reviews fcr eMorkeling.
tbe essentiaI guide tc cnIine marketing hrst editicn
¨0uirk`s eMorkeling hondbook covers oll lhe nosl inporlonl concepls which ore
necessory for eMorkeling excellence lodoy. í would highly reconnend il os bolh o
sludy guide ond o proclilioner`s reference nonuol. 0ongrolulolions lo lhe 0uirkSlors
on oll lhe lhoughl, reseorch ond work lhol hos obviously gone inlo lhis.¨
Dove Duorle, founder ond direclor of Nonodic Morkeling, U0T 0roduole School of
¨W0W! íl is on inspirolion lo see such o well wrillen ond lruly essenliol guide lo online
norkeling being wrillen by Soulh lfricons! eMorkeling. The Fssenliol 0uide lo 0nline
Morkeling should be reod ond referenced by every snorl norkeler who is deoling wilh
lhe conplicoled world of eMorkeling.¨
Bronwen lurel, 0nline Morkeling Speciolisl, Soulh lfricon Tourisn
¨The perfecl slorling poinl for onyone enlering lhe world of online norkeling.. lruly
Slofford Mosie, 0ounlry Monoger, 0oogle Soulh lfrico
¨í`ve known 0uirk for nony yeors ond il`s very exciling lo see oll lheir experience
dislilled inlo lhis lexlbook. Furlhernore, lheir conlribulion lo 0pen Fducolion by
licensing lhis book under 0reolive 0onnons is on iniliolive í slrongly supporl. Reod
lhis book.¨
Scoll 0roy, ínleroclive Morkeling, BMW Soulh lfrico
Second Fdilion
eHarketing: Tbe EssentiaI 6uide tc 0nIine Harketing
By Rob 5tokes
0onpiled by Soroh Bloke
Firsl published 2OO8 by 0uirk eMorkeling lPlyI Lld.
© 0opyrighl 2OO8, 2OO? 0uirk eMorkeling lPlyI Lld.
This book is published under lhe 0reolive 0onnons lllribulion-Nonconnerciol-No
Derivolive Works 3.O Unporled License. This neons lhol you con shore ond dislribule lhis
work ond you con even nodify il, os long os you do nol use il for connerciol goin, you shore
oll nodifcolions ond you credil 0uirk eMorkeling lPlyI Lld. For nore infornolion, you con
visil www.creoliveconnons.org or www.quirk.biz/enorkelinglexlbook.
íSBN. ?78-O-ó2O-/3Oó3-O
Book design ond lypeselling by Solveig Bosch. 0over illuslrolion inspired by 0roig Row ond
design ond illuslrolion by Peler Lehlo.
We`ve used lhe fonl DíN in lhis book ond il is prinled in Soulh lfrico on recycled poper by
Shunoni Prinlers lwww.shunoniprinlers.conI.
lll lerns or nones used in lhis book lhol ore known lo be lrodenorks or service norks hove
been oppropriolely copilolised. 0uirk eMorkeling lPlyI Lld connol ollesl lo lhe occurocy of
lhis infornolion. Use of o lern in lhis book should nol be regorded os offecling lhe volidily of
ony lrodenork or service nork.
We hove olso node every efforl lo obloin pernission for ond lo ocknowledge copyrighl
noleriol. Should ony infringenenl of copyrighl hove occurred, pleose conlocl us ond every
efforl will be node lo reclify onissions or errors in lhe evenl of o reprinl or new edilion. You
con conlocl us on lexlbookOquirk.biz.
Warning and DiscIaimer
Fvery efforl hos been node lo noke lhis book os conplele ond occurole os possible, bul
no worronlies regording ils conlenls, whelher focl, speculolion or opinion, ore node nor
is flness for ony use inplied. The infornolion provided is on on ¨os is¨ bosis. The oulhor,
conpiler ond 0uirk eMorkeling lPlyI Lld sholl hove neilher liobilily nor responsibilily lo ony
person or enlily wilh respecl lo ony loss or donoges orising fron lhe infornolion conloined
in lhis book. Full deloils of 0uirk eMorkeling lPlyI Lld noy be obloined vio ils web sile
lwww.quirk.bizI or noy be requesled direclly ol lexlbookOquirk.biz.
eHarketing: Tbe EssentiaI 6uide tc 0nIine Harketing
5eccnd Editicn
by Rob 5tokes
conpiled by Soroh Bloke
When wriling lhe prefoce lo lhe frsl edilion of eMorkeling, í nused on sone of 0uirk`s
nileslones. ín focl, when í slorled 0uirk olnosl 1O yeors ogo, il wos yel onolher one of
ny crozy enlrepreneuriol odvenlures. í hod lillle ideo bock lhen of whol 0uirk would
grow inlo lodoy.

There ore key nonenls lhol slond oul for ne os hoving shoped 0uirk. í counl lhe
|oining of 0roig Row ond Jonine 0orpenler ond lhe experiences leorned in building
our frsl enoil opplicolion in lhe eorly doys of 0uirk os lwo of lhen. Bul lhere is one
incidenl lhol slorled o |ourney for ne personolly, in 2OO1 o fonloslic non noned 0olin
Polner inviled ne lo give o lolk on enoil norkeling ol o Direcl Morkeling lssociolion
breokfosl. íl wos ny frsl reol public speoking experience ond í wos scored willess, bul
í hod o lol of fun.

Bul il wos 0olin`s nexl invilolion when lhe educolion bug reolly bil ne. He inviled ne
lo leclure lo his lhird yeor Business Science Morkeling sludenls ol lhe Universily of
0ope Town. í hod been in lhol very closs only lwo yeors before, so í begon lhe leclure
wilh o nix of nerves ond excilenenl. Two lhings hoppened ol lhe end of lhe leclure
lhol chonged ne. The frsl wos lhe queslions fron lhe sludenls. Sone were eosy, bul
sone reolly chollenged ne ond í found nyself hoving lo lhink in woys í didn`l expecl.
The second wos o sludenl who cone up lo ne ond lhonked ne for lhe leclure, ond lold
ne she hod leorned sonelhing voluoble. Thol is slill one of lhe greolesl experiences
í hove ever hod.

Sodly, 0olin possed owoy o few yeors loler, bul í leorned o huge onounl fron hin in
lhe line lhol í knew hin ond for lhol í on very groleful. He showed ne how rewording
il is lo give soneone knowledge, il wos enlighlening. Thonk you, 0olin.

Fron lhol doy on í wos hooked. í on possionole oboul online norkeling ond í wonled
lo lell lhe world ond hove lhen shore ny possion. This hos led ne lo oll nonner of
leoching experiences, fron owesone posl groduole norkeling schools like Red ond
Yellow in 0ope Town, lo conferences on lhe olher side of lhe plonel.

0ver lhe yeors, 0uirk hos conlinued lo grow os o busy ogency, neoning ny line hos
becone nore ond nore scorce. í`ve hod lo enbroce fewer of lhe speoking ond leoching
opporlunilies lhol í would hove liked. Thonkfully í seen lo hove infecled nony of lhe
0uirkSlors lo corry lhe lorch wilhoul ne ond 0uirk hos becone o conpony where we
ore oll possionole oboul shoring our knowledge.

Since 0uirk`s inceplion, we hove been sleodily building o huge onounl of infornolive
conlenl oround lhe vorious elenenls of online norkeling. This lurned inlo our
eMorkeling 1O1 series, olnosl o nini version of lhis book. When í reod oboul lhe
0pen Fducolion Declorolion in Seplenber 2OO7, í knew exoclly whol 0uirk should
do. We needed lo loke oll our knowledge, experience ond educolionol conlenl ond
creole o lexlbook lhol we could shore wilh lhe world by licensing il under 0reolive
0onnons. The 0pen Fducolion Declorolion wos signed in 0ope Town ond il oins lo
occelerole efforls lo pronole open educolionol resources, lechnology ond leoching
proclices. 0uirk hos olwoys been on ogency fonolicol oboul 0pen Source lechnology,
ond lhis seened o perfecl fl. íl`s olnosl o culninolion of everylhing we slond for os
o conpony.

tbe seccnd editicn
When we published lhe frsl edilion nidwoy lhrough 2OO8, we lhoughl we hod prinled
enough books lo losl us o yeor, ol which poinl we would publish on updoled version
wilh new conlenl. Well, less lhon ó nonlhs loler í`n onozed lhol lhe enlire frsl edilion
hos been sold. Nol only lhol, over 5O OOO people hove downlooded lhe book fron our
web sile ond il`s olreody in use in nony universilies oround lhe world.
So, in line for lhe 2OO? ocodenic yeor, we ore publishing lhe second edilion. íl
conloins four new choplers. eMorkeling slrolegy, online norkel reseorch, cusloner
relolionship nonogenenl ond nobile norkeling. íl olso conloins six new cose sludies
os well os generol updoles ocross oll lhe exisling choplers.
Becouse lhings evolve so fosl in lhis crozy world of eMorkeling, il is our gool fron here
lo updole lhe book digilolly every six nonlhs ond prinl o new version once o yeor. This
is lhe beginning of lhol process lhol needs lo involve you |usl os nuch os il involves us.
We hove olreody hod nony sludenls ond educolors sign up on our sile ond conlribule
lo lhe growlh of lhe book, ond if you hoven`l done so olreody í would encouroge you lo
do lhe sone. Wilh ils 0reolive 0onnons license, lhis book is o connunily resource
ond we need your help os our connunily lo ensure lhol il`s os useful, occurole ond
relevonl os il con be.
So once ogoin here we ore wilh o book lhol í`n lerribly proud of. ls í soid wilh lhe frsl
edilion, il`s been nuch horder lhon we lhoughl lo pul il logelher wilh nony lole nighls
ond nissed deodlines, bul every ninule hos been worlh il. ín porliculor, í should poinl
oul lhe lireless work of lhe lovely Soroh Bloke. Wilhoul her, lhis book could nol hove
cone logelher like il hos. Nol only did she wrile o huge onounl of il, bul she hos been
inslrunenlol in ensuring lhol we con noke lhis conlribulion lo educolion wilh lhe
confdence lhol we ore doing sonelhing of lhe highesl quolily.

Fron lhe bollon of ny heorl í wonl lo lhonk ny leon ond everyone who hos helped lo
noke lhis ideo o reolily. í`ve been involved wilh nony exciling clienls ond pro|ecls over
lhe lifeline of 0uirk, bul í con honeslly soy lhis is lhe pro|ecl í on nosl proud of. This
book is o dislillolion of oll of 0uirk`s knowledge ond lo be oble lo offer il lo oll wilhoul
boundories ond linilolions is o privilege. í con only hope lhol olhers follow ocross oll
spheres of educolion ond underslonding. í believe educolion is lhe one lhing lhol con
chonge lhe world ond in porliculor ny Soulh lfrico. íl`s up lo lhose wilh knowledge lo
do whol lhey con lo pul il in lhe honds of olhers.

Pleose en|oy our book ond shore il wilh olhers.
Pcb 5tckes
vi vii









The 0ope Town 0pen Fducolion Declorolion is lhe producl of o neeling
in 0ope Town of o coolilion of educolors, foundolions, ond ínlernel
pioneers in Seplenber 2OO7. The neeling wos orgonised by lhe 0pen
Sociely ínslilule ond lhe Shullleworlh Foundolion. Linux enlrepreneur
Mork Shullleworlh soid, ¨0pen sourcing educolion doesn`l |usl noke
leorning nore occessible, il nokes il nore colloborolive, fexible ond
locolly relevonl.¨ The Declorolion`s principles of openness in educolion
ond lhe shoring of knowledge resonole slrongly wilh us.
To show our connilnenl lo lhe 0pen Fducolion Declorolion,
oll of lhe conlenls of lhis lexlbook ore freely ovoiloble, os ore
supporling noleriols for leclurers ond for sludenls. We know how
quickly lhings chonge when il cones lo lhe ínlernel, so we ore
connilled lo regulor updoles of lhis resource. l free downlood of
lhe lexlbook ond furlher noleriols ond resources ore ovoiloble ol
For nore infornolion on lhe 0pen Fducolion Declorolion, ond lo odd
your none lo lhe lisl of individuols connilled lo lhis couse, you con go
lo www.copelowndeclorolion.org.
0reolive 0onnons recognises lhol conlenl con be freely shored ond
dislribuled wilhoul negoling lhe righls of lhe oulhor of lhe work. íl`s
on exciling choriloble orgonisolion lhol is helping creolors oround
lhe world lo shore lheir work while slill being recognised for lheir
oulhorship. We hove chosen o 0reolive 0onnons licence for lhis work
lhol neons lhol lhe conlenls noy be freely shored os well os nodifed
ond shored os long lhe source noleriol is ocknowledged ond il is nol
used for connerciol goin.
For nore infornolion on lhe 0reolive 0onnons, pleose visil
viii ix
1. introduction to eMarketing ................. 1
references ................................... ó
furlher reoding ........................... ó
2. email marketing ................................. 7
inlroduclion ................................. 8
hislory ......................................... 8
key lerns ond concepls .............. ?
how il works ................................ 1O
lools of lhe lrode......................... 1?
pros ond cons .............................. 1?
sunnory ..................................... 2O
cose sludy ................................... 2O
references ................................... 22
furlher reoding ........................... 23
3. online advertising ............................... 25
inlroduclion ................................. 2ó
hislory ......................................... 2ó
key lerns ond concepls .............. 27
how il works ................................ 28
pulling il oll logelher .................. 35
energing lechnologies ............... 3ó
lhe good ond lhe bod .................. 37
sunnory ..................................... 3?
lhe bigger piclure ....................... /O
cose sludy ................................... /1
references ................................... /2
furlher reoding ........................... /3
ó. aIñliate marketing .............................. ó5
inlroduclion ................................. /ó
hislory ......................................... /ó
key lerns ond concepls .............. /7
how il works ................................ /8
lools of lhe lrode......................... 57
selling up o conpoign ................ 58
pros ond cons .............................. óO
sunnory ..................................... óO
lhe bigger piclure ....................... ó1
cose sludy ................................... ó2
references ................................... ó/
furlher reoding ........................... ó/
5. search engine marketing .................... ó5
key lerns ond concepls .............. ó8
lhe inporlonce of seorch ........... ó8
references ................................... 72
ó. search engine optimisation ................ 73
inlroduclion ................................. 7/
hislory ......................................... 7/
key lerns ond concepls .............. 75
how il works ................................ 7ó
lools of lhe lrode......................... 87
pros ond cons .............................. 8?
lhe bigger piclure ....................... ?O
cose sludy ................................... ?O
references ................................... ?3
furlher reoding ........................... ?/
7. PP0 advertising .................................. º5
inlroduclion ................................. ?ó
key lerns ond concepls .............. ?7
hislory ......................................... ?8
how il works ................................ ?8
online conporison engines ........ 1O?
lools of lhe lrode......................... 111
pros ond cons .............................. 112
sunnory ..................................... 113
lhe bigger piclure ....................... 11/
cose sludy ................................... 115
references ................................... 117
furlher reoding ........................... 117
0oogle AdWords Voucher ....................... 11º
lop 1O oplinisolion lips for odverlising
on google..................................... 12O
8. social media........................................ 123
inlroduclion ................................. 12/
hislory ......................................... 12/
key lerns ond concepls .............. 125
how il works ................................ 12ó
lools of lhe lrode......................... 1//
pros ond cons .............................. 1//
sunnory ..................................... 1/5
lhe bigger piclure ....................... 1/5
cose sludy ................................... 1/ó
references ................................... 1/7
furlher reoding ........................... 1/8
º. viral marketing ................................... 1óº
inlroduclion ................................. 15O
hislory ......................................... 15O
key lerns ond concepls .............. 151
how il works ................................ 151
sunnory ..................................... 158
lhe bigger piclure ....................... 15?
cose sludy ................................... 1óO
references ................................... 1ó1
furlher reoding ........................... 1ó2
10. online reputation management ........ 1ó3
inlroduclion ................................. 1ó/
key lerns ond concepls .............. 1óó
dell hell ....................................... 1óó
how il works ................................ 1ó8
1O rules lo recover ...................... 175
sunnory ..................................... 17ó
cose sludy ................................... 177
references ................................... 17?
furlher reoding ........................... 17?
11. webPR ............................................... 181
inlroduclion ................................. 182
hislory ......................................... 182
key lerns ond concepls .............. 183
how il works ................................ 18/
webPR loclics ............................. 185
lools of lhe lrode......................... 1?3
webPR ......................................... 1?3
sunnory ..................................... 1?/
lhe bigger piclure ....................... 1?/
cose sludy ................................... 1?5
references ................................... 1?7
furlher reoding ........................... 1?8
12. web site development and design .... 1ºº
inlroduclion ................................. 2OO
how il works ................................ 2OO
key lerns ond concepls .............. 2O1
pros ond cons .............................. 21ó
sunnory ..................................... 21ó
lhe bigger piclure ....................... 217
cose sludy ................................... 218
references ................................... 22O
furlher reoding ........................... 22O
13. online copywriting ............................ 221
inlroduclion ................................. 222
key lerns ond concepls .............. 222
how il works ................................ 223
neologisns ond buzz words ....... 232
sunnory ..................................... 232
chopler queslions ....................... 23/
references ................................... 23/
furlher reoding ........................... 23/
1ó. web analytics and conversion
optimisation ........................................... 235
inlroduclion ................................. 23ó
hislory ......................................... 23ó
key lerns ond concepls .............. 237
how il works ................................ 237
lools of lhe lrode......................... 2/?
pros ond cons .............................. 25O
sunnory ..................................... 25O
lhe bigger piclure ....................... 251
cose sludy ................................... 251
references ................................... 253
furlher reoding ........................... 25/
15.mobile marketing .............................. 255
inlroduclion ................................. 25ó
why lhe nobile ............................ 25ó
key lerns ond concepls .............. 257
nobile phones ............................ 2óO
nobile web .................................. 2ó7
plonning lo go nobile ................. 273
pros ond cons .............................. 273
cose sludy ................................... 27/
references ................................... 275
furlher reoding ........................... 27ó
x xi



xii 1
1ó. customer relationship management 277
inlroduclion ................................. 278
why e0RM ................................... 278
key lerns ond concepls .............. 27?
lypes of 0RM in orgonisolions .... 281
pulling o volue on 0RM ............... 282
using 0RM ................................... 285
lechnology ond 0RM ................... 287
\RM ............................................. 2?O
cose sludy ................................... 2?1
references ................................... 2?2
furlher reoding ........................... 2?3
17. market research ............................... 2º5
inlroduclion ................................. 2?ó
key lerns ond concepls .............. 2?7
whol is norkel reseorch ............. 2?7
quonlilolive ond quolilolive
reseorch ...................................... 2?8
golhering dolo ............................. 2??
online reseorch ponels ............... 3OO
prinory ond secondory reseorch 3OO
lhe inlernel ond secondory
reseorch ...................................... 3O1
lhe inlernel ond prinory
reseorch ...................................... 3O2
online surveys. golhering dolo ... 3O/
how lo gel responses .................. 3Oó
conducling reseorch surveys ...... 3O8
who`s going lo poy ....................... 31O
sunnory ..................................... 31O
lools of lhe lrode......................... 311
cose sludy ................................... 311
references ................................... 312
furlher reoding ........................... 313
18. eMarketing strategy ......................... 315
inlroduclion ................................. 31ó
how lhe inlernel hos chonged lhe world we
norkel in ..................................... 31ó
key lerns ond concepls .............. 317
lhe inlernel ond lhe norkeling
nix .............................................. 318
developing o norkeling plon ...... 322
eMorkeling ond norkeling ......... 32ó
online lools ................................. 327
cose sludy ................................... 328
references ................................... 33O
furlher reoding ........................... 33O
1º. last words ......................................... 331
20. glossary ............................................ 335
21. index ................................................. 355
22. contributors ...................................... 3ó1
2 3
inlroduclion lo enorkeling · a brief timeIine cf Internet deveIcpments
While lhe ínlernel wos developed in order for ocodenic ond nililory inslilulions lo shore dolo, il hos becone o
shoring lool for onyone wilh on ínlernel conneclion lhe world over.
1990 Senolor ll 0ore coins lhe lern `infornolion superhighwoy`.
1991 Web Folher, Tin Berners-Lee releoses World Wide Web lwwwI wilh scienlisls fron 0FRN.
1992 lnerico 0nline ll0LI is lounched ond roises $23n in foololion.
The lern `surfng lhe nel` is inlroduced by Jeon lrnour Polly.
The World Bonk goes online.
1993 Moinslreon nedio ollenlion increoses oworeness of lhe ínlernel.
Firsl ínlernel publicolion. Wired, goes on sole.
Mosoic inlroduces lhe frsl web browser wilh grophicol inlerfoce ond is lhe forerunner of
Nelscope Novigolor.
Firsl online shopping nolls ond virluol bonks energe os does evidence of spon.
Firsl clickoble bonner odverl is sold by 0lobol Nelwork Novigolor lo o low frn.
1995 lnozon is lounched by Jeff Bezos.
Triol diol up syslens such os l0L ond 0onpuServe lounch.
0horging is inlroduced for donoin nones.
Seorch lechnology conponies such os lllo \islo, ínfoseek, Fxcile ond Melocrowler ropidly oppeor.
199ó Yohoo! is lounched on lhe slock exchonge ond shores ore up neorly 3OO% on frsl doy.
1997 MP3.con is founded.
The lern ¨seorch engine oplinisolion¨ is used for lhe frsl line in o forun.
1998 XML is releosed lo enoble conpolibilily belween differenl conpuler syslens.
0oogle founded by Lorry Poge ond Sergey Brin.
1999 Peler Merholz coins lhe word ¨blog¨.
2000 l0L ond Tine-Worner onnounce lhey ore nerging.
Poy-per-0lick conpoigns ore inlroduced for lop len seorch ronkings.
0oogle ldWords lounches, chorging for odverls on o 0PM bosis.
2002 UK online nonlhly consuner shopping breoks lhrough lhe L1 billion borrier.
0oogle ldWords chorges on o PP0 bosis insleod of 0PM.
2003 eBoy lopples lnozon os lhe nosl visiled UK web sile.
200ó 0D-W0W loses courl cose ond righls lo source cheoper 0Ds oulside FU, undernining lhe
globol concepl of lhe ínlernel.
2005 ícelond leods lhe world wilh broodbond penelrolion. 2ó.7 inhobilonls per 1OO hove broodbond
conpored wilh 15.? per 1OO in lhe UK.
200ó 0oogle buys YouTube for $1.ó billion.
Focebook nenbership opens lo onyone.
Technoroli noles lhol o blog is creoled every second of every doy.
Tine Mogozine nones ¨You¨ os person of lhe yeor, due lo online oclivily.
2008 Firefox 3.O lounches wilh over 8 nillion downloods in 2/ hours.
ínlernel usoge lops 1,/O7,72/,?2O worldwide.
source. 0oy l2OO7I
inlroduclion lo enorkeling · intrcducticn
There is no doubl oboul il - lhe ínlernel hos chonged lhe world we live in. Never before
hos il been so eosy lo occess infornolion, connunicole wilh people oll over lhe globe
ond shore orlicles, videos, pholos ond oll nonner of nedio.
The ínlernel hos led lo on increosingly connecled environnenl, ond lhe growlh of
ínlernel usoge hos resulled in declining dislribulion of lrodilionol nedio. lelevision,
rodio, newspopers ond nogozines. Morkeling in lhis connecled environnenl ond using
lhol conneclivily lo norkel is eMorkeling.
eMorkeling enbroces o wide ronge of slrolegies, bul whol underpins successful
eMorkeling is o user-cenlric ond cohesive opprooch lo lhese slrolegies.
While lhe ínlernel ond lhe World Wide Web hove enobled whol we coll New Medio,
lhe lheories lhol leod lo lhe developnenl of lhe ínlernel were being developed fron
lhe 1?5Os.
a brief timeIine cf Internet deveIcpments
1958 US lRPl lodvonced reseorch pro|ecls ogencyI esloblished lo leod science ond nililory
lechnologicol developnenls.
19ó1 MíT reseorch poper of Pockel Swilching Theory.
19ó1-ó9 0ngoing reseorch inlo inler-conpuler connunicolions ond nelworks.
19ó9 lRPlNFT, connissioned by US Defense Deporlnenl, goes live.
US universilies connecl up nelwork focililies for lhe frsl line.
1971 Roy Tonlinson creoles frsl nelwork enoil opplicolion.
1973 Developnenl of prolocols lo enoble nulli-nelwork ínlernel opporlunilies.
Firsl inlernolionol lRPlNFT conneclions node.
197ó HM 0ueen Flizobelh íí sends on enoil.
1978 Firsl spon enoil is recorded.
1980 Tin Berners-Lee develops rules for lhe World Wide Web ond is crediled os lhe Web Folher.
llon Fnloge develops lhe frsl seorch lool known os `lR0HíF`.
1982 Slondord nelwork prolocols ore esloblished. Tronsnission 0onlrol Prolocol lT0PI ond ínlernel
Prolocol líPI, connonly referred lo os T0íP/íP.
198ó Joinl lcodenic Nelwork lJlNFTI is esloblished, linking higher educolion inslilulions.
Donoin None Syslen lDNSI is inlroduced.
1985 l conpony noned Synbolics becones lhe frsl regislered dol.con donoin.
1987 Nolionol Science Foundolion lUSI is lhe cololysl for lhe surge in funded work inlo lhe ínlernel.
Nunber of ínlernel hosls increoses signifconlly in lhis period.
1988-90 28 counlries sign up lo hook up lo lhe NSFNFT, reinforcing inlernolionol ínlernel polenliol.
/ 5
inlroduclion lo enorkeling · wbat dces tbis aII bave tc dc witb marketing?
bcw dc pecpIe access tbe Internet?
People connecl lo lhe ínlernel ond occess conlenl in nony differenl woys. When il
cones lo lhe physicol conneclion lo lhe ínlernel, lhe norkel presenls o nunber
of oplions.
WiFi ond WiMox

lnd lhol lisl goes on. The devices people use vory fron nobile phones ond hondheld
snoll devices lo personol nolebooks ond desklop conpulers. The environnenl lhol
people ore in when lhey occess lhe ínlernel olso differs.
ll hone
ll lhe offce or ploce of work
Librories ond educolion cenlres
ínlernel cofes ond coffee shops
Nol only do lhese environnenlol foclors offecl how people use lhe ínlernel, bul lheir
reosons for using lhe ínlernel olso hove on effecl on how lhey inlerocl online.
For sone people, il is prinorily o connunicolions chonnel, ond lheir online oclivily
is focused on lheir enoil inbox, while for olhers il noy be o reseorch chonnel, wilh
seorch engines ploying o lorge role in lheir online experience.
Hoving such o diverse oudience neons lhol lhere ore nony chonnels ovoiloble lo
norkelers when il cones lo eMorkeling.
wbat dces tbis aII bave tc dc witb
Morkeling is oboul conversolions, ond lhe ínlernel hos becone o hub of conversolions.
The connecled nolure of lhe ínlernel ollows us lo follow ond lrock lhese conversolions,
ond provides enlry poinls for oll porlies. Whol follows in lhis book ore woys of conversing
wilh polenliol ond exisling cusloners using lhe ínlernel.
inlroduclion lo enorkeling · it`s aII abcut being ccnnected
it`s aII abcut being ccnnected
ín ils sinplesl forn, lhe ínlernel is o colleclion of connecled docunenls or ob|ecls.
Hyperlinks ore whol connecl lhese docunenls.
l hyperlink is o virluol link fron one docunenl on lhe World Wide Web lo onolher. íl
includes lhe URL of lhe linked-lo docunenl which describes where on lhe ínlernel o
docunenl is. íl is whol you enler in lhe oddress bor of lhe browser, becouse il is lhe
oddress of lhol docunenl on lhe ínlernel.
l URL provides infornolion lo bolh browsers ond people. URLs include donoin nones
which lronslole lo íP oddresses. Fvery web sile corresponds lo on íP oddress, which is
o slruclured series of dols ond nunbers indicoling where il is physicolly locoled. When
you enler o URL inlo lhe oddress bor of o browser, lhe Donoin None Syslen record
indicoles where lhe docunenl is lhol you ore linking lo. Mony donoins con lronslole
lo lhe sone íP oddress.
0onfused? Look ol lhe donoin none ond íP oddress for 0uirk`s web sile.
Donoin none. www.quirk.biz
íP oddress. 212.1OO.2/3.2O/
l donoin none looks sonelhing like lhis.
Bul o lol nore infornolion con be included in lhis. Donoin nones con corry lhe
following infornolion.
Dcmain - lhe regislered donoin none of lhe web sile
5ubdcmain - o donoin lhol is porl of o lorger donoin
tId - lhe lop level donoin, uppernosl in lhe hierorchy of donoin nones
Directcry - o folder lo orgonise conlenl
The lld con indicole lhe counlry in which o donoin is regislered, ond con olso give
infornolion oboul lhe nolure of lhe donoin.
.ccm - is lhe nosl connon lld
.cc.za, .cc.uk, .ccm.au - lhese llds give counlry infornolion
.crg - used by non-profl orgonisolions
.gcv - used by governnenls
.ac - used by ocodenic inslilulions
Donoin nones nusl be regislered ond lhere is o fee for doing so.
Tbe Internet is a wcrId
wide netwcrk wbicb
aIIcws fcr infcrmaticn tc
be sbared between users
IaIsc kncwn as ncdes!.
Tbe WcrId Wide Web is
a sub-set cf tbis wbicb
caters specihcaIIy fcr
web sites.


Wbat`s inside: ln intrcducticn lo enoil norkeling, ond o brief bistcry
of enoil, which predoles lhe World Wide Web. 0el slorled wilh key terms and
ccncepts ond lhen leorn how il works wilh lhe difference belween pronolions
ond newslellers. Leorn lhe 9 steps tc executing an emaiI campaign, os well
os lhe porls of on enoil. 0el slorled wilh sone bosic tccIs cf tbe trade, lhe prcs
and ccns of enoil norkeling, ond o cbapter summary ond o look ol bcw it aII
hts tcgetber.
inlroduclion lo enorkeling · furtber reading
0rocker, D. Fnoil Hislory,
livinginlernel.con, |occessed 18 Morch 2OO8!
0oy, R. el ol l2OO7I 0nline Morkeling - o cusloner-led opprooch,
0xford Universily Press, 0xford, Fnglond, pp 8-?
Merholz, P. l17 Moy 2OO2I Ploy Wilh Your Words,
pelerne.con, |occessed 27 Moy 2OO8!
MiniWolls Morkeling 0roup, World ínlernel Usoge ond Populolion Slolislics,
MiniWolls Morkeling 0roup |occessed 22 June 2OO8!
Rochel Rosnorin,R l11 Seplenber 2OOóI 0pen Focebook,
Forbes.con |occessed 22 June 2OO8!
Sifry, D. llpril 17, 2OOóI Slole of lhe Blogosphere, lpril 2OOó Porl 1. 0n Blogosphere 0rowlh,
Sifry`s llerls, |occessed 27 Moy 2OO8!
Sleworl, W l1??ó-2OO7I Living ínlernel,
livinginlernel.con, |occessed 21 June 2OO8!
Sullivon, D. l1/ June 2OO/I Who ínvenled lhe Tern ¨Seorch Fngine 0plinizolion¨?,
Seorch Fngine Wolch |occessed ó June 2OO8!
furtber reading
Tin Berners-Lee`s lnswers for Young People is o brief oulline of how he invenled lhe World Wide Web.
His book Weoving lhe Web. The 0riginol Design ond Ullinole Desliny of lhe World Wide Web covers lhis in for
nore deplh.
- lhe blog fron Selh 0odin, besl-selling oulhor, enlrepreneur ond ogenl of chonge.
8 ?
enoil norkeling · key terms and ccncepts
key terms and ccncepts
B2B Slonds for Business lo Business. When businesses sell producls/services lo olher businesses
ond nol lo consuners.
B2C Slonds for Business lo consuners. When businesses sell producls/services lo consuners.
CaII tc acticn l 0Tl is o phrose wrillen lo nolivole lhe reoder lo loke oclion. lsign up for our
newsleller, book cor hire lodoy elc.I.
CAN-5PAH The U.S. low lhol reguloles connerciol enoil. íl slonds for ¨0onlrolling lhe lssoull of
Non-Soliciled Pornogrophy ond Morkeling lcl of 2OO3.¨
CPH 0usloner Relolionship Monogenenl.
Database ín enoil norkeling, lhe dolobose is lhe lisl of prospecls lo whon enoils ore senl. íl olso
conloins oddilionol infornolion perlinenl lo lhe prospecls.
DN5 IDcmain Name 5ystem! DNS converls o donoin none inlo on íP oddress.
DcmainKeys ln enoil oulhenlicolion syslen designed lo verify lhe DNS donoin of on enoil sender
ond lhe nessoge inlegrily.
DcubIe cpt-in The ocl of gelling subscribers lo confrn lheir iniliol subscriplion vio o follow up enoil
osking lhen lo volidole lheir oddress ond hence opl-in ogoin.
Rard bcunce The foiled delivery of enoil connunicolion due lo on undevioling reoson like o non-
exislenl oddress.
Rcuse Iist ln enoil dolobose lhol o conpony generoles ilself wilhoul purchosing or renling nones.
RTHL HyperTexl Morkup Longuoge. HTML enoils usuolly conloin grophics ond con be inleroclive.
IP Address The ínlernel Prolocol líPI oddress is o exclusive nunber, which is used lo represenl every
single conpuler in o nelwork.
I5P ínlernel Service Provider - lhis is lhe conpony lhol is providing you wilh occess lo lhe ínlernel e.g.
MWFB, l0L, Yohoo! elcI.
0pen rate The percenl of enoils delernined os opened oul of lhe lolol nunber of enoils senl.
0pt-in 0ive pernission for enoils lo be senl lo you.
0pt-cut llso known os unsubscribe - The ocl of renoving oneself fron o lisl or lisls so lhol specifed
infornolion is no longer received vio enoil.
5ender ID l nelhod used by no|or íSPs lo confrn lhol enoils do originole fron lhe donoin fron
which il cloins lo hove been senl.
5HTP Sinple Moil Tronsfer Prolocol is o prolocol for sending nessoges fron one server lo onolher.
5cft bcunce The foiled delivery of on enoil due lo o devioling reoson like on overlooded noil box or o
server foilure.
5pam Fnoil senl lo soneone who hos nol requesled lo receive il - F\íL!
5PF Sender policy fronework is on exlension of SMTP lhol slops enoil sponners fron forging lhe
¨Fron¨ felds in on enoil.
Text Texl enoils or ploin lexl enoils do nol conloin grophics or ony kind of norkup.
Unique fcrwarders This refers lo lhe nunber of individuols who forworded o specifc enoil on.
Wbite Iist l lisl of occepled enoil oddresses lhol on íSP, o subscriber or olher enoil service provider
ollows lo deliver nessoges regordless of spon fller sellings.
enoil norkeling · intrcducticn
ll ils core, enoil norkeling is o lool for cusloner relolionship nonogenenl l0RMI.
Used effeclively, lhis exlension of pernission bosed norkeling con deliver one of lhe
highesl relurns on inveslnenl lR0íI of ony eMorkeling oclivily.
Sinply pul, enoil norkeling is o forn of direcl norkeling which ulilises eleclronic
neons lo deliver connerciol nessoges lo on oudience. íl is one of lhe oldesl ond yel
slill one of lhe nosl powerful of oll eMorkeling loclics. The power cones fron lhe focl
lhol il is.
Fxlrenely cosl effeclive due lo o low cosl per conlocl
Highly lorgeled
0uslonisoble on o noss scole
0onplelely neosuroble
Furlhernore, enoil norkeling`s noin slrenglh is lhol il lokes odvonloge of o cusloner`s
nosl prolifc louch poinl wilh lhe ínlernel. lheir inbox.
Fnoil norkeling is o lool for building relolionships wilh bolh exisling ond polenliol
cusloners. íl should noxinise lhe relenlion ond volue of lhese cusloners, which
should ullinolely leod lo greoler proflobilily.
Fnoil is probobly ubiquilous lo you, bul lhere wos o line when lhere wos no enoil!
Fnoil ocluolly predoles lhe ínlernel, ond wos frsl used os o woy for users of lhe sone
conpuler lo leove nessoges for eoch olher oll lhe woy bock in 1?ó1. Roy Tonlinson
is crediled wilh creoling lhe frsl nelwork enoil opplicolion in 1?71. He inilioled lhe
use of lhe O sign ond lhe oddress slruclure lhol we use lodoy lusernoneOhoslnoneI
l0rockerI. Fnoil wos used lo send nessoges lo conpulers on lhe sone nelwork, ond
is slill used for lhis purpose lodoy.
íl wos only in 1??3 lhol lorge nelwork service providers, such os lnerico 0nline ond
Delphi, slorled lo connecl lheir proprielory enoil syslens lo lhe ínlernel. This begon
lhe lorge scole odoplion of ínlernel enoil os o globol slondord. 0oupled wilh slondords
lhol hod been creoled in lhe preceding lwenly yeors, lhe ínlernel ollowed users on
differenl nelworks lo send eoch olher nessoges.
The frsl enoil spon doles bock lo 1?78. Spon is defned os unsoliciled connerciol or
bulk enoil, ond lodoy is soid lo occounl for 8O lo 85% of oll enoil lWolers, 2OO8I!
Direcl norkeling hos long ployed on inlegrol porl in norkeling conpoigns, bul lhe
high cosl neonl lhol only lorge conponies were oble lo pursue lhis. However, wilh lhe
growlh of lhe ínlernel, ond lhe use of enoil lo norkel direclly lo consuners, norkelers
hove found lhese cosls dropping, ond lhe effecliveness increosing.
1O 11
enoil norkeling · how il works · 9 steps tc executing an emaiI campaign
9 steps tc executing an emaiI campaign
9 steps tc executing an emaiI campaign
1. strategic pIanning
The frsl porl of ony enoil conpoign should involve plonning oround lhe gools you will
need lo ochieve. These will probobly be in line wilh lhe gools of your web sile, wilh
enoil norkeling being used os o lool lo help you ochieve lhose gools.
ls discussed in lhe chopler on onolylics ond conversion oplinisolion, you will decide
on lhe key perfornonce indicolors lKPísI for your conpoign os well.
Pronolionol enoils will usuolly hove on innediole gool.
Users noke o purchose
Users downlood o whilepoper
Users requesl furlher infornolion
enoil norkeling · bcw it wcrks
bcw it works
íf you consider norkeling os connunicoling wilh currenl ond polenliol cusloners,
you will see lhol every enoil lhol is senl fron your orgonisolion should be considered
os porl of your enoil norkeling plon.
Does lhol sound o lillle conplicoled? 0onsider on online reloiler, www.zoppos.con.
Zoppos is on online shoe reloiler. Whol ore lhe woys lhol, os o cusloner, you nighl
receive enoils fron Zoppos?
Tronsoclion enoils. when you ploce on order, lhere will be o nunber of enoils
lhol you receive, fron confrnolion of your order, lo nolice of shipping. Should
you need lo relurn on ilen, you will no doubl connunicole wilh Zoppos vio
Newslellers. lhese ore enoils which ore senl lo provide infornolion ond keep
cusloners inforned. They do nol necessorily corry on overl pronolion, bul
insleod ensure lhol o cusloner is in regulor conlocl wilh lhe brond.
Pronolion enoils. should Zoppos hove o sunner sole, lhey will send on enoil
reloling direclly lo lhol pronolion.
There ore olher enoils senl by Zoppos, for exonple.
Fnoils lo suppliers
0onnunicolion wilh offlioles
lll of lhe connunicolion senl oul con be used lo convey your norkeling nessoge.
Fvery louchpoinl will norkel lhe orgonisolion. However, here we will focus on
connerciol enoils.
Tbere are twc types cf ccmmerciaI emaiIs:
PrcmcticnaI emaiIs: lhese ore nore direcl ond ore geored ol enlicing lhe user lo loke
on innediole oclion.
Petenticn based emaiIs: olso referred lo os newsletters, lhese noy include
pronolionol nessoges bul should be focussed on providing infornolion of volue lo lhe
user, geored ol building o long lern relolionship wilh lhe user.
ls wilh oll eMorkeling oclivilies, coreful plonning is colled for, os is coreful lesling
ond evoluoling, so os lo oplinise your revenue. Fnoil norkeling noy be highly cosl
effeclive, bul lhe cosl of gelling il wrong con be very high indeed.
12 13
0pt-in and dcubIe
cpt-in: tbe integrity cf
tbe database can be
safeguarded witb a dcubIe
cpt in prccess. An emaiI is
sent tc tbe emaiI address
suppIied, and tbe user bas
tc cIick cn a Iink witbin
tbat emaiI tc ccnhrm tbeir
subscripticn. Tbis means
tbat dud emaiI addresses
are kept cut cf tbe
database, and ccnhrms
tbat tbe user bas granted
expIicit permissicn.
enoil norkeling · how il works · 9 steps tc executing an emaiI campaign
There ore o nyriod of woys lo ollrocl prospecls lo opl in lo o dolobose. Key is on enoil
sign-up forn on o conpony web sile. \isilors lo o web sile hove olreody expressed on
inleresl in o conpony by clicking lhrough lo lhe web sile - lhis is on opporlunily lo
develop lhol inleresl furlher.
Sign-up forns besl proclice.
Pul lhe sign-up forn where il con be seen - obove lhe fold ond on every poge.
Slole your onli-spon slonce explicilly, ond be cleor oboul how you volue
subscribers` privocy.
Use o cleor coll lo oclion.
Tell subscribers whol lhey will gel, ond how oflen lhey will gel il. ínclude o
benefl slolenenl.
Fnsure lhe enoil oddress is correcl by checking lhe synlox.
Tesl lo see whol works besl!
Fvery inleroclion con be used lo osk pernission lo send enoils.
0ffer sonelhing voluoble for free, ond osk if lhey would sign up lo your
newsleller ol lhe sone line le.g. while poper, gifl voucher, nusic lrockI.
ldd o subscribe box lo lhe checkoul process of your reloil sile.
Use inleroclions ol lrode shows lo osk for enoil oddresses.
3. creative executicn
Fnoils con be creoled ond viewed os HTML or os lexl enoils. Beor in nind, lhough,
lhol sonelines HTML enoils ore rendered os lexl enoils.
Texl enoils ore lhe ploin ones - lexl only, os lhe none suggesls. íf you hove o
Windows conpuler, ond you open up nolepod ond lype lhere, you will be creoling o
lexl fle. These enoils ore snoller, ond ploiner. ls lhese ore lexl only, lhe copy reolly
counls here.
HTML enoils ore lhe enoils wilh oll lhe bells ond whislles. These enoils con conloin
inoges, differenl fonls ond hyperlinks. íl`s probobly whol you`ve hod in nind lhroughoul
lhis chopler when we hove referred lo enoil norkeling.
parts cf an emaiI
This hos lhe ¨lo¨, ¨fron¨ ond ¨reply lo¨ felds. These ore olso opporlunilies lo
build o relolionship lhrough creoling o perceplion of foniliorily. ín olher words,
lhe reoder needs lo perceive lhol lhe newsleller is sonewhol unique for lhen ond
senl personolly by lhe publisher. Using o personolised conpony enoil oddress le.g.
lrevorOconponynone.conI for lhe ¨reply¨ feld creoles foniliorily ond builds lrusl
wilh lhe reoder. The ¨fron¨ oddress should olso include lhe orgonisolion`s none. l
neoningless ¨fron¨ oddress which lhe reoder connol idenlify only serves lo confuse
lhe origin of lhe newsleller.
enoil norkeling · how il works · 9 steps tc executing an emaiI campaign
Pepper and Pcgers refer
tc gatbering infcrmaticn
cver a pericd cf time as
¨drip irrigaticn", since it
never cverwbeIms ncr
parcbes tbe prcspect.
P0I can be a gcaI cf tbe
campaign, and it can be
used as a KPI.
Newslellers lend lo focus on longer lern gools, ond so your KPís becone nore
inporlonl here.
KPís include.
0pen role
0lick-lhrough role
Nunber of enoils forworded
l successful enoil conpoign is nosl likely lo be lhe one geored ol reloining ond
creoling o long lern relolionship wilh lhe reoder.
Know your oudience! They will diclole lhe inleroclions.
2. dehne Iist
Running o successful enoil conpoign requires lhol o business hos o genuine opl-in
dolobose. This dolobose, lhe lisl of subscribers who hove ogreed lo ollow o conpony
lo send lhen enoils wilh norkeling nessoges, is lhe nosl voluoble ossel of on enoil
Pernission nusl be explicilly given by oll people lo whon enoils ore senl. 0onponies
lhol obuse lhis con pul lheir repulolion in |eopordy, ond in sone counlries, legol oclion
con be loken ogoinsl conponies lhol send unsoliciled bulk enoil - spon.
0rowing lhis dolobose, while keeping il lorgeled, is o key foclor in ony enoil conpoign.
The dolobose needs only hove one enlry - lhe prospecl`s enoil - bul lhe following
should olso be considered.
Firsl none, surnone ond lille
Dole pernission gronled
Source of pernission
Telephone nunber
Dole of birlh
Fields such os none, surnone ond lille should be seporoled in your dolobose. You
should olso golher dole of birlh os opposed lo o prospecl`s oge - il ensures your
dolobose con sloy up lo dole!
However, don`l be lenpled lo osk for nore infornolion lhon is required. The nore
infornolion o norkeler con golher, lhe beller she con cuslonise her norkeling
nessoges. However, lhe nore infornolion o prospecl is required lo give, lhe less likely
he is lo sign up. Furlher infornolion con be requesled over o period of line.
1/ 15
RTHL emaiI witb menticned eIements sbcwn
enoil norkeling · how il works · 9 steps tc executing an emaiI campaign enoil norkeling · how il works · 9 steps tc executing an emaiI campaign
subject Iine
The sub|ecl line could be lhe nosl inporlonl porl of on enoil! Sub|ecl lines oid lhe
reoder in idenlifying lhe enoil, ond olso enlice lhe reoder lo open il. The sub|ecl line is
olso scrulinised by spon fllers, ond so should ovoid words like ¨free¨, ¨win¨ ond ¨buy
now¨. 0onsislenl sub|ecl lines, using lhe none of lhe conpony ond lhe newsleller
edilion, con build foniliorily ond help reoders lo sorl lheir inbox. ls wilh everylhing
online, lesling differenl sub|ecl lines will leod norkelers lo lhe fornulo lhol works
for lhen.
perscnaIised greeting
Wilh o dolobose lhol hos enlries for reoders` nones, il is possible lo personolise lhe
greeling of lhe enoil. ¨Hi Kin Morgon¨ con elicil for beller responses lhon ¨Deor
\olued 0usloner¨, bul il is possible lo creole o greeling wilh personolily wilhoul
personolising il. 0ccosionolly, lhe sub|ecl line con be personolised os well lo boosl
This is where lhe conlenl of lhe enoil goes. Don`l be lenpled lo use loo nony inoges.
il con increose lhe size of lhe enoil, ond il con obscure lexl when inoges do nol
lood. Be sure lhol lexl is nol on lhe inoge, bul rolher con be reod wilhoul on inoge
being looded.
l slondord fooler for enoils helps lo build consislency, ond is lhe cuslonory ploce
lo keep lhe conlocl deloils of lhe conpony sending lhe enoil. ll lhe very leosl,
lhis should include lhe none ond conlocl enoil of lhe conpony. íl con olso include
lhe privocy policy of lhe sender. 0ne woy lo grow lhe enoil lisl is odd o ¨forword
lo o friend¨ link in lhe fooler. The nosl inporlonl porl of lhe fooler is o cleor
unsubscribe link.
unsubscribe Iink
íl is nondolory lo hove on unsubscribe link on oll connerciol enoils.
ínleroclive enoils ore besl conslrucled wilh lighlweighl HTML copobilily ollowing lhe
enoil lo open quickly. This helps lo coplure lhe user`s ollenlion before he/she noves
on. The slruclure nusl ollow reoders lo scon ond novigole lhe enoil eosily. The lenglh
of porogrophs, enphosis lhrough bolding ond colours os well os seclioning infornolion
wilh bullels ond borders oll conlribule lo o well-slruclured enoil.
create ccntent
Fnoil conlenl lhol is relevonl ond sonelhing lhol reoders will volue, is vilol lo ensuring
lhe success of on enoil norkeling conpoign. \oluoble conlenl is infornolive ond
should oddress lhe problens ond needs of reoders. íl is inporlonl lo reolise lhol lhe
reoder delernines lhe volue of lhe conlenl, nol lhe publisher.
1ó 17
enoil norkeling · how il works · 9 steps tc executing an emaiI campaign
ó. depIcyment
By creoling voluoble conlenl, esloblishing lhe correcl frequency, ond lesling on enoil
for disploy ond deliverobilily, on enoil norkeler should be oble lo ensure on excellenl
delivery role. 0onsislency in deploying newslellers olso oids in foslering lrusl ond
fulflling expeclolion. Fnoils should be delivered ol consislenl lines, bul lhe besl line
for besl resulls should be lesled.
EmaiI reputaticn, which con delernine whelher or nol your nessoge is regorded
os spon, is lhe generol opinion of lhe íSPs, lhe onli-spon connunily, ond lhen
subscribers lowords o sender`s íP oddress, sending donoin, or bolh. This opinion is o
repulolion score creoled by on íSP or o lhird porly provider. íf lhe sender`s score folls
wilhin lhe íSP`s lhresholds, o sender`s nessoges will be delivered lo lhe inbox. íf nol,
lhe sender`s enoils noy orrive in lhe bulk folder, be quoronlined, or be bounced bock
lo lhe sender.
Beconing on effeclive enoil norkeler requires conslonl lisl cleonsing ond hygiene. ín
focl, nosl lisls shrink by 3O% eoch yeor due lo subscribers chonging enoil oddresses.
Moke sure you ore diligenl oboul noinloining o currenl opl-in lisl lo ochieve noxinun
deliverobilily vio repulolion.
Tips lo help repulolion score.
íSPs offer vorious sender`s oulhenlicolion slondords such os Sender íD, SPF,
ond DonoinKeys. Use lhese.
0ul wilh lhe old, in wilh lhe new - keep your dolobose cleon.
Renove hord bounces ofler 3 deliveries líSPs don`l like e-noil broodcoslers
who hove o high bounce roleI.
Renenber lhol o huge bul inoccurole ond ouldoled dolobose is for less use lo
on enoil norkeler lhon o lighlly-noinloined, snoller dolobose. Slrive lo boosl
your dolobose, bul don`l forgel lo cleon behind you os you go.
Fnsure enoil broodcosl roles ore nol loo high.
Respond lo conploinls ond unsubscribe requesls - if soneone requesls lo be
unsubscribed, do so.
Fducole users oboul while lisls.
Wben tc send maiIs:
0onnon sense lells you nol on Mondoy norning or Fridoy oflernoon, bul il vories by
oudience. Tesling will guide you.
íf lhe recipienl hos given pernission lo be senl norkeling nessoges by enoil, lhen il
is nol spon. Users give pernission when lhey lick o box lhol soys ¨Yes, pleose send
ne offers fron your conpony by enoil.¨ The enoil oddress con only be provided lo
onolher conpony if lhe user licks o box lhol soys ¨Yes, pleose send ne offers fron
lhird porlies selecled by you by enoil.¨
An emaiI wbite Iist is a Iist
cf ccntacts tbat tbe user
deems are acceptabIe tc
receive emaiI frcm and
sbcuId nct be sent tc tbe
trasb fcIder
Wben is emaiI an emaiI,
and wben is it spam?
5pam is unscIicited buIk
emaiI - it means tbat
tbe recipient never gave
permissicn tc be sent tbat
enoil norkeling · how il works · 9 steps tc executing an emaiI campaign
Successful enoil conpoigns provide volue lo lheir reoders. This volue con vory fron
conpoign lo conpoign. Newslellers con offer.
However, ovoid being norked os spon by sloying owoy fron words like ¨free¨, ¨buy
now¨ ond ¨discounl¨.
test fcr dispIay and deIiverabiIity
The enoil should be scored lo see lhol il will poss spon fllers, ond lhe design should
be lesled lo ensure lhol il renders cleorly in os nony clienls os possible. Moke sure
lhol inoges line up, lhol copy is cleor ond lhol oll lhe links work.
Fnoils con be lesled for plolforn conpolibilily ol www.silevislo.con/enoil.osp.
ln enoil`s spon score con be checked ol sponossossin.opoche.org.
ó. integrate campaign witb ctber cbanneIs
Whilsl enoil norkeling con operole os o slond olone norkeling conpoign, inlegroling
il wilh olher chonnels, bolh online ond offine, will serve lo bolh reinforce o brond`s
nessoge ond increose responses.
There should never be o disporily belween lhe conlenl, lone or design of on enoil when
conpored lo lhe resl of o conpony`s offerings. ín-slore pronolions con be reinforced
ond pronoled lo on enoil dolobose, or web sile infornolion con be sunnorised
for enoil.
0uslon londing poges, os required, should be creoled for ony pronolions being
connunicoled in on enoil connunicolion.
5. perscnaIise tbe message
The lechnology of enoil norkeling ollows for noss cuslonisolion - il is one lo one
norkeling on o nocro scole. Fven sinple personolisolion con see inproved resulls.
0uslonisolion slorls ol using lhe recipienl`s none ond sending eilher HTML or lexl
enoils bosed on preference, lo sophislicoled neosurenenl of o recipienl`s preferences
ond loiloring conlenl lo suil lhen.
Segnenling o dolobose con ollow for cuslonisolion ocross denogrophics or purchose
hislory. Being oble lo reconcile browsing oclivily lo on enoil recipienl con give furlher
opporlunilies for cuslonisolion.
An emaiI cIient is tbe
scftware cr prcgramme
tbat a perscn uses tc
access tbeir emaiI. 5cme
cf tbese are web-based,
Iike 6ccgIeHaiI and
RctmaiI, and tbere are
aIsc pIenty cf scftware
cIients. As weII as many
versicns cf 0utIcck, tbere
is aIsc Tbunderbird,
Eudcra, Lctus tc menticn
just a few. And yes, ycur
emaiI ccuId Icck different
cn eacb cne cf tbcse.
18 1?
enoil norkeling · prcs and ccns
0plinol nunber of links in on enoil for click lhrough roles ond conversions
Differenl copy slyles ond copy lenglh
The effecl of video on delivery roles, open roles ond conversions
Firsl up, on enoil conpoign needs o dolobose. l plon for growing lhis dolobose needs
lo be pul in ploce. Mosl enoil service providers will olso provide lools for nonoging
lhis dolobose.
lll enoils need lo be lesled for enoil clienl conpolibilily os well os for ony polenliol
spon problens.
Fnoil clienl conpolibilily con be reviewed ol.
ln enoil`s spon score con be checked ol.
0nce on enoil hos been senl, resulls need lo be onolysed lo pinpoinl oreos for growlh
for lhe nexl conpoign.
Pernission bosed enoil norkeling con give lhe highesl relurn on inveslnenl of ony
norkeling oclivilies. Technology ollows noss cuslonisolion, ollowing personolisolion
ocross o lorge lisl of subscribers.
When used lo fosler relolionships wilh o cusloner bose, enoil norkeling con go o
long woy lo increosing lhe lifeline volue of lhol cusloner.
Fnoil norkeling is highly neosuroble, ond doloboses ore highly segnenloble.
However, wilh lhe increosing nunbers of conponies ond individuols using enoil
norkeling, nony consuners ore enoil foligued. íl requires ingenuily, focus ond
dedicolion lo noinloin on enoil dolobose ond consislenlly deliver useful quolily enoils
lhol will be reod.
íl does nol loke nuch for enoil lo be norked os spon, ond il con be diffcull lo recover
fron being bronded os o sponner by lhe íSPs.
tccIs cf lhe lrode
prcs and cons
enoil norkeling · how il works · 9 steps tc executing an emaiI campaign
Pernission nusl be explicilly given lo lhe conpony lo be ollowed lo norkel lo lhol
user. Trying lo goin explicil pernission in o sneoky woy will only onnoy your users, ond
nighl resull in your enoils being norked os spon.
7. interacticn bandIing
ls well os lhe enoils slrolegicolly plonned os porl of o conpoign lpronolionol
enoils ond newslellersI every inleroclion vio enoil should be considered os porl of o
conpony`s enoil norkeling proclice.
lulonoled enoils such os order confrnolions ond even oul of offce replies ore oll
opporlunilies lo engoge wilh cusloners. íf o conpony hos o porliculor lone or conlenl
slyle, lhis con be reinforced in lhese inleroclions.
These enoils con olso be on opporlunily lo cross-odverlise olher pronolions lhol o
conpony is offering.
8. generate repcrts
ls wilh oll lhings eMorkeling, lrocking, onolysing ond oplinising is key lo growlh.
Fnoil lrocking syslens produce slolislics in o user-friendly nonner.
Key neosurobles for underslonding of lhe perfornonce of enoil conpoigns.
Nunber of emaiIs deIivered.
Nunber of bcunces lond lhis should be seporoled inlo hord bounces ond sofl
Nunber of unique emaiIs cpened. on enoil con be delivered, bul nol opened.
Unsubscribes. signifconl or consislenl loss in subscribers is o key indicolion
lhol you ore nol neeling lhe needs of your subscribers
Pass cn rate. high poss on role lforwordsI indicoles lhol your lisl volues lhe
conlenl enough lo conslonlly shore wilh olhers. Pulling on eosy ¨forword lo o
friend¨ link in every enoil con increose lhis. ldding o sign-up link lo forworded
enoils will orgonicolly grow lhe opl-in lisl.
CIick-tbrcugb rates and ccnversicn. This neosures lhe effecliveness of on
enoil vio lhe links ploced in lhe conlenl. When o reoder clicks lhrough lo o
web poge, lhese con be eosily neosured os o percenloge ogoinsl nunber of
delivered, opened or senl enoils. íl reveols which conlenl or pronolion wos
lhe nosl enlicing for lhe reoder.
9. anaIyse resuIts
0nce lhe reporls hove been generoled, il is line lo work oul whol lhe nunbers ore
reveoling, ond lo use lhis infornolion lo inprove lhe nexl enoil senl oul.
Wilh enoil norkeling, splil lesling ocross o hosl of foclors will enoble conpoign
oplinisolion. Sone foclors lo lesl include.
0pen roles ocross differenl sub|ecl lines ond delivery lines
0pen rate dces nct
necessariIy indicate
wbetber cr nct an emaiI
bas been read. Rcw dc
ycu tbink a marketer can
determine if emaiIs are
being read?
2O 21
enoil norkeling · case study
No olher forn of norkeling wos used ond lhere weren`l ony links lo lhe Johnnie Wolker web sile or ony olher
web siles. No seorch engine norkeling, bonner ods or offine nedio were used lo pronole lhis conpoign. íls
success wos purely driven by people forwording lhe enoil lo olhers.
The enoil conpoign wos very successful - 2ó3O new subscriplions were coplured wilhin lhe frsl week! 0ver
25 OOO enoils were senl lo unique oddresses in lhe durolion of lhe conpoign, ond il sow over 2OO% growlh in
subscribers lo Johnnie Wolkers` Slriding Mon Sociely. The conpoign ochieved o conversion role of oboul 2?%
- 2?% of prospecls who received lhe virol enoil fron lhe originol lisl of subscribers, subnilled lheir deloils,
ond ogreed lo becone porl of Johnnie Wolkers` Slriding Mon Sociely. Reninder enoils odded o 1O% increose in
unique click lhrough oclivily ogoinsl lhe virol enoil.
case study: Jcbnnie WaIker
Johnnie Wolker Soulh lfrico wos looking lo increose o specifc segnenl of consuners on ils enoil dolobose.
The proposed lorgel group wos noinly conprised of Soulh lfricon block nole consuners, 18 - 3O yeors of oge
wilh disposoble incone. The use of virol enoil conpoign/ refer o friend slyle loclic wos chosen os lhe necessory
nediun. lllhough on enoil conpoign is o well used loclic wilhin virol norkeling, ogency leons ond clienl fell
confdenl due lo lhe beginner lo inlernediole user level of lhe lisl. 0onneclivily is on issue in Soulh lfrico ond
nosl on lhe dolobose would nol hove been heovily exposed lo lhese lypes of conpoigns.
The creolive opprooch wos prinorily lo oppeol lo lhe lorgel norkel`s conneclivily by fnding sonelhing which
would fl inlo lheir sociol volue syslen. Reseorch of lhe group lold us lhol lhey were highly sociol bul olso
ospired lowords older, offuenl noles of lhe sone cullure who hod node o success of lheir lives in lhe new
Soulh lfrico. This older offuenl group wos olso regorded os Johnnie Wolker Block drinkers.
The cenlrol ideo of ¨Slole o cose for yourself¨ wos proposed in order lo invile lhe lorgel norkel lo ossess if lhey
ore worlhy of being porl of lhe Johnnie Wolker Slriding Mon Sociely. The prize wos in ilself o ¨cose¨ l12 bolllesI
of Johnnie Wolker Block which furlher reinforced lhe concepl of ¨Slole o cose for yourself¨. Send lo o friend
lechnology wos used so lhol prospecls could slole o cose for lhenselves by noninoling fve friends worlhy of
lhe Slriding Mon Sociely. Poges specifc lo lhe conpoign were creoled for click-lhroughs ond dolo copluring.
The enoil wos senl lo o lisl of corefully chosen nenbers of lhe Johnnie Wolker Block / Slriding Mon
Sociely dolobose who fl lhe required profle. Reninder enoils were confgured lo go oul one week ofler lhe
frsl enoil.
enoil norkeling · summary
Fnoil norkeling is o forn of direcl norkeling lhol con render lhe besl R0í of ony
eMorkeling loclic. íl is.
Highly lorgeled ond cuslonisoble
0osl effeclive
0oining explicil pernission lo send enoil norkeling lo o person is o prerequisile
for successful enoil norkeling, however oll enoils senl by on orgonisolion ond lhe
individuols in lhol orgonisolion con be seen os norkeling opporlunilies.
Successful enoil norkeling requires coreful plonning ond lesling. HTML enoils need
lo be lesled ocross o ronge of enoil clienls, ond should be lesled for o spon score,
before being deployed.
lll enoil senl lo o lisl of subscribers needs lo provide on eosy ond occessible
unsubscribe link in lhe enoil.
22 23
enoil norkeling · furtber reading
furtber reading
- MorkelingSherpo provides regulor cose sludies, chorls ond how los. Fssenliol reoding for ony eMorkeler.
- lhis one-slop resource provides guidelines, regulor orlicles ond links lo olher excellenl blogs in lhe enoil
norkeling induslry.
- lhis blog fron 0onpoign Monilor, o leoding enoil newsleller soflwore provider, keeps obreosl of induslry
lrends ond besl proclices.
- lhe Fnoil Slondords pro|ecl is oined ensuring lhol enoils con be rendered correclly ocross oll clienls. íl olso
regulorly lesls how enoil clienls ore perforning on conpolibilily.
enoil norkeling · case study
case study questicns
Why wos enoil on ideol nediun lo reoch lhis lorgel norkel?
Why does o brond like Johnny Wolker collecl enoil oddresses?
How inporlonl wos personolisolion in lhis conpoign?
cbapter questicns
Whol is neonl by ¨noss cuslonisolion¨ ond why is lhis so benefciol?
Whol ore lhe key differences belween direcl norkeling by enoil ond direcl norkeling by posl?
Why is il inporlonl for pernission lo be goined before norkeling by enoil lo o prospecl?
Fnoils lhol ore expecled ond recognised ore nore likely lo be reod. How con o norkeler use lhis
knowledge lo increose lhe reodership of enoils?
Brownlow, M. Fnoil pronolions vs newslellers,
enoil-norkeling-reporls.con, |occessed 18 Morch 2OO8!
0rocker, D. Fnoil Hislory,
livinginlernel.con, |occessed 18 Morch 2OO8!
Kollos, S. l18 Februory 2OO8I 2 enoil slrolegies nosl norkelers forgel,
inedioconneclion.con, |occessed 18 Morch 2OO8!
Pepperrell, S. l27 Morch 2OO7I The Seven Deodly Sins of Fnoil Morkeling Monogenenl,
Digilol Web Mogozine, |occessed 18 Morch 2OO8!
Tenplelon, B. 0rigin of lhe lern ¨spon¨ lo neon nel obuse,
lenplelon.con, |occessed 18 Morch 2OO8!
Wolers, D. l31 Morch 2OO8I Spon blighls e-noil 15 yeors on
bbc.co.uk, |occessed 18 Morch 2OO8!


Wbat`s inside: We begin wilh on intrcducticn lo online odverlising wilh o
brief bistcry of bonner odverlising. Whol follows ore lhe key terms and ccncepts
required, ond lhen o breokdown of bcw it wcrks. We look ol how lo show your
nessoge, ond of course how lo poy for il. There is on overview of ad servers
ond advertising netwcrks ond lhe nove lowords ad excbanges. Pulling il oll
logelher helps you lo pIan a campaign, ond we look ol emerging tecbncIcgies
when il cones lo odverlising online. Prcs and ccns ore oullined in lhe good ond
lhe bod, followed by o summary ond tbe bigger picture.
2ó 27
online odverlising · key terms and ccncepts
key terms and ccncepts
Ad 5pace The ollolled spoce on web poges ovoiloble for online odverlising.
Animated 6IF l 0íF which supporls oninolions ond ollows o seporole polelle of 25ó colours for
eoch frone. See 0íF.
Banner ln online odverlisenenl in lhe forn of o grophic inoge lhol oppeors on o web poge.
Banner Excbange l synbiolic odverlising iniliolive whereby businesses involved pronole eoch
olher`s services ond web siles on on exchonge rolher lhon poid bosis. llso known os link exchonge.
CaII Tc Acticn l phrose wrillen lo nolivole lhe reoder lo loke oclion. lsign up for our newsleller,
book cor hire lodoy elc.I.
CIick Tbrcugb l click on o link lhol leods lo onolher web sile.
CIick Tracking Using scripls lo lrock clicks inlo ond oul of o web sile. 0on olso be used lo shield o
link fron being picked up os o bock link lo onolher sile.
CIick-tbrcugb Pate The nunber ond percenloge of recipienls who clicked on o porliculor URL
included in on enoil, o web poge elc.
Ccckie l snoll lexl fle lhol is slored on on end-user`s conpuler lhol ollow web siles lo idenlify lhe
user, ond ollow lhe web sile owner lo conslrucl o profle of lhol user.
CPA 0osl Per lclion. Refers lo lhe cosl of ocquiring o new cusloner. The odverliser only poys when o
desired oclion is ochieved lsonelines colled cosl per ocquisilionI.
CPC 0osl Per 0lick. Refers lo when on odverliser only poys when lheir od is clicked upon, giving lhen
o visilor lo lheir sile - lypicolly fron o seorch engine in Poy Per 0lick seorch norkeling.
CPH 0osl Per Mille. Refers lo 0osl per 1OOO od inpressions. ln odverliser poys eoch line 1OOO
inpressions of lheir od ore shown.
6IF lbbreviolion of 0rophics ínlerchonge Fornol, o 0íF is on 8-bil-per-pixel bilnop inoge fornol
using o polelle of up lo 25ó dislincl colours. 0íFs ollow inoges lo be conpressed for fosler disploy line.
Impressicn Fraud The ocl of deliberolely generoling inpressions of on odverl wilhoul lhe inlenlion
of clicking on lhe odverl. The resull is o reduclion in click lhrough role which con offecl 0uolily Score in
PP0 odverlising ond lhe R0í of o bonner conpoign.
Impressicns The nunber of lines o web poge or od is viewed.
IP Address Used lo uniquely idenlify o conpuler ond/or syslen on lhe ínlernel.
Landing Page The poge o user reoches when clicking on o poid or orgonic seorch engine lisling.
The poges lhol hove lhe nosl success ore lhose lhol nolch up os closely os possible wilh lhe users
seorch query.
Pcpup Unrequesled window lhol opens on lop of lhe currenlly viewed window.
P0I Shorl for relurn on inveslnenl.
Trafhc This refers lo lhe visilors lhol visil o web sile.
online odverlising · intrcducticn
- sbcw and seII
Sinply pul, online odverlising is odverlising on lhe ínlernel. 0nline odverlising
enconposses odverls on seorch engine resulls poges lcovered in lhe chopler on PP0
odverlisingI, odverls ploced in enoils ond olher woys in which odverlisers use lhe ínlernel.
However, lhis chopler focuses on disploy odverlising or rich nedio odverlising.
Whelher online or off, lhe noin ob|eclive of odverlising is lo increose soles. ls well os
lhis, odverlising oins lo increose brond oworeness. ldverlising is bosed on lhe sinple
econonics of supply ond denond. ldverlisers oin lo slinulole o consuner need ond
lhen solisfy lhol need.
0ne of lhe greolesl benefls of online disploy odverlising is lhol lhe nessoges ore nol
reslricled by geogrophy or line. 0nline odverlisenenls ore olso nuch nore inleroclive
lhon offine odverlising. While bolh online ond offine odverlising con be disruplive,
inleroclive online odverlising con be designed lo be perceived os less so.
0nline disploy odverlising begon os sinple hyperlinked inoges shown on o web sile ond
hos since progressed lo include video, sound ond nony olher nodern lechnologies. Todoy,
nessoges ond inleroclions con be conloined wilhin lhe odverlising disploy, wilhoul ever
loking consuners lo o londing poge.
lllhough lhe ínlernel provides new scope for creolive opprooches lo odverlising, we see
ils lrue odvonloge when we reolise how lrockoble, ond lherefore neosuroble, ínlernel
odverlising is. 0r, lo loke il fron Fric Schnidl, 0F0 of 0oogle ciled by Lieb l2OO2I. ¨The
ínlernel will lronsforn odverlising becouse of ils lrockobilily, nol ils beouly.¨

0nline odverlising ropidly followed lhe developing ínlernel. lnd, os consuners ore
increosingly spending nore line online, ond hours spenl on lhe ínlernel slorl lo eclipse
hours spenl wolching T\, lhe nediun becones increosingly inporlonl lo ony odverliser.
lccording lo Wikipedio, lhe frsl clickoble bonner odverl wos sold lo o low frn in 1??3
by 0lobol Nelwork Novigolor. HolWired, on eorly web nogozine, wos lhe frsl lo sell
odverlising spoce in lorge quonlilies lo o nunber of odverlisers. 0ne of lhe very frsl
odverlisers wos lT&T lo US lelecons conponyI, which wenl online in 0clober 1??/.
This wos porl of o conpoign lhol lT&T wos running lo pronole lhe ínlernel lo consuners,
ond included lelevision ond ouldoor odverlising. Believe il or nol, bul lhis wos culling
edge bock in `?/!
ls web lechnology hos developed, so hos lhe lechnology lhol is used lo creole ond serve
odverlising online.
An earIy banner
ad fcr AT&T
28 2?
online odverlising · how il works · bcw tc sbcw ycur message
bcw tc sbcw ycur message:
types cf dispIay advertising
There ore nony differenl woys lo disploy nessoges online, ond os lechnology develops,
so does online odverlising. Here ore sone of lhe nosl connon.
interstitiaI banners
These ore bonners lhol ore shown belween poges on o web sile. ls you click fron one
poge lo onolher, you ore shown lhis odverl before lhe nexl poge is shown. Sonelines,
you ore oble lo close lhe odverl.
pcp-ups and pcp-unders
ls lhe none suggesls, lhese ore odverls lhol pop up, or under, lhe web poge being
viewed. They open in o new, snoller window. You will see o pop-up slroighl owoy, bul
will probobly only becone owore of o pop-under ofler you close your browser window.
These were very proninenl in lhe eorly doys of online odverlising, bul oudience
onnoyonce neons lhol lhere ore now ¨pop-up blockers¨ buill inlo nosl good web
browsers. This con be problenolic os sonelines o web sile will legilinolely use o
pop-up lo disploy infornolion lo lhe user.
map advert
This is odverlising ploced wilhin lhe online nopping solulions ovoiloble, such os
0oogle Mops.
6ccgIe Hap sbcwing an advert IRcIiday Inn!
online odverlising · bcw it wcrks
bcw it works
ldverlising, whelher online or offine, hos o nunber of ob|eclives.
Building brond oworeness
0reoling consuner denond
ínforning consuners of lhe odverliser`s obilily lo solisfy lhol denond
Driving response ond soles
buiIding brand awareness
Moking people owore of o brond or producl is on inporlonl long-lern gool for ony
norkeler. 0nce cusloners know oboul lhe brond, lhe norkeler hos loken lhe frsl
slep lowords goining lhe cusloner`s lrusl ond polronoge. The beller known o brond is
lhe nore business lhey con do. lnd lhe ullinole gool is lo do nore business ond sell
nore of lhe producl.
0nline, creolive odverlising or bonner odverlising is lorgely visuol, noking il on ideol
chonnel for pronoling brond collolerol.
creating ccnsumer demand
0onsuners con`l wonl whol lhey don`l know oboul. ldverlising needs lo convince
consuners oboul whol lhey should wonl ond why lhey should wonl il. Modern online
odverlising provides o greol woy lo connunicole lhe USPs lunique selling poinlsI of o
producl, lhereby helping slinulole denond.
satisfying ccnsumer demand
0nce lhe consuner is owore of ond desires o producl, lhey need lo fnd oul how lo
solisfy lhol desire. íf brond building hos been effeclive, lhey will know lhol o porliculor
brond exisls. ll lhis poinl, il is inporlonl for lhe norkeler lo show lhe consuner how
lheir porliculor brond or producl will besl neel lhol need.
driving respcnse and saIes
lll forns of online norkeling need lo drive lroffc ond soles in lhe long lern. However,
lhe innediocy of online odverlising olso drives lroffc ond soles in lhe shorl ond
nediun lerns. Unlike lrodilionol nedio odverlising, online odverlising con lurn
lhe polenliol cusloner inlo on ocluol cusloner righl lhere ond lhen. Whol`s nore,
il is possible lo neosure occurolely how effeclively lhe online odverlising conpoign
does lhis.
tbe key differentiatcr
0nline odverlising is oble lo drive inslonl soles ond conversions. Unlike offine
odverlising nediuns, lhe consuner con go fron odverl lo nerchonl in one eosy click.
Becouse of lhe connecled nolure of lhe ínlernel, online oclivilies ore highly lrockoble
ond neosuroble, which nokes il possible lo lorgel odverls ond lo occurolely lrock
ond gouge lhe effecliveness of lhe odverlising. Foch disploy odverl con be lrocked
for success.
3O 31
online odverlising · how il works · bcw tc pay
0Pí slonds for 0osl Per ínpression. This neons lhe odverliser poys eoch line lhe
odverl oppeors on lhe publisher`s poge. The nosl connon woy of referring lo lhis
nodel is 0PM or 0osl Per Thousond inpressions llhe leller M is lhe Ronon nunerol
for o lhousondI. This is how o conpoign is nornolly priced when brond oworeness or
exposure is lhe prinory gool.
0P0 slonds for 0osl Per 0lick. This neons lhol lhe odverliser only poys when lheir
odverl is clicked on by on inleresled porly. 0P0 odverlising is nornolly ossocioled wilh
poid seorch norkeling, olso colled Poy Per 0lick lPP0I odverlising. Bonners con be
priced lhis woy when lhe oin is lo drive lroffc. íl is olso o poynenl nelhod sonelines
used in offliole norkeling, when lhe oin is lo drive lroffc lo o new web sile.
0Pl refers lo 0osl Per lcquisilion. This nodel neons lhe odverliser only poys when
on odverl delivers on ocquisilion. Defnilions of ocquisilions vory fron sile lo sile ond
noy be o user flling in o forn, downlooding o fle or buying o producl. 0Pl is lhe
besl woy for on odverliser lo poy becouse lhey only poy when lhe odverlising hos nel
ils gool. For lhis reoson il is olso lhe worsl lype for lhe publisher os lhey ore only
reworded if lhe odverlising is successful. The publisher hos lo rely on lhe conversion
role of lhe odverliser`s web sile, sonelhing which lhe publisher connol conlrol. The
0Pl nodel is nol connonly used for bonner odverlising ond is generolly ossocioled
wilh offliole norkeling.
ñat rate
Sonelines, owners of lower-lroffc siles choose lo sell bonner spoce ol o fol role
i.e. ol o fxed cosl per nonlh regordless of lhe onounl of lroffc or inpressions. This
would oppeol lo o nedio buyer who noy be lesling on online conpoign lhol lorgels
niche norkels.
ccst per engagement
This is on energing lechnology in which odverlisers poy for lhe rollover odverls, ploced
in videos or opplicolions lsuch os Focebook opplicolionsI, bosed on lhe inleroclions
wilh lhol odverl. ¨Fngogenenl¨ is generolly defned os o user-inilioled rollover, or
nouseover, oclion lhol resulls in o susloined odverl exponsion. 0nce exponded, on
odverl noy conloin o video, gone, or olher rich conlenl. íl hoppens wilhoul loking
on ínlernel user owoy fron her preferred web poge, ond norkelers only poy when on
individuol conpleles on oclion.
0PM fovours lhe publisher, while 0Pl fovours lhe odverliser. Sonelines, o hybrid of
lhe lwo poynenl nodels is pursued.
Tbe wcrd ¨engagement"
impIies a IeveI cf
interacticn and intent
frcm tbe user. If ycu
were using tbis type cf
advertising, bcw wcuId
ycu measure success?
online odverlising · how il works · bcw tc sbcw ycur message
Wben cnIine, adverts can
be interactive. Rcw dc ycu
tbink tbis can be used tc
increase tbe effectiveness
cf advertising?
ñcating advert
This odverl oppeors in o loyer over lhe conlenl, bul is nol in o seporole window. Usuolly,
lhe user con close lhis odverl. These ore sonelines referred lo os Shoshkeles, o
proprielory lechnology. Flooling odverls ore creoled wilh DHTML or Flosh, ond fool
in o loyer obove o sile`s conlenl for o few seconds. 0flen, lhe oninolion ends by
disoppeoring inlo o bonner od on lhe poge.
waIIpaper advert
This odverl chonges lhe bockground of lhe web poge being viewed. Usuolly, il is nol
possible lo click lhrough lhis odverl.
banner advert
l grophic inoge or oninolion disployed on o web sile for odverlising purposes. Slolic
bonners ore 0íFs or JPF0S, bul bonners con olso enploy rich nedio such os Flosh,
video, JovoScripl ond olher inleroclive lechnologies. ínleroclive lechnology ollows lhe
viewer lo inlerocl ond lronsocl wilhin lhe bonner. Bonners ore nol liniled lo lhe spoce
lhol lhey occupy, sone bonners expond on nouseover or when clicked on.
standard banner sizes
There ore slondord sizes lneosured in pixelsI for bonner odverlising, whelher lhe
bonner be slolic, oninoled or rich nedio. 0reoling bonners lo suil lhese sizes neons
lhol lhe bonners will suil nony web siles lodverlisers sell spoce in lhese sizes os wellI.
lnd here, size does noller, in lhol you con expecl vorying resulls in click lhroughs ond
conversions ocross lhe ronge of sizes. íf you wonl lo know whol works besl for your
brond, lesl.
bcw tc pay:
payment mcdeIs fcr dispIay advertising
ls well os o voriely of nediuns, lhere ore olso o nunber of differenl poynenl nodels
for disploy odverlising.
5cme cf tbe mcst ccmmcn banners, sbcwn in prcpcrticn.
32 33
online odverlising · how il works · ad servers and advertising netwcrks
ld servers provide o consislenl counling nelhodology ocross lhe enlire conpoign
enobling lhe odverliser lo goin on ¨opples lo opples¨ conporison of perfornonce
ocross lhe enlire nedio schedule, which includes nulliple web siles.
The od server olso ollows sophislicoled lorgeling of disploy odverlising.
The lrockobilily of online odverlising is whol nokes il so superior lo posling piclures
oround lown in o bid lo boosl your brond. Nol only con on odverliser lell how nony
lines on odverl wos seen linpressionsI, bul olso how nony lines lhe odverl wos
successful in sending visilors lo lhe odverlised web sile lclicksI. lnd, os discussed in
lhe chopler on conversion oplinisolion, lhe lrocking needs lo conlinue on lhe web sile
lo delernine how successful lhe odverl hos been in creoling nore revenue for lhol
web sile lconversionsI.
ls well os lrocking odverls being served ond clicked on, odverlising nelworks con olso
provide infornolion oboul lhe people who sow lhe odverl os well os lhose who ocled
on il. Here is sone of lhe infornolion lhol con be provided.
0onneclion lype
0peroling Syslen
Tine of doy
Mony od servers will sel o cookie on inpression of on odverl, nol only on click lhrough,
so il is possible lo lrock lolenl conversions lwilhin lhe cookie periodI.
lnd lhe besl lhing? Using lhis infornolion, lhe odverlising nelworks con lorgel lhe
disploy of odverlising, helping odverlisers lo oplinise conpoigns ond gel lhe nosl
fron lhe odverlising spend.
targeting and cptimising
ldverlising nelworks serve odverls ocross o nunber of web siles, ond con lrock o user
visiling web siles in lhe nelwork using cookies or íP oddresses.
This neons lhol odverlising nelworks con offer odverlisers.
Frequency capping. lhe nelwork will linil lhe nunber of lines o user sees
lhe sone odverl in o session.
5equencing. lhe nelwork con ensure lhol o user sees odverls in o
porliculor order.
ExcIusivity. ensure lhol odverls fron direcl conpelilors ore nol shown on lhe
sone poge.
PcadbIccks. ollowing on odverliser lo own 1OO% of lhe odverlising invenlory
on o poge.
Wby dc ycu tbink kncwing
tbe ccnnecticn type and
brcwser cf ycur users is
impcrtant? Tbink abcut
tbe advertising tbat migbt
be sbcwn in tbe U5A vs.
tbe advertising sbcwn in
5cutb Africa.
Ccckies are smaII text
hIes tbat aIIcw a web site
tc capture infcrmaticn
abcut a user. A ccckie
pericd is tbe duraticn fcr
wbicb a web site wiII stcre
tbat infcrmaticn. 5ee
tbe AfhIiate Harketing
cbapter fcr a descripticn
cf ccckies.
online odverlising · how il works · bcw tc pay
Typicolly, high lroffc, brood oudience web siles will offer 0PM odverlising. Fxonples
include web porlols such os www.yohoo.con or news siles like www.news2/.con.
Niche web siles wilh o lorgeled oudience ore nore likely lo offer 0Pl odverlising lo
odverlisers wilh on oppropriole producl. These con olso foll under lhe unbrello of
offliole norkeling.
Types of odverlising con be seen on o scole fron nore inlrusive lond lhus polenliolly
onnoying lo lhe consunerI lo less inlrusive. ín lhe sone woy, poynenl nodels con be
scoled lo lhose lhol fovour lhe publisher lo lhose lhol fovour lhe odverliser.
When plonning o conpoign, il is inporlonl lo know how lhe odverlising will be poid for
ond whol kinds of odverlising ore offered by publishers. l lol of lhis con be solved by
using o conpony lhol speciolises in odverl serving, nedio plonning ond nedio buying.
ad servers and advertising netwcrks
ld servers ore servers lhol slore odverlisenenls ond serve lhen lo web poges. ld
servers con be locol, run by o publisher lo serve odverls lo web siles on lhe publisher`s
donoin, or lhey con be lhird-porly od servers which serve odverls lo web poges on
ony donoin. ld servers focililole odverl lroffcking ond provide reporls on odverl
ln odverlising nelwork is o group of web siles on which odverls con be purchosed
lhrough o single soles enlily. íl could be o colleclion of siles owned by lhe sone
publisher le.g. l0L, 0NN, Sporls ílluslroled, elc. ore oll owned by l0L/Tine WornerI
or il could be on offliolion of siles lhol shore o represenlolive.
The odverlising nelwork ocls os on inlernediory belween odverlisers ond publishers,
ond provides o lechnology solulion lo bolh. ls well os providing o cenlrolised od
server lhol con serve odverls lo o nunber of web siles, lhe nelworks offer lrocking
ond reporling, os well os lorgeling.
tbe benehts cf ad servers
Rolher lhon dislribule copies of eoch piece of creolive odverlising lo eoch publisher
or nedio buyer, you con send oul o line of code lhol colls up on odverlisenenl direclly
fron lhe od server eoch line on odverl is scheduled lo run. The ogency loods lhe
creolive lo lhe server once ond con nodify rololions or odd new unils on lhe fy wilhoul
needing lo re-conlocl lhe vendors.
The od servers provide o weollh of dolo including inpressions served, odverls clicked,
0TR ond 0P0. Mosl of lhe od servers olso hove lhe obilily lo provide perfornonce
ogoinsl posl-click oclivilies such os soles, leods, downloods, or ony olher sile-bosed
oclion lhe odverliser noy wonl lo neosure.
Rcw dc ycu tbink ycur
campaign cbjectives
wcuId differ if ycu were
advertising car insurance
vs. crganic cat fccd? Wbat
scrt cf web sites wcuId
ycu target fcr eacb?
3/ 35
online odverlising · putting it aII tcgetber
advertising excbanges
ldverlising nelworks ore olso creoling odverlising exchonges, where publishers
con ploce unsold invenlory for bidding. The invenlory is sold lo lhe highesl bidding
odverliser. 0iving odverlisers for nore conlrol, lhis lype of odverlising ninics o PP0
bosed nodel of poid seorch bidding l0enerolised Second Price ouclionI - bul bids
ore for oudience profles ond spoce rolher lhon for keywords. íl ollows publishers lo
fll unsold invenlory ol lhe highesl ovoiloble price, ond con give snoller odverlisers
occess lo lhis invenlory.
Knowing lhe vorious lypes of disploy oplions ond poynenl nodels ovoiloble ore oll
very well, bul you nighl be wondering how lo pul lhis oll logelher os you plon your
conpoign. The very frsl lhing you need lo delernine when plonning disploy odverlising
is lhe gool of your conpoign. lre you enborking on o noinly bronding conpoign? 0r
is your noin focus direcl response?
Hoving delernined lhe gools of your conpoign, idenlify lhe KPís lkey perfornonce
indicolorsI lhol will lel you know how you ore succeeding.
0nline odverlising is on ocquisilion chonnel. íl does nol require lhol users oclively
seek on inleroclion, os PP0 odverlising ond enoil norkeling do. So, il is cruciol lhol
lhe odverls ore ploced in fronl of lhe oudience lhol is nosl likely lo converl.
ínvesligole your lorgel oudience. whol web siles ore lhey likely lo be visiling? íl is likely
lhol lhe lype of creolive you noy use ond lhe poynenl nodel you follow will be lorgely
delernined by lhe web siles on which you wish lo odverlise.
Niche web siles wilh o snoller, bul probobly nore lorgeled oudience will nosl likely
chorge o fol role for disploy odverlising, or o 0Pl role. They could probobly be fexible
in disploy oplions lhol lhey give you, bul you will need lo loke inlo occounl lheir
bondwidlh cosls if lhey serve lhe odverls.
High lroffc web siles wilh o brood oudience will nosl likely chorge on o 0PM bosis.
They will broker lheir odverlising invenlory lhrough on odverlising nelwork, or even o
nunber of odverlising nelworks.
Knowing your gools, your lorgel oudience ond lhe fornol of your odverls, il`s
line lo brief your creolive leon lo ensure lhol you hove lhe oplinun bonners for
your conpoign.
putting it oll logelher
Fcr mcre cn KPIs, bead
cn cver tc tbe Web
AnaIytics and Ccnversicn
0ptimisaticn cbapter.
online odverlising · how il works · ad servers and advertising netwcrks
CcntextuaI advertising
can be prcbIematic. Fcr
exampIe, adverts fcr
tbe RiItcn RcteI ccuId
appear next tc newspaper
repcrts cf a Paris RiItcn
arrest. Adverts fcr
yacbts sbcwed up next
tc ccverage cf Rurricane
Katrina in New 0rIeans.
The odverlising nelwork con olso lorgel odverls bosed on lhe business rules of lhe
odverliser or bosed on lhe profles of lhe users.
6ec-Targeting. online odverlising hos lhe obilily lo lorgel norkels by counlry,
province or cily, ond con even drill lhen down lo sonelhing os specifc os lheir
íP oddress.
0perating 5ystem l Brcwser Type. norkels con furlher be lorgeled vio
nelworks or browser lypes such os Firefox, ínlernel Fxplorer, Sofori, elc.
Ccnnecticn Type. users con be segnenled ond lorgeled occording lo
lheir ínlernel conneclion lype, e.g. whelher lhey use broodbond or diol up
Day and Time. odverlisers con choose lhe line of doy or doy of lhe week when
lheir odverls ore shown. ldverlisers con specify when lheir conpoign should
oir, down lo lhe ninule. This usuolly depends on lhe clienl`s ob|eclive for lhe
conpoign or lhe producl ilself.
5cciaI 5erving. web siles golher personol dolo oboul users ond lhen serve
eoch user wilh lorgeled ond relevonl odverlising. For exonple, Focebook will
ollow odverlisers lo selecl specifc choroclerislics of users who will be shown
on odverl.
BebavicuraI Targeting. lhe odverlising nelwork uses lhe profle of o user lbuill
up over previous web siles visiledI lo delernine which odverls lo show during
o given visil. Nelworks con bose lhis profle on cookies or on íP oddresses. For
exonple, lhe nelwork noy choose lo show odverls for pel insuronce on o news
poge lo o user who hos visiled lhe pels ond oninols seclion of o generol nedio
sile previously.
CcntextuaI Advertising. lhe od server infers lhe oplinun odverls lo serve,
bosed on lhe conlenl of lhe poge. For exonple, on on orlicle oboul nounloin
bike holidoys in Furope, lhe nelwork would serve odverls for new nounloin
bikes, or odverls fron lrovel conponies offering fighls lo Furope, or perhops
odverls for odvenlure lrovel insuronce.
Privacy is a big deaI, and
tbe infcrmaticn ccIIected
is kept ancnymcus.
Ccckies are nct cnIy used
by web sites fcr tracking.
Ccckies aIsc aIIcw web
sites tc ¨remember" a
visitcr`s preferences, sucb
as Ianguage and Iccaticn.
Wbere a visitcr wiII nct
accept tbe ccckie frcm
an advertising netwcrk,
eitber by cpting cut cr
because tbeir brcwser
deIetes ccckies, many
netwcrks wiII reIy cn tbe
IP address cf tbe visitcr tc
track wbicb web sites are
visited. Even tbcugb tbe
infcrmaticn is ancnymcus,
tbere are ccnsumers wbc
dc nct Iike baving tbeir
brcwsing babits anaIysed
sc tbat better advertising
can be served tc tbem.
CcntextuaI advertising can be bumcrcus
3ó 37
online odverlising · lhe good ond lhe bod · advantages cf cnIine advertising
of so-colled ¨invilolion ods¨ lo guoronlee lhe requesled nunber of engogenenls in on
odverliser`s lorgel denogrophic.
But isn`t banner advertising dead?
l lillle reseorch online will reveol plenly of connenlory decloring lhe decline of
disploy odverlising. íncreosingly, consuners ore beconing bolh weory ond wory of
odverlising. 0lick lhrough roles on bonners ore dropping, so lhe effecliveness of
disploy odverlising is being queslioned by sone. Wilh lhe focus in eMorkeling on
lrocking ond neosuring response ond engogenenl, should o conpony spend noney
on less neosuroble oclivilies such os ¨brond building¨, where lhey ore poying on o
0PM bosis?
0onsider lhis. onecdolol evidence shows lhol bonner odverlising con increose click
lhrough roles on conlexluol odverls by 2/?% l0odin, 2OOóI.
Whol does lhis lell us? Meosurenenl should loke ploce ocross oll chonnels, ond no
chonnel should be ulilised in isololion. The besl resulls will be goined lhrough on
inlegroled ond holislic opprooch lo eMorkeling.
advantages cf cnIine advertising
banner ads and tbeir simiIarity witb traditicnaI media
eMorkelers regulorly benoon lhe focl lhol il`s oflen diffcull lo educole lhe norkel
oboul lhe volue of ínlernel norkeling lechniques. Trodilionol buyers of odverlising
hove been condilioned in o cerloin foshion ond hove cone lo underslond odverlising
in o cerloin woy.
¥idecEgg cffers in videc advertising. Tbe banner wiII sbcw a videc witbin tbe videc.
tbe gccd ond lhe bod
online odverlising · putting it aII tcgetber
Your online odverls will need lo.
Allrocl ollenlion
Convey o nessoge
Enlice oclion
Secondly, oll odverlising needs on oppropriole londing poge. Whelher lhis involves
creoling o nicro-sile, or nerely ensuring users ore coning lhrough lo on exisling poge
on lhe web sile, ensure lhol click lhroughs ore nol being wosled. 0enerolly, sending
odverlising lroffc lo your hone poge is nol o good ideo os il leoves lhe user deciding
where lo go nexl.
lninolion ollrocls ollenlion, bul be wory of being one of seven oninoled bonners on
o web sile. Bonners should nol be considered in isololion, bul rolher in lhe conlexl of
lhe web sile on which lhey will oppeor.
Web users respond well lo being lold whol lo do, ond lhe conlenl of on online odverl
should be concise ond direclionol. Fxonples include.
¨Phone now for lhe besl deols on insuronce¨
¨0lick here for fosl hone delivery¨
¨Donole now¨

While we hove becone used lo lhe ínlernel os o free nediun, where we con reod ond
inlerocl wilh ony conlenl we wonl, il is lhe focl lhol il is on odverliser`s nediun lhol
keeps il free. lnd lhol neons lhol os lhe woy we inlerocl wilh conlenl chonges os
lechnologies evolve, so odverlising follows.
íl used lo be lhol lhe level of inleroclion o web user hos wilh o web sile could be
neosured by lhe nunber of poges of lhol web sile lhe user viewed. Now, lechnology
such os lJlX ond rich nedio such os video neon lhol lhe line spenl on o web poge
con be nore neoningful lhon lhe nunber of poges viewed. The key word here is
¨engogenenl¨, ond lechnology ond dolo onolysis is working lowords being oble lo
delernine how web siles con quonlify lhe level of engogenenl wilh o viewer.
\ideoFgg lwww.videoegg.conI, which speciolises in odverls lhol oppeor in video clips
ond Focebook opplicolions, inlroduced o Poy Per Fngogenenl pricing nodel on ils
odverlising nelwork in Februory 2OO8. Wilh line spenl on sile increosing, odverlisers
ore oble lo ulilise lhol lo build nore inleroclive, nore line inlensive odverls. \ideoFgg
defnes lhe engogenenl here os ¨o user-inilioled rollover oclion lhol resulls in o
susloined od exponsion. 0nce exponded, on od noy conloin o video, gone, or olher of
rich conlenl¨ lRodgers, 2OO8I. Porl of \ideoFgg`s offering is lo oplinise lhe plocenenl
emerging lechnologies
38 3?
online odverlising · summary
ln 0Pl l0nline Publishers lssociolionI sludy reveoled lhol of lhe 8O% of viewers
lhol reporled lo hove wolched o video od online, 52% hove loken sone sorl of oclion,
including. checking oul o web sile l31%I, seorching for nore infornolion l22%I, going
inlo o slore l15%I, or ocluolly noking o purchose l12%I.
disadvantages cf cnIine advertising
tecbnicaI cbstacIes
The nolure of o lol of disploy odverlising is inlrusive, so pop-up blockers con oflen
prevenl ods fron being served os lhey were inlended by lhe odverlisers.
ccnnecticn speed
Bondwidlh con olso be on issue, ollhough lhis is o shrinking problen. However,
conpoigns should be plonned oround denogrophics in delernining lhe richness lond
inveslnenlI of inleroclion. For exonple heorl diseose nedicolion is likely lo oppeol lo
on older connunily, wilh less noney ond slower conneclion speeds.
advertising fatigue
0onsuners ore suffering fron odverlising foligue, so while new lechnologies con
provide greol resulls, os soon os lhe norkel noves noinslreon, il con gel soluroled.
0onsuners ore increosingly ignoring odverls.
ad bIcckers
ls well os nosl browsers now blocking pop-ups, lhere ore olso exlensions ovoiloble
for lhe Firefox browser, such os ldBlock plus, lhol will block odverlising on web
poges. Technologicolly sovvy consuners ore increosingly using lhese nelhods lo linil
lhe odverlising lhol lhey see.
0nline odverlising hos lwo noin ob|eclives.
Direcl response ond soles
The ínlernel ollows for highly lorgeled ond highly lrockoble disploy odverlising ocross
o voriely of online nedio.
Sone woys lhol odverlisers con use lhe ínlernel ore.
ínlersliliol bonners
Pop-ups ond Pop-unders
Mop odverl
Flooling odverl
Wollpoper odverl
Bonner odverl
online odverlising · lhe good ond lhe bod · advantages cf cnIine advertising
Bonner odverlising goes o long woy lowords bridging lhe odverlising divide. 0nline
ods hove o sel size, lhey con look very sinilor lo prinl ods ond lhey occupy o porliculor
bil of reol eslole in o publicolion wilh o porliculor nunber of eyebolls looking ol il. íl`s
eosy lo underslond ond il does lhe lhings buyers expecl odverlising lo do.
Bollon line - if done correclly, online odverlising builds brond oworeness ond
increoses soles!
images - dispIay can cffer a ricb brand buiIding experience
Sone conpoigns ore beller suiled lo hoving inoges rolher lhon lhe ploin lexl of o PP0
conpoign lollhough recenlly PP0 inoge ond video ods hove been inlroduced in lhe
USlI. 0onsider lhe following lypes of conpoigns.
Pronoling lrovel pockoges. Whol slirs nore enolion - on inoge of o lropicol
porodise or lhe words ¨lropicol porodise¨?
Building o brond wilhin o specifc sphere. Use bonner odverlising lo brond lhe
web siles of every no|or ployer in lhol niche.
Running o conpelilion. Keep lhe lorgel norkel`s eye on lhe prize.
Lounching on exciling new sporls cor wilh o coll lo oclion. ¨Tesl drive il now¨
- or inleroclive rich nedio lhol highlighl oll lhe exciling new feolures os you
nouse-over lhol porl of lhe cor on lhe inoge.
Digilol shodow. Using bonner odverls lhol shodow lhe obove-lhe-line oclivily
lo drive lhe nessoge bolh on ond offine.
Since bonners con conloin rich nedio, lhey offer levels of inleroclion lhol olher
forns of odverlising connol ochieve. íl ollows your lorgel norkel lo nol only see your
bonner, bul lo ploy wilh il loo. ínleroclion builds o bond ond inproves lhe chonces of
lhe consuner renenbering your brond lonorrow. 0ognilive leorning is o powerful
oulcone of inleroclive disploy odverlising.
lninolions, gones, video, Flosh - nodern online odverlising is oble lo bring logelher
o nunber of olher online norkeling loclics.
l few yeors ogo, Flosh nicro-siles were oll lhe roge , now lhe sone funclionolily
con exisl righl wilhin lhe od. This includes flling in o forn or ploying o gone
wilhin lhe od - no need lo be loken lo o seporole poge.
\irol norkeling - clever virol norkeling gones or ¨send lo o friend¨ funclionolily
fron wilhin lhe od.
\ideo - viewers con check oul video previews or lroilers fron wilhin lhe od.
measurabiIity and data gatbering
Bonner ods, like oll eMorkeling loclics, ore neosuroble. Trock click-lhrough roles ond
you gel on ideo of exoclly how nony people ore responding lo your coll lo oclion. Sone
publishers even hove lhe obilily lo do posl-click lrocking` i.e. you con lrock lhe user oll
lhe woy lo o sole if lhol is lhe purpose of lhe odverl.
/O /1
online odverlising · case study
case study: BHW 5cutb Africa
BMW Soulh lfrico hos been innovolive in ils use of online conpoigns lo conplenenl lheir offine oclivilies.
When il cone lo norkeling lhe new BMW 1 Series, BMW knew lhol drivers of lhe BMW 1 Series ore generolly
slighlly younger ond ol o differenl lifeslyle oge lo lhe overoge BMW driver. So, BMW looked ol new ond innovolive
woys os well os lrodilionol ond lesled nelhods lo reoch lhis lorgel norkel. 0ver July ond lugusl 2OO7, lhey ron
on online conpoign oined ol roising oworeness of lhe new 1 Series BMW, generoling lesl drive bookings ond,
ullinolely, driving soles leods.
The enlire conpoign wos inlegroled, fron prinl odverls lo lhe ínlernel, ond oined ol driving people lo lhe
web sile bnw.co.zo/1 where lhey were encouroged lo engoge wilh lhe conpoign. Here, lhe conpoign wos on
invilolion lo individuols lo shore lheir inlerprelolion of ¨one¨ by creoling o video or pholo. ls lwo differenl
BMW 1 Series nodels were being pronoled, o 2-door ond o /-door, lhe poyoff line ocross oll chonnels of lhe
conpoign hinged on lhe diffcully lo focus on ¨|usl one¨.
BMW lorgeled individuols ulilising o voriely of differenl od fornols, bolh online ond on nobile. These included
slondord bonners os well os exponding bonners lhol exponded over conpelilor inoges.
online odverlising · summary
ldverlising con be chorged for in o nunber of woys, including.
0Pí or 0PM
Flol role
0osl per engogenenl
ld Servers ond ld Nelworks provide lroffcking, lrocking ond reporling solulions lo
bolh odverlisers ond publishers. They ollow odverlisers lo lorgel disploy odverls bosed
on poronelers, including.
User profle llocolion, 0S, browser, conneclion lypeI
Frequency ond sequencing
0onlexl of conlenl
Fnerging lechnology ollows for on increosed level of inleroclion wilhin on odverl, ond
for odverlising lo be loilored lo engogenenl nedio such os online videos ond sociol
nelwork opplicolions.

bcw it aII hts tcgetber
0ffine odverlising ond norkeling conpoigns con be odopled for on online oudience,
so os lo ensure noxinun brond exposure. This con be very effeclive in enhoncing
offine norkeling ond odverlising oclivily ond in ensuring o wider reoch.
ls nenlioned, online odverlising con be used os on ocquisilion chonnel, reoching oul
lo o new oudience. íl con be used lo iniliole o buying cycle ond cusloner relolionship,
which lhen ploys oul ocross olher online chonnels. lddressing odverlising ond olher
chonnels lo conplenenl eoch olher will resull in o consislenl nessoge, ond oplinun
resulls. 0nline odverlising con be used lo reoch o lorge oudience, ond lhen olher
eMorkeling loclics con be used lo furlher refne lhis oudience.
Disploy odverlising ond offliole norkeling go hond in hond. lffliole nelworks olso
ocl os odverlising nelworks, ollowing for odverlising lo be purchosed on o
perfornonce bosis.
When seeding new producls ond virol conpoigns, disploy odverlising con be used lo
reoch o wide oudience ol o low cosl. íl con expose o conpoign lo nony new users, ond
increose lhe chonce lhol lhose who ore nosl likely lo poss on o nessoge receive il in
lhe frsl ploce.
tbe bigger piclure.
/2 /3
online odverlising · furtber reading
Selh 0odin`s Blog, loccessed O1/O5/2OO8I
ínleroclive ldverlising Bureou. ld Unil 0uidelines
ílB.nel, loccessed O1/O5/2OO8I
Jorvis, J. l27 Decenber 2OOóI Size doesn`l noller. The dislribuled nedio econony
Buzznochine.con, loccessed O1/O5/2OO8I
Lieb, R. l0clober 25 2OO2I ínnersive ldverlising lThree Doys` WorlhI
lfron Fric Schnidl`s keynole speech ol 2OO2 Jupiler/ílB ldForunI, 0lickz Nelwork, loccessed O1/O5/2OO8I
0Pl Furope ló June 2OO7I, 0nline Publishers lssociolion unveils online video odverlising effecliveness sludy,
0Pl Furope |occessed O1/O5/2OO8!
Rodgers, Z. lFebruory 1? 2OO8I \ideoFgg 0ffers `Per Fngogenenl` Pricing,
0lickz Nelwork, loccessed O1/O5/2OO8I
Slorcon Mediovesl l12 Februory 2OO8I New Sludy Shows lhol Heovy 0lickers Dislorl Reolily of Disploy
ldverlising 0lick-Through Melrics,
snvgroup.con, loccessed O1/O5/2OO8I
Wegerl, T. l21 Februory 2OO8I New ld Nelworks Service índuslry Trends,
The 0lickz Nelwork, loccessed O1/O5/2OO8I
furtber reading
www.odronls.con - 0onnenlory on online odverlising conpoigns. US focused.
www.clickz.con - índuslry leoders wrile regulor orlicles.
www.nno.co.uk - UK induslry focused odverlising orlicles.
online odverlising · case study
The lorgel norkel wos reoched lhrough noloring ond lifeslyle ossociolions ond odverls were ploced in
conpelilive environnenls on noloring web siles ond on corporole blogs. ls well os using nobizines, BMW
porlnered wilh Zoopy, o Soulh lfricon video shoring web sile, lo lop inlo on exisling connunily ond invile lhen
lo inlerocl wilh lhe brond.
The digilol nedio conpoign reoched over /5O,OOO individuols ond drove over 11% of lhe lesl drive bookings
concluded on lhe BMW web sile over lhe conpoign period.
case study questicns:
How do you lhink BMW benefled fron odopling exisling prinl odverlising for lhe online conpoign?
Describe lhe lorgel oudience of lhe new BMW 1 series. Why ore lhey suiled lo on online conpoign?
0onsuners ore unlikely lo purchose o cor online. How would you neosure lhe success of
lhis conpoign?
cbapter questicns:
0nline bonner odverlising ond ouldoor disploy odverlising bolh use inoges lo lry lo increose soles.
ín plonning, bolh need lo consider plocenenl so os lo be seen by lheir nosl likely oudience. Whol
ore lhe key differences?
Why is disploy odverlising on effeclive ocquisilion chonnel?
0o lo www.wheels2/.con ond www.lhelines.co.zo. Whol odverlising con you fnd on lhe fronl poge
of lhese lwo web siles? Whol producls ore being odverlised, ond how ore lhey being odverlised?
Whol con you infer oboul lhe lorgel norkel for lhese producls?

Dyson, F. l11 Februory 2OO8I The 0oning ld Revolulion,
online.ws|.con, loccessed O1/O5/2OO8I
eMorkeler l7 Novenber 2OO7I 0nline ld Spend lo Hil $/2 Billion by 2O11,
Press Releose, eMorkeler.con, loccessed O1/O5/2OO8I
0odin, S. l0clober 27 2OOóI The 2/?% Solulion,
Wbat`s inside: ln intrcducticn lo offliole norkeling, lhe key terms and
ccncepts you need for lhis chopler ond lhe bistcry of offliole norkeling os il
energed fron lhe nurky deplhs of lhe odull induslry. Looking ol bcw it wcrks,
discover differenl acticns and rewards, how tracking works lond cookies gel
involvedI. Uncover sone of lhe woys lhol afhIiates prcmcte mercbants, how
afhIiate netwcrks fl inlo lhe schene of lhings ond sone hondy lools of lhe
lrode for offliole norkeling. There is on inlroduclion lo setting up an afhIiate
campaign, pros ond cons of offliole norkeling ond of course o summary of lhe
chopler, ond o look ol bcw it aII hts tcgetber.


/ó /7
offliole norkeling · key terms and ccncepts
key terms and ccncepts
Acticn l specifed losk perforned by o user, which resulls in lhe offliole being oworded
connission. lclions include purchosing o producl, signing up for o newsleller or flling in o forn.
AfhIiate cr PubIisber* The lffliole or Publisher norkels lhe producls of lhe Merchonl.
CIick Tbrcugb l click on o link lhol leods lo onolher web sile.
Ccmmissicn The bounly poid by o nerchonl lo on offliole when lhe offliole nokes o
successful referrol.
Ccckie 0ookies ore porcels of lexl senl by o server lo o web browser ond lhen senl bock unchonged
by lhe browser eoch line il occesses lhol server. 0ookies ore used for oulhenlicoling, lrocking,
ond noinloining specifc infornolion oboul users, such os sile preferences or lhe conlenls of lheir
eleclronic shopping corls.
CPA 0osl per lclion. Poid when o cerloin oclion is perforned by o user.
CPC 0osl per 0lick. Poid when o link is clicked upon.
CPL 0osl Per Leod. 0onnission slruclure where lhe offliole eorns o fxed fee for o leod senl lo o
CPH 0osl per Thousond lMilI. lnounl poid for every 1OOO views of on odverlisenenl.
EPC Fornings Per 0lick. Bosed on hisloricol dolo ond conversions roles, whol on offliole con expecl
lo eorn per click.
Hercbant cr Advertiser * This is lhe owner of lhe producl lhol is being norkeled or pronoled.
Peferrer The referrer is lhe URL of lhe web poge lhol o user wos ol before reoching yours. The
server`s logs coplure referrol URLs ond slore lhen in lheir log fles.
Pevenue 5bare 0onnission slruclure where lhe offliole eorns o percenloge of o sole.
P0I Shorl for relurn on inveslnenl.
5essicn The session of oclivily lhol o user wilh o unique cookie spends on o web sile during o
specifed period of line
Trafhc This refers lo lhe visilors lhol visil o web sile.
UPL Shorl forn for Universol Resource Locolor. This is o unique oddress lhol idenlifes o web sile.
XHL Shorl for eXlensible Morkup Longuoge, XML pronises nore slondordized ond orgonized
delivery of dolo over lhe ínlernel. XHTML is lhe XML version of HTML.
* Why odverliser ond publisher? Well, lhe nerchonl hos goods lhol need lo be odverlised, ond lhe
offliole hos lhe nediun lo publish lhose odverls. The lerns ore inlerchongeoble.
offliole norkeling · intrcducticn
íf you reconnend o reslouronl lo o friend, ond lhol friend visils lhe reslouronl becouse
of your reconnendolion, lhe reslouronl`s revenue will hove increosed becouse of your
referrol. This is ¨word of noulh¨ norkeling. Bul you, os lhe referrer, do nol see ony of
lhe cosh benefl lhol lhe reslouronl does!
ínogine lhol lhe reslouronl gove you 1O% of lhe bill for every person lhol you referred
lo lhe reslouronl. They would be poying you o fnder`s fee for new cusloners. There ore
o nunber of businesses lhol norkel lhis woy offine. Brokers for insuronce producls
ore on exonple, bul lhese referrols con be hord lo lrock. 0nline, lhey ore very eosy lo
lrock. This syslen of reword where conpensolion is bosed on referrol is colled offliole
norkeling, ond is used lo describe lhis lype of norkeling in on online environnenl.
lffliole norkeling is used widely lo pronole web siles, ond offlioles ore reworded
for every visilor, subscriber or cusloner provided lhrough lheir efforls. Becouse
of lhis, offlioles ore sonelines viewed os on exlended soles force for o web sile.
lfflioles ore poid for perfornonce, so offliole norkeling is olso referred lo os
perfornonce norkeling.

Like nony eMorkeling innovolions, lhe beginnings of offliole norkeling ore lo be found
in lhe ldull induslry. 0ybererolico wos probobly lhe frsl lo run on offliole conpoign
wilh ils 0P0 progronne, where il would reword referrers for eoch click-lhrough lo
ils web sile.
lffliole norkeling noved closer lo lhe noinslreon, wilh progronnes offered by
conponies such os 0DNow lils BuyWeb progronne lounched in 1??/I, P0 Flowers
& 0ifls.con, luloWeb.con ond o hondful of olhers. Bul lhe slory lhol is nosl well
known, ond lhol ensured lhol offliole norkeling hil noinslreon press orlicles, is lhol
of lhe lnozon.con lssocioles Progron.
Legend hos il lhol Jeff Bezos llhe 0F0 ond founder of lnozon.conI wos ol o cockloil
porly, where o wonon lhere lold hin lhol she wonled lo sell books lhrough her web
sile. She did nol hove lhe infroslruclure lo sell lhe books, bul Jeff Bezos reolised
lhol she could send her lorgeled lroffc lo lnozon.con where users could buy books,
ond she could gel poid for eoch successful referrol. Fron lhis, Jeff Bezos lounched
lnozon lssocioles, lhe lnozon.con offliole norkeling progronne. Referrers ore
reworded for successful soles lhol occur os o resull of lheir norkeling efforls. The
growlh experienced by lnozon.con os o resull of lheir offliole progronne is well
docunenled, ond probobly occounls for oboul /O% of lheir revenue loccording lo
infornolion in lnozon.con discussion forunsI.
/8 /?
offliole norkeling · how il works · acticn and reward
Rcw dc ycu tbink
ccmpanies can ensure
tbat tbe Ieads tbey get are
lypes of nerchonls will hove differenl required oclions. The oclions ond lhe lype of
connission con be sunned up os.
0Pl l0osl Per lclionI - o fxed connission for o porliculor oclion
0PL l0osl Per LeodI - o fxed connission for o leod li.e. o polenliol soleI
Revenue Shore lolso 0PS or 0osl Per SoleI - on ogreed percenloge of lhe
purchose onounl is oworded
0P0 l0osl Per 0lickI - lhis forns o very snoll porl of lhe offliole norkeling nix,
ond lhe nerchonl poys o fxed onounl for eoch click lhrough lo lheir web sile.
Lel`s look ol on exonple of eoch of lhe oclions obove.
Here lhe oclion could be onylhing fron downlooding o while poper or sone soflwore
lo signing up lo o newsleller.
Merchonls lhol offer 0PL connissions ore usuolly lhose lhol need lo converl o leod
inlo o sole offine. This neons lhol lhey will generolly need lo conplele lhe lronsoclion
over lhe phone wilh lhe cusloner, or lhol lhe process is quile conplicoled. íl is lypicolly
insuronce conponies ond bonking inslilulions lhol will offer lhis lype of connission.
Menbership siles which offer o free lriol period, such os online D\D renlol, con olso
use lhis connission slruclure.
You nighl be wondering why nerchonls ore willing lo poy for o leod, insleod of only for
conpleled lronsoclions.
Well, offlioles prefer lhis nodel, os lhey ore nol in conlrol of lhe offine conversion
process. íl is lhe nerchonl`s |ob lo be oble lo conplele lhe lronsoclion. Sone
nerchonls noy be wory lhol lhe leods will nol be of o high enough quolily. This is
why lhey will usuolly hove conversion lorgels wilh which lhe leods generoled need lo
conply os o neons of quolily conlrol.
Pevenue 5bare
Revenue shoring is lhe ideol connission slruclure os bolh lhe nerchonl ond lhe
offliole ore reworded for perfornonce - lhe nore soles, lhe nore revenue generoled
for lhe nerchonl, ond lhe nore connission for lhe offliole. Web siles where o sole
con be perforned inslonlly ore ideol for revenue shoring. 0nline reloilers ond inslonl
online lrovel ogenls ore perfecl exonples of nerchonls who offer o revenue shore
connission. The offliole eorns o percenloge of lhe sole.
Wby dc ycu tbink a
mercbant wcuId be wiIIing
tc cffer a bcunty fcr eacb
Firefcx 3 runs an afhIiate prcgramme tc prcmcte tbe spread cf Firefcx.
offliole norkeling · bistcry
bcw it works
lccording lo e0onsulloncy`s lffliole Morkeling Nelworks Buyer`s 0uide l2OOóI, lolol
soles generoled lhrough offliole nelworks in 2OOó wos L2.1ó billion in lhe UK olone.
lnd MorkelingSherpo`s reseorch eslinoles lhol in 2OOó, offlioles worldwide eorned
$ó.5 billion in bounly ond connissions!
lffliole nelworks, which ocl os inlernediories belween offlioles ond nerchonls,
cone onlo lhe scene in 1??ó, wilh lhe lounch of LinkShore ond Be Free. 0onnission
Junclion, onolher big ployer, lounched in 1??8 ond wos boughl by \olue0lick lNosdoq.
\0LKI in 2OO3 for oboul $58 nillion.

The core of offliole norkeling is o sinple process.
ln offliole refers polenliol cusloners lo o nerchonl`s web sile.
Sone of lhose cusloners perforn o desired oclion.
The nerchonl rewords lhe offliole for eoch desired oclion resulling fron lhe
offliole`s referrol.
However, lhere ore nony differenl woys on offliole nighl norkel o nerchonl`s offering,
lhere ore nony differenl lypes of oclion lhol con be reworded, ond, nosl inporlonlly,
lhere needs lo be sone woy of keeping lrock of lhe whole process.
We`re going lo loke o look ol lhe differenl lypes of oclion frsl of oll, lhen discuss
keeping lrock of il oll, ond loslly loke o look ol sone of lhe nony neons lhol offlioles
use lo send cusloners lo nerchonls, ond of course, lo noke lhenselves cosh.
acticn and reward
Icr bcrses fcr ccurses!
lffliole norkeling con be used lo pronole ony lype of web sile - lhere |usl needs lo
be on ogreed upon oclion lhol will resull in on offliole eorning connission. Differenl
Tbe afhIiate marketing prccess.
5O 51
offliole norkeling · how il works · tracking
Speciolised offliole lrocking soflwore is used lo lrock offliole conpoigns, ond lhis
is usuolly supplied ond supporled by lhe offliole nelwork. 0flen, lhe nerchonl ond
lhe offliole will olso use lheir own lrocking soflwore lo noke sure lhol lhere ore no
no|or discreponcies.
lfflioles send lroffc lo nerchonls lhrough links or URLs, ond lhe lrocking soflwore
ollows eoch offliole lo hove o unique idenlifer in lhe URL. These links sel o cookie on
lhe cusloner`s conpuler, which ollows lhe soflwore lo lrock lhe sole.
For exonple, here is lhe URL of o producl on o reloiler`s web sile.
Here is lhe URL for lhe sone producl, bul wilh offliole lrocking.
You con see sone of lhe infornolion being recorded. íl hos been shown in bold in
lhe URL.
The offliole nelwork - lffliole Fulure
The íD of lhe offliole l238I
The íD of lhe nerchonl l21/I
The íD of lhe progronne l38?7I lo nerchonl nighl hove nore lhon one
progronne on o nelworkI
The nedio used lOI
The deslinolion of lhe click
0on you spol lhe originol URL in lhe one wilh lhe lrocking?
When lhe cusloner conpleles lhe required oclion on lhe nerchonl`s web sile, lhe
cookie will ollow lhe lrocking soflwore lo collecl lhe infornolion needed lo oword lhe
connission. For exonple, if o cusloner were lo use on offliole link lo purchose o
gifl fron o nerchonl lusing lhe sone URL os before os on exonpleI, lhe following
infornolion would be collecled.
Referring URL ond offliole
Tolol sole onounl for connission
Dole ond line of sole
Unique order nunber of sole
lll lhis infornolion will ollow lhe nerchonl lo confrn lhol lhe sole is volid, os well os
lhe onounl of connission lhol is due, wilhoul ever releosing ony of lhe cusloner`s
personol infornolion.
Dc ycu want tc see wbat
ccckies bave been set cn
ycur brcwser?
Fcr HcziIIa Firefcx, gc
tc TccIs ¬ 0pticns ¬
Privacy and cIick cn
5bcw Ccckies. Ycu can
see aII tbe dcmains
fcr wbicb ccckies bave
been set, and ycu can
see wben tbe ccckie wiII
expire. Ycu can deIete
ccckies if ycu want tc.
Fcr Internet ExpIcrer,
gc tc TccIs · Internet
0pticns · 6eneraI and
cIick cn 5ettings under
Tempcrary Internet
FiIes. CIick cn ¥iew
FiIes tc see ccckies set,
and ctber tempcrary
Internet hIes.
offliole norkeling · how il works · acticn and reward
Merchonls lend lo slruclure lheir connission offering so lhol offlioles who perforn
beller, eorn o higher connission. For exonple, o nerchonl nighl offer lhe following
liers of connission.
1 - 1O soles. 1O% connission
11 - 25 soles. 11% connission
2ó - 5O soles. 12% connission
51 or nore soles. 15 % connission
0P0 connission is rorely used, ond is prinorily o woy of driving lorge volunes of
lroffc, usuolly lo o new sile. ln offliole would be oworded connission for every click
lhrough lo lhe nerchonl web sile. lllhough lhis lype of connission wos prevolenl
in lhe very eorly doys of offliole norkeling, il hos been lorgely obondoned due lo
click froud.
We hove seen lhol lhere ore differenl lypes of oclions lhol con resull in connission
being oworded, ond lhol lhese usuolly suil lhe web sile lhol is being pronoled.
This neons lhol ony induslry lhol is online con nosl likely be pronoled lhrough
offliole norkeling.
lfflioles hove so nony oplions open lo lhen lo pronole nerchonls` web siles. Bul
before we gel lo lhol, we need lo loke o look ol lrocking - lhe lhreod lhol holds il
oll logelher.
Itbe IifeIine cf afhIiate marketing!
The key lo offliole norkeling is being oble lo lrock lhe whole process fron polenliol
cusloners being senl lo o web sile lhrough lo conpleled oclion, so lhol lhe nerchonl
is oble lo oword lhe correcl offliole wilh lhe correcl connission. This reolly is lhe crux
of offliole norkeling.
Fcr a discussicn cf CIick
Fraud, see tbe PPC
advertising cbapter.
Amazcn Asscciates is a pcpuIar revenue sbare afhIiate prcgramme.
52 53
offliole norkeling · how il works · tracking
Bearing tbe abcve in
mind, dc ycu tbink tbere
is an advantage tc a 999
day ccckie? Wbat is tbe
difference between a 999
day ccckie and a Icck-in?
lfflioles lend lo prefer o longer cookie period. il increoses lhe likelihood of being
oworded connission.
and wben tbings gc wrcng.
Successful lrocking is fundonenlol lo ony eMorkeling conpoign, ond especiolly so
lo offliole norkeling. ls offlioles ore only poid for perfornonce, should onylhing go
wrong in lhe lrocking process, il is lhe offlioles lhol suffer. The nerchonl will slill gel
lhe desired soles, bul lhe offlioles won`l be reworded.
So, il is good lo beor in nind sone of lhe problens lhol con be foced wilh lrocking.
HuItipIe referraIs, cne saIe - wbc gets tbe bcunty?
Wilh so nony offlioles, il is nol unconnon for o polenliol cusloner lo visil o nerchonl`s
web sile lhrough lhe links of nony differenl offlioles before fnolly noking o purchose.
Who do you lhink should receive lhe connission?
For exonple. l user sees o bonner on o web sile lhol he visils pronoling o weekend
in Poris, booked wilh Furoslor. The user clicks on lhol bonner ond checks oul lhe
deols on lhe Furoslor web sile. l cookie is sel, os lhe frsl web sile is on offliole
of Furoslor.
He doesn`l book righl owoy, bul ofler cholling lo his girlfriend, lhey decide lo book lhe
lrip. He goes lo 0oogle, seorches for ¨Furoslor weekend in Poris¨, ond clicks on one of
lhe PP0 odverls. This hos olso been ploced by on offliole, bul o differenl one.
This line he books lhe lrip. Bul, which offliole should be reworded lhe connission?
íl hos becone slondord proclice lhol lhe nosl recenl referrol is oworded lhe
connission, lhough lhere ore sone nerchonls who olso offer conpensolion lo olher
offlioles involved in sole process. ín lhe exonple obove, lhe offliole who ploced lhe
PP0 odverl would gel lhe connission for lhis sole.
Ccckies getting a bad reputaticn
0onsuners sonelines gel onxious when lhey heor lhings like ¨lrocking¨ ond
¨collecling infornolion¨, ond so lhey delele cookies fron lheir conpuler. íf lhis
hoppens, lhen lhe sole will never be ollribuled lo lhe offliole. This proclice, however,
does nol seen lo hove o droslic effecl on nunbers, ond so nosl offlioles will colculole
lhis inlo lheir R0í.
CIasbing ccckies
Merchonls will oflen use sone kind of lrocking so lhol lhey con beller oplinise lheir
own norkeling efforls. 0r, o nerchonl noy noke sone kind of lechnicol chonge lo
lheir web sile. íl is cruciol lhol ony of lhese chonges ore lesled frsl wilh lhe lrocking
soflwore, lo noke sure lhol il does nol creole ony conficl. íl is generolly occepled
offliole norkeling · how il works · tracking
lffliole lrocking soflwore collecls infornolion even if no oclion is conpleled.
This is vilol lo lhe offlioles ond lo lhe nerchonls lo see where lhey con oplinise
lheir conpoign.
ínfornolion collecled includes.
lll lhis infornolion helps lo build up dolo in order lo slrenglhen lhe conpoign.
lfflioles will use lhis infornolion lo delernine lhe success of lheir norkeling efforls.
Renenber lhol offlioles invesl noney inlo norkeling vorious nerchonls, ond lhey
only gel reworded on connission. ln offliole will use lhe obove infornolion lo
delernine whelher or nol lo pronole o nerchonl, ond how nuch lhey should invesl in
pronoling o porliculor nerchonl.
Merchonls con use lhe infornolion on lheir conpoign lo delernine how besl lo
oplinise. For exonple, if o porliculor lype of bonner seens lo be doing beller lhon
olhers, lhey could use lhol lo inprove olher bonners lhol lhey offer.
bcw Icng dces a ccckie Iast fcr?
íf you follow lhe sleps nenlioned obove lo see whol cookies hove been sel on your
browser, you`ll nolice lhol lhere ore o lol of differenl expiry periods for cookies. 0ookies
ore nol |usl used for offliole norkeling. They ore olso used lo slore infornolion so lhol
o web sile ¨renenbers¨ who you ore nexl line you visil il. The donoin owner gels lo
delernine for how long o cookie should losl. This is colled lhe cookie period.
When il cones lo offliole norkeling, il is up lo lhe nerchonl lo decide whol lhe
cookie period should be. The offliole is only oworded connission should lhe desired
oclion loke ploce wilhin lhe cookie period. Sone nerchonls noke lhe cookie losl for
lhe session only li.e. if lhe user only purchoses lhe following doy, no connission is
rewordedI, whereos lhe slondord cookie period for offliole norkeling is 3O lo óO doys.
Sone nerchonls offer ??? doy cookies, or even lifeline cookies.
There ore nerchonls who offer whol is colled on offliole lock-in. Here, lhe frsl
offliole lo refer lhe cusloner eorns connission on lhe lifeline of lhe cusloner. every
purchose lhol lhe cusloner nokes will eorn lhe offliole connission.
Wbat data wcuId need tc
be ccIIected? Dces tbis
differ fcr different types cf
afhIiate marketing? Tbink
cf emaiI marketing vs.
PPC fcr exampIe.
discussicn creative type impressicns cIicks ccnversicns EPC
banner1 8ó7 /2 / $ O.23
prcduct feed 115O 2O3 5 $ O.8?
banner2 3O5 5ó 2 $ O.21
5/ 55
offliole norkeling · how il works · bcw dc afhIiates prcmcte mercbants?
Arbitrage is tbe practice
cf taking advantage cf a
price differentiaI between
twc cr mcre markets.
It`s a term tbat is usuaIIy
used in hnanciaI trading.
5cme migbt say tbat
searcb afhIiates trade
in PPC adverts - tbeir
revenue is tbe EPC - CPC.
Seosonolily is olso o key line for conlenl siles. Web siles con be creoled specifcolly
for 0hrislnos, Molher`s Doy ond nony nore key reloil seosons.
Sone offlioles run lorge opl-in enoil lisls, ond lhey norkel porliculor nerchonl offers
lhrough lheir enoil newslellers. Sone renegode offlioles would use spon enoil lo
pronole nerchonl offers, bul os offliole norkeling hos nolured, lhere ore usuolly
lerns ond condilions lo prevenl such pronolion.
ls offlioles eorn o percenloge of o sole, sone offlioles ¨splil¨ lhis wilh lhe cusloner
ond creole cosh bock or poinls bosed shopping siles. There ore olso sone lhol donole
o percenloge of lhe connission lo o chorily.
Sone of lhe nosl successful offliole norkelers ore lhose who pronole vorious
nerchonls lhrough poid seorch. PP0 odverlising on seorch engines. ls lhese offlioles
seek lo fnd lhe highesl Fornings Per 0lick lFP0I for lhe lowesl 0osl Per 0lick l0P0I,
lhis is olso referred lo os seorch orbilroge.
lfflioles will fnd ony neons possible lo pronole offers. ls new producls ond
plolforns becone ovoiloble, norkelers ond offliole norkelers fnd new woys lo noke
lhen work. Sone olher exonples of offlioles pronoling nerchonls include.
Toolbors ond olher browser exlensions
Sociol nelwork opplicolions
6reasyPaIm.cc.uk is a casbback site tbat is an afhIiate.
offliole norkeling · how il works · tracking
proclice lhol even if il is o nerchonl`s norkeling efforl lhol is responsible for lhe fnol
sole, lhe offliole slill gels lhe connission if il is wilhin lhe offliole`s cookie period.
PIacing an crder by anctber metbcd
íf lhe cusloner conpleles lhe oclion, bul does nol do so online, lhe offliole will nol
receive connission. So, if o cusloner visils on online reloiler lhrough on offliole link,
bul ploces on order over lhe phone, lhe offliole will niss oul on connission.
bcw dc afhIiates prcmcte mercbants?
lfflioles ore online norkelers who ore poid on o perfornonce bosis. Fvery lype of
norkeling slrolegy will be found in lhe offliole world, ond offlioles con oflen be seen
ol lhe forefronl of breoking lechnology ond opplying il lo norkeling slrolegies.
The bosic oin of on offliole is lo send lorgeled lroffc llhol neons cusloners who ore
very likely lo perforn lhe desired oclionI lo o porliculor nerchonl`s web sile. lfflioles
noy pronole os nony nerchonls in os nony induslries wilh os nony loclics os lhey
wish, bul usuolly offlioles will slorl lo speciolise.
Mosl of lhe loclics will be lhe sone os lhose lhol lhe nerchonl enploys, bul will reoch
o differenl porl of lhe ínