortened to IZ IS and finally IZIS. For
of air strong enough to make the flame of a burning match zzzz have the students feel with their fingers the buzzing vibra­
flicker, tremble. Then say the name of the object you are tion in the throat and/or put the palms of the hands over their
pointing at. Also practice saying tha with the a leading into ears to hear it.
the following voiced consonant, b- in this case. 1'5thabuk, Yes, U's the -', yt Sl sth' Put yes before the 1'5th of 150. Con­
i'5thabok5. 358 trast drill t -I. Review the vowel series i let. Avoid saying
It's the pen, it's the pencil, U's the paper, it's the key, ytst'sth. iiiiee slIlI'sssth'
I'sth'pht-n 1'5th' phenso 1'5th'phepar 1'5th'khi Both this the and it's the have the same -sth', an almost voice­
it's the book, it's the box less upward gliding hiss.
1'5tha buk I'sthaboks Is this the pen? Yes, it's the pen.
151 What's this? It's the --. IZlsth'ph&n yesl'sth'ptn IZISthabuk ytsl'5t ha buk
The questioner continues to hold the object during the ques­ As yet don't use the more natural replies, Yes, U is or just Yes.
tion and the answer. The answering person points at it in the 153 the, a
questioner's hand during the answer. The questioner then Select 3 distinctive special objects such as a large ornate key
places it in front of or near the person who answers, or only or one with a colorful tag, such as a hotel key, a big book and
into that person's hand after the answer has been completed. a beautiful little box .. of metal, carved jade, plastic. Have the
If the question or the answer is not said well enough or the class stand around 'a table and place these 3 items on it. Place
object gets into the second person's hand too quickly (such as in among and around them several pens, pencils and pieces of
during the answer) stop the movement of the object or move it paper. (Or the objects could be stuck up on a wall or a large
back to the questioner for are-do. cardboard. Even dangle them from a string across the room.)
This is for something the speaker touches or can easily touch. The teacher points to the 3 special items wh He repeating the,
It is for something not in or is farther from the speiker's hand. (thuh, tha) for each. Then point to severa}of the same kind of
What - wh is really hand u said at the same time. u ot the other objects saying a (uh, a) for each.
Or say h before u. huot the key, the book, the box· a pen, a pen, a pen, a paper, a
Many people don't say the h. uot paper, a pencil, a pencil .. .
And often the a becomes a. huat, uat th 'khi thabuk tha boks a pht-n, a pht-n ... a phepar ...

If hu is a problem for the Japanese, say ho. hoot. To demonstrate a - the, and as a silent gesture in correcting

What's Like in it's the t is lost before os. huo's

a a a from one to the other, hold up a hand, fingers

What's this? After -s th.e th-sound is lost. huo'SIS

sticking up and the thumb out to the side. With the
See Sound Changes 2, 29, 34.
forefinger of the other hand touch the tips of the
What's this? It's the pen..pencil... box... tha fingers as you say a for each and then wiggle the
huo'srs I'sth'ph.:-n ... thumb and say tha. Thereafter wiggle the thumb to
The sentence tone pattern is the same for the question and cue the and touch any finger to cue a.

112 113
It isn't the.. It's a .. Isn't this the .. ?

154 Mixed a-the drill.

Use a key, pen and a small book as the special the items and
2 boxes large enough to hold the other items. As the first item
give an empty box to the next student who puts the smaller
items into it and then passes the now empty second box on
over to the following student..... pencils, papers, littleboxes .. ..
It isn't the pen.
It isn't the~ey.
blindly touch another student with the key. After a few times
let one of the bright r st ents walk along switching hands
drilling the others. --",­
0- ­
A box, the key. a pencil, a paper, the pen, a pencil, the book .... The t is weak or lost between 2 vowels, also after ·n or before
abaks th 'khi a phe-nso apepar th' ph~ n aptnso th~buk tho Further, Izn often has a very weak ·n or n-coloring. ESL
Work for an almost voiceless upward puff of air for the and a tearners often understand it to mean the positive is. I n real life
low grunt-like a for a. native speakers often understand IZ, with or without a nasal
155 It's a-­ n-coloring to mean isn't, because the usual positive is just's.
The teacher goes around the room points at, touches books,
It is not and it's not are slow, emphatic forms out of place in
casual conversations ... unless you are emphatic, angry or dis­
papers and pencils saying for each, It's a ... whichever it is. The
pleased! See 1~8. Sound Changes 18,21,23,37.
students then each in turn indicates an item and says this for 4
things, enough times to get the rhythm but not be boring. Special exercise drill:
1'1' ,'I' pairs of short, cut-off ,'s.
It's a book. It's a pencil. It's a book. It's a paper.
zzzan .. zn a long zzzz ending in -n
I'sa buk I'sa pht-nso I'sa buk I'sa phepar
IZzzan .. Izn ending with a weak -n
The t is lost before -5 which is joined to the following vowel l'lzn The fast form of it isn't
a. Clearly say the a and with a falling tone. .'Iznth' Add a voiceless th stop, release a puff of air.
156 It's the --'. It's a --. Write these on the chalkboard for stude·nts to copy into
Now the students pass along to each other 3 special objects, their notebooks.
a large key, a rattling box, an oversized or old ink pen. Be­ 158 Is this a ••? (true question)
tween mentioning them one of several similar objects, those of
Pass around mixed up 2,3 or 4each of several kinds of things.
155 above, is referred to. ,..,
Work up to the speed of a question and an answer being said
It's the key. It'sapencil.~ ~ 6 times in 10 seconds. This - the item is still in the questioner's
I'sth'ki I'Sa pense ~ hand. It - the answering student points at an object but doesn't
It's the box. It's a book. ~ take it until after completing the answer. Caution: Don't use

~ ~ It'sI'tht~epEnpen.
. I'sthabaks I'sabuk ..;,:; this in the answer.
\ q
~ tU
It's a paper.
Is this a pen? Yes, it's a pen.
IZISa pen ye sl'sa pen
Is this a book? Yes, it's a book.
IZISa buk yesl'sa buk
Contrast drill as needed: 159 Is this a --? (untrue question)
it's a I'sa definite falling tone a. Ask if one of several same objects is one of several other same
it's the I'sth', I'stha a voiceless puff of air, maybe objects.
very weak high tone". Is this a book? No, it isn't a book. It's a pencil.
In real life native speakers understand is the by the faint hiss IZlsa buk nOI'lzna buk .'sa phe-ns o
or silence during 5th' which is longer than the sa for is a. Isn't loses the t after on, which becomes weak and may only
157 It isn't the ..... It's the .... be an n-coloring of IZ, with a being a separate sound. Some
Use 2 of the special objects of 156, for example, the key in learners hear' Izn or IZ and think it means is. Or they say IZ for
the right hand facing a student and the pen in the left. Click is and the Americans understand isn't.
the key on something hard, shake your head and say, It isn't Sometimes isn't a is pronounced Iznna but think of it and say
the pen. Look out of the corner of your eye towards the pen, it in 3 parts, I zn a, with a clear definite a.
maybe blindly tap it against something. 160 Isn't this the •• ? Isn't this a •• ? See 222.
After several stUdents have repeated the same thing, switch In English we answer yes or no according to the true condi­
hands. With the left hand tap in front of a student with the tion, rather than as to a negative question being true. In
pen, look at it and shake your head. It isn't the key ... as you some languages if a negative question is in accord with a nega­
r, I + vowels
tive condition the answer is something like, Yes, it isn't•.. (You
hold up a pen. Isn't this the key? Yes, it isn't the key.) To a pencil or a box -so N = solar
aptnsolarurabaks Sound Change 49
break this 'other language' conditioning alternately drill posi­
tive and negative questions that have the same answers in Eng­
a box ora key -sar as i n Yes, sir.
abaksaruraki y&sar
lish. (Really, positive questions ask for information, negative
Practice these paired alternates well. Contrast the short and
questions indicate that the questioner is checking on, wants
long oar, N- in paper, paper or pepar pepar-, Also pencil with
confirmation about something he thinks is true or probable.)
no vowel and with a vowel after it, pen so - ptnsolar.
Drill well each of these questions, and their alternate answers, To say easily the -sar of box or baksar repeat several times
before going on to the next question, (Check on the proper use No, sir. Yes, sir.
of a - the for general and specific items)
Question Alternate answers
No, it isn't a --- or a '---. It's a ----. nOI',zna·· arura·- ,'sa··
Is this the pen? } (NO, it isn't the pen. It's the key. If, in error or jest, the object held up is 1 of the 2 alternates
IZlsth' ptn nOI'lznth' pen Isth' ki
say it isn't one of those and then say what it is.
Isn't this the pen? Yes, it's the pen.
Izn Isth'

Is this a pencil?
Isn't this a pencil?
1 ytslst h ' pen
(yes, it's a pencil.
ytsisa penso
No, it isn't a pencil. It's the key.
No, it isn't a '--. It's a···.
162 R and L before vowels .. , in colors
no,',zna '-, I'sa •••.

ESL learners who don't have an I-sound in their languages

and nearly all who have some sort of a tongue flipped or trilled
IZnlSa ptnso nOI'lzna penso Isth'ki r-sound need special training in learning to say the pre-vocalic
r and I the way Americans do. I f they try to say these sounds
Write on the chalkboard and contrast drill as needed: moving their lips and tongue the way Americans do they too
Is this the .. IZlsth' rising voiceless th', puff of air easily, or inevitably, slide into the habits of their own language
Is this a.. iZlsa a clear a, falling tone and improperly say the American sounds. So at the start, in
Isn't this the.. Iznlsth' See Sound Changes 18,21,28. the beginning, they need to go beyond, exaggerate the usual /
Isn't this a .. IZnlSa American tongue and lip movements (initial articulatory over­
161 or a compensation).
The stUdents stand around a table with 2 objects on it and I before vowels
the teacher holds another in the left hand - all 3 of different a Lightly bite the tip of the tongue be­
kinds of things. With the right hand tap, knock near each ob­ tween the front upper and lower teeth.
ject on the table when mentioned and 2 taps quickly between b Round the lips like for a kiss and say

them for or a, in an rhythm of .................. Switch, replace u (together with any consonant before

the objects as the drill progresses. the I).

Later practice with each student asking the next, cued by c Don't smile as the tip of the tongue
slides down behind the lower front teeth.
what the teacher is holding up in each hand, items which the
learners don't have readily at hand, a hat, shoe, key, box ... A d Say the vowel after the I.
r befo re vowels
®..... c:::::::>
student holds up a pen, pencil, book or a piece of paper.
In fast speech or a becomes ara, which some ESL learners a Relax the tongue with the tip in the center of the mouth. It
hear as just a. Review u ar a of the vowel series. The sounds be­ does not move until saying the vowel after the r. If the tip of
fore ar are linked to it. In saying ar before a vowel the lips for the tongue keeps flipping up put the sharp end of a pencil in
a mini-second round a bit like for a kiss, say a weak u leading about 2 cm. on top of the tip of the tongue.
into an r-sound and then on into the the vowel after ar. --MUra b Say a clear u-sound (initial lip rounding). If there is a pencil
in the case of or a. See Sound Changes 5, 52. into the mouth close the lips around it like for a kiss.

c Widen the lips to the sides like for a smile.

Is this a pen or a paper? (See below for the answer.)

d Say the vowel after the r.

IZIS aptnar1urapepar or a = ar a = arura

a paper or a pencil parar = par­ In short, remember for I the lips make a long kiss, for r a very
quick kiss and then smile. black, brown buhek burou-n
apepar·ur aptnso Sound Changes 9. 48 try 3 red roses turai thuri urt·duro-zazs s
116 117
Colors is-- -5, -z this - that
163 Colors should be aware that a longer n-sound has the mean­
For black and blue use separate black and blue objects, one ing of and in it. Sound Change 9.
in each hand. Alway mention black first. Among other colors Is + thing + color?
white is second - black and white, red and white, yellow and This word order is quite confusing to some ESL learners. So
white. But usually when in pairs the shorter words come first.
drill this type of question well. __
red and green, green (1 syllable) and yellow (2 syllables) Also,
men and women but ladies and gentlemen ..the shorter is first. Is the pencil yellow ? Yes, it's yellow. .
Pass around objects of different colors. If an object has 2 or Isth'pe-nso yelo yesl'sheJo
more colors put in and before the last color. Is the box black and blue? No, it's black and white.
a black and white box abuhek'n'huai'baks Sound Changes Izthabaks bleek'n blu nOl'sbleek'n huoit.
red, white and blue ure-d huai'n bulu 11,18 /s the flag black and white? No, it's red, white and blue.
gray, green, yellow gure, guri-n, yeulo Isth'fulce-g buleek'n huait nOI'sure-d huai'n bulu

brown burau-n Contrast drill the longer and shorter vowel of oak and

Review the vowels:> 0 u u to develope a good clear a and u. -ag, as in black flag, bleek flee-g. The length of the vowel

Say a - u as 2 separate sounds and lengthen the u before makes the difference. The -k and -g are weak. Sd. Chg. 6

the voiced on. a ... u, a... u---, bura ... uuuun, burau-n. 167 this .. that See 189 - Note:

164 is = os, -z this - The speaker looks at, with the left hand holds, touches

For is ESL speakers should be conditioned, except for special or points to something nearby, easy to reach out and touch.

emphasis, always between words to say -s or oz. See 157, 159. If that - The right ~and points to something at a distance from

is, IZ, is heard with a normal tone in a sentence, have the stu­ both the speaker and also from the person spoken to.•not

dent repeat the sentence using -5 or ·z for is. See Sound Change 40. near either. Something far beyond the reach of the speaker.

At first pass around just 1 book and 1 pen mentioning the At the end of the preceeding class period go through, review,
color of each. Contrast ssss • zzzz. See 152. With hands over teach, pencil, book, shoe, box, door, key. Don't introduce any
the ears notice that -k of book has no buzzing like the -n of other objects, particularly if not already known, during these
pen. So with is they become bukssss, pe-nzzzzz. Also contrast this - that drills. Learning unfamiliar objects detracts the stu­
shshshsh • zhzhzhzh (as in sure pleasure - shur plezhur) dents from concentrating on learning the target basic structure,
The book's brown.. thabuks burau-n ~;::-.A? in this case the usage of this - that and their forms.
The penfs black. th'phe-nzbuleek ~S
this - pencil, book in the speaker's left hand.

What's yellow? hua'syeulo = hua'shelo Sound Changes shoe - the speaker's right hand points down to one of

The pencil's yellow. th'phe-nsozheulo '43,44

his own on the floor or lifts it up in the air!

165 What + color + is + thing? that - door - the one used most to go in and out of the room.

Practice this question form until it is well set, seems natural. box - a large one off over in a corner or up on the

Pay attention to saying a good a and ar in color. Review ar a in teacher's desk or in a window.

the vowel series, then reverse the order. ar a, ar a - a ar, a ar, ka, key - a big one, maybe with a tag or ribbon on it, hang­

ular, kaular. Perhaps contrast drill -sth' and _ztha, sssth' zzztha, ing on the wall or down from a light.

ssth' unvoiced, zzztha voiced. See Sound Change 39. The loss of shoe - one at a distance away from both the speaker

voicing can go back several sounds, tha before p-, z before de­ and the person spoken to.

voiced th'. In what the a can become a and the t lost before k. a Each student rapidly points with his right hand at objects

See Sound Changes 2, 11. far and near, saying that - this accordingly.
What color's the book? What color's the pencil? 1k Sound After the meanings are well in mind, review the vowel
hua'kalarzthabuk hua'kalarsth'penso Change 11 series and home in on 1 and ee, thl - thee, thiS - theet
The book's brown and the pencil's yellow. b Now add the name of the object pointed to.

tha buks bura u-nn th'pensozhelo this pencil, that door, this shoe (one of the speaker's), that

brown and = braun'n becomes braunn. And just box, this book, that key, that shoe (at a distance from the

lengthens the final -n of brown. Contrast drill well speaker).

brown - brown and .. braun - braunn. ESL learners Work for a definite distinct 1 in this. Contrast 1- e in

this -thllt variants
Is this.. that..? my,your
this pencil this p~nso. Review i lee of the vowel series. This book's brown. That door's white. This shoe's black.
The -s is lost before -sh. this shoe thl'shu Sd. Change 12
thlsbuks braun tha' darz huait thl'shuz bleek
Try for a good ee in that but pay no attention to the -to
I t is often weak or missing. See Sound Changes 10. 11.
That shoe's brown. This pencil's yellow. That box is brown.
tha'shuz braun this pensozhelo tha'bakslz braun
this pencil, that door, this book, this shoe, that key"
this penso thee'dor this buk thl'shu thee'ki You may want to contrast drill
that shoe, that box ... that book theet thee' A weak or no ·t
thee'sh u thee 'baks tha' A definite stop, low tone
168 Variant forms of this, that the book th" th' A weak a or almost voiceless,
When the students have well in mind the meanings of this _ with a rising tone?
that write these reduced forms on the chalkboard and have the 171 Is this .... ? Is that.... ? IZIS Izee'
learners write them in their notebooks. Writing helps remember. Ask' true questions so that the answers will be with Yes, it's...
this - thiS, thl', 'IS, 'I' Using negative answers detracts from learning this-that forms.
that - theet, thee', 'eet, 'ee' Is this a pencil? Yes, it's a pencil. Sound Change 20
that, tha', 'at, 'a' IZlsa pt-nso yesl'sa penso
Is that a book? Yes, it's a book.
Read these aloud several times. Make definite breath stops izee'a yesl'sa buk.
where indicated. Suddenly start or cut off a vowel. Students Iu'a buk ee = a Sd. Chge. 2
are to write these from dictation, in series of 4 or at random
one by one..from the recording or read by the teacher or a 172 Is this shoe black? Yes, it's black. _sh Sd. Change 12
student. When an ESL learner knows about them he will begin IZI'shu bleek yesl's bleek yesl' ..... sss
to hear and use them. Knowing they exist is the first stepf Is that box brown?
Have each student say at random 2 or 3 of these forms and Izee'
the next student is to point far (right hand) or near (left Iza'baks braun definite bre"k, stop after a
hand) accord ingly. Contrast drill zaba - za'ba
Izaba - Iza'ba
'eet, thl', tha',thee', 'IS, 'at, 'I', that, 'ee', 'at, thiS, 'a', thee' ... Izabaks - Iza'baks
169 What's this? What's that? It's a.. It's the ,. Is the box Izthilbaks the - the tone goes up a little?, weak?
It may be well to review the use and pronunciation of a - the Is a box Izabaks a - the tone goes down, clear a
before doing this exercise. See 153, 156. With only 1 key and Is that box Iza'baks short a, cut off suddenly..definite break
1 box in sight say the key, the box .. and the door. Pass along 173 My, your
from stUdent to student the key. the box, a book and a pencil The speaker with the left hand points to the chest of the per­
as each asks and answers this - that questions. son concerned when saying my (one's own chest) and your (to
After -s the th-sound is lost in this, that. Sound Change 29. chest of the person spoken to). With the right hand point to
What's this? (See 151) What's that? Point near and far. thing being talked about. Each person mentions 4 items.
hua'sis hua'seet my eye your shoe my pencil your book

hua'sls hua'seet (faster speech. a = a) mai ai yur shu mai penso yur buk

It's a pencil, book, shoe. It's the door, key, box. Once the students are comfortably saying clearly mai, yur
I'sa penso buk shu I'sth'dor ki baks put these variants on the chalkboard for copying into the
170 thl' thee' = tha' stUdents' notebooks. Then have them, one by one, read down
It might be well. before starting this exercise. to review. or the progressive forms of my, your with nouns.
teach in the preceeding class period, the colors. See 163. Place my eye your shoe my pencil your book
brightly colored pencils and shoes of different colors here and mai ai yur shu mai penso yur buk
there around the room ... a pencil stuck in a girl's hair, behind a rna ai yar shu rna penso yar buk
boy's ear .. a shoe balanced on the top edge of an open door, on m'ai yashu m'penso yabuk
the teacher's desk or hanging from a light! Yishu y'buk
Each student in turn is to quickly mention an object and its y'shu
color. you yu ya yl y' my mai rna m'

120 121
mine, yours he, she· man, wonuln, boy, girl

My often becomes just a closed-lip resonance before vowels Is that pencil yours? Point to a pencil, then at its owner.
and voiceless consonants.
Izee'penso yurzs s -t p- Sound Change 11
my moi smooth, no break
Yes, it's m i n e . , z , ; , s 40
my eye m'oi a very brief break after m'
yesl'smoin -ts Sound Change 20
You, your often become yl before vowels and voiceless con­ 175 a, the, your - confusion drill
sonants. For y' the front, not the tip, of the tongue closes up Write these variants on the chalkboard for the students to
against the top of the mouth very briefly. copy into their remember them better! Then
to school t'skuo the tip of the tongue stops the air learners in turn read aloud down the list making the appro­
your school y'sku o front behind the tip stops the air priate gestures as to the meaning of each. If the pronunciation
to your school t'y'skuo tip, then behind the tip closes up is not ~ood, practical enough, dictate them by random for
Now go back to your seat! nao go beek t'y'sit the students to write them by sounds... phonetically.
Give this to your teacher. glv this t'y'tichar a a Touch one of the fingers sticking up. (See 153)

174 Practice these until said smoothly, at the speed of saying the· tha Touch the thumb of the same hand.

each X times in 10 seconds, as shown by the little numbers. your· ya Point at the chest of the person spoken to.

Review 163, 164 for the pronunciation of -- 's + colors. Practice these groups of 3 until each series is said in 10
Hold up 1 finger then point with it at 1 thing to show that seconds the number of times shown by the little figures.
-z is the singular is, not the plural - aiz == eye's not eyes.

a book abuk Point at anyone of several lying about.
1 My eye's brown. Your shoe's black. 7 (7 times in 10 seconds) the box thabaks The only box in view. Pass it around.
m'aiz braun y'shuz bleek your shoe yashu 7 Point down at a shoe of the
My book.'s blue. Your pencil's yellow. yelo - slow, careful person you are speakinq to.
m'buks blu y'pensozhela 7 yela - fast, popular
2 Is my eye brown? Yes, your eye's brown. s + y = sh 43 I see a book. asi abuk Point 2 fingers of a hand ou~
IZ m'oi broun11 yeshloiz braun 10 I see the box. asitha baks from the eyes towards the
I see your shoe. asi yashu 4 the object. I ai == a Sd.Olge 2
Is your eye black?
Izhl ai bleek 11
Yes, my eye's black. z + y = zh 44
yes m'aiz bleek 10
3 This is your hand. (reach over That's your shoe. (point down at That's a book.
thee 'sa buk Not near either person. J:::/
thlslzha heen' and touch it) theet shar shu the farther one) That's the box. thee'sthabaks Point to wherever it is. . .'
4 Is this your pencil? No, it's yours. (Point to the questioner's That's your shoe. thee'shashu 4 S+ y=sh Sound Change 43
IZlshl penson nOI'shurzss pencil then at the ques­ shishu
nOlchurzs s 11 tioner) t + sh == ch 45 Is that a book? Izee'abuk Yes yes eet~Sh.Ch.23
5 Is that your shoe? Yes, it's mine. (Point at the shoe then to Is that the box? Izee'thabaks " 21
Izeechlshu 12 yesl' smain 9 yourself) Is that your shoe? Izeechashu 4 "~ t+y=ch 41
6 Practice this QA well because many ESL learners in their
Izeechlshu ~ a= I 3
own languages are conditioned to say Yes, it isn't in reply ES,L learners should automatically understand, feel, that

to an untrue negative question. ya, yl, sha, shl, cha, chi mean you or your.

Isn't this your shoe? The questioner loudly taps his pencil 176 man - woman, boy - girl, he - she

IZnI'shur shu 8 and looks sideways at the other's shoe. man - woman Point to actual persons or pictures of a man and
No, it isn't. It's your pencil. a woman. Both the ee of man and the 0 of
nOI'lzn Ichur pense woman are lengthened before the voiced -n
7 mine - yours Practice these well here because many ESL of man and the -m- of woman. But -man of
learners feel it strange to use them after nouns because my
woman is weak with the lips closed for -m­
and your come before nouns.
opening upfor -n with the tongue up against
Is this shoe mine? Lift up a foot and knock on the shoe.
the top of the mouth.
IZI'shu main 10 Tap your chest for mine. Review the vowels 0 u u. Work for a good
Yes, it's yours. s + y == sh, t + sh = ch definite u between 0 and u. Then reverse
the order, u u o. When said well say them to
big-little long-short
high~low Is she .. he a .. ?
start woman. u uo m ••n With 0 it may be a little dialectual but
many ESL learners won't sayan acceptable u after w{u) with­ back out through the nose. Test to see if a puff of air out the
out it. The 0 tends to fade away in fast speech. nose makes the flame of a burning match flicker. See 26. -ngh '
man woman Continue to say sho- and ar separately for a long time, even
ma-n wuoman years. Otherwise, many ESL learners confusedly say something
boy - girl like shirt, shot or shut. For a clear -t at the end add a weak a.
Point out a boy... and a girl and say boy in 2 parts, bo- i. But Keep in mind the 3 parts, sho- ar tao With time they will
learn to say girl in 3 parts. First review u ar a of the vowel blend into one syllable with a longer 0 in the middle.

series, with special attention to ar and a. " " .., high -low hai 1.¥
I <'Oi'~
1 ga Clearly say a then gao v '-" Raise a hand high up above the head as you say high
2 ar separately apart, alone, 1 sound. I and lower i,t to around the ankle for low. Obviously I
8 0 -I = 0 See Sound Change 48. wink an eye. Point up to it and say high eye - hai ai. I
Practice ga ar 0 well as 3 separate parts. Step on someone's toe. Point down to it and say low
Then as gar - o. As you bring them together say gar -uro and toe - 10 to. Wink for high and stomp for low as cues.
finallygaruro. See Sound Change 49.
he - she
boi - garuro

Be sure that the speaker looks directly at the person spoken

to and with a hand points sideways, without looking, at the
he - she person, Put a palm of a hand down on the top of a
head of a student looking the wrong way and turn it like a
For students who can't say 1- well or confuse low ­
no, review how to say 1- before a vowel. See 162. ulo

The eye's high. The toe's low.

th' aiz hai th' toz ulo

Review of this, that, is, isn't See 159, 167

Pass around a long strip of paper .. torn from a news­
doorknob to look at the person spoken to. From behind with paper, a cash register tape, a length of toilet tissue.
the other hand take a hand of the speaking student and point Put a bright yellow pencil up high where all can easily see it..
it sideways at the he - she person. on the top edge of an open door, up on a window frame or of
If sh is a problem contrast ssss - shshshsh changing from a the chalkboard, hanging from a ceil ing light...
wide smile to lips as for a kiss. With the forefingers push the A student replies using the full 2-part answer to practice It's ­
center of the cheeks in against the back teeth. Or whistle isn't, high - low well. Point at or touch, such as rustling the
and without changing the lips say sssss. For Tokyoites who say paper, an object when mentione~ and point back at the object
shito for hito think of the hishi of Mitsubishi, he - she..the whenever the word it is said.
man comes first as in old Japan! Perhaps contrast drill is - isn't IZ Izn without and with a nasal
1 77 big - little n-coloring. See Sound Change 37. Also single and double I 1'1 as in
Pass around a very big and a very 1'5 l'lzn - it's it isn't. Also, it's well to review, clarify the Sound
little ball - a basketball and a ping­ Changes shown by the cursive figures between the lines.
pong ball, a tennis ball and a grape. Is this paper short? No, it isn't short. It's long.
(Anything not shaped like a ball .'
gives other concepts of size.)
Review the vowels i let. Insist •IIIo
• 29 53 6 24
IZIS phepar sho-art
Is that pencil/ow?
23 37 46 20 6 177-long -ng
nOl'lzncho-ar'l'S b-ngh
No, it isn't low. It's high.
on a distictive I. bl II, Ig It, big lit, 29211
big hto. For little say ullto. See 162. Often the t is dropped and Iza' pht-nsolo no,',zulo 1'5 hai
you hear 11'0. See Sound Change 23.
178 Is she a ... ? Is he a ••• ? ;
big little
big ullto
long - short

•. 11'0 ~,

Pass around a long new and an old short stubby pencil saying
b and sho-art with lengthened ,. and 0- before the voiced
Always be sure that the speaker looks at the person

spoken to and points sideways at the he-she person (a

doll, dummy, picture). 'z ",i, Itshi Sound Changes 33, 12.

Is she a man? No, she isn't a man. She's a woman. f

I'shia m&n no shilzna m&n shiza wuoman '
-ng and oar. Practice short in 3 parts - shshsh ooo-ararart. For -ng
stop the air with the back of the tongue and release it down Is he a girl? No, he isn't a girl. He's a boy. '
Izia,garuro noilzna garuro hlzaboi ."
124 125
Who... ?
her - his
180 Is your.., Is her.. , Is his.., Is this.. ? Simply answer Yes or No.
179 her
Pass around a book, a pencil and a shoe as this objects. Refer
In a preceeding class ses­ to a thing of a he - she person for her - his items. Hold up 1
sion review, teach long, finger and point directly at a shoe which someone'is wearing.
short, dress, shirt and the Is your book black? Is her book brown?
colors.•white, blue .... Izhar buk bhek Izar buk braun
Pass around a full length Contrast drill zhar - zar. Start with shsh - ssss, zhzhzh - zZZ.
woman's dress and a short Point at the person spoken to for zhar (the your person)
shirLa T or sports shirt. and to a female for zar.
Sa.y a definite u before r Is this book brown? Is his book black? -s point at this
of dress, dures. Learn shirt IZIS buk braun IZ ...Z buk blek -z point at he
in 3 parts, sh ar tao When both are said well add long - short. 5 Contrast SAort and long I ..., IS I-Z. The longer ... is for his. Point
long dress short shirt back and forth to the this and his objects as each is said.
ub-ng dures sho-ert shart sho-er' shar' Is this pencil long? Is his pencil long?
Give the dress to a girl and the sh irt to a boy. Or slip one over ...ZIS pcnso bng ...Zl-S ptnso long
the back of a chair and stuff the front out with crushed news­ Contrast ZIS z...s. Before unvoiced p- h ...z becomes h ...s but it
papers for the missing sex if the class is not mixed. Place the keeps the longer .......ZIS = is this, ...Zl-S = is his. Think of his
he - she figures in front of the class, she to the far right and he as being stressed, stronger than this.
to the far left so there's no confusion as to which is which.
Each holds up a book or a pencil, or touches the dress or
Is this shoe black? Is his shoe brown?
...zl'shu blek ...z ...'shu braun
the shirt as the exercise progresses.
Her book. His book. Again contrast I .... Then with a sudden stop cleanly cut off
har buk h ...zbuk the vowel, I' ...'. Zl' z ...', ...Zl' ...z...·, ...zl'shu ...zl-'shu
h...zzzz buk
Her pencil. His pencil. Finally pass a book, a pencil and and shoe around and point
har penso h ...spenso
h...ssss pe·nso to those of he and she for each student in turn to ask about
Her dress His shirt Sound Change 39 the designated object and it's color or length. Cue by pointing
har durcs h ...'shar' See 30-6, page 16. to a color with the other hand and holding the hands wide
See the voiced sounds, their devoicing Sound Changes 1,39. apart or close together to indicat~ length.
Her dress is long. His shirt is short. 181 Who ......? I
har drcslz bong hlzsharts sho-art SIZ = SZ = SS 9 1520 Point at several students who are to say their names. Suggest
har dressl:>-ng h... 'shar'sho-ar' zsh,ssh 'sh 12 some to get them started. Tom, Dick, Harry, Sally... Then
Is her dress long? Yes, it's long. look directly at one, point sideways to some of the others and
...zar drcs I:>-ng ycsl'sb-ng ask who is such-and-such a name ..starting with a voiced sound,
Is his shirt short? Yes, it's short. unvoiced and with 5- or sh· in that order.
...z... 'shar'short ycsl'short Who is Dick? The usual careful independent question .
ar - a, her - a contrast drill See 171. hu I-Z dlk But in fast speech or as a lead-in it becomes
The teacher rapidly says these pairs, deliberately tries to con­
Who's Dick ?. as in Who's Dick talking to? Who's she dating?
fuse the students. Each in turn points to one of a similar thing huz dlk
or at the girl, where all can see, is holding one, or at the teacher He's Dick. The answering student points to the person
who has taken one from a specific girl all saw and know about. h~z dlk named. huzzz hizzz
Is this a book? Is this her book? (Hers held by the teacher) Who's Tom? hustam He's Tom. histam husss hisss
...zlsa buk ",zlsar buk Who's Sam? hu'sem He's Sam. hi'sem hut hi'
Point sideways at a specific person but look at and ask an­
Is her shoe big? Is a shoe big? (Compare one to a pencil)
...zar shub ...g other student: shu bl1l Who's he? huzi Same answers as above. fti Sound Change 33
Is that a pencil? Is that her pencil? (She holds hers in sight) Who's she? hu'shi She's Mary. shizmeri She'sSally shi'seli'a penso'ar penso
126 127
Possessive -- 's Whose... .. 's whose..... ?

182 Possessive's Whose book? It's Tom's book. (The teacher asks and answers.)
huz buk 1'5 tamz buk
Point to the teacher (your own chest) Whose pencil? It's Ana 's pencil.
for all to say teacher. Then they point hus pense I'slenas penso
to themselves and say student. Th,en Whose book? Look around at the others, one of which is
have several, whose names end with a huz buk its owner.
voiced sound, stand up - Ana, Jose, It·s...... Sam's book. A little delay in deciding who is
Yoshiko, Elmer.... The teacher and i' .... ssSlemz bukthe owner.
each of them hold up a book. Whose --'s this/ that? Don't repeat the name of the object
Point first to the person, markedly say in the answer. Drill this question well to set it well in the
the's form -z, -5 or a definite stop, and learner's mind as the natural, basic question with whose.
the object. Each student points at that or touches this objects at ran­
The teacher's book. Ana's book. Yoshiko's book. dom far and near.
th' ticharz buk eenaz buk yoshikoz buk
Whose book's this? It's Dick's.
Next everyone holds up a pencil.
huz buksls I'sdlks
The teacher's pencil. Ana's pencil. Yoshiko's pencil. Whose pencil's that? It's Ana's.
th' tichars penso eenas pense yoshikos pense hus pensoSlet l'slenaZSSS Sound Changes 29, 40.
Lastly, point to a shoe (hold up 1 finger) of each. Whose shirt's that? A man's.
The teacher's shoe. Ana's shoe. Yoshiko's shoe. hu'shar'Slet ameenzsss
th' tichar'shu eena'shu yoshiko'shu Whose dress is that? A woman's.
huzdres'Slet auomanzsss
After a dropped's say the following sh- or 5- a little longer
and stronger than usual. Sound Change 8. 184 this I that is whose•.. ? yours, mine, hers, his
teacher's shoe ticher'shshu, Tom's sock tam'Ssak This form of the question with whose near the end is less
Have each student drill the 3 items with the same person. used so is more emphatic than ~he form in 183 above, as are
Change persons with each student. also the use of the personal possesive pronouns in response.
Tom's book. Tom's pencil. Tom's shoe. mine ... Thump your own chest for my mai and touch, move
zz ss 'sh the thing when adding -no maL.n
Practice 'sh like a stifled sneeze. zz ss 'sh yours Point to the person you are speaking to yur + zzzz
Student's See Sound Change 18. hers Point to a female for her. then to the thing for's. har zz
Although -ent nouns lose the -t, student stu-'n', an added.'s his Point to a male. then to the thing. Let zsss fade away.
never becomes oz. The teacher's book. A student's pencil. For emphatic practice use the full answers.
th' ticharz buk astu-'n's penso This is whose book? It's mine. It's yours. It's his. [t's hers.
Pass around or point to: thlSIZ huz buk ,'smain Ichurzss ,'Sl-ZSS ,'sarzss
A man's shirt. A woman's dress. That's whose pencil? 43, 45
ameen'shart a uomanz dres tha's hus penso theet - thee' - tha' Sound Changes 20, 2.
Is that a woman's dress? No, it's a man's shirt. Is this book mine? yours? ..his? ... hers? Yes, it is.'a uomanz dres nOl'sa mlen'shart I-ZIS buk main yurzss hl-zss harzss yesl'l-zss
183 Whose... ? No, it isn't mine. It's yours. It's his. It's hers.
Although spelled differently whose huz is really who + 's, the nOI'l-zmain I churzs I'SI-ZSS I'sarzs
possessive. Pick up books and pencils from several students. No, it isn't yours. No, it isn't his. No, it isn't hers
Lift up the hand, with a book in it, of a well-known student. nOI'l-zchurzss nOl'l-znl-ZSs nOI'l-znarzss
Tap the book, knock on it, and ask whose it is. Answer saying Is this yours? Is this his? Is this hers? Is this mine?
the name of the student and what the object is. Do this with a I-zishurzss I-ZISI-ZSS I-Slsarzss I-SIS main
second student. Then hold up an item taken from one of the
other students and let them work out the answer as to whose Special practice
it is. I- I 1-, zzzz ssss ZZZ, IIIZZZZ ISSSSS IIIIZZZ, I-ZISJ-Z


is, are - - 's, 're are, aren't, ain't

185 is, are = 's, 're -s -z, ar Are my shoes black? Yes, they're black. Sound Change 29
~ Hold up one foot, point to its shoe, say its color ar mal yes the ar -5 the = -se
~ and shoe's - shuz as you hold up 1 finger. Hold up arma shuz bleek yesear arma= Irma

.J '.
. 2 fingers as you lift up both shoes and say their ytstr bleek
Olor and shoes're - shuzar. ytsar like Yes, sir. (sloppy?!)
. shuz blaek - shuzar bleek Is your shoe brown? Yes, it's brown. Sound Changes 44, 2
After a few students say this the speaker with Izhar shu braun yesl' sbraun IZ yur = Izhar
. the right hand points to his own chest for my, Are your shoes brown? Yes, they're brown.
- aryar shuz braun ytstr braun ar yur = aryar
\ ,and to his foot and feet. Then he points at the
. chest of the next student for your and to that 187 If not already known well, review or learn his - her. See 179.
person's foot and feet. Hold up 1 or 2 fingers of the left hand Some languages consider pants to be singular so count the legs
when saying -z or -zar ('S -s're). Practice these separately. and hold up 2 fingers when saying this word ... also 2 or more
zzzz zzzzar, zzz zzzar, zz zzar, z zar. fingers up for any form of are, and 1 up for any of is.
My shoe's black. My shoes're black. my = mai - rna - m' Is her dress blue? Yes, it's blue. (Say whatever color it is.)
m'shuz buleek m'shuzar bleek Izar drts blu ytsl'sblu Yes, it is. yesl'~z
Your shoe's brown. Your shoes're brown. your Are her shoes black? Yes, they're black. Yes, they are.
yur shuz bura ....n
shuzar braun yur yar ya y'

When mai • yur are readily said, practice mostly with the fast
a rar
arar shuz Dleek
Is his shirt white?
ytstr bleek
Yes, it's white.
Yes, it is.
(D i

forms. Write the variants on the chalkboard for special drill. IZI'shar' huait ytsl'suait ytsl'~z
3 left fingers up, tap your own chest 3 times Are his pants blue? No! (Don't say aren't or not yet!) U
mai - rna - m' (m' - hum with lips closed, mmmmm ... ) ans peens blu no 1 2
4 left fingers up, point 4 times at the next person Mix up the my, your, his, her questions. Point at the persons
yur - yar - ya - y' (y' - voiceless stop and release of the and hold up 1 or 2 fingers for the things to talk about.
air with the center of the tongue) Point at her - your' persons and contrast drill arar • aryar, are
m'shuz blaek m'shuzar bleek y'shuz blaek yarshuzar blmk 6 her, are your. For they hold up 2 or more fingers but as yet
Read, say this aloud 6 times in 10 seconds. Try for a for they don't clearly say the but work well with er (tar). Go
definite ar at first but it becomes weak almost like a. through the vowel series i let, hold up 1 or 2 fingers and con­
m'shuzar bleek ..... m'shuzableek trast drill I e, 1'5 tar (it's .. they're). I'sblaek trblaek. From the
The teacher reads, or plays the recording, one by one. Stu­ beginning ESL students should learn to pick out, hear and
dents hold up 1 or 2 fingers or more. Learning to hear or not understand e and t to mean they. So up to here don't say they
hear ar and a, especially for a plural meaning is very important. but hold up 2 or more fingers for e and t.
y'shuz bleek, m'shuzbleek, y'shuzarblcek, m'shuzbleek, y'shuz 188 they are, aren't, ain't pants, hair, eyes
blaek, m'shuzar blaek, m'shuzar bleek, y'shuz bleek, m'shuzar Review pants, counting the legs 1..2. Then with a forefinger
blaek, y'shuzbleek, m'shuzarblaek, y'shuzbleek, m'shuzarbleek and thumb make long hair into a pony tail and hold up 1 fin­
186 After the much-used z - zar for is - are have become natural ger of the other hand over the pony tail. Hair is plural in
for use between words, introduce the less frequent IZ - ar which some other languages.
are unnatural, emphatic between words but often used to start Use the complete 2-part answers for contrast drill of the ne­
a question or end a sentence. Then go to their faster forms as gative and positive forms. Later drop the part after No.
the exercise progresses. Ask if the objects are the color they No, .it's brown. No, they're black.
really are. This keeps the negative forms from clouding up
learning the positive forms.
Is your hair white? No, it isn't white. It's brown.
Izhar htr huait nOl'lzn huai'.'s braun
Is my shoe black? Yes, it's black. Pra,:tice separately
IZ rna yesl'
Are your shoes white? No, they aren't white. They're brown.
yes.' - sudden stop
'zm'shu bleek yes.' sbleek zzzzm - 'zm sssbleek - sbleek aryar shuz huait not he arn thear
nothear huai'thtr braun.

130 131

this - these, too t - those these're - those're

Are her eyes blue? No, they aren't. They're brown. Note: Some languages have 6 locations. English has just two,
arar oiz blu no theo-r ther braun near and far from the speaker. So some ESL learners find it
Are his pants blue? No, they aren't. They're brown. hard, frustrating, to made do with two.
ans peens blu no theor ther braun Pass from student to student:

Rhyme hair - they're her· ther. Point 1 finger at a head and this· a book. Tap, knock it against something

then 2 fingers of the other hand down at pants or shoes on hard ... like a student's head!

the floor. these - keys on a ring to jingle or rattle in a little box.

Point to or have someone, a nearby student, knock, playa
aren't, isn't· are, is orn or, Izn Ii • or IZ -5 ·z Sound Change 37
tune on some bottles.
Native speakers of English get the positive/negative meaning that. a chair up on a table to the left in front of the class.
more by the Yes or No rather than by the following negative, those. several bottles up on a stool, box or in a window to
which has several unstressed forms between words, as \/'Iell as the right. If. they don't have different tones when tapped
at the start of a question. So in learning these negative forms put different amounts of water in them.
do not stress them. But be careful to listen for a nasal n-color­ this - these thiS - thi-z. A short I before the unvoiced 5
ing when you think you hear IZ or or and understand is or are. and a much longer iiii before the voiced zzzz.
Even when you say IZ or or native speakers may understand thl ..••.sssss - thiiiiiii.. zzzzzz, thl .. s - thii .. z.
isn't or aren't because in fast speech is is usually -s or ·z and Thump the book, jingle or rattle the keys.
are is ar between words. So don't clearly say IZ or or unless these. those Longer vowels before zzzz as you jingle
you are being emphatic and speaking slowly. the keys and tap the bottles for musical notes.
ain't = isn't, aren't, hasn't, haven't thiii..zzzz • tho...• zzzz. thii.. z - tho.. zz
You, as a teacher, shake you head and click your tongue in thiiiizzz kiiiiiz • thoooozz bo·oooooz.
disapproval whenever ain't is said. But from the very beginning A definite stop, catch of breath after ba'
ESL learners should be familiar with this word which is so this. that thump the book, someone knocks on the chair.
popularly used by the common people .. and even by the best that. theet thee' tha' - with a definite stop cutting off
of speakers often in jest or for emphasis. the vowel. The sudden catch of the breath is perhaps
Is his shirt black? No, it ain't black. It's white!
even as important as is the vowel sound itself. A good
IZl'shar'bleek nOI'e-n'bleek I'suoit
clear ee is best but a quick grunt a is often said.
Are her shoes white? No, they ain't white, They're black. 190 This is a book these're keys that's a chair those're bottles
arar shuz huoit no theen'huoit ther bleek thlslza buk thi-zar ki-z tha'sa che-er tho-zar ba'o-zsss
th'e-n Native speakers of English should model, read alOUd, say these
Is your book blue? No, it ain't. It's black. 4 sentences all together at the speed of 3 times in 10 seconds.
Izhar buk blu nOI'e-n'I'sbleek It may take a little practice but each of them alone may not
Are your eyes yellow? No, they ain't. They're brown. sound natural at slower speeds. ESL learners can slowly work
aryar oizhelo no th'e-n'ther braun out each sound and gradually increase speed.
Ain't her hair green? No, it ain't. It's black. See 243. Review the Sound Changes 6, 48, 28, 20, 40 and 29.
e-nar her gri-n nOI'e-n'I'sbleek
Ain't his pants red?
e-nls peens ure-d
189 this· these, that· those
No, they ain't. They're brown.
no th'e-n'thear braun

In the preceeding class be sure the students know and can

Is this a pencil? Ye$, it is. Are these keys? Yes, they are.
IZlsa pe-nso yesl'lzss arthi-s ki-zss
Are those keys? No, they aren't. They're bottles.
artho-s ki-zs no thearn' ther bo'o-z

easily say pencil, keys, chair, bo ttle - phe-nso, khi-z. che-er, bo'o. Notice that thi-z. tho-z become thi-s. tho-s before''"--''''
See little in 177 and review Sound Changes 6, 48, 28, 58. ki-z. Pass around from student to student a single - ..
Especially for ESL beginners the that· those objects should key, several on ring and several small books tied
be at a distance from both the speaker and the person spoken together.
to. The items for this· these should be close to both persons ... this key these keys these books
as in the process of being handed from one to the next speaker. thlski thi-ski-z thi-zbuks

132 133
a, an, the left - righ t this is... 'l'hat's my...

Point to each item and contrast drill just Sound Changes 47, 50. The final -t is weak or make it a sudden
this thi-s thi-z unreleased stop cutting off the preceeding sound, right rai',
Quick I, longer i-. I iii, thl thii, this thiis. left Id'.. Sound Changes 11, 23, 24. As it's after a consonant
Although -z before a unvoiced consonant becomes -s, the -t of left is perhaps better linked to a following vowel. left
the vowel remains long. thi-z - thi-s, tho-z - tho-s eye - Itf tai, Sound Change 5.
191 a, an, the Parts of the Body Because of an adjective which specifies which of two, use the
rather than a, an as in 191. Review the exact pronunciation of
Review, or teach, these parts of the body, up the right and
down the left side. Review the vowel series a :> 0 u u ar a. the parts of thebody in 191.
foot fut Stomp the right foot on the floor, or threaten to the left eye th'ldtai
the left ear ~h'ltftir
kick someone with it. Review the vowels 0 u u for the u of
the left arm th'ltftarm
foot. Mention look, book ... foot. the left hand th'lef'hend
leg ule-ga Slap the right leg with the right hand the left lei th'ld'ltg

See Sound Changes 47,6,5. the left foot th'ltf'fut

hand hend Work for a good definite e but don't pay much the right foot th' rai' fut .~• •...:

attention to -d. 18 Raise the right hand up high in the air the right leg th' rai' I£og IfliZA' )

and snap the fingers, wave at someone.

arm a-ar-m As both a and ar are before voiced sounds make
the right 'hand th' rai' hend III ~ d?\ /

the right arm th' rai'arm

them long, said separately at first. a m. Slap the right the right ear th' rai'ir

arm loudly with the left hand. the right eye th' rai'ai

ear i-ar A lengthened j. before the voiced ar. Pull hard on the Say these all, up and back down, in 10 seconds.

right ear with the right hand ..

193 this - that, left - right
eye o-i This could be a simple diphthong but better to make For this touch the object mentioned. For that point to it. If a
the a long before the following voiced i. a..•i. Wink the right student says This is my .. foot make him lift it up and touch it
eye at someone. with a hand. For That's my ... leg the teacher is to quickly lift
Then point down the left side of the next student, seated up the hand of that side as high as possible. bend the wrist
to the right ... eye, ear, arm, hand, leg, foot. and point the index finger down at, but well away from, the
a, an a, an Don't say e like the letter A or en as in ant. These leg and say that. Then slap the hand down on the leg and have
are forms of one wan so keep the basic a-sound in all. the student say, This is my ... leg. Start out with a clear e in
up 1 finger for both. Change a to an for the 3 upper parts of that but change to a as the exercise progresses. the' - tha' with
the body. Join the -n to the following vowel. If a student asks a marked, definite air stoppage after --a'.

why an point to the vowel series and sayan before several This is my left eye thlSIZ m'ltftai Left hand over it.

words starting with a vowel. Up the right and down the left. This is my left ear. thlSIZ m'ltftir and so on down.

a foot, a leg, a hand, an arm, an ear, an eye This is my left arm. th,SIZ m'ltftarm Elbow up.

afut al&.g ahe-nd ano-ar-m ani-ar anai This is my left hand. tb,SIZ m'h:f'hend Snap fingers ...

24 6 6 18 5 66 6 5 This is my left leg. thlSIZ m'l&f'leg Slap it!

anai ani-ar ana-ar-m ahe-n' al&-g afu' That's my left font. the's m'lef'fut Stomp floor.

Say these all, up and then down, in 7 seconds. Point to or That's my right foot. the's maurai'fut Hit the tloor with it.

move each thing mentioned. This is my right leg. thislz maurai'lt-g Right hand slaps it.

192 this - that, left - right This is my right hand. thlSIZ m'rai'hend Wave with it.

When demonstrating left - right be sure to face in the same This is my right arm. th,s,z m'rai'arm Elbow up sideways

direction as the learners. Face away from them. With the right This is my right ear. th,SIZ m'rai'ir Right hand pulls it

hand point to or touch the parts on the right side and the left This is my right eye. th,SIZ m'rai'ai Right hand over it

hand for those on the left. Make sure the legs are not crossed .. Practice this series well until all 12 are said in 15 seconds. Use
..that'd put the right foot on the left side or vice versa! th is as a fill-in drill when there might be a break in instruction
Some students may need work on the I and r sounds. See the ..wh ile the teacher gets organ ized, is out of the room. Have a

134 135
l't'/UCfl •• un - unaer
on the - under the
brighter student act as monitor.
194 Is this your .•. ? Is that your••• ? (Review your in 185 .. 188.)
A student asks the next student. to the right. an untrue ques­
tion most of the time. Say this for parts of the body (upper
is to make 2 distinctive different sounds. The ~
most practical would be to use 2 well-bound
books of different sizes, one in each hand, or the
same book swiftly thumped on top and up
left) of the next student and that for those not in easy reach. I!G;;t
After a few times change from the slower to the faster forms. from under. Perhaps you'll need to change the _oiII....._ . . . .
See Sound Changes 41 .. .44,2, 3. points of contact so that the on and the under •
Is this your right foot? Point at the next student's left eye. sounds are distinctively different. a ar
IZIS yur I f a student does not pronounce well enough the first time
IZlshar No, it's my left eye. keep repeating the same thump or knock until the pronuncia­
IZlshl rai'fut nOI'sm'ltf'ai tion is acceptable. Gradually increase the speed of the com­
plete utterances until both are said together 15 times in lO se­
Is this your left foot? No, it's my left ear. conds. This may take several weeks of daily practice.
IZlsha lef'fut nOI'sm'ltftir an andar, an andar, an andar ......
Is that your right leg? No, it's my right foot.
IZ thlet yur
ESL speakers with a British English background to speak
Americanese would do well to learn to say a in on, not ::l, and
Izachar rai'leg nOI'sm'rai'fut

ar at the end of under, not a. ::In - anda ... an andar

Is this your right arm? No, it's my left arm.
Review the vowels a ::l 0 U U ar a and contrast drill a ar a in
IZlsharai' arm nOI'sm'leftarm
that order. Write a on the chalkboard and under it a. J"'I Yl
Is that your left foot? Yes, it is.
To the right of a leave space for a couple of letters" d
IZ8Chl Itf'fut
195 Which•••. ?
This / that one is ...
-zsss SC 40
one - as a pronoun
and write ar. Tap the aon the chalkboard 1 time SII\ ~r
and then 2 taps on a and ar. a .... a.•ar. After drilling JI U
Questioningly. undecidedly look at. point back and forth at 2 • a ..... a few times startle the class by slapping a book
or more things. Point at them with the left hand and then at down on the table as you say on,. an. Then thump up from be­
the person concerned with the right hand. lows as you say under, andar. Use tlie single and double thumps
Which is your right hand? This one. Hold it up. as cues for each student in- turn to say an .. andar.
hUIChiz yur this wan When the vowels a, a, ar are said well enough beside a write n
Ulchlzhar rai'hlend thlsuan and below it nd between a and ar. Continue 1 and 2 thumps to
Which is your left foot? That one. The speaker moves it. drill an • andar. If the students have desks or chairs with writ­
hUlchlzha Itf'fut thle'uan ing arms each can do the knocking for the next student.
Which is your pencil? This one's mine. 197 on the table - under the table
ulchlZhl pense thlsuanz main Now change to 2 quick knocks -for on the and 3 for under
Which is her book? That one's hers. mine, hers, his the - an tha - andar tha, down on and up from under. Perhaps
hUlchlzar buk tha'uanzarz See 184. drill just the vowels a a, a ar a. Then drill well an tha, andar tha
Which is his book? .. chair? That one's his. Have a boy hold because many ESL beginners hear these both to be some sort
hUIChlZIZ buk tha'uanzlzss up a book and of anda. The double and triple rhythm, thumps, are almost as
hUIChlZIS cher walk away from important to understanding the meaning as the vowels them­
39 his chair. selves.
Contrast drill hUlchlzhar - hUlchlzar, hUIChIZIZ' hUIChIZIS. Point •• an tha • •• andar tha
at the your-her persons when saying zhar - zar ESL learners Add table with 3 and 4 thumps, 2 quick and a slight delay
should know that his can be either IZ or IS and not try to say for the 3rd, and 3 quick with a delayed 4th ......., .......
Z before unvoiced sounds. It's unnatural to say hlzchtr. for an tha te-bo, andar tha te-bo. With increased speed tha be­
196 on - under the table comes th', Work for a good clear lengthened e- in table, with
-0 for -Ie at the end. The ·d· of under becomes weak or just a
For fast drilling thump something rather solid down onto a
table top and knock another solid object up against the under definite breath stop. See Sound Changes 6, 48, 18. Work up to
side of the table top or at the top of a leg out of sight. The idea saying this pair 8 times in lO seconds.
an th' te-bo, an' ar th'te-bo 8
're on.. 're under the
198 The book's on / under the table. here - there
Now use 1 solid book and tie together 2 or 3
~ smaller ones which give a noticeably different Ask questions, Is the.. ? Are the .. ? and answer Yes or No


. , thumping sound from that of the 1 book. Later repeating the name of the object asked about just the same
put a chair on the table and the book(s on it. as said in the above examples.
o Practice well each of the examples before go­
Is the pencil under the table? No, it's on the wall.
ing on to the next. Under the last phonetic line
Izth'pensolan'ar th' tebo nOI'san th' W:JO
are the numbers of the Sound Changes that ex­
Is the table under the chair? Yes, the table's under the chair.
plain what happens to sounds in fast speech.
Izth'te-bolan'ar th'cht-r ytS th'te-bozan'ar th' ch&r
The book's on the table. Hold up an impressive book and
Is the chair under the table?
th' buksan th' te-bo 11 knock on it with the knuckles of
Izth'ch£ru randar th'tebo 10

4 5 6 48 the free hand. Say this 11 times in No, the chair's on the table..and under the book.
no th'chtrzan th' tebo ... n'an'ar th'buk 6
10 seconds.
The books're under the table. under _an'ar. not a nar
199 here, there (a place not near the person spoken to) See 189 Note:
th'buksaruran'ar th' te-bo 9 ar + vowel = arur + vowel SC 52

I .-
Not far from the main, the door used most to
Say both together 5 times in 10 seconds.

. go in and out, put a stack of books up on a box.
Alternate the positions of the 1 book and the several tied
ITJ chair or table so they can be easily seen by the
together. This is learn to say, or not say, ar. When ESL stu­
W class. The books and the door should be in the
dents smoothly. naturally. do this they will become able
same general area but far enough apart so that
to pick out, hear. the ar-sound. it's easy to see which is being pointed at.
The teacher can model anyone of these at fast speed or play
Students in turn talk to the next person to
them at random from the recording for the students to hold
, speak, usually close to the right. If more than
up 1 or several fingers of the left hand and pOint up or down
about a meter away the feeling of here-there becomes con­
with the right hand. fused .. When too far apart the teacher could be the next per­
son spoken to and then goes to beside the next student.. as
The book's on the table. The books're under the table. perhaps at the end of another row of students.
th'buksan th' te-bo th'buksaruran'ar th' te-bo 5 here - ht-ar for exact sounds but usually written hir, or just 'ir
The books're on the table. The book's under the table. as the h is often dropped. Sound Change 33. The cue is to
th-'buksaruren th' te-be th'buksan'ar th'te-bo point down between or near the feet of the speaker.
there - tht-ar for exact sounds, usually written thtr. The th is
At the end of the preceeding class session, review, teach
often lost to become just '£r. Sound Change 29. For begin­
wall, floor, chair. W:J O , fulo-ar, ch&ar (u:Ju, flo-r, ch&r). See
ners be sure to point to somewhere not near the person
Sound Changes 48, 47, 6. (After vowels ar is written with r.)
spoken to .. in this case towards the door or the books.
Put a chair up on a table and a book on the chair. Affix ..
At first insist on a good clear lengthened vowel, iiii or eett
stick, pin, tape, tie an easily distinguished pencil up on a
before the voiced ar because with the loss of hand th the i and
wall. Dump, drop with thuds a bunch of books under the
e in effect carry the meanings. The students in turn point back
table. Some ESL learners are puzzled by the uses of on. so
and forth at their feet and at a distant spot as they say,
drill these examples well. hi-er - the-ar, ir - tr, i- e
The book's on the chair on the table. on _uran 5<1. Chge. 52
200 is / are / there
th'buksan th'ch£-ruran th'te-bo 7
A pencil's here. Hold up a pencil in the left hand. Point to
The table's under the chair under the book. aptnsozir several others with the right hand.
th'te-bozan'ar th' ch£-ruran'ar th' buk 6 My hands're here. Hold them up.... and clap.them.
The pencil's on the wall. The paint's on the ceiling. m'hcenzar hir my - the speaker taps his own chest.
th'pe..nsozan th' W:JO 10 th' peon's on th,' siting
The door's there. The left forefinger points directly at it.The
The books're under the table on the floor. te-bo on =
th'dorztr right hand waves in that direction.
th"buksaruran'ar th' te-bolan th' flo-r te-bolan SChA9
The books're there. The left hand fingers point at the books.
th'buksar thtr The right motions towards them.
Is / Are .... there?
Where's.. Where're a, some
Using the same objects practice
Where's the ..• ? Where're the ... ?
It's here. Hold up a pencil, point down at the feet. Because "S th' becomes a rath er indistinct melded devoiced

,'sir glide many ESL learners hear -sth' and th' to be the same. Also

They're here. Clap the hands, point at the feet. many native speakers of English use Where's the for both one

ther hir or several things. Where's my money and where's my shoes!

It's there. Left forefinger up for it and point it at the Of course the final plural -s helps to understand singular or

I'ser door. The right hand motions to the door. plural but itis often weak or assim il'ated into the next sound.

After a little group practice, speaking in unison, choral repe­ ESL learners should know about and become conditioned to

tition, each student in turn from memory says a pair, perhaps perceiving, unconsciously after suitable practice of saying, the

repeats them for 10 seconds or the number of times shown by short and longer ar as well as the short th' and the longer -sth'.

the little figures at the end. Contrast drill

A pencil's here. It's here. It - already mentioned are ar .. a short single. ar
s pensozir I'sir 9 specific pencil -re're arar - ar- double at first, later just a little longer than
My hands're here. They're here. the short ar. See Sound Change. 9. ar ar-, ar ar-, ar ar­
m'henzar hir ther hir 6"
ore's the arsssssth' - arssth' • arsth' (much like -rst in worst)
The door's there. It's there. -re're the ararararth' - ararth' - ar-th (as in earth)
th'dorztr ,'str 8
The teacher points to one or several things here and there for

students in turn to ask Where.. questions.

The books're there. They're there.8 thtr thu

th'buksar thtr thtr thtr - --..
Where's the pencil? It's here (in my 17and.) Hold it up.

huerzsth'ptnso ,'sir urm m'haend zth'p = sth'p SC 39

In they're there, for the first thtr hold up several fingers

of the left hand and point at the books. For the second
Where're the hands? They're here. The questioner's hands

hutar-th' haenzss ther hir touch those of the stu­

thtr the right hand makes a definite motion away from
40 dent who answers.

the speaker towards where the books are.

Keep the tone up for the first, stress and lower it for the
Where's the door? It's there. The only one or most­
hutrzth'dor ,'str used one of the room.

Where're the pencils? They're there (on the table.) Several in a

201 Is I Are .... there? hutar-th'ptnsoz thtr thtr uron th' te-bo glass there.

For the here items both speakers should be within easy reach 202 52
~W~ ~
of them and pOint down between the feet of the questioner. a - For a point to, touch one of several si- -s.z
Here the learners, in response to a question using the indefi­ ar

milar objects lying around, easily seen or •

nite article a, are to repeat the a object in the answer. But passed from student to student. Silent cue

if a specifying adjective is used in the question, the answer can - hold up one finger.

be with a pronoun, such as it or they. some - For things that can be counted one

Is a pencil here? Yes, a pencil's here. a - one of many by one put several of the same thing toge·

Iza ptnso hir ytsa pensozir ther. ... pencils with a rubber band around

Are my hands here? Yes, they're here. Reach out and them. boxes nestled inside each other. As

ar m'henz'ir ytstr hir touch them. a silent cue of plurality hold up several

Is a book there? Yes, a book's there. Look around and fingers.

,za buk thtr ytsa bukstr point at I of several.. For things not countable hold up I

Are the books there? Yes, they're there. A specific group finger for singular, a little water in a bot­

arth'bukstr ytstr thtr already mentioned tle, sugar or money (coins and bills) in a

Is the door there? Yes, it's there. The only door of plastic bag, milk in a carton on the teacher'S desk.

Izth'dor thtr ytsl'str of the classroom. Pass around the here items. Point to the others. Work for a
Is a door there? Yes, a door's there. I of several seen in or good ar for the plural objects.
Iza dor thtr ytsadorztr from the classroom. A pencil's here. Said as it is passed on to the next person.
Where'soo Where're there ... ?
feet, legs, arms, hands
Some pencils're there. In a glass on a table.
For additional practice use the full 2-part replies.
sam pensozar ther
Some sugar's here. Sample it from a plastic bag being Is there a door there? Yes, there is. There's a door there.
Izerura dor thcr yescrurlz therza dor ther
sam shugarzir passed around.
A book's there. Point to one at a distance. Are there some books there? Yes, there are.
abukscr arthcr sam bukser ycserurar
Some money's here. Jiggle it in a bag or box as it is passed There're some there.
ther'sam ther
sa'manizir along. satflmani Sound Change 9
A chair's here. The speaker touches his own. (Often there're becomes just ther)
achcrzir Is there a pencil here? Yes, there is. There's a pencil here.
Izcrura penso hir yescrurlz therza pcnso hi-ar
Some chairs're there and there and there. Point at several
sam chcrzar thcr n ther n ther at a distance. Is there some water in tlie bottle? Yes, there is.
Some students're here.... and there. Point at several nearby Izcr sam wa'arurln th' ba'o ycscrurlzs s
sam stu'nsar hirn ther and others farther away. Yes, there's some water in it.
203 Where's there ..... ? Where're there ..... ? ycscr'Sam wa'arurlnlt
To most ESL learners the idiomatic use of there in There is.. ,
Is there a teacher and some students here?
Izerura ticharn sam stu'nsir
There are.. is unneeded. In this idiomatic use there gives the
feeling of doubt, uncertainty as to if such-and-such a thing is Yes, there's a teacher and some students're here too.
or is not, at some place. So in this exercise when saying there, yeserza tichar'n sam stu'nsar hir tu
not a place or location at a distance, look around doubtfully, Perhaps contrast drill - long and short ar, weak and strong 5
be uncertain, quiver the voice in worry or exasperation, plain­ there're some books there's some water
tively mutter the question ... Where would such a thing be.... ! thcarar sam thcarzsam Sound Changes
Practice these following questions and answers, repeatedly thcar-sam thcarssam 9 39
over several class sessions, until they feel natural, are absorbed, thcarsam buks thcar'Sam wa'ar 9, 8 thcar = ther
internalized ... illogical as they may seem to ESL learners! 204 in front of, beside, behind, between
Condition the students that in response to a Where question, Before working with these positions the students are to have
the answer has here or there near or at the end of it.
learned or reviewed, as at the end of the preceeding class ses­
Where's there some water? sion, the nouns, left - right, my - me as given below.
There's some water on the table. feet fit Thump, stomp both feet loudly on

There's some water there on the table. - more natural. the floor. Hold up the 2 forefingers and point

Where're your feet?

one at each foot. Say long fffff, quick i and

They're on the floor under my chair.

stop the breath for a wea k -to Sound Change 24

They're on the floor here under my chair.

legs le-gz - ulc-gzs s Move the legs apart and

Where's there a door? There's a door there. The questioner back together knocking the knees! If you

hucrzerura dor therza dor ther looks around.

have trouble saying I+a vowel bite the tip of

52 unseeingly! the tongue, clearly say u and change to a

Where're there some books? There're some there on the table. long ecce as the tongue tip goes in and down

hucrar ther sam buks thcr-sam thcruron th't&-bo

behind the lower front teeth. Say ga and go

huar- 9 -zs- = -55- = -~S- 39,9

into a long zzzz fading into a weak ss. See

Where's there some water? There's some here (in this bottle). Sound Changes 47, 6 and 40. uleeeegazzzss s
hucrzcr sam wa'ar thcr'Sam hir UrlnlS ba'o

29 23 52 28 23
arms o-ar-mz Swing both arms forward and

backward rubbing the sides and hips. Make

Where's there some money? There's some here. s;r;a mani

both a and ar long as they are before voiced

hucrzcr s'mani ther'sam hi-ar Sd. Chges. 4,9

sounds. With the lips together hum mmmm

Where're there some pencils? There're some there. and continue the buzzing into zzzz. o-ar-mzz

hucar- thcr sam pcnsoz thear sam thcr

hands hce-nz Clap your hands. Start with a

in front of. beside, behind, between is, are - at a place me-my

S C 5,47,50, 24 ~

hissing hhhh. Then a long cecece before the left - right ulefl!lt urait

voiced n but keep the lips separated for a . ';:,~. Face away from the learners. Look in \)

hum nnnnn with the mouth open a little. ",-'~~ in the same direction as they do. Extend

The -d has no sound before -s or oz. SC30 ," .;; :;s. the left arm far to the left, wave it and

Repeat these up from the feet until easily said. Make the sug­ say left. Then the right hand far to the right and say right. Al­

gestive motion, cue, for each ... stomp, shake the legs, swing the ternate or repeat as you move the corresponding hand.

arms and clap hands. For ESL learners having trouble with r· or I· see 162 and 192.
205 in front of in fura-ntav = nfrana Rapidly practice
• Extend the arms straight out forward level with the
left· right lefturai' The final ·t of left joins the u (lip
t shoulders. Point forward from the chest.
rounding of prevocalic r). ·t is an unreleased stop. SC 24.

in - With the lips open hum a short nn.
right· left rai'lef' The final -t of both becomes a sudden
front of - With the lips still open hiss ffffuu and smile
stop. Some students will say Icp'. So with the point of
as u changes to a long aaa before voiced -no The ton­
a pencil push the 'upper lip up away from the bottom
gue is not to move. If it flips up put a sharp pencil point in 2. 5
lip. Stop the air down in the throat, not with closed lips.
cm. on top of it. The lips kiss around the pencil to say u. The
in front of, beside, behind, between, left, right 3 times in
t is weak or disappears and of i!> just a before consonants.
nfura-na b'sai' b'hain' b'tui-n lefturai' 10 seconds
Practice a • a, ana (not ana). aana, uraaana, furaaana, Are - is for where things are.,
nfurana. See Sound Changes 36,50,6,18,35. Hold up 1 finger for any form of is, Os, -z, and 2 fingers up for
beside bisaid - blsaid - basaid - b'said Sound Changes 3,2,4 ar meaning' reo Pay attention to the lengthened vowels and to
First get the meaning of side well in mind. the stops, pauses, short breaks where a sound is dropped. t4tpn,
rub the palm of the right hand up and down the
.!Ieft side from under the arm pit to the hip, and
left palm up and down the right side. As you slap
up and down repeat side, side, 'side - said, said, said ....
be- bi - bl • ba • b' For b' put the lips tight together and hold
in, stop the flow of air. Then let it burst out with a puff of air,
much like described in Sound Change 53. Only clearly say bi

feet're in front of Stomp, make a noise with the f e e\ t
on the floor. Lift them up forward
in the air. Hold up the 2 forefingers and
point each at its respective foot.
fi'arn like fee earn, tea urn

arms're beside Swing the arms forward and back.

a-ar·mzar b'saj.' Draw out, lengthen aj. before a

~ t)

(like a bee) to clarify the word for some student who already missing voiced -d, but cut it off

knows some English. suddenly. Don't let it fade out.

Freely swing the arms back and forth lightly touching the zzzzar - hold up 2 fingers.
hips saying beside each time the arms alternately go by. left hand's behind Extend the left hand far to ~
behind bihaind blhaind - b'hain' -n~ Sound Change 18 lef'hz-z b'hain' the left then swing it up be­
o Rub, slap your buttocks, the part of the body you use hind the back. Slap, knock
• to sit and say hind, haind. Put, hold your hands toge· the backbone with it. "'
bahaind ther and hit them against the lower back as you say right's between legs Hold the right hand out A
~~ behind - b'hain'. urai's b'tuj.n Icgzss to far right, then slap it ~\~I
_~ Have a student stand up. From behind unexpectedly loudly between the knees.

Ib 1\ grab a hand and pull it up between the shoulder blades. Don't say right hand so that the students be- ~

!f , As he cries in pain make him say behind. come used to an adjective taking the place of c:::

between b'tui-n a noun, and to's being s after unvoiced con­

sonants. For legs see 204.

With the left palm towards the
,,- class hold up the forefinger and say 0-0 206 Locations - complete sentences
one. Touch the middle finger and ­
, / say two. wan· tu. Slowly say tu •.i-n (two .. een). ' ( These 2 are only 1 word in other languages. My is
from the speaker out to something. Me is a rela­
Put a pencil or the other forefinger down into the V several
times saying b'tui-n each time, with i- before ·n clear and long.
0 , tionship towards the speaker. So for my tap your
chest and point to something. For me, hold your

144 145
he, she - him, her
Who's .. Who're .. ?
arm out in front, bend the forefinger back towards yourself and
then it comes towards you and hits your chest. See 208. He's behind her. She's behind him. •
Note that -n combines with m- after it to make only 1 strong hiz b'haindar shiz b'haindlm. .;A(;" J!~'
longer m-. behind me
b' hai'm-i
between my
b'tu;"m-ai Sound Change 17
Practk~ each sentence separately until you can say each x
She's in front of him.
shizm franahlm
1) \
He's in front of her. / If}~-8'' '"
times in 10 seconds, as shown by the little numbers at the end. Is she behind him? Ie he behind her? . '~
Then work up to saying all 4 together 2 times in 10 seconds ... Ishi b'haindlm Izi b'haindar .,
from memory! ...without reading them! No, she's in front of him! No;he's in front of her!
My feet're in front of me. m'fi'arn fura-na mi 10 no shizm franta him noizm franta har
My arms're beside me. m'a-ar-mzar b'sa;"'ml 9 ;m SC 17 209 Where's he? Where's she?
My left hand's behind me. m'lef'hm-nz b'hai-'ml hutrzi hutrsh i
My right's between my legs. murai's b'tu;"'mult-gzss 8 40 He's here in front of her. She's there behind him.
207 Locations· questions and answers one - the other hizirurln franavar shiztr b'haind 1m
one - the other wan· th'athllr. Hold up 2 fingers. Touch Where're you? Where am I?
either for one and then the other when saying the other. hu&ar·yu hu&rmai
The instructor points with the left hand at the person who Fm here behind you. You're there in front of me.
is to speak. Then with the right at the part of the body asked m hir b'hainja yar thtrurln franaml
about and to a location to be mentioned, perhaps not where Am I beside you? No, you're here behind me.
the body part is. Don't use you, your but only the at this time. 'mai b'sai-ja no yar hir b'haj.'ml
Are the feet behind? No, they're in front. 210 Who is •. are .. am .. ?
arth'fi'b'hain' no thtr unn fra-nt
Without really looking point sideways with the left hand at a
Is the right hand behind? No, it's between the legs. person. Look directly at and ask another person who the per­
Izth'rai'ham'b'hain' nOI's b'tu;"n th' Itgzss
son to the side is. With the right hand vaguely point at others
Where's the left foot? Ifs in front.
and suggest names. If the person asked doesn't know. have him
huerzth' lef'fut ,'Sin fra-nt
Are the hands beside the feet? say so and you supply the name. Be sure that -z for is becomes
arth' hmnz b'sa;"'th' fit -s before unvoiced sounds and is dropped before s- and sh·
making them stronger. Sound Changes 8,9,12, 39.
No, one's behind and the other's between the legs. Who's he? ... Tom, Dick or Harry? I don't know. St,a y th,is 17
no wanz b'hain'n'th'otharz b'tu;"n th' It-gzss
The right one's between the legs. Where's the other one? hUZI. tam d I k ar hmn ad ano 17
Imes In
10 seconds.
th'rai'wanz b'tu;"n th' Itgz hutrz th'athar wan He's John.. He's Tom. He's Sam.
The other's behind. Thump the backbone with it. hizjan histam hi'scem
th'atharz b'hain' Who's she? She's Nancy. She's Anna. She's Shirley.
208 he, she • him, her hu'shi shiz nmnsi shizmna shi'sharll
The speaker and the person spoken to, he and she stand one Who're you? Fm John Doe.
in front of the other, then change places as needed as setups hur yu m jan do........................•.

for these statements and questions. Point 1 finger of one hand Mix up the Where and Who questions which often confuse
at and then curve it away from the first person (subject) to be ESL learners, Write them up on the chalkboard for ready re­
mentioned. Then curve 2 fingers of the other hand towards the ference as to how they differ. Upon seeing the exact "
second person (object) to be mentioned. Some action, feeling sounds learners begin ~o h~ar ~nd saY,the di;fe:ences, ~/~~
goes from he· she (originators) and towards him· her (receivers). hur yu, hutr yu, hUZI, hu Shl, hutrzl, hutr shl .. ,. '~~'
211 above, over, on, off, in, out, under, beneath, below ' ,. ­

I n the preceeding class session or earlier go over, learn, .~.;~,_~
".:1J.I. review these nouns so that having to use them will not' ­
~ clutter up, detract, cloud up learning these up-down, in- <;;
out concepts and the words to express them.
above, over, on, off in, out, beneath, below

sun san Point high up as towards the noon sun overhead. in In Put a pencil or a finger into your mouth.
Shield your eyes and wipe the sweat off your forehead. out aut Stick out your tongue. Remove the pencil or finger.

"4itr'- Draw a circle with rays out from it. See page 147, bottom.
Ceiling siuling Point up to the 4 corners and sides
of the classroom ceiling. Make sweeping motions
under andar Slap the back of a hand up under the chin. See
196. Review on - under.
beneath b'nith Native speakers are not conscious of the mean·
ings of beneath and below and. often use under for both. With

from corner to corner. side to side. Tap it with a long
stick. the back of a hand under the chin for under, look down at
~ Floor fule>r Stomp on it with a foot. Point down at and rub your stomach with the other hand as you repeat
~ _ several places here and there on the floor. under... beneath.
-:::":~-::::': ­ hand, head hEnd h&-d Snap the fingers of a hand . below b'la Say it almost like blow but with a puff of air out
.•,flo-or Slap. knock it against a head as you say these words. after b' or say bulo if you have trouble with I + vowel. Point
. . . . class kulES Point around at the stu­ down low at your feet and then at other places on the floor.
dents. Sweep a hand over them as a Pair drill over - below. Over ­ from side to side up high. Below­
group. Mention your school name. from side to side down low. Beneath is more for only one
stomach stamak Rub place lower than another. Below extends across a distance.
your own happily! Write parts or all
• abav
mouth mauth Open of this outline on
the chalkboard as OVR
and shut yours. Give
a Bronx cheer. ready reference to ~
Use the right forefinger for pointing to students as to who is
to say or do whatever. Use or hold in position the left hand or
forefinger to indicate the concepts, meanings of these location
imprint by sight
the meanings and
Sound Changes

II * [!]
vf 40, .d 24,"m 17
above - abav Point the left forefinger up as high as possible at
only one spot, as if pointing at the sun. The two vowels are
of = a 35 ----b'lo ~
really the same sound but the second is stronger. Poneticians 213 sun above
s~~abavvff ,~?r(t~ ~~ "~','
::;d~:~"d ~~il '~"'~"",
sometimes write it with fl. Don't worry about weak or strong ceiling over q", ,",'

but get the quality of the vowel correctly. hand on head
Perhaps contrast drill b - v. b - lips tight together, then the off head :>f hc-d '-. ' ~ \
air explodes out. v - the lower lip lightly touches the upper in mouth ,'mauth ' ,
teeth and lets the air go out easy all the time. It can start out of mouth autamauth ,:-'I. ~.~ )
with a vibration in the throat which often gets weak and the hand under hE-ndandar T
sound becomes fffff. See Sound Change 40. stomach beneath stamak b'nith -.­ .~. ,
over ovar Point the left forefinger at the corners and sides of floor below fle>r b'lo 1 .1.

the ceiling and move it in a curve upwards towards the cen­

214 Practice these until easily said in response to a silent cue. Say
ter and down a little across to the other side. Also you can
each X times in 10 seconds as shown by the little numbers.
hold a large sheet of paper or cardboard level over the head
Read all 9. sentences together in 15 seconds.
up about 10 to 20 cm. as you say over. 'Across from side to
side' is the basic concept of over. The sun's above the school. th'sanzabavfth'skuo 8
The ceiling's over the class. th'siling~ovar th'klES 8
on an Slap down and hold the palm of the left hand on a
head.. your own or that of a student. Point at or touch un­
My hand's on my head. m'hEnla'm'h&-d 10
der the hand with the right forefinger as you repeat on. It's off my head. ,'s:>f m'h&-d 12
The pencil's in my mouth. th'p&-nsoz,'m'mauth 9
off :>f Slide the hand 10 .. 15 cm. off to the side level with the at
It's out my mouth. ,'sou'a m'mauth 12
top of the head. Move it back and forth as you repeat on-off,
My stomach's beneath my mouth. m'stamaks b'nith m'mauth 8
on·off several times. Contrast drill a- :>. Review a :> 0 u u of The floor's below the ceiling. th'fle>rz b'la th'siling 9
the vowel series.
148 149
Ll!) ne
pick up, put down, open shut/close, read
Do .. 2,word verbs .. ?
215 pick up, put down, read, open, shut I close it
216 Pass around from student to student the one same distinctive

pick up plkap pick With the left hand grasp
"'- something between a forefinger and a thumb..a book. After a few times of clearly saying oi • yu for I - you go
It pencil lying on a desk, a pin on the floor, pick to the faster forms a - Va. ESL learners not famil iar with the a •
~ at your nose, grasp and pull on a button. For
ya forms often confuse I and you in real life, especially ycsa
up, with the right forefinger point, thrust upwards. Silent cue and ycsha - Yes, 1... - Yes, you...
for pick up: forefinger and thumb together and I ift, raise. The teacher ·first does and says the actions. Shut - fast action,
close - slow and careful. At the start for 2-word verbs put the
[ . . . ~ ope. op'n Say op then separately grunt n, lips object noun at the last. I pick up the book rather than I pick
II", apart. If opm is said, with the point of a pencil
1 _. push the upper lip up and away from the lower the book up. The cursive numbers refer to the Sound Changes.
_ - opened lip snarl! Cue by putting the I pick up the book. I open the book. I read the book.

. ... palms of the hands together. Keep the little oi plk ap tha buk oi opan tha buk oi uri-d tha buk ...
fingers touching each other and separate the thumbs wide 2 5 4 2 4 4 47 24
apart. Unfold the hands like opening a book. aplkap th' buk Bop'n th'buk aurj.'th'buk
' ~ read urj.d Start with u, definite lip rounding, I shut the book. / I close the book. I put down the book.
.-': lengthen the j. and let the -d be weak. S e 50,24 21 6 10 6
Cue: Move the head from side to side as you asha'th' buk akulo-z th' buk a pu'dou-n th'buk
pretend to read the palm of an open hand. Work to say these 6 all together 2 times in 10 seconds.
shut shat Cut off the vowel short, suddenly You pick up the book. You open the book. You read the book.
yu plkap th'buk ya op'n th' buk y'urj.'th'buk
./ '\ with a t stop. Startle the class by slamming a
big book shut with a big bang! Cue: With the You shut the book. / You close the book. According to
=-== little fingers, hinging together clap the hands.
close klo-z With a definitely lengthened vowel
You put down the book.
y'klo-ztha buk
which is done ..
fast or slow .. ?

and a strong buzz at the end. ooooozzzzz Slowly y'pu'doun th'buk
close your hand around a pencil. As if falling * With a strong zzz before and the voiced b- after it the is
asleep slowly close your eyes (point a forefinger probably voiced, tha in place of the usual unvoiced th'.
at one). Slowly ease a door closed. Shut is with Student A doing the actions says I pick up .... , then gives the
quick force. Close is with slow dignity and carefully done. book to Student B who does the actions while Student A says
Shut your mouth! - An angry father to a noisy kid. You pick up... Student B does the same with Student C.
Close your mouth. - A polite dentist. 217 Do•.•• ? ,2-word verbs with it and nouns as objects.
put down put dou-n A final -t is naturally weak, is mostly With 2-word verbs such as pick up - put down an object noun
unsaid before do. 10 Review the vowels 0 :> 0 u u. Practice a can go either between the 2 words or after them. A pronoun,
short and longer u - u-. In down separate 0 from u, 2 distinct such as it, can only go between. This is best learned just by
different sounds. It helps to keep each vowel independently given here. If some student is puzzled, write a noun
clear by making the u longer before the voiced on. Perhaps and it before and after the second of the 2 words of the verb.
contrast drill down - dawn. dou-n· d:>n pu'dou-n. Cross out the it after the second word and shake your head,
~ put Place objects here and there as you say put 'No, no, nor pick book / it up = pick up book / It
~ and a noun. Put book (on table), put foot (up on Do.... ? Questions - Do itself indicates a question. so the voice
e\ chair), put pencil (into the mouth) .. Cue: With tone is normally lowered at the end. If it goes up it indicates
---....L.-Ieft hand moving downwards a little the that the speaker is doubtful. suspicious or surprised.
and forefinger separate as if releasing, dropping something on­ Do I pick the book up? Yes, you pick it up.
to a flat surface. Down - the right hand motions downwards. 432 23
Each student in turn does and says the actions with any book dua plkth' bukap yeshB plkl'ap
... or just does the cuing motions. Do Iopen the book? Yes, you open it. Before vowels
pick up open read close / shut put down dua op'n th' buk yeshl op'mt sha=shl Se3
plkap op'n rj.d Ido-z shat pu'dou-n Do I read the book? Yes, you read it.
duaurj.'th'buk 1& yeshluri·'I'I& 1& times in 10 seconds
r", ...
No, ... don't. Tag Questions .. don't.. do .. ?

Do I shut the book? Wel~ you close it. Slow careful action
dua sha'th'buk weo .•• yu klo-zlt but shut in question. Do I put the book down? No. I do. 3
Do I put down the book? Yes, you put it down. dua pu'th'buk da .....n nooidu
dua pu'da .....n th' buk yesh, pu','da .....n sc 23 221 Tag question..... , don't •• ? See 291.
218 Now the first student gives the book to the next student who This is to confirm that an action is being done. The voice
does the actions and answers the questions. tone drops during the tag question. _ ..... ~
I pick up the book, don't I? Yes, you pick it up.
Do you pick up the book? Yes, I pick it up. ai p,kap th' buk donai yesh. p.k.'ap
du yu yesoi
daya p,kap th' buk yesa p,kl'ap
I open the book, don't I? Yes, you open it.
aop'n th' buk donai yesh'op'mt
Do you open the book? Yes, I open it. I read the book, don't I? Yes, you read it.
d'y, op'n th' buk yesaop 'mt
ari-'th'buk donai yeshuri-',t
Do you read the book? Yes, I read it.
d'y'uri-'th'buk yesari-',t
I shut the book, don't I? Yes, you do.
asha'th'buk donai yeshl du
Do you shut the book? Yes, I shut it. Slam it shut. I put the book down, don't I? Yes, you do.
d'y'sha'th'buk yesa sha'it
apu'th'buk do.....n donai yeshl du
Do you put the book down? Yes, I put it down.
d'y' pu'th buk da .....n yesa pu·'·da .....n 12 Tag Question Formula +....... , - ....... +

I f the statement is positive, +, the little tag question at the

219 ••• don·
end is negative. -. If the statement is negative, the tag question
The speaker does the action but asks if the other person does is positive, +. The answers to either form can be either positive
it. Shake the head ~egatively from side to side when saying or negative according to the true condition. Write on the chalk­
don't. Drill mostly with the nasalized do for don't. Work for a board with large + and - signs above the verbs.
definite deletion stop for the missing intervocalic and final un.
released t sounds.

d'y'plkap th' buk

See Sound Change 37 - don't
Do you pick up the book? No, I don't pick it up. You pick it up.
noa don'p,k,'ap yu plk,'ap
pick up a book, don't I? Yes, you do.
Do you open the book? No, I don't open it. You open it. I don't pick up a book, do I? 1 No, you don't.
- +
d'y'op'n th' buk noa doop'"'t
Do you read the book? No, I don't read it. You read it.
d'y'uri-'th'buk noa dori-',t yuri-',t
Do you close the book? No, I don't close it. You shut it. 222 ..... don't. do... ? See 160.
d'y'klo-ztha buk noa doklo-z,t yu sha'it. This is to confirm that an action is not being done. Some
Do you put the book down? No, I don't put it down. You ... ESL lea:·ners. conditioned by their own languages, want to say.
d'y'pu'th'buk da .....n noadopu"·da .....n yupu"'da .....n if the action is not being done, Yes, ... don't. So drill this exer·
220 The second student does the actions in the usual sequence cise well over several weeks until it becomes natural for those
and is asked if the questioner does them. Gradually work into learners to say it in the Engl ish way.
the short answers. Perhaps run through the whole series with The speaker does the actions asking if the other person does
each of the 3 kinds of answers.
them. Energetically shake the head negatively whenever some
Do I pick up the book? No, you don't pick it up. I do. 1 form of don't is said. Nod positively for do. The speaker taps
dua plkap th' buk no Yldoplk,'ap oi du his own chest for I and points to the other person for you,
Do I open the book? No, you don't open it. I do. every time either is said ... to keep clearly in mind who is or is
dua op'n th' buk no y,doop'mt oi du not doing something.
Do I read the book? No, you don't. I do. 2 You don't pick up the book, do you? No, I don't. You do.
dUBri-'th'buk no you don' oi du yu do plkap th' buk duya noa don' yu du
Do I close the book? No, you don't. I do. You don't open the book, do you? No, I don't. You open it.
dUB klo-ztha buk no y'don' oi du
yu doop'n th' buk duya noa do' yu op'm t
152 153
lJoes he.. lJoes she .. ~
Don't you .. ? Don't I .. ?

Do I put it down? Yes, you do.

You don't shut the book, do you? nsh = nch Sc 46 d'a pU'I'dau-n yeshldu
yadoncha'th'buk duya Do you open the book? No, I don't.
You don't put the book down, do you? No, I don't. d'ya op nth' buk noa don'
Yldo pu'th'buk dau-n du ya noa don'
Do I shut the book? Yes, you do.
223 Don't you••.•? Don't I ......? d'a sha'th'buk yeshl du
The questioner wants to confirm than an action is being done. 225 he, she verb + s
The instructor points with the left hand at the student who is
A boy and a girl sit in front of the class. 3 or 4 meters apart.
to ask and with the right hand motions to another person
perhaps in the front corners of the room. If the class is of just
what is to be done or not done.. nod or shake the head accord­
one sex, have a girl put on a boy's cap, hold a baseball bat .. or
ingly. Use a different book for each series of answers.
a boy put a scarf over his head and tied under the chin or wear
Don't you pick up a book? No, I don't. / Yes, I do. earrings. Or use a large doll or dummy of the other sex.
dontyu SC41,2,3,4 Each time in going through a series use a different book. for
donchl plkapa buk noadon' yesa du the natural use of the indefinite article. a. Start first with the
Don't you open a book? girl doing the actions. Perhaps pair drill he - she pointing back
donch' op'na buk After Don't you.. ? is learned well and forth at the 2 doers. Also review s - sh, smile for ssss and
Don't you read a book? change to Don't I..? donai = dona lips like for whistling or kissing for shshshshsh. She picks ...
donchud.'a buk Yes, you do. No, you don't. shshshshi plkssss. Work for a good buzzing of zzzz in opens,
Don't I shut a book? yesh. du nOYI don' reads, closes .. op'nzzzzz, rj.'zzzzz, klo-zzzzzazzz .. zzazz. Note
dona sha'a buk the lenghened vowels in reads, closes .. riiiii'zzzz, kloooozzaz.
Don't I put a book down? ... ts, dz = '5, 'z. See Sound Changes 6,20, 29.
dona pu'a buk dou-n She picks up a book. shi plksapa buk 12
Say all 5 twice
224 You - I confusion drill. Do I... Do you•.. She opens a book. shi op'nza buk in 10 seconds.
Try to confuse the listener(s by rapid d'a - d'ya questions. She reads a book. shiuri-'za buk
Start with the slow forms but soon work mostly with the short She closes a book. shi klo-zaza buk za za za
forms. Do you - duyu, duya, daya, d'ya Do 1- duai, dua, da'a, She puts a book down. shi pu'sa buk dau-n
d'a. The d' becomes almost voiceless with a puff of air after it.
226 he •.••s A boy does the actions very fast!
Make a definite stop. of the breath in the throat. for a missing
a. hi Plksapabuk iop'nzabuk ir~zabuk isha'sabukipu'sabukdaun
Do fast drill with a native speaker or the natural speech re­ Repeat this 2 times in 8 seconds. Say shuts in place of closes.
cording asking the questions. The answers will indicate if the He becomes i, Sound Change 33.
student has understood properly. by pointing at h is own chest 227 Does he..•. ? Does she.... ? .
or at that of a you person. Do these Does... ? exercises well ... condition the ESL learner
Contrast drill d'a - d'ya and have students try to confuse, trip to the main verb not having or having _os when does is or isn't
uP. catch others with d'a - d'ya questions. Ask true and untrue used. With -s in does the verb has no -so -zsh 'sh Sc 12
questions. Use the 2-part answers for more practice. Pass from Use the full answers for th is non-use and use of -s on the verb.
student to student the same distinctive book or hold it up for Contrast drill shshshi - zzzzzi, shi· zi, dashi - dazi.
all to see in order to properly use the in this exercise.
Do you pick up the book? No, I don't pick it up. You pick it up. Does he pick up a book ? Yes, he picks up a book.
dazi p.kapa buk yesi plksapa buk
d'ya plkap th' buk noa do plkl'ap yu plkl'ap
Do I pick up the book? No, you don't pick it up. You put it down. Does he open a book? Yes, he opens a book.
dazi op'na buk yesi op'nza buk
d'a plkap th' buk no Yldoplkl'ap. y'pu'l'dau-n
Do I open the book ? Yes, you open it. Does he read a book ? Yes, he reads a book.
dazi rj.'a buk yesi rj.'sa buk
d'a op nth' buk yesh'op nit
Does he close a book ? Yes, he closes a book.
Do you shut the book? No, I don't. You do. dazi klo-za buk yesi klo-zaza buk
d'ya sha'th'buk noa don' yu du
Does .. ? Untrue questions '" 230
Doesn't he.. she .. ? come,go
Does he put down a book? Yes, he puts down a book.
dazi pu'dau-na buk yesi pu's dou-na buk No, she doesn't put a book down. John puts a book down.
228 Does she•••. ? daz shi, yes shi = da'shi, yeshi sc 12 no shi dazpu'a buk doun jan pu'sa buk dou-n

Does she pick up a book? Yes, she picks up a book. 230 ..•, doesn't ... ? Negative tag questions

dashi p,kapa, buk yeshi p,ksapa buk The speaker wants to confirm what he thinks is true.

Does she open a book? Yes, she opens a book. The teacher points at both he and she persons for practice

dashi op'na buk yeshi op'nza buk with the negative tag forms of each.

Does she read a book? Yes, she reads a book. He picks up a book, doesn't he? Yes, he does. No, he doesn't.
dashi rj..'a buk yashi rj..'za buk hi plksapa buk dazni yesi daz noi dazn'
Does she close a book? Yes, she closes a book. She opens a book, doesn't she? Yes, she does. No, she doesn't.
dashi klo-za buk yeshi klo-zaza buk shiop'nza buk daznchi ye'shi daz noshi dazn'
Does she put a book down? Yes, she puts down a book. He reads a book, doesn't he? She closes a book, doesn't she?
dashi pu'a buk dou-n yeshi pu's dou-na buk hi rj.'za buk dai'i shi klo-zaza buk daznchi
229 Does..... ? Untrue Questions Negative - Positive contrast 231 Doesn't he I she ... ?
A student asks the next one if sameone else, a third person, The speaker wants confirmation that what he thinks is true.
he - she, is doing what that person is not doing but is being For when the negative condition is true see 160, 243.
done by yet another person. Use full 2-part negative-positive Doesn't she pick up a book? No, she doesn't. Yes, she does.
answers for contrast drill of the negative and positive verb daznchi plkapa buk no shi dun' ye'shi daz
forms. Nod and shake the head, point sideways at the persons Doesn't he open a book?
mentioned but look-..directly at the person spoken to. The in­ dazni op'na buk No, he doesn't. Yes, he does.
structor may have to stand behind the first few students and Doesn't she close a book? noi dazn' yesidaz
move their hands and head (palm of a hand down over it like daznchi klo-za buk
a doorknob and twist it!) while prompting a question and Doesn't he put down a book?
cuing actions with the other hand. After a few times the stu­ dazni pu'dou-na buk
dents wi" catch on and initiate their actions and questions. 232 come, go to, from See 380
The -n't becomes weak. See Sound Change 37. Use as the starting place, home base, the center front of the
Does he pick up a book? (one of several lying around) class. Perhaps start with the students standing around a table
dazi p,kapa buk Use proper names perhaps there .... at a distance from the door used most to go in and out
No, he doesn't pick up a book. She picks up a book. of the room.
noi dazn
Does she open a book?
p,kapa buk shi plksapa buk

• I

dashi op'na buk I
No, she doesn't open a book. He opens a book.
<) <) ~~~(-­
noshi dazn op'na buk hi op'nza buk
Does she read a book?
dashi urj.'a buk
No, she doesn't read a book. He reads a book. come kha-m From several steps away pull a student (teacher
noshi dazn rio'a buk hi rj.'za buk walks backwards) towards the home base.
Does he close a book? Silent cue: The palm of a hand turned upward, fingers
dazi klo-za buk waving and moving back towards the speaker, or an energe­
No, he doesn't close a book. She closes a book. tic wrist gesture towards the speaker is the English sign for
noi daZ ko-za buk shi klo-zaza buk come. (Other languages use other gestures.)
Does the teacher put down a book? go go Push a student away from the class, away from the
dasth'tichar pu'dou-na buk zth't = sth't 39 home base, towards the door. Pushing, waving away with
the fingers of an out-turned hand is the cue for go.
take, bring to, from
take· bring

to tu ta t' Point forward at a specific place. Clearly say
tu only a few times when first learning the meaning. Practice
well with t' which is a quick short stop and voiceless release
of the air.
I nsist on a clear well-defined lengthened a before the voiced take _ Silent Cue: Act as if grabbing with one hand and
-m of come and of {rom. Say a good u before the r- in from. turn the body as if to walk away. Release a puff of air
After the initial k of come let out a quick puff of released air, after ok, like the aspiration of Sound Change 53.
kh-, and make the flame of a burning match flicker. See the bring _ Silent Cue: With the arms crossed in front of the
Sound Changes 36, 6, 50. kha-m, fura-m stomach bend over a little as if carrying something very
Contrast drill come - gum (perhaps mention chewing gum),
heavy and walk towards the speaker. For the u lip round­
could - good, cold - gold... kha-m ga-m, kh~d g~d, khold gold.
ing at the start of.r startle the class by suddenly saying
Some ESL learners don't get the difference until they are
Boo!. Frighten a timid 'girl in the front row! Then say
aware of and practice aspiration. Sound Change 53.
ring...point to one on a finger. boo-ring bUring.
Students in turn walk away from and then back to the next

For -ng stop the air flow with the ~

student. The teacher is to be always the home base figure so
move along to be beside or behind a student from whom or to
whom a walking student moves.
In these exercises always use from before saying to. (Mixing
back of the tongue and throat. /',...... ----.

Then release the air with a quick ft"

puff out of the nose. Make the: .' ng
flame of a burning match flicker t• .!

. . . -....
•• ,


See 26.

in to ... from confuses, clouds up initial learning of their mean­

ings.) With the left hand make the gestures for go - come. With at the end of the nose.

the right hand point to the persons and objects mentioned. 234 take, bring to, from The class marches around
You go from me to the door. The teacher moves the hands Form a line of students down one side of the classroom, on
yu go fura-m mi tu tha dOor of the seated speaking student. across the back and up the other side endi ng at a home base
ya r\1m ta See Sound Changes 2, 4, 17,6. location across the room from a door. Put several objects on
y'go fra-'mi t'th' dOor t'th' - 2 voiceless stops a chair near the door and others are put in easy reach at the
You come from the door to me. y' - the front part of the home base location .. Each student as he comes to the head of
y'kha-m fura-m th' dOor t'mi tongue briefly stops the air. the line at the home base location sits in a chair and talks to

The student who was seated and talking now gets up and the preceeding student who walks back and forth between the
walks back and forth talking to the next student (near whom home base and the door. Next the walker says what he does
the teacher is now standing). and then goes back to his seat or to the end of the line.
I go from you to the door. 1- oi = a The speaker hits You take a pencil from me to the door. ~

ago fura-m yu t'th' dOor his own chest. y'teka pc-nso fura-'mi t'th'dOor ,.".
I come {rom the door to you. Points back over a shoulder You bring a book from the door to me.
akha-m fura-m th'dOor t'yu then forward at you. y'burmg abuk fura-m th' dOor t'mi r(' '-"
233 take - bring Then the walking student speaks. £b 0 DO D.
I n this exercise only use take for 'going from here with some­ I take a book from you to the door. 0 0 :0
thing' and bring just for 'coming to here with something.' ateka buk fram yu t'th'dOor : 00000 •
Walk back and forth to and from picking up, putting down I bring a pencil from the door to you. : 0 0 [J lJ •
and exchanging objects such as one each of a box, pencil, key, abunng apc·nso fram th'dOor t'yu ....... .
book, shoe and a piece of paper folded lengthwise into a narrow After a walking student brings something to the home base
strip for easy handling. Put several of the objects on a chair he goes back to his seat or to the end of the line if he needs
near the door and the others at a 'home base' location. .such as more practice. Work for a different student speaking every
a small table, tall box or stack of boxes at the front center of 5 seconds. That would be a change of students, an advance
the class An object is taken from one location and exchanged of one along the line, every 10 seconds.. sort of like waiting
for another thing at the other location. in line to buy tickets. Keep the line moving fast. If someone
At first just say the verbs. Carry something but unmentioned.
~35 237
give eat. drink
messes up he has to go around again! Does she give him a book?
Caution: As yet don't use a pronoun right after the verb. da'shi glvlma buk
but use to before the pronoun. No. she doesn't give him a book but he gives her money.
] bring the book to you. Not yet, ] bring you the book. no shi dazn glvlma buk bati glyzar manl.
You bring a pencil to me. You bring me a pencil. Oh. he does give her some money?! (surprised. doubtful, sus­
The second form is set up in the following give exercise. oi d&-z glvar s'manl picious question)
235 give Yes, he does. He does give her some money. (assertive,
Pass around from student to student 3 or 4 of several kinds yesi da-z hi d&-z givar s'mani emphatic reply)
of things easy to handle ... pens, pencils, keys, narrow folded Contrast
strips of paper, little boxes, narrow thin books, etc. He gives her money. hi glvzar man! usual
The giver speaks..quickly, fast. He does give her money! hi da-z glvar manl emphatic
] give you a pencil. ] give you a book. ] give you a key ...... When used emphatically before a verb, more than ever, the
aglvyaa pf>nso aglvyaa buk aglvy&- ki ... vowel, a, should be lengthened before the voiced oz. SC 6
yaa := y&- a little longer than ya you ya, you a y&­ daaaaaazzzzglvvvvvar .. da-zglvar
Native speakers of American English in fast speech, But a is weaker in doesn't and listen carefully for the nasal
] give you a book. aglvy&- bl!k n colpring. dazn glvar .. dazglvar da-zglvar - daz· glvar
] give your book to her. aglvya buk t'har 237 eat, drink
ESL speakers should know about Before working on or with the actions the students should al­
ya fast form of you, your - yur, yar, ya, y' ready know the nouns used in eating and drinking. Review or
y&- fast, shorte, form of yaa Sound Change 9 teach them in a preceeding class session. When nouns and verbs
yaa fast form of you a ... are learned together some students are initially imprinted in­
The giver gives the objects perhaps faster than the speaker correctly ... such as Drink glass in place of Drink water when
can speak .... A game the giver plays with the receiver! learning drink using a glass of water. ~
You give me a book. You give me a pen. You give me a key. cup khap 53 Pass around a cup and a drinking glass. .
yu glvmia buk yagl'mia peon
give me .. sometimes written gimme vm
Don't give...

The giver midway jerks back an item and substitutes another

ki ....
glass gules 47 Say cup first, not glass cup. Knock .
each against something hard when saying either. In
some languages a word related to the English word
cup is used for a drinking hit someone on
the head with a cup if a glass is called a cup! Later
"- .


or the receiver refuses to take an object and points to another tap a window pane, glass bottle, a mirror and a =­
to be given instead. pair of eye glasses calling them all glass.
] give you ... ] don't give you a book.... ] give you a pencil. saucer s:)5ar Point to the small circular depression
aglvya.. adoglvy&-buk aglvyaa pf>nso in the center of the saucer, wh ich keeps the cup
You .... :don·t give me a book. You give me a pencil. from sliding around. Pass it around with a plate.
yu .... don glmia
Give Questions
buk y'gl'mia pf>nso plate pl~t which doesn't have such a

Review the Do... ? Don·t...? forms of 217 ... 224 and use k.nife naif Always say knife, fork and spoon in that ~
them with give. order. Tap or clink together when each is said.
236 gives doesn't give Doesn't - See 226 ... 231. fork fo-ark' Learn in 3 parts. fo- ar ka A long 0
A male-female couple, like in 225, do the actions. See 227.... before the voiced ar, and ar separately all alone.
231 for the question forms. ara = arura Sound Change 52
Add -a or release a puff of air after ok. SC 6, 5.
If the 0 is shortened and not separated from a
He gives her a pencil. He gives her a book. He gives her a key. poorly said ar Americans think of a bad word. 425
higlvzarura pt-nso hi glvzarUra buk hi glvzarura ki spoon spu-n For Spanish speakers say ssssspuuun.
She gives him a pen. She gives him a key. She gives him a book. hot coffee hat k:Jfi Pass around a cup of hot coffee.
shi glvzlma pt-n shiglYzlma ki shi glvzlma buk hot - Threaten to burn someone with a flaming

160 161
into, out of, on, off of drink, eat

match. Contrast 0-:» , ha - k:», hat - k:»f t!:~ on· off on:»f Clearly say a :» (not the British vowels)
cold milk kou'mlu k Pass around a glass or carton\ l~ an • put the palm of a hand down on someone's head.
of cold milk. )J ill :»f - lift it up and away from the head.
cold - Pass around a piece of ice, a cold bottle of
soda, wipe a forehead with a damp cloth and
blow on the moist area.
cold milk· Native speakers think they sayan Lin,
on a • off of a (like out of most say off ot..not just off.)
on a plate· drop a spoon onto a flat plate.
off of a plate ·':»fava plet With a scratching sound slide the
spoon off over the edge of the plate. Tap it on the table

such words. ESL learners don't hear an Land beside the plate. Don't pick it up. Slide it off and back
don't need to say it. See Sound Changes 26, 48. ':-1 .-::S; on.
water wO'Sf Sprinkle some on the students! sc 23 .~-. ana plet...:»fava plet... ana plet ...::»fava plet ....
meat mit Pass around a hot dog, fried chicken or...
Cut the vowel off short with a t stop. mit. m i 8
tea ti Pass around a tea bag, a cup of tea. (
The i drags out and fades away. tiii mi'· tiii ,,'iii
Vowel Drill ,
,,",' ,

cs:. ana

::>~ af8v8

you· impersonal, people in general do such and such. When

Review the vowel series a :» 0 u U ar a and repeat it to point
out specific troublesome vowels. used in this sense the reduced forms of you are used most.
Contrast drill a a Mouth wide open, then almost
you· ya, yl, y'.
closed for a quick grunt Point at several then a sweeping motion taking in all the
cop cup kop kap Point to a picture of each students when saying You eat.. You drink .. during this drill.
o a Often poorly pronounced in Pass around, first one by one.. later together ..a thick heavy
cup or mug for coffee, a thin one for tea, a glassfor water and
- hot water ho wo these words.
... a baby's glass with decorations for milk.

~ eP
ho' wo' Cut off with definite t stops
~: '';'p ho' wa'ar See Sound Change 23 You drink coffee outofacup. You drink wateroutofaglass.
, 'n;:l a :» From wide open, round the yu durmgk k:»fi autava
ho' k:l lips very Iitte... on the way to o. y'dnng'k:»fi au'ava kap y'drmgk wa'ar au'ava gl25 4
hot coffee ha' k:»fi 4539 23 2323
a :» Review 0:» 0 c4. You drink coffee out of a cup.

cup of coffee a a :» '!\'~ ~ yu dunngk k:»fi autava
kapa k:»fi ( ,.1 ~l)",".@ y'drmg'k:»fi au'ava kap 9
cup and saucer ka 5:» J~ You drink water out of a glass.
kapm5:»sar pn=pm -:~ y'drmgk wa'Sf au'ava gl_5 Ii
238 into, out of, on, off of you - general, impersonal drink Sip some water ... or wine, out of a glass. See -ng in 233
Review or learn these concepts in a previous class session. and add a voiceless release of air out through the mouth.
in - out Stick a pencil into a pocket. Look at it and say in. dnng . out through the nose, make a flame flicker.
Pull it out and hold it in front of the pocket and say out .•k . a voiceless soft -ka, almost no flicker of the flame.
into· out of These are for movement in and out. Pour water eat it Shortened i. weak t. Bite. chew, swallow something.
from a cup into a glass and from the glass into the cup or or· ar Or becomes ·ar attached to the preceeding word.
Move or tap on each with the free hand when either is men­ ESL learners often can't or don't hear it. Insist that they
tioned. Until out of is learned well don't mix in from, as in clearly say Sf a step to catching it in fast conversation.
from a cup into a glass. into a· mtua mtaa lOt' a sc 2,4, 8,9 or a becomes arura. See Sound Change 52.
out of a cup into a glass ~ ',> Touch, directly point to or look at one of two things, look
out of a glass into a cup "";,.... l!)t"" sideways at the other and tap between them when saying or.
au'ava kap mt'a gl_5 " and n becomes m after-po Knock and hold 2 objects together.
ou'ava gl_5 mt'akap milk or water mlukar wa'ar Tap, knock between 2 glasses.
Say together 3 times in 10 seconds water and milk wa'arn mluk Clink the glasses together.
239 241
Eating - things, foods, meals have (possess)
knife and fork naifn fo-ark Clink the knife across the fork.
239 You drink hot tea or coffee out of a cup and saucer. of 6 write dinar. Then inside
y' drlngk ha'tiar k:Jfi ou'ava kapm s:Jsar haJti SC 9 the circle draw a curved line

tion and write on it sapar. ,tV~~I'!',t

from about 6 up the 9 posi­
for, with - about the use of things. Practice these sentences
well until easily said .. by that time the instrumental mean­ J
Dinner and supper are at vari­
ings of these words will be well understood.
able times but give the idea 9 3

A glass is for cold milk or wa ter. IZ f' - IS f', -1 = 0/ U

that supper is later than din­
agleslsf' koo'mlukar wo'ar Sound Changes 39, 49, 26 ,tv'&bl'!,,t
ner. Outside of the big cities
A knife's for meat. A spoon's for soup. Dip up soup many working people have
anaifs f'mit aspu-ns f'sup and slurp! their heavy meal of the day
Do you eat meat with a spoon? . "'" 8 soon after noon which they
d'y'it mit wltha spun ,:~~' .". call dinner. So write dinar
No, a spoon's for soup. .~ ,'~ /­ inside the circle at around 1 to 2 o'clock. At around 10 and
noa spuns f'sup . \ti. - - - ' 3:30 erase a little part of the circle and write across the gaps
You eat meat offofa plate 'I' ~ ~." k::lfi brek.
y'i'mi':»fava plet /1 Many ESL learners don't know, can't hear
with a knife and fork. \ the difference in brek - brek. To break brek

wltha naifnfo-ark the fast fest (not eat for a long time) is

bread and butter salt and pepper ham and eggs brekfast.

brEr'n ba'ar -5:JU 'n ptpar hem m:gzss So contrast drill e - - - e ~

6 24 18 23 48 18 5 . 40 brek brek ___ .'

~ l"l.i~'~

k::lfi brek brtkfast

You take a coffee break to eat a snack. 0
Ylteka k::lfi brek t'i'a snek 6 ..............
u,!I . \'. ; uu "
241 have (to possess, own, hold) See 405. ~
The exercises in this have series can be learned separately.
240 butter - a definite stop for t. Don't say budder!
Each should be learned well before going on to another. If
salt and pepper - Pass around a pair of shakers or samples
there is not sufficient maturation, internalization, absorp­
to taste.
tion time between working with the different forms auto­
ham and eggs Oink and grunt like a pig. Cackle like a hen.
matic conditioning to each is hindered by the student being
--emne mn like 1 sound - lips closed then apart
confused. Perhaps just one form a week would be a good
break brek Hold up for all to see a long slender piece of schedule.
wood, tree limb, plastic rod or a pencil and break it with The silent cue for have, and a gesture to be made

a snap. Hold the 2 broken ends about 3 cm. apart and by the speaker each time have is said, is to double

peer, look th rough between the broken ends and say break. the fingers into an upturned palm of a hand as if

Also draw a long horizontal line on the chalkboard and grasping, holding something in the hand.

then in the middle erase 3 or 4 cm. of it. Crosswise of A student speaks to the next student. After say­

the gap write brek. ing the slower clear froms only a few times, prac­
snack sncek Have on display a glass of milk, half a sand­ tice mostly with the fast reduced forms.

wich, a small piece of cake or some cookies. Mention I have a pencil. You have a book. /)f1
snack bar ... already known to many ESL beginners! oi heva yu heva ~
breakfast, lunch, dinner, supper br&kfast lanch dinar sapar aheva penso y'eva buk
Draw a large circle on the chalkboard. Write on the outside Have.. ? Like for Do.. ? the voice tone drops at the end of have
circling line 9,12, 3 and 6 at the 9, 12, 3 ahd 6 o'clock po­ questions. Yes, you.. = yesha. See 217. - --......-.....
sitions. Outside the circle at about the 7 o'clock position After a few times don't repeat the name of the object in
write brekfast. Just after 12 put lanch. Outside to the right the answers. but use have in reply to have questions. See 244.
haven't .. + a thing Do .. have .. ?

Have 1 a pencil? Yes. you have (a pencil). Ask the same questions as in 242 but use Haven't with the
hcevaia pensa yesha hcev (a penso) same answers. Shake your head negatively when saying haven't.
Have you a book ? Yes, 1 have (a book). Haven't you an elephant?
hcevyua buk yesa hcev (a buk) hmvntyu t + Y = ch Sd.Change 41
242 Haven't.•.••••• + a thing .. ? hcevnchl u -a- I 2, 3
Ask untrue questions to invoke haven't in the answers. At hae vnch I anti af ant
first repeat the object in the answer to imprint the negative Haven't 1 a piano?
feeling more. Later, don't repeat the name of the object. hcevnaiapiceno
The qllestioner asks if the other has something he doesn't Haven't you a fork?
have. The teacher can show the questioner a picture of an hcevnchlafOork
unusual thing ..without" the other student knowing what it is. 244 Do.••have...?
an elephant a horse a piano a dog To show that Do .. have.. ? and Have ... ? are the same call one
anelafant a hOors a .piceno a d:>g upturned hand Do ... have? and the other Have ... ? Bring both

roo hands to the same level in front of the chest, I ike pans of a

balance scale for weighing. See 63 - same.
Students are to be conditioned to use do in the answer of any

Do... have... ? variants. Although in the longer answers the use
of do before a verb is emphatic, assertive for native speakers of
English. It's use here is a conditioning learning step.
Have you an elephant? No, 1 haven't an elephant. Use the same variant question and answer pair for student to
hcevyu anelafant noai hcevn'ane lafant student around the class until it becomes just too boring ... then
Have 1 a piano? No, you haven't a piano. switch to another form either in the question or in the answer.
hcevaia piceno no YI'aevna piceno Short form questions usually take the short informal answers.
Have you a fork? No, 1 haven't. More than 2 or 3 variants in the same class period may be con­
hcevyaa fOork noa hcevn' fusing. I n clarification and for visual imprint as the exercise
Have 13 feet? No, you haven't. progresses write this outline on the chalkboard. Have loses the
hcevai thri fit no ya hcevn h and you becomes ya or even yl before vowels or just y'.
Because of No at the start of the negative answer the -n't Ask true positive quesHons about having a book, pencil, pen,
becomes weak, or a nasal coloring of the preceeding sound. shoe or paper. Work for a question-answer every 2 seconds ...
around a class of 30 every minute.
243 Haven't ..... ?
Do....have.•• ? Yes, ... do(have «a ......
I n English the answers are in accord with the true conditions. Do you have a book? Yes, 1 do have a book.
Whether the question is positive or negative it has no bearing du yu hceva buk ~ yesai du hcev a buk
on the answer. But some ESL learners, conditioned by their daya hceva buk--­ - - yesa du hcev
own languages, when the question is negative and the situa­ d'ya hceva buk yesa du See 24.
tion is negative are accustomed to say something like, 'Yes, Ylceva buk?'---'/ yes
it isn't.. .. Yes, 1 haven·t.... '. After working around the class using all the variants about
Such students are re-conditioned best by just repeating the you having a book, use a different variant each with a pencil, a
Engish forms until they seem natural.
shoe or a pen.
These examples put up on the chalkboard may be helpful. Next change to a Do 1 have.. ? Yes. you do have.. ? format.
No elephant An elephant is. Do 1 have a pencil? Yes, you do have a pencil.
Have you an elephant? No, 1 haven't. Yes, 1 have. duaihceva yes yu du hceva penso
Haven't you an elephant? No, 1 haven't. Yes, 1 have. dua'ceva pe-nso yeshu du hcev Sound Change 43
~­ d'a'ceva penso yeshl du 3
Draw a linking line between the underlined n's of No and of Contrast drill d'a - d'ya (Do - Do you .. ?)
-n't. Grunt n.. n..nnnno,havennnnn't. ~,1 have!,!'t. The teacher with a object in each hand, looks at a student

245 241
have got have .. haven't got a ..

and asks about an object which one of the two doesn't have. Dnll well around the class letting each student choose to say
For example the teacher holds a pencil and a pen and asks what he and the next student have. Insist on a good strong vi­
a student who has a pen and a book in sight either of these brating buzz for vvvvvvv. oivvvvvgotl .. yuvvvvvgo18 .....
questions. The student's reply will show if he understood
247 Have ... gota .•.•?
Show that Have I ... ?, Do I have... ? and Have I got.. ? all mean
d'ya'mva buk yesa du (would be correct) the same. Face the class, hold both hands level at the chest and
yesha du (has misunderstood) say Have I. .. as you flick the fingers of the right hand, for the
d'a'mva penso yesha du (correctly understood) left hand say Do ... have.. , as done in 244. Then move the left
noa don' (misunderstood) on fartHer out to the left (to the right of the students 'reading'
Do 245 first if don't is a new word. Y9 ur hands) and rapidly shake it as you say 've got..lvvvgot.
Some students may need special drill with yesa - yesha. Say Condition the ESL learners to use '00 got... in full reply or
each rapidly alone or pair yesa - yesha or yesha - yesa and clearly say have in short answers.
have the student spoken to point at the person concerned ... to Have you got a pencil? Yes, I've got a pencil.
himself for sha and to the teacher for sa which is the reverse
hmvyu yesoiv
when the student answers a question, yesa - ytsha. 'evya gota penso 12 yesav gota penso
245 Don·t.... ? No, ....don·t (have «a ---- See 219,220,243. Have I got a book? Yes, you've got a book.
Ask about things a person probably ·doesn't have, as in 242. 'mva gota buk 12 yeshuv
Shake your head negatively every time a form of don't is said. yeshav gota buk
For variation in fast drill use different question forms with the The answering student now asks the preceeding student
same answer form, or the same question with different forms who now makes the short replies about the same objects.
in the answer. Also use the positive answers of 244 when a,per­
Have you got a book? Yes, I have.
son does have such a thing.
cevya gota buk 12 yeSa' hmv
Don't you have a horse? No, I don't have a horse. Have I got a pencil? Yes, you have.
dont yu hmva nooi don' hmva
eva gota psnso 12 yesha hmv
donchu'mva noa donceva ho-rs
dochlmva ho-rs Drill these have... got questions well so that it becomes auto­
Don't you have an elephant? No, I don't have. matic to use have before got.. to preclude ESL learners saying
doch I'mva ntlafant noa don'hcev something like Do you got.. Work more on Do have.. 244.
Don't I have a piano? No, you don't. Contrast drill hmva gotl - hevya go18 in the same way as for
dona hmva pimno noya don' d'a - d'ya in 244. Speak fast. each question individually at
Don't I have a dog? No, you don't. the speed of 12 times in 10 seconds. See the little numbers
dona hmva d::>-g no yl don -n't Sd .Chge. 37 after the phonetic examples.
Yes, you do. 248 Haven't •••• got .•• ? See 243 - negative situation answer
ytshl du Condition the learners, in the case of haven't got questions
246 have got 've got = 'got to respond with haven't in the answer if the situtation is ne­
To give the basic feeling of 've got (of having obtained and gative. and have if the condition is positive. Shake the head
now possessing) seize, grasp and hold up firmly in a hand some whenever haven't is or is to be said.
nearby object. Say 've got avvvgot just as you come to a stop Ask untrue positive questions to invoke negative answers.
after jerking it up. Do this with several more items...avvvgot Use full answers until noa'ceyn and noya'myn are easily dis­
Show that have and 've got mean the same by calling one cerned and said. Refer to unlikely objects as in 242.
hand have and the other 've got and raise them to the same Have you got a dog? No, I haven't got a dog.
level in front of the chest, as in 244. hmyya gota do-g 11 noamyn gotl do-g
I've got a book. You've got a pencil. The student grabs and Have I got an elephant? No, you haven't got an elephant.
oiv gab yuv gota holds up a pencil. heYa gata nelafant nOYlmyn go'anelafant
avgota buk yay gota pe-nso Haven't you got a dog? No, I haven't. Yes, I have.
( agota) (yagota ) Not correct but often heard. heyncha go'a do-g 10 noa 'my n yesa hmy
249 251
What've .. got? has (possesses) hasn't he .. she .. ?

Haven't I got an elephant? No,,you haven't. Yes, you have. Ask only true positive questions, with full answers at first.
hcevnta gota 18, 23 Has he a pencil? Yes, he has a pencil. Yes, he has.
hcevna go'a nelafant noyuBvn' yesha hm-vvff hcezia pc-nso yesiceza pe-nso yesi hm-zss

Contrast dril! with objects as in 244. 33 6 48 33335 40

Has she a book? Yes, she has a book. Yes, she has.

hcevncha hcevnta - hcevna Haven't you, Haven't I (2 forms)

hce'shia buk ye'shiceza buk ye'shi hcezss
249 What've ... got? See" Sound Changes 2,35. 12 12
The speaker holds up or points to an object. For What ques­ Contrast drill
tionly shrug your shoulders, hands palms up in front of As other languages don't have z or sh or both, or confuse he

shoulders. At first use full answers as in 246. Later, just say and she, designate he - she persons, easily pointed at. Have the

name of the object. !~

student point to the corresponding one as the teacher rapidly

What've I got?
huotavoi got 2 j~
".~"". What've you got?
huotavyu got
says at ramdom (paired here for easy reference) hm-zia hce'shia,

yesi yeshi, yeshiceZ8 yesiceza.

huatava 23> '". huataya

hua'ava 34 ( huat'ya 4,41 251 hasn't.. Hasn't he I she... ~
ua'ava got 14 uacha got 15
Ask about things a person probably doesn't have. See 242.
First with positive questions, later negative and working into
What've I got in my hand? You've got a pencil in it. the shorter answers.
hua'ava go'n m'hm-n'


go'n Ylpaklt 10
yay go'a penso!!"'t
What have you got in your,pocket. I've got money in it.
avgo' manimlt 10 17
Jingle some money in a pocket. Review the vowels i lee,
i-I, ni - 10, ma ni - In It, nil' im, nim, maniln, manil nit
Has she a dog?
hce'shia d:>-g
Has he an elephant?
No, she hasn't a dog.
no shi hcezna d:>-g
No, he hasn't an elephant.

Hasn't he an elephant? No, he hasn't.

t .:~
noi hceznanelafang
hceznia nelafant noi hcezn'
Hasn't she a car? No, she hasn't.
hceznchia kar no shi hcezn' tsh=ch45
252 Does.....have... ? Yes, ....has.j ... does.
250 has ( owns) K See 176.225. Do this exercise only after some maturation time has elapsed
since doing the has forms of 250, 251. Condition the learners
A couple. male and female. not near the speakers. hold up
to follow Does with have. Does... have.. ? not Does... has.. ? but
different things. A speaker points to the he - she persons and
to use has only in full answers and .. does. in short replies.
then to the things mentioned but speaks to the next student.
As these exercises progress it may be well to contrast drill: Does he have a pencil? Yes, he has a pencil.
he hi has he hcezi does he dazi daziceva penso yesiceza penso
she shi has she hce'shi does she da'shi Doesda'shiceva
she have a book? Yes, she has a bOOk. • ." .
buk yeshiceza buk "
hasn't he hcezni ain't he eni
hasn't she hceznchi ain't she enchi Does she have a paper? Yes, she does. !\.i.....-:- ."
da'shiceva pepar ye'shi dazss " .. " ....... ."

Condition the students to say ce clear and long before the Does he have shoes? Yes, he does.
voiced z. Review the vowels ecce a. Pair drill e ce and then dazicefshuzss yesi dazss hcev sh .. = hcef sh .. 39

drag out. lengthen the ce. e 3!--, e cecececece, cececececezzzzz. See

Sound Change 6. 253 ... doesn't
have ... Doesn't .. have ...?

He has a pencil. She has a book. Again, refer to unlikely items. as in 242. Be sure to shake the

hi hce-za p£nso shi hce-za buk head negatively every time whenever doesn't is to be or is said.

Each student in turn around the class points to a person with Does she have a cow? No, she doesn't have a cow. Moo like

one hand and to an object of that person with the other hand. da'shiceva kao no shi daznceva koo a cow.

Work up to a different student speaking each second. If said Does he have a box? No, he doesn't have a box. ~
too sloppily stop and drill that student on cecececezzzzz. daziceva baks noi daznceva boks ~

170 171
Has .. What's .. Ain't got
more, less than same, as much as
Doesn't she have a spoon? No, she doesn't.
daznchieeva spun no shi dazn o)<~ . 7 Illore, less
2~ Each student shows some money, lying nearby or in a hand.

Doesn't he have a cup? No, he doesn't.
daznieeva kap noi dazn Various amounts of small coins are good. They are easy to add
to or take from to create the situation of a exercise sentence.
's got... Has .... got.•.? What's .... got? Or also use partly filled glasses of water. lined up on a table for
Don't explain that's is a form of has. Just drill these sen all to see or several glasses in the hands of students. Pour into
well. But if qerried about it write has on the chalkboard and or out of them as needed.
cross out ha. Ntis. Sound Changes 33, 2, 4 ~ ee = a = ; .. 's Each student compares what he has with that of the next
Before starting this drill review. teach money, earrings. Jingle student and comments accordingly.
some coins and give them to a boy. Dangle some flashy ear­
rings and give them to a girl. earrings j.arurmgzs 6, 50, 40
He's got a pen.
hiz go'a pc-n
She's got a book.
shiz go'a buk • \ ""'»""4""


He's got money. She's got earrings.

hiz go'mani shiz go'j.runngzs Work through these words. except than, by making the ges­
After 'sgot is well in mind, ask Has with 2-part replies. tures of the silent cues. Write their phonetic forms on the
chalkboard for visual imprint of their pronunciation. When all
Has he got earrings? ~.
heezi go'j.r u rrngzs .' t." '". are said fairly well do the exercises a to e given below.
No, he hasn't got earrings. He's got money. I ~ . more Little by little raise the upturned left hand from
noieezn go'j.r unngzlz g o ' m a n i . '. waist to shoulder high repeating more, more each time.
Has she got money? . .' less ules 47 Little by little lower the downturned right hand
hee'shi go'mani No, she hasn't. She's got earrings. from waist high down to knee level repeating less, less each
no shi heezn' shiz go'j.rrmgzss time.
What's he got, earrings? No, he's got money. than theen - than - an - -n 2, 4, 36 Just use -n joined to the
huo'si got..i-arnngzs noizgo'mani <J word before, without comment unless to clarify for a stu­
What's she got, a cow? No, she's got earrings. '~.rJ dent who already knows the base word. Write its 4 forms on
huot~shi 2, 12, 45 the chalkboard as shown in the first line of this paragraph.

huachi got, akoo
ain't got See 188.
no shiz go'i-arurmgzss Q more than - raise one hand above the level of the other.
less than - lower one hand below the level of the other.
This word should be familiar to all ESL learners because it is same se-m 6 - for things that are already equal. Hold the 2
so widely used by the working class and often by others in jest hands steady at the same level waist high. Show the same
or for emphasis. The 've of 've got is commonly dropped by amount. of money or water in glasses, in the right and left
those who habitually use ain't. Practice with ain't until it is hands. Maybe jingle the coins or tap the glasses together as
readily understood ... and easily used ... but not habitually! you look from one hand to the other back and forth while
Ain't he got earrings? ",2 you repeat same, same..... See 63.
eni go' irrmgz Silent cue: Hold the hands steady at the same level.
No, he ain't got earrings. He's got 1~3 as much as azmachaz -Just as you make the quantities equal
noien'go'irrmgz izgo'mani money. repeat as much as as you add to or take away coins or pour
Ain't she got a cow? water back and forth to make equal amounts.
enchi go'a koo Silent cue: Bring one hand up, or down to, the level of
No, she ain't got a cow. She's got earrings. the other hand ... changing to the same level.
no shien'go'a koo shiz go'irnngzs little h'o 48, 23 Make a definite marked stop after h'. The
Ain't you got a spoon? No, / ain't. /('ve) got a book. word final -Ie is much like 0 or u with some sort of a tongue
encha go'a spu-n noaen' ago'a buk Hold it up. movement if you are a native speaker of English. ESL speak­
Ain't / got three ears? No, you ain't. Yov('ve) got two. ers don't hear nor make a tongue movement: If the initial l­
ena go'thurii-ari:s no Ylen' yago'tu is a problem pair little less uh'olcs. See Sound Changes 47, 48.

some more more than
a little, some, more, much, a lot
Silent cue: Bring a thumb and forefinger almost together
and look through the slit between them as you say little. .. than me - .. nmi Be sure that learners definitely say
on, mOorn - Itsn with the lips apart, not touching each
some sa-m 6 Pour small quantities of water from one glass in­ other. Then the lips close for m-, --on m---.
to another and say some each time.
Contrast drill:
Silent cue: With the hand as if grasping a glass of water tip. less than me. Itsnmi
twist the hand like pouring out a small quantity.
less me Itsmi (Count me out. not me!)
some more sam mo-ar = sa'mOor = s'mor Sd.Chges.9,4. d Add to or take from one of two quantities so that they are
've got vvvvgot Make a tight fist as if holding something ... the same. Point back and forth and finally bring the hands to
several coins.. in it. See 246.
the same level. Put the forefingers together for we. Page 174, We.
we ui Tap your own chest with the left forefinger. Touch I've got as much as you. avgo'azmachazhu az yu = azhu 44
or point at the chest of the next speaker with the right You've got as much as me. yuvgo'azmachazm i
forefinger. Then bring the 2 forefingers together side by We've got the same. wiv go'th'se-m
side and say we.
259 Comparative amounts + noun + than
a First go around the class with a student comparing his quan­ I've got more money than you. You've got less water than me.
tity. money or water. with that of the next student. Point at avgo'mOoar manl'n yu yuv go'its wo'arnmi
each of the 2 quantities with the left hand and with the right I've got as many fingers as you... lO! Both students
forefinger point up as you say more. or down for less. If the avga'az mtnl flnggarzazhu hold up 10.
quantities are equal hold both hands. palms up, at the same


level. Say your own amount first, then that of the next
student. Work for a different student to speak each second.
I f a student is too slow mot ion for the next one to speak
without waiting.
ma-ar - ults, se-m, Its - ma-r, Its - ma-r, sem, mor _Its ....
b Clench a fist near your own chest for I've got and the other a h'o a11'o mo-ar
mach mo-ar
hand in a fist towards the next speaker for You've got. Prac" sam sa 'moor
tice each sentence alone until you can say it X times in 10 8 fiu afiu moor
mem mo-ar •••••••
Here, 13 to 15 times as shown by the little figures. ••• • •• • •• •••••• • •••••
•••• • ••••
I've got more. You've got less. We've got the same. 260 a little, some, more, much, a lot
avgo'mo-ar 15 yuv go'les 13 wlv go'th'se-m 13 On a table in front of the class set 4 identical large drinking
2 17 6 16 21 4 6
I've got less. You've got more. glasses, bottles or jars. From left to right as seen by the class
avgo'les 15 yuv go'mOoar 13 pour a little water into the first, the same amount into the
second glass and then pour some more into the second glass.
258 c than Point at one person, then at the quantity that person Pour 2 times into the second glass. Say a little the first time
has, make the more or less (up or down) sign and point at
the other person. and some more the second time.
Tap the first glass as you say a little and them pour much
I've got more than you. avgo'mOoarn yu more. as you say much more, into the third glass until it is
av got - the speaker touches his own chest and makes a 3/4 full.
makes a fist for 've got.
Again tap the first glass. a little, and compl~te'y fill the
mOoarn Point up and grunt -n after ma-ar. ma-ar n - just fourth glass as you say a lot more.
I ike mourn or the start of morning.
yu - Point at the other person. Strike each glass with something hard to make different
sounds and drill the students to say
You've got less than me. yuv go'lts'nmi
a little some more much more a lot more
yuv got - A clenched fist towards the other person.
Its'n Just like lesson. Point downward. a11'0 s'ma-ar much mOoar alo'ma-ar
mi The speakers taps his own chest. Have different students hit the glasses at random for the
other students to say what they see and hear.
-er than higher .. lower than a

Or put on the chalkboard a series of thick vertical bars from foot fut Stomp one on the floor, hold it up off the floor.
short to longer, left to right. Draw a line across them even with high hai Extend a hand up high above the head and point
the top of the shortest one. Across the tops write the quanti­ upwards.
ties. Work up to saying them 4 times in 10 seconds. low ulo Bend down and touch a foot or the floor.
all'o, s'm~ar, mach m~ar, ala'm~ar alat
high eye hai ai With a thumb near an eye point the fore­
men! •••••
...-;. ...::
finger upwards .
foot low fut 10 Bend down and touch a fooLwith the

, ..........
•••• •••••
sam •••••••••

afiu. • •••••••••••

:.. .......

same hand that was up beside the eye .

eye higher than arm ai haiarn a-ar-m
ai Put the end of the right forefinger beside the right eye .
haiarn Move the left hand from the waist up to level

When practicing slowly each speaker is to show with the
•• with the eyes and point upwards.
o-ar-m Slap the upper right arm with the left hand.
hands, make gestures as to the amounts. Turn the left hand
foot lower than leg fut loarn leg
palm up. Over it hold the right hand, palm down, up about
fut Hit the right foot down onto the floor.
3 cm. - a h'o. Raise the right hand up to 6 cm. above the loarn Bend over and almost touch the right foot with
left hand and say s'mor, farther up about 20 cm. for mach
the left hand.
mar and the right hand high in the air for ala'mor.
leg Slap the right leg with the right han,d.
261 a few, some, many, a lot arm lower than eye arm lorn ai
Don't do these few-many exercises too soon after learning The left hand slaps the right upper arm and then points
a little - much ... wait several days. Also use 4 drinking glasses downward as the right forefinger touches the right eye.
for few - many but drop hard things into them - marbles, nuts, leg higher than foot leg haiarn fut
beans, pebbles. Also, tie or bind together in quantities of 3, 6, The right hand slaps the right leg and points upwards as the
10 and 15 or so and pas~ around pencils, matches, toothpicks, right foot moves, makes a noi,se on the floor.
paper clips linked together, strings of beads. Rattle, make 263 The teacher now at random points at any 2 of these 4 parts
noises with such things, like hitting or knocking them against of the body with one hand and points upward, higher than. or
something hard while working up to say rapidly, downward, lower than, with the other hand. As different parts
afiu, s'm~ar, men! m~ar, ala'm~ar ...... of different people are used, use a and an.
For drill, individually, in turn or in unison, instead of A foot's lower than a leg. A leg's higher than a foot.
solid bars put columns of dots on the chalkboard.
a little - a few.. much - many
afu's I~arna Ie.g alt-gz hairna fut =
·z h- -sh­
20636 6 40 39
Into separate glasses put a little water, much more water, An eye', higher than an arm.,
a few hard objects and many more. With something hard tap anaiz haiarna na-ar·m
the glasses with water to get 2 distinctive different tones and A foot', lower than an arm.
shake the glasses with the hard objects to produce different
afu's lorna narm
sounds. Hit and shake corresponding pairs to contrast drill
An arm " higher than a leg.
alt'o - afiu ... mach - men!
262 -er than anarmz hairna leg
I n the preceeding class, before working with -er than, review An arm '8 lower than an eye.
anarmz lorna nai Say each
or learn eye, ear, arm, leg, foot, high and low. Point at, ,touch of these
or move parts of the body. Point up and point down for high A n eye's higher than a leg. 8 times
a naiz hairna leg in 10
and low.
eye ai Wink one. A leg's lower than an arm.
arm' a-ar-m a and ar at first separate and always long. Sc 6 alegz lorna narm
Slap an arm with the opposite hand. A foot's lower than an eye. 10
leg ule-ga S C 47, 6, 5 Slap a leg with the hand of the same afu'sloar na nai 8

176 177
-er. -est big - little small· large .,• ..-est

264 -er, - est 268 big, bigger, biggest .. little, littler, littlest
hoilst Hold up the left hand, palm towards your Although forms of big. little are commonly used somewhat

hOiar face, the forefinger bent into the palm but interchangeably with those of large - small, big and little are
hoi the other fingers straight up with the thumb better used for single things not being compared directly with
out to the side. With the right forefinger other things. Large and small are perhaps better used when
\0 touch the tip of the little finger and say high. there is a relationship of comparative size. See 177 . big, little
touch the end of the thumb and say low .... The big shoe is too small for his little foot.
back and forth ..hoi 10, hoi 10, hoi 10, hoi 10 .. His big foot is too large for the little shoe.
Touch the tips of the little finger and ring finger as you repeat blgast

big· bigger - biggest
hoi hair, hoi hair, hoir... then start with the thumb. 10 hoi hair, 6
10 hoi hoiar... Cut out of heavy paper or cardboard 6

round or square pieces of 6 different sizes.

Continue on to the left middle finger 10 hoi haiar hoilSt, 10

hoi haiar hoitst, 10 hoi haiar hoilst •...
265 Now reVerse the order. Touch the left middle finger and ring
Number them up from the littlest to the big- blgar

gest. with 3 and 4 in the middle. 1. 2 and 3

could be of one color and 4. 5. 6 of II differ- big
finger, high low, hoi 10, hoi 10, hoi 10. Add the little finger, hoi ent, perhaps darker, color.
10 loar, hoi 10 loar, hoi 10 loar... and finally the thumb, hoi 10 Pass around 4 and 3 saying big, little. (Short- I'
loar loast, hoi 10 loar loast, ..... er words come first in English. big - lit-tie. 1 10
266 -er, -est Have 2 students stand uP. back to back. Hold a hand and 2 syllables.) See 177. li'olar • 2
over the head of each for the class to say higher or lower. Then , Next drill big, little, littler big h'o lI'olar go- It'olast • 1
line up 5 or 6 students and point to the highest and lowest. ing down the series of 4. 3, 2. lI'olar - See
One by one have either sit down and pick out another highest Sound Change 49.
and lowest pair. When down to only 2 students change to Now with 3, 2. 1 practice h'o, h'olar, lI'ollst.

higher and lower as you hold up 2 fingers. For -hst see 267.
Mention several parts of the body and say the relative posi­ Go the other way with 3, 4 and 5. 11'0 bl-g
tion of the last one to the others. -z h- -5 h- 39 bl-gar, followed by 4.5 and 6. bl-g bl-gar bl-gast. lorjar
Arm, eye Mix them all up as they are passed around.
The eye's higher. th'aiz hoiar larj
Foot. leg, arm, eye For reference put a rising column 0) larger and

The eye's highest. th'ois hoitst

Arm, leg larger circles on the chalkboard .. number up­

The leg's lower. th'lt"9z loar

Eye, arm, leg, foot wards with the phonetic designations inside

The foot's lowest. th'fu'sloast

Foot, leg, arm the 'balloon' circles.

The arm's highest. th'o-ar-ms hoilst

269 small-smaller -smallest, large -larger - largest
267 -ast '. -1St
Make a class project of finding and fitting 6

Keep in mind that -est loses the -t before most words. Try to
easily handled boxes into each other. Cut off

cut off the -5' with a quick breath stoppage, particularly before
the flaps leaving open exposed bottoms. On

stop sounds. See Sound Changes 25, 11.

the bottoms, both inside and outside write big

Lowest price, highest quality loas'prois hohs'kualatl numbers in ascending sizes from 1 through 6.
For -est both -ast and -1St are commonly heard. Perhaps -1St With the boxes facing upward you put smaller sm::llar
is most often after front sounds Iike 5-, t-, do. j-, Po, the vowels i, and smaller boxes into the largest. Or turn sm::llist
I and -Ie or -I at the end of words. Back open vowels ce, a, ::I, 0 over the smallest, face down' and slip larger
and voiced back consonants, -g, -ng more often perhaps are fol­ and larger boxes down on over it.
lowed by -ast. Fit box 3 into box 4 as you tap 4 and 3 while you say large
highest hails' lowest 10as' • small. ula-ar-I" Stretch out a- and ar-. Sound Changes 47, 6, 5.
happy hcepits' biggest blgas'
Sm;)oO . ::I is also lengthened before the vocalic resonance of -I
littlest lI'ohs'
without a vowel after it. It sounds much like 0 or u. SC 49.
As so many adjectives end with -y, review the vowel series
Put box 2 inside boxes 4 and 3 for lorj sm::lO sm::lolar.

i let and contrast drill i I, as in hoitst, hcepilst .. Nestle 1 and 2 into 3 for the series, sm::lO sm::lolar sm::lohst.

178 1,79
-er. -est big - little small-large .. -er, ..-est
264 Wert - est 268 big, bigger, biggest .. little, littler, littlest
hoilst Hold up the left hand, palm towards your Although forms of big - little are commonly used somewhat

haiar face, the forefinger bent into the palm but interchangeably with those of large - small, big and little are
hoi the other fingers straight up with the thumb better used for single things not being compared directly with
out to the side. With the right forefinger other things. Large and small are perhaps better used when
\0 touch the tip of the little finger and say high, there is a relationsh ip of comparative size. See 177 . big, little
touch the end of the thumb and say low .... The big shoe is too small for his little foot.
back and forth ..hoi 10, hoi 10, hoi 10, hoi 10.• His big foot is too large for the little shoe.
Touch the tips of the little finger and ring finger as you repeat blgast

big - bigger - biggest
hoi hair, hoi hair, hoir... then start with the thumb, 10 hoi hair, 6
10 hoi haiar ... Cut out of heavy paper or cardboard 6

round or square pieces of 6 different sizes.

Continue on to the left middle finger 10 hoi haiar hailst, 10 Number them up from the littfest to the big- blgar

hoi haiar hoilSt, 10 hoi haiar hailst ...• gest, with 3 and 4 in the middle. I, 2 and 3

265 Now relierse the order. Touch the left middle finger and ring could be of one color and 4, 5, 6 of l! differ- big

finger, high low, hoi 10, hoi 10, hoi 10. Add the little finger, hoi ent, perhaps darker, color.

10 loar, hai 10 loar, hoi 10 loar... and finally the thumb, hoi 10 Pass around 4 and 3 saying big, little. (Short- I'

loar loast, ho i 10 loar loast, ..... er words come first in English. big - lit-tle, 1 I 0
266 -er, -est Have 2 students stand up, back to back. Hold a hand and 2 syllables.) See 177. h'olar • 2
over the head of each for the class to say higher or lower. Then . Next drill big, little, littler big "'0 h'olar go- Il'olast • 1
line up 5 or 6 students and point to the highest and lowest. ing down the series of 4, 3, 2. ,,'olar - See
One by one have either sit down and pick out another highest Sound Change 49.
and lowest pair. When down to only 2 students change to
higher and lower as you hold up 2 fingers.
Now with 3, 2, 1 practice
For -list see 267.

"'0. ,,'olar, "'ollst.

Mention several parts of the body and say the relative posi­ Go the other way with 3, 4 and 5, "'0 bl-g
tion of the last one to the others. -z h- = -s h- 39 bl-gar, followed by 4,5 and 6, bl-g bl-gar bt-gast. lorjar
Mix them all up as they are passed around.
Arm, eye The eye's higher. th'aiz hoiar larj
For reference put a rising column of larger and

Foot. leg, arm, eye The eye's highest. th'ais hoilst

larger circles on the chalkboard ..number up­

Arm, leg The leg's lower. th'h:-gz loar

Eye, arm, leg, foot The foot's lowest. th'fu'sloast wards with the phonetic designations inside

Foot, leg, arm The arm's highest. th'o-ar-ms hailst the 'balloon' circles.

269 small- smaller -smallest, large - larger - largest

267 -ast .. -1St
Make a class project of finding and fitting 6
Keep in mind that -est loses the -t before most words. Try to easily handled boxes into each other. Cut off
cut off the -s' with a quick breath stoppage, particularly before the flaps leaving open exposed bottoms. On
stop sounds. See Sound Changes 25,11.
the bottoms, both inside and outside write big
Lowest price, highest quality loas'prais hails'kuolatl numbers in ascending sizes from 1 through 6.
For -est both -ast and -1St are commonly heard. Perhaps -1st With the boxes facing upward you put smaller sm:>lar
is most often after front sounds like 5-, to, do. j-, p-,the vowels i, and smaller boxes into the largest. Or turn sm:>hst
I and -Ie or -I at the end of words. Back open vowels ce, a, ::», 0 over the smallest, face down" and slip larger
and voiced back consonants, -g. -ng more often perhaps are fol­ and larger boxes down on over it.
lowed by -ast. Fit box 3 into box 4 as you tap 4 and 3 while you say large
highest hails' lowest loas' - small. ula-ar-j" Stretch out a- and ar-. Sound Changes 47, 6, 5.
happy hcepils' biggest blgas' Sm:><> . ::» is also lengthened before the vocalic resonance of -I
littlest h'ohs' without a vowel after it. It sounds much like 0 or u. SC 49.
As so many adjectives end with -y, review the vowel series Put box 2 inside boxes 4 and 3 for Jarj sm::»o sm::»oJar.
j Ie,; and contrast drill i I, as in hailst, hcepilst.. Nestle 1 and 2 into 3 for the series, sm::»o sm::»olar sm::»ohst.

178 179
larger .. smaller than the -est bad.. worst, good .. best

Going back the other way, 3 and 4 go into 5 for sm:>o larj 270 the --est
larjar, and 4 with 5 go into 6 for larj larjar larjlst. ESL learners should be conditioned to say the before -est
Students lastly throw boxes at each other saying the size re­ words.
lationship of what they are throwing!
Place easily seen pencils, long, brightly colored, at various
When they tire of throwing, have them say in unison and heights. Balance one on the top of an open door or above the
then one by one the relationship of the box being moved chalkboard frame, stuck onto an overhead light, the highest
to that of the others. smaller than, larger than pencil. Place others behind an ear, in a girl's hair, stuck into a
Turn the smallest box mouth down showing its outside boy's shoe or dropped with a clatter onto the floor as you
bottom number. Turn each successive box down over the say the lowest pencil.
preceeding ones.
Scatter books about. An extremely large one could be put
j is larger. than 1, 3 is larger than 2, 4 is larger than 3, in a window, the biggest book. Several others on tables and
tuz larjarn wan thriz larjarn tu fo-arz larjar n thri chairs..and a little one put into a boy's breast pocket or hung
5 is larger than 4 and 6 is the largest of all! Say this 1 time down on a string in the center of the classroom, the littlest
faivz larjarn fo-ar n Slkslz th'larjls'av:>o in 10 seconds. book.
Turn the nestled boxes over upright and work on this Using the set of 6 nestled boxes, or similar, take 5 out of
series as the smaller one is taken out of the next. the largest box and set them to one side. Then out of them
1 is smaller than 2, 2 is smaller than 3, 3 is smaller than 4, take the smallest box and put it away from, not close to, the
wan'Sm:>olarn tu, tu'Sm:)olarn thri thri'Sm:)o/arn fo-ar biggest.
4 is smaller than 5, 5 is smaller than 6 but 1 is the smallest. After drilling in pairs, objects are pointed to at random.
fo-ar'Sm:>larn faiv faif'Sm:)larn slks ba'wans th'sm:>hst the highest pencil - the lowest pencil
The -z or -s for ~ is absorbed into the following 5-, which is th'haits'p&nso th''p&nso
stronger. The unvoIced 5- of small devoices the th' of the be­ the biggest book - the littlest book
fore it which by its devoicing also devoices the voiced -v be­ th'bl-gas'buk th'lI'ohst buk
fore it! And the -t of -est is unreleased and cuts off the -5. See the largesti shoe- the smallest shoe
Sound Changes 10, 9, 25. -vs- = ·fs- 39 th'larjls'shu th'sm:>ohs' shu

1 2 3 4 5
Additional practice
>> <<5«f<

271 worst, worse, bad

good, better, best
On a table around which students can stand line up 6 items,
in clear plastic bags running left to right from real bad to very

1 really rotten fruit, dead rat, worms, dog do-do.

2 food showing signs of decay - shriveled apple, mouldy
bread, half-eaten sandwich ...
Look for, bring to class, garments that have S or L designa­ 3 spinach, slightly burned toast, broken saltine crackers ....
tors and say small - large when pointing at the letters. Leave a wider space to separate the good from the bad.
Pass around eyeglasses, a shoe, a finger ring or a hat for each 4 something readily edible - a fresh sandwich, freshly sliced
to tryon and say if the item is large or small. cold cuts, a hot dog....
Put 3 belts around a little girl or a big fat boy or man. If they 5 cookies, fresh banana or peach, bran raisin muffin.....
are loose, touch each as you say large, larger, largest or if tight 6 a beautiful piece of cake, fudge, dates, nuts...sample to be
say small, smaller, smallest. eaten in class!
For beginners only say the simple basic related words, like Sort of cup your hands above and around the bad items to
'Foot large - shoe small. ' Using complete sentences involves the left, as everyone repeats with disgust, bad, bad, bad...
possibly unfamiliar words or structures that confuse learning. Turn to the other end, in a way encircle the good items and
His foot is too large for her shoe. It's too small for his foot. say good, good, good. Smack the !ips with pleasure.
'Isfu's tu forj f'ar shu ,'stu sm:)o f',s fut Pair drill back and forth good - bad, good - bad, good - bad
Only use such sentences when working with advanced ESL (good comes first!). Review the vowels e t ar a and °
u u.
learners or speakers seeking improvement. Work until ce and u are said well. Then lengthen them

180 181
before - after first, middle, last fingers

before the voiced -d, which becomes weak in fast speech. Keep the line moving fast to give the feeling of movement
guuuuuud - balalalalald, guuuuud - balalalald .......•. to before - after. As yet don't say come after or go before nor
Point to the items at the ends and pair drill best - worst. use in front of- behind, better for when things don't move. 208
Review the vowels u ar a. Then to u ar add a sharply cut-off before be- becomes just a voiceless release of a puff of air.
_Sf •• U ar s· in 3 separate parts. b&s'· u ar s', b&s' - wars' The 0 is lengthened before the voiced ar, written -r after
R~pidly drill g~d b&s' - b&d wars', gu-d b&s' • b&d wars' .•.• vowels. bi- bl- ba- = b'fo-ar - b'fo-r See Sound Changes 2,3,4
Lastly drill good - better ~ best, bad - worse - worst.. after alftar If -ft- is a problem put a weak a after f, ·tatar.
better Be careful to not say anything like bedder, but more Work for clear aI and ar. {~
like b&'ar with an incomplete ·t- or stop. Sound Change 23
Contrast drill b&' - b&, e & aI a, & ai, b&' (short) b& (long)
273 fingers (in preparation for first, middle, last). .~
. up the right hand, palm towards the mt-do
worse· worst warsss - wars' class, fingers spread apart. Reach across the 0

worse - the Sss fades away body with the left hand and with the left

worst - the ·s' is cut off cleanly by a t stop, unreleased t. forefinger start with the right little finger

Contrast drill: warsss - wars', warsss • wars' ........

and count the fingers, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5. 11'0
Put this chart, outline in big letters on the chalkboard to Put a rough drawing of the hand on the

imprint by sight the pronunciation and relationship in drilling chalkboard and write the pronuncition at

good - better - best, bad - worse - worst. ends of the fingers and their numbers on

It also helps to raise a hand at the waist step by step up

from good and lower the other down from the waist step by them.

w~n tu thhuri fo-ar fai-v f

step after bad.

1 2 3 4 5
bu' Say 4 times
in 10 seconds Wiggle, wave the fingers and write flOg'garz along the base of
the 4 fingers. The pronunciation is really flOg - garz with a puff
of air out the nose after ~-ng and separately -garz. If there is a
warss definite g-, as in -gar, the -n tends to become -ng anyway. So be
wars' careful not to say flOg: ar (but singer is sing- ar). See 26 - ng.
272 before - after 1. little finger just wiggle it! ~, -Ie See Sd. Changes 23, 48

:A'J:':k.m b'l.- - The class forms a line around the room,

go ",ltDr
2 _ ring finger Compare rmg • flOg ..a puff of air out the nose.
• - - - - eF~ • ~H • • •
down the right side, across the back and Pass around a finger ring. See how many 'ring fingers' it fits.
up the left side. The lead student waits 3 _middle finger rn!-'o flnggar Count from right and left, 1,2,
: -=- : at the front left corner. The line of stu· 3 with the center finger always being 3 .. thumb - fore· 3,
: : dents then 'counts off', each taking the little _ ring - 3. !-Ionger, ~, -Ie = 0 Sound Changes 8,23,48
-.- - ~-- : next letter of the alphabet. If there are 4 _ forefinger fo-r flOg gar Count 1, 2, 3, 4 from the little
•••••• - _••• _..... more t h an 27 stu den t s, d au bl e th e Ie­t finger and hold up 4 straight fingers. Fore and four are
ters, AA, BB, ..GG ... Check the pronunciation of the letters of spelled differently but four is a good tag for remembering
the American alphabet. See 139. the pronunciation of the name of this finger.
Each student in turn from the head of the line at the left 5 _ thumb thha-rn The th is aspirated, a puff of air out after
front walks towards the teacher, or teacher's helper, a little it and.,. is lengthened before rn. See Sound Changes 53,6.
to the the right of the front center. The walking student, for Other languages also call the thumb a finger. So if an ESL
example with the letter G, points back over a shoulder at the learner says 'thumb finger' tell him to not say finger for it.
following student, H, and repeats several times, 274 first, middle, last
I come before H. akam b'fo-ar -_. Have 5 students line up one behind the other and count off,
As he, G, passes by the teacher he points at the preceeding forwards and backwards and then substitute middle for 3 in
student, F, who is now at the end of the line, and repeats, going either way. 1 2 3 4 5.. 5 4 3 2 1
I go after F. - ago alftar •• 1 2· middle 4 5.. 5 4 middle 2 1
Boys go after girls! boiz go alftar garozss Have them start walking around the room. The teacher gets

182 183

what's your name?

first, second, third, 4th, 5th ..
in front, pusbing against the chest of the leading student and Is that your first, middle or last name?
stops the marching. Now call the leading student, first and the Izthmt yur z ~ 29, t+y=ch 41
one at the end last. Everyone praetices saying for the 5 in line, IZlechar fars' ml-olar lles'ne-m -0 ar = -olar 49
first, 2, middle, 4, last It's my first I last name.
farst tu ml'o fo-ar laest I'S rnai fars' Illes' ne-m 1520, ai = a =' 2
Drill ar and Ie well. Review the vowels u ar a and e e Ie o. It's my first and last names.
Hold ar and Ie, for 5 seconds to settle and set the sounds. I'sm'fars'n lles'ne-mzss
ararararararar.... IeIe IeIe IeIe •••• but they are short in words What's your middle name? No middle name.
before the unvoiced -so Then after -s the t is weak, often huacha rnl-o ne-m no rnl-'o ne-m
dropped. Sound Change 25 277 Ordinal Numbers - first, second, third, fourth .....
Add 2 more people to the line. Be sure all stand facing the To imprint that the ordinals carry the feeling of one in an
head of the line ... not side by side.. and drill
orderly progression, of things being in a relationship in an or­
first, 2 3 middle 5 6 last ganized series, have the students move systematically from or
farst tu thri ml-'o faiv slks llest by an established starting point as they learn, practice the ordi­
275 the first I middle I last one. nals.
An odd number of students line up, 5, 7, 9, 11 and count off. First as a base review the cardinals, one, two,
three.... Line the students up along the right
Then each student asks another who is first, middle and last.
Who's the first one? Who's the middle one? Who's the last one? side of the room and have them count off, 1 2 ~~.
3 4 5 .... If they are standing side by side have

huz th' fars'wan huz th' ml-'o wan huz th' lles'wan
l's the first one. 5's the middle one. 9's the last one. them turn facing forward one behind the other. 2n d
wanz th'fars'wan faivzth' ml-'o wan nainz th'lles'wan Then one by one they go to the teacher at the ('
Point with the left forefinger
chalkboard who writes the respective ordinal
for each student. Say the cardinal and slowly
<; 1\ 3d
at the person whose number is write out the ordinal by sounds. The student <~
said. Then hold up the right repeats it 4 or 5 times. Condition the learners <~ 1\
forefinger' when the pronoun
one is said. After a few times
always to say the ..... tho th '..... th' Check to
see if a match flame in front of the mouth
add or take away 2 persons. flickers for both .. released puffs of air. <0)
5t h
.--1 AJ. ~ ~ ~~ - Lastly, use personal names in­
~ ~ stead of numbers. 1 th'farst 11 th'ale-v'nth <-J
276 first, middle and last names What's your name?
2 th'sekand 12 th'tue-ofth <00
6t h
On the chalkboard write the three
3 th'thh uar-d 13 th'thh uarti-nth <<:0
names each of some famous people
4 th'fo-arth
5 th'flfth
14 th'fo-arti-nth
15 th'flfti-nth <7t h
or current celebrities... such as the
teacher's own full name.
6 th'slk sth 16 th'slk sti-oth d
7 th'sc-voth 17 th'se-vo ti-nth 8tl}
Franklin Delano Roosevelt 8 th'e'th 18 th'e'ti-nth -
frlengklm dilano ruzveot
John Fitzgerald Kennedy
9 th'nainth 19 th'nain ti-nth-_ _.9:;t
10 th'te-nth 20 th'tu&-n ilth -
1933 F. D. R. 'jan fltsj&u rod kenadi
After working around the class have the stu­
Point to the first, middle and last names on the chalkboard.
dents copy this into their notebooks as they carefully say aloud
farst ml-o n llest ne-mzss
the sounds. This is visual and kinesthetic reinforcement neces­
What's your name? .... Tom, Melo, Tanya, Ana... ? sary for fast accurate learning. See that it is done well. Then
huatsyur s + y = sh Sound Change 43 have the class walk in single fife around saying and touching
huatshur t + sh = ch 41
John Davis on the chalkboard the next number.
uacha ne-m jan devis the 1st th'farst The final -t is often dropped. 25
the 2nd th'sekan' Cut off the on' with a sudden stop. 18

add, subtract, multiply

the 3rd thhthh uar-d Aspirations after th' should cause the
+-+ x
flame of a match in front of the mouth
[} 4' to flicker 2 times. 53 Start ar with lip
u U ./ rounding. Beginners to say a clear u. Write these arithmetical expressions on the chalkboard with
... ./ . . Lengthen ar- before the voiced -d, which their phonetic versions, one by one, After a few repetitions the
often is weak. 51, 6, 24 students are to copy each into their notebooks. See - say - write
the 4th thh fo-arthh Make a long 0 separate from ar. 0- •• ar and then work out their logical sequence make for indelible
the 5th th'flfth ffffffl ffff th The lower lip lightly touches imprint for automatic response. These exercises follow simple
the upper front teeth. If flpth is said, with arithmetic patterns. Have each student figure out and say the
a sharp pencil point push the upper lip up next in a series of arithm.etic expressions. The speaker and the
and away from the lower lip. others would do well to write each number and mathematic
the 6th th'slk sth Practice in 3 parts. sIk' - suddenly stop the sign as it is said. and +. from -, times x, into -+
air in the back of the mouth. Hiss sss. Stop.
Review, keep in mind the pronunciation of each number as
the 7th th's£-v nth Long e before the voiced v. Hum nnnnn
given in 140.. 143. Note and practice well the reduced forms
and release it into th with a puff of air out.
of are, and, is and final os.
the 8th th'e'th Make a definite deletion stop for the missing are, 're is ar which becomes a part of or, -ar before it. That -r,
t. fth 21 Clearly say e not e. i lee oar becomes just a longer ar, maybe with 2 pulsations but
the 9th th'nainthh
still just one sound ...Ionger than the ar at other times.
the 10th thh te-nthh Lengthened e before the voiced "no 6 and becomes -n- which makes an -n before or an n- after
the 11 th thh /e-vnthh The first vowel of eleven, i-, 1_, e- be­ longer. i.e. a long n-sound has the meaning of and in it.
comes a soft a, a/e.. , which gets lost! is can be -z or Os, or becomes a part of -s, -z before or S',
the 12th th'tueofth Learn in 4 separate parts, tu eo ffff tho z- after it. A longer than usual s-sound has the meaning of
See the remarks for the 5th. is in it, or the final-s of a verb. See Sound Changes 9, 10.
the 13th thh thh uarti- nthh Make a match flame flicker 3 and - addition -- and -- 're
/.I times - for each th'. See the 3rd. Per-
1 + 1 = 2 wannwanar tu Long n-, wanar like owner
W haps contrast long and short ar- ar.
1 + 2 = 3 wan-tuar thri thh uri 53, 50
=== ar,d art, thar-d thart i-n
2 + 3 = 5 tu n thrir faiv f thriar, thri-r --vf 40
the 14th, the 15th, the 16th, the 17th, the 18th, the 19th...... .
th'fo-rti-nthh, th'flfti-nthh, th'Slks---, th'se-vn-- + ti-nthh
3 + 4 7 thrin fo-ar- se-van four are fo-ar ar = fo-ar- e- 6
4 + 5 = 9 fo-rn faivar nain
the 20th thh tue-ni Ithh -n118 Con- 5 + 6 = 11 faiv'n slksar ale-van
JULY trastdrillil,ilth, ilee 6 + 7 = 13 slks n se-vanar tharti-n thh uar 51
S M T W T F...E_ the 30th..40th.. 50th... all have --ilth 7 + 8 = 15 se-vn-e'ar flfHn se-vnne'ar
1 2 endings. 8 + 9 = 17 e'nnainar s£-vnti-n
3 4 5 6 7 8' 9 the 100th, the l,OOOth,tth 21, .n{A 18 9 + 10 = 19 nain-te-nar nainti-n
10 11 12 13 14 15 16 handar'th thauzanth
279 from - subtraction fura-m 50, 6 --- from --- is --­
24 18 19 20 21 22 23 On a big calendar tap at random the
25 26 27 28 29 30 days..dates.. of a month. Always use I -1 = 0 wan fr.m wan'Ziro .. one is wanz -tziuro 9,50
2 -1 = 1 wan fr.m tuz wan
the with dates. July 4 - jalai th'fo-rth
278 Numbers in use - Arithmetic 4 -2 = 2 tu fram fo-rs tu four is fo-rz, -z tu = -stu 39
6 -3 = 3 thri fram SlkSlSthri
Handling numerical, mathematical concepts in a new lan­ 8 -4 = 4 fo-r fr.m e's fo-r
guage requires special training more than just learning to say 10 -5 = 5 fai'fra-m te-nsfaivf faiv fr.. = fai'f 10, -v -vf 40
the numbers, as in 140 ... 143. Often in context there is no cue lOis 5 te-nz fai.. =-nsfai 39
as to how many or what quantity. I have 3 pencils in my hand.
If you don't see them there could be 7 or a dozen. So to pre­ 280 .. times.. multiplication --- times --- is ---­
sent a logical meaning to numbers drill these tables well, and I x 2 = 2 wan taims tus tu taimz tu IZ tu --mstustu 39
to master the variant forms of and, are and of is. 2 x 3 = 6 tu taims thri 'Slks -z thri IZ slks -sth ... -ssl•. 39
3 x 4 = 12 thri taims fo-rs tueovf 49, 40
divide plus, minus measurements
4 x 5 ::= 20 fo-r taims faifstue-ni --vzt....fst 39, -n1
5 x 6 :;; 30 faiftaim'Slksls thartl v t =ft, IZ th = sth 39, ~s 1 5 x 12 = 60 inches
6 inches 66)( 2.58 = ? centimenters
6 X 7 = 42 slks taim'Se-vns fo-ar'ltu =
artl ar'i 23
2.58 into 170 cm. ?inches
7 x 8 = 56 s£-vn taimze's flftlslks
8 X 9 = 72 e'taimz nain'Se-vntltu A kilo(gram) is 2.2 pounds. 2.2 lbs.
9 x 10::= 90 nain taims te-nz naini -n1i 18 akilo(grmm)s tu pom'tu paunz -9 s 30, -n~ 18
281 .• into.• division --­ into -.-- is ---­ A pound has 16 ounces.
apaun'hm'Slks.ti-n aunsazs has sixteen hm'slksti-n 39, 10
2 + 1 = 2 wanlnt'tus tu into Inta Int' nt'
6 + 2 = 3 tUlntaslksls thri HoW many grams in an ounce? 1,000 grams = 1 kilo
haum£nI grmmzmanauns
12 + 3 = 4 thrimt'tu£ofs fo-ar -v IZf-=-vzf-=-vsf­ -fsf­ 2.2 x 16 = ounces in a kilo
20 '+ 4 :;; 5 fo-rurmt'tu£nls faivf aunslzma kilo
30 '+ 5 = 6 faivlnt'thartl'Slks -IZ Sl- = -ISSI- = -I'SI- 39,9, 1
42 '+ 6 = 7 slkslnta fo-rtltu'S£-vn 13 liters are about 14 quarts.
56 + 7 = 8 s£-v nlnta flftlsiksise' tharti-n litarzaruabau'fo-rti-n kU:l's
72 '+ 8 = 9 e'lnta s£-vntltuz nain
282 plus, minus, multiply, divide
These forms using words from Latin may be already
12 in.= 1ft. 1 ineh S feet

by some ESL students. Drill a couple of examples so that t
will be readily understood.
1 plus 3 is 4.
3ft.= 1y d. 16oz=lpd
wan plas thris fo-r 91.4 em.
453.6 gram S (l b)
... ~

6 plus 7 is 13. slks pla's£vns tharti-n

1 minus 1 is zero. wanmainas wan'Ziuro 285 Fractions

6 minus 2 is 4. slks mainas tus fo-r IZ fo = Isfo Review the ordinals. See 277. Contrast drill ssss ­ zzzz.
3 multiplied by 4 is 12. thri mautlplai'b'fo-rs tu£ovf 1/2 one half a half. 2 halves. • --f+s:;; -ves
48 11 39 4840 wan hmf ahmf. tu hmvz • .,
6 divided by 2 is 3. slksd'vaid,'b'tus thri 1/3 one/a third 2/3 two thirds
.16 divided by 3 is 12. thar'lslks d'vaidl'b'thris tueovf wanl a thard ~ tu thsr'z --~s So.Ch.22
283 ~easurements 1/4 a fourth . . 3/4 three fourths 4-4-4 = 34's
a fo-arth." thri fo-rs ••,\45 30 thri fo-rz
Pass around items showing the metric and American measure­
ments. Rulers that show centimeters and inches, a ruler 1 foot
1/5 a fifth 4/5 four fifths 5-5-5-5
a fifth for fIf's 45's fo-r faivz
long, a yardstick or a strip of something exactly 3 feet
showing 3 12-inch sections. A liter container and a I-quart m
1/6 a sixth 5/6 five sixths 56's .. 66666
a slks'thh faiv slk's faif slkslZ
carton, a galion can, cans of food wh ich show metric equ iva­
lents. Do some simple problems of conversion.
1/7 (J seventh 6/7 six sevenths 67's
a s£-vnthh slk'S£-vn's slks s£-vnz
An inch is 2.58 centimeters. Show this on a ruler. 1/8 an eighth -/th 21 7/8 seven eighths 78's
anlnchls tu POlO' faive's£nlmi'arzss 5 Say it 5 times in 10 seconds. a ne'thh s£·vn e's s£-vn e's -15 20
A foot has 12 inches. 1/9 a ninth 8/9 eight ninths 89's
afut hms tu£ovmchlzs a nainthh e'nains e'nainz -1 n- 18
How many centimenters in a foot? 12 X !J.58 = ? 1110a tenth 9/10 nine tenths 910's
hau m£nI s£nlmi'arzlna fut thartl pOln'fo-rtl et a t£-nthh nain te-ns nain t£-nz
284 The teacher has 2 feet. A yard has 3 feet. (Walk along on a 1/20 a twentieth 3/20 three twentieths -n1i 18
th'tichar hms tu fit ayard hms thri fit yardstick) a tu£-ni Ithh thri tue-n;"s I 's
How many centimeters in a yard? (2.58 X 12) X 3 1/100 a hundredth 21/100 twenty-one hundredths
hau m£nI s£nlmi'erzlna yard a handar'th tu£-niwan handar's 21, 30
How many centimeters in 5 feet 6 inches? (Point to a 1/1000 a thousandth 3/1000 three thousandths
haum£nl s£nlmi'arzm fai'fi'slksmchlzs who is that tall) a thauz nth thri thauz ns
... yesterday, today, tomorrow ...
was, is, '11 be wasn't, isn't, won't
286 the day before yesterday, yesterday, today, tomorrow,
the day after tomorrow 87 was, is, 'II be waz IZ oubi
After at least a day, or better after several, add the verbs to
the day indicators of 286. Point back with the left hand and

19 I 20 1 21 1@ I 23 1 24 ,[ 25 ~
write was under the yesterdays, is under today and 'U be under
the tomorrows.
Usually was and is are was, Os, before unvoiced sounds. See
th'de yestardl t'de t'maro th'de
b'fo-ar ceftar sound Change 39. Btlt they are waz, -z before voiced sounds,
t'moro such as when the first sounds of eight, nine, eleven, 18 or 19
make for a voiced th (the) that in turn keeps the voicing of-z.
waz waz z obi 0 bi
In tomorrow'll be the final 0 of tomorrow combines with the
o resonance of the -I with no vowel after it. So say a stronger
longer o. See Sound Changes 48, 9. t'marooubi - t'maro-ubi
Review, practice the ordinals by rapidly tapping the dates in Also, for an r before a vowel the lips round out briefly and be­
ascending order from the 1st to 31st, later at random, on a big ginners do well to say a clear but short u before -roo t'mauro-u.
calendar, or one drawn on the chalkboard or a large cardboard. Practice uro-u separately. Sound Change 50
When the series throughout a month is easily said, draw on the Point behind 2 times, was, was. Down 1 time, -sss and for­
chalkboard in calendar style 7 long boxes in a horizontal line ward 2 times, oubi, oubi. was was ss oubi oubi Change to waz,
to represent one week. The boxes should be long enough to
-z before voiced sounds. y£stardl was _ t'des _t'maro-bi
easily write a long word under each.
Do this exercise on a midweek day, such as Wednesday the Next add the current dates, such as,
22nd, so that the 2 days before and after the today's date, the th'de b'fo-ar y£stardl was th' tue-ni Ith was the 20th
22nd. will all be on the same line. In the box for the current wazth'eth was the 8th
date write and circle the date, the 22nd, and under that box y£stard I was th' tu£-ni farst was the 21st
write t'de (today). Repeatedly say t'de and each time point waz th'nainth was the 9th
at your feeL.the silent gesture for 'now, the present time'. t'des th' tuc-n; sckand Today's the 22nd
Turn sideways with your right side towards the class. With t'dez th' al£-vnth the 11th
the left hand reach back and tap the day before the box for t'maro-bi th' tu£-ni fo-rth 'U be the 24th
today. Pointing back with the left hand is the silent cue for 288 Was ... ? Is .••• ? Will ... be ... ?
the past. Put yesterday's date in that box and write under it Pair drill Will - 'll.· Stressing the lengthened 0- and
y£stardl (yesterday). pointing back with the left hand each forward for both. ou ou, 0- 0-, Ulo- 0-, 0- Ulo­
time y!!sterday is said. Yes, it was.
Was the day before yesterday the 20th?
With the right hand point forward and tap the tomorrow waz th'de b'fo-r yestardl th' tuc-ni Ith yes.'uazs 18, 40
box. Write t'maro under it. (t'mno and even t'mara are alter­ Was yesterday the 21 st?
nate forms but it is better that ESL learners be imprinted with wazh£stard. th' tue-ntl tarst z + y = zh 44
0 ••. 0 in this word.)
Is today the 22nd? Yes, it is.
Have each stUdent point back with the left hand, down at the IS t'de th'tue-ni s£kand y£sl'.zs It. 23
feet and then forward with the right hand when saying yester­ Will tomorrow be the 23rd? Yes, it will (be.
day, today, tomorrow. UIO- t'mauro-bi th'tu£-n;thard Y£SI'UlO (bi
yestardl t'de t'maro 7 To be said 7 times in 10 seconds Will the day after tomorrow be the 24th?
Reach farther back and put the date in the box for the day Uloth' de ceftar t'maro-bi th'tuc-nifo-rth
before yesterday and forward to put in the date for the day 289 wasn't isn't won't be See Sound Change 37.
after tomorrow. With 2 backward motions, one down and 2
forward say Ask positive untrue questions with full answers. Nod the
head for positive and shake the head negatively for any form
th'de b'fo-ar y£stardl - y£stard. - t'de - t'maro - th'de ceftar
t'maro 2. Repeat 2 times in 10 seconds. of -n'Lwhich may be just an n-coloring of a preceeding sound.
the, be-, to- lose vowels and become voiceless stops. 2,3,4 On the chalkboard. tap the day concerned and nearby write
the date you are asking if it is.
Tag .. was.. is •. won't it? seconds, hours, days .•.. next, last
Was the day before yesterday the 22nd? Units of time
waz th'de b'for yestard, th'tueni s&kand
No, it wasn't the 22nd, it was the 20th.
nOI'uazn th' tucnis&kan' ,'uasth'tucnilth
29 3
Watch the second hand of a watch while count·
ing out 10 seconds... in 10 seconds.
Is today the 20th? 1 second 2 seconds 3 seconds 4 seconds
wan S&kant tu s&kans thri s&kans fo-r S&kans.
IS t~de th' tueni,th
5 seconds 6 seconds 7 seconds 8 second
No, it isn't the 20th. It's the 22nd. faif S&kans slk'sekans sevansekans e'sckans
no,',zn th'tuenilth ,'sth'tuemsekan d
9 seconds 10 seconds ·-v $0- = -fs- 39 -~ s- 9
Will tomorrow be the 30th? nains&kans te-n s&kans -, $020 eon 6
ulot'maro bi th' thar'i Ith art' 23
Second as a unit of time is commonly pronounced S&ka.nt.
No, it won't be the 30th. It'll be the 23rd. Its plural, seconds, is s&kans, like cents s&ns, students stu'ns.
nOl'uon bi th' thar'i!th "0 bi th' tucm thard Seconds for 'second choice', not top quality merchandise or
29C Pair
it was the '" ,'uaz th' to eat more of the same thing is s&kanz. s&kan9lz 22
Nod, the head.
it wasn't the ... ,'uazn th' Shake the head. Repeatedly work through this table until it can be readily
it won't be ,'wobi won won wo 37 said from memory. Refer to a watch, clock or a calendar.
it'll be "0 bi 60 seconds - a minute slkstl sekans a mlmt
was waz 60 minutes - an hour s,kstl mini's anaur -'s 20
wasn't waz 24 hours - a day tut-m .fo-arurauarz ade arur·- 52
'Il 0 7 days - a week s&-van dez auik
won'two 4 weeks - a month fo-ar uiks amanth ~s 20
If ESL learners '<lon't catch, hear the - - nasal ity. out 12 months - a year tue-o v mans a yi-ar 10 48
through the nose, they may think positive, yes, when the situa­ a year - 365 days .. thri han'ar'n s,kst, faivdez n9l18
tion is negative, no. 294 next
291 Tag questions - untrue negative, positive tag. Review, farst ml-'o 23 lcest
292 The speaker wants to confirm that a negative condition is not
practice. • •
true. See the explanation in 221 of tag questions and 160 for ~.~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~C~
answers to negative questions when cond itions are negative.
The day before yesterday wasn't the 22nd, was it?
( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( !(!(
th'de b'fo-r yestard, wazn th' tuen, sckan' waz,t the first nekst nekst nekst nekst nekst nekst nekst nekst
No, it wasn't. /t was the 21st. and the last.
no,'waz I'uasth'tuemfarst.
Yesterday wasn't the 23rd, was it? The line of students walk around and up the left side of the
yestard, was th'tuemthard wazlt classroom. The leading student is brought to a stop at the
front right corner of the class seating area. Point back and
No, it wasn't. It was the 21st. forth at the students at the head and at the end of the line as
nOI'was ,'was th'tuemfarst
you repeat first - Iast...and maybe middle for the center one.
Today isn't the 24th, is it? Motion for the first student to go back to his seat and sit
t'de IZth'tuem forth 'Zit down. As soon as he has sat down, point to the one now at the
No, it isn't. /t's the 22nd. head of the line and say next! And so on down the line with
no,',z ,'s th'tuem sekand the class saying next as soon as the lead student has sat down.
Tomorrow '11 be the 24th, won't it? first, last, first, lasLmiddle.. next, next, next, next, ....
t'maro-bi th'tue-n'forth won ,t fars' Ices' .. ml-'o nek st nekst nekst nekst .••
No, it won't be the 24th. That'll be the day after tomorrow. In fast conversation. the t is dropped after -s, os,. In this drill
no,'wobi th'tue-mforth. tha'obi th'de;eftar t'mauro for first, last just cut off suddenly the s-sound with a tongue
23 37 4 6 18 2 48 50 or glottal stop. Likewise cleanly cut off the lengthened 1­

192 193
Days of the Week
Months Seasons
of middle. 25, 6, 18. When saying next as a separate word, d
vide it into 2 parts, nck _. st. Twice stop the air and release a Was Sunday the 7th? No, the 7th was Saturday.
puff to make a match flame flicker. nck' ... st' (sta' -st' _5') wa'sandl th'sf>oyanth no th'sf>oyanth wa'see'ardl
295 first week, last week, this week, next week What was Thursday? It was the 8th.
MARCH Using the formula of 294, on a big calendar hua'uas tharzdl I'uaz th' e'th
S M T W T F S of the current and preceeding months tap the
Is today Wednesday. the 22nd?
IS t'de wlnzdl th' tuc-m sckan'
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 top week, first week. Lightly touch each week
9 10 1 1213 14 on down, next, next, next, next.. but say last
No, Wednesday last week was the 22nd.
I~ 16 17 ~8 192021 week for the one just before the current week. no wlnzd, lces'uik
Is Monday, the 27th a good day to go?
was th'tuf>onlsckan'
22232425262728 (If you don't have a big calendar have the
IZ mandl th'tuc-nI sc-yanth a gu-'de t'go ~d 9
293031 class draw the 2 months on the chalkboard.)
Tuesday, the 28th is better.
Alternately tap the first and last weeks a few tuzdl th'tucme's bc'ar -th is = -th's ='5 30
times and then add this week, next week. Put Will next Thursday be the 10th? No, it won't.
5 M T W T F S a circle around the date of today in this week. WIO ncks'tharzdl bi th' tf>onth nOI'uon'
s 6 7 81 : I~ ~ first week, last week, this week, next week Was last Tuesday the 3rd. No, it's this Tuesday. (this week)
1213141 516 17 ~8 fars'uik lces'uik thlswik ncks'uik waz lces'tuzdl th'th.ard no I'SIS tuzdl -5 HI- 29
19202122232425 Caution: Don't use the with reference to the 298 The Months
2627282930 weeks before and after the current week. Use a large hanging calendar. Touch each JANU'" JULY

The last week of May - end of a series of the 12 months saying month and then 5 M T W: ',5, 5 M T ~; ; :

The next week after that - a week not related to now. make a circular motion taking in all 12 • , • , • "0
11 12 13 14 13 16 17
, • , • "011
12131.4 I' 161118

ESL learners should know of this non-use of the for last/ an d say year. 18 '92021 " " , . "'0" ,n,,.,,
2526172.2930::n 26212829 30 31

next weeki month/year when related to now, the present time. What are the 12 months of the year? ""U.IY AUGUS!

He died last year (the year before this year, now) 2 18 2 4 53 48 30 35 6 5 M T W T '5 • M T 'II T f •

She got married last month (the month just before now) hua ' ar t h' th u coy ~mansa th'"
yHJr ••, '011'21'"
, • , • , " , , • , ••
We'll graduate next year (the year after this present year) January February March :~;:;::!::~~~: .'.:~:::!::;::~
296 Days of the week J'cenyucuri fc-byucuri ma-arch •• ",.~".,.
."" •.S£Pf£M8ER

Across the chalkboard, from left to right, write the 7 days of

April May June S M T W T f 5

the week by sounds. epuro 50,48 me j u - n : ~ ,'o,~ .~.~:•• , 0 • IO'~ ,',

sandi mandl thuzdl wmzdl thhuarzdl furaidl sce'ard, July August September;; :~;:::::~~~: ::::::::::::::
jalai ::.gast septcmbar 29 2021"PRll ,,~8292.
Always start with Sunday. Tap Sunday and say the first day OCTOSER

of the week on a calender. Some other languages start with a October November December • T W T ' 5 • M I W T , •

different day as the first day of the week. aktobar noycmbar d'scmbar , 6
• , 3 , .. , 6 7 a, ,9' 10,
8 9 10 11 "J

299 The Seasons of the Year 1219202122n141,

13"" ,. 17" 18197002122232"
In fast speech for the ending --day say -dl, except for today
which always is t'de. If some student is puzzled by --dl clearly Hold up 4 fingers and on the calendar ,.",.,9" ",.,"0292021
• • M" Y NOVf.M.B'fJt
say day de for clarification. make the motion of a Circle around the 3 • M T W T ' 5 S T W t , .. II<

Thursday - thh uar zzz dl See Sound Changes 53, 51. months of each of the 4 seasons. '2 " " . 6 ,
• " • 3 '" , 6 7 II 9' 8 9' Hll1 12 13 1'"

Tuesday - th uzdl Does a puff of air cause a flame to flicker? sprmg Spring up, Jump, hop up as high as 'Oil'''''''''' '''''''81''0''
-sday Practice a long, strong buzzing zzzzzzz + dl. possible. Hold one hand flat, palm down, ~:.~~::~~:~~~ ::~'''$''''''
Saturday A noticeable quick stop for the miSSing t between fingers straight out level. From below JUN' O'''M",

vpwe/s. 23. Some people say satuhday. see'adl. ar = a 2 suddenly run, slip the vertical fingers of " , , 5 M :~ ;; :

the other hand up between the flat fi n- 14t 15• •16 17'01118 "19200
" . , • • '011 .,
297 Practice with dates, days of the week. 13 I. 15 16 17 ,. 19
gers like grass suddenly springing up. 21 12'32""'" '0" 22"",,,,
Notice how the -z of was, is waz IZ becomes -5 or disappears. Summer Point up to the sun (sun-er - of ""20 ,,,.,,,.,,
Was Tuesday last week the 13th? No, it was the 14th. the sun). Wipe the sweat off your forehead. sa'mar 9
was tuzdl leestuik th'tharti-nth nOI'uas th'fo-arti-nth fall f::Io Let small pieces of paper fall, flutter down like leaves.
winterwln'ar (wind-er) Blow like the cold whistling wind, shiver.
Telling time What time is it?
300 Telling Time
What time is it?
Draw a big clock face on the chalkboard with large numbers hua'taim'zit a = a, ,t, -t See Sound Changes 2, 9, 24
3, 6, 9 and 12 at their positions, and smaller 1 . 2, 4 . 5, 7 . 8 Answer by pointing to the actual time on someone's watch.
and 10 . 11 in between. Tap each in turn around the clock as First say the hour and then how many minutes after the hour.
your practice counting by 5's up to 60..• 2 times in 10 seconds. 3:21 thri tue-ni wan .... 10:42 teen fo-ar'i tu ....
Five· v becomes f before unvoiced sounds. 5 10 faifte.n 39 Start with 12:00. Put on the chalkboard the advancing hours
Release a little puff of air (make a flame flutter) after initial and 5 minute intervals. First point to the hours with the left
t·, tho 10 the-n, 30 thhar'i See Sound Change 53 hand and then to the minutes with the right hand. Reverse the
Make vowels longer before voiced sounds. 10 4 . te-n, fo-ar 6 order, first point to the minutes with the right hand, to the
Between vowels ·t· is a very short silent break 40 fo-ar'; 23 hours with the left and drill with after to the half hour and
After -n t is dropped. 20 tue-n,i Sound Change 18 change to before the following hour. Although we don't nor­
In thirty say u before ar. 30 thhuar'i 51
mally say 80 after 5 or 80 before 6 drill well with them all the
'-v f·- = -·'f·- 45-50 fo-ar'ifai'flfti 10
way through as the word order is strange to some ESL learners.
II 12 1 , 5 10 15 20 25 30 Then in place of after· before practice with past and to -
~o? ? 23\ faif te-n f'fti-n thue·ni thue-nifaif thhuar'j 20 past... 10 to... Tap the times with ·-:15, ··:30, ··:45 with
~~ ; '.' 35 40 45 50 55 60 one hand and point with the other to the half and 2 quarters
~-},. .}J< thhuar'jfa;'fo-ar'j fo-ar',fai'flft, Mtlfaif slkstl 2 for the students to use a quarter after, half past, a quarter to.
half - quarter· past 2 times in 10 seconds 12:05 tueo'faiv faiveeftar tu£ov
Students should not be distracted by unfamiliar words when 1: 10 wan t£-n te·neeftarwan
learning to work with time concepts. So beforehand review 2: 15 tu flfti-n f,fUneeftartu aku::>ar'ar eeftartu

j 12 be(o~e, afte~, h~lt. q~arter, past. See 272, 285. 3:20 thri tue-ni tue·nieeftarthri tue-ni pees'thri
.~.'~~ DIvide a big c,rcle Into a half and 2 quarters. 4:25 fortue·nifaiv tuenifaiveeftar fo-ar
~4 Tap each as you drill around and around at 5:30 faifthar'i (thar'i b'fo-arslks) heef pees'faiv
... 1f2 *- faster and faster speeds, 9 times in 10 seconds. 6:35 s'ksthar'ifaiv thar'ifaiv eeftarSlks tue·nifaift'se-van
half quarter quarter Separate ar's 23 7:40 s£-van fo-ar'i (tue-nib'fo-aret) tue-ni t'et
, -6~""""'··' 8:45 e'fo-ar'i faiv aku::>ar'art'nain f,ft;'n t' nain
-. heef ku::>ar'ar ku::>ar'ar 9 9 times in 10 seconds
9:50 nain flftl (te-n b'fo-arte-n) teen t' teen
To imprint past, as used in telling time, put a big dot on the
10:55 teen flftlfaiv foift'ale-van
chalkboard. Draw an arrow to it from the left as you repeat
before, before.. Make the silent cue of the left hand from far "+'~
left coming to the left of the chest. Draw another arrow from ':>";-'
the big dot to the right as you repeat after, after and motion ";­·j'l
foward away with the right hand. ";­
Starting a little to the left of the dot, under it draw a line to

the right. Just where this lower line 'passes' under the dot start
saying past, past, past...

b'fo-ar • peest

What time is it?
Tap your own wrist, point to another's watch or a clock

- -,
'___ 6 __')

face and ask this. When a question starts with What, When,
Why, Who the tone level of the voice goes down at the end.

196 197
morning .. afternoon .. evening a m, p m Good Morning ......

30) morning, forenoon. afternoon. evening .. midday, a.m., p.m.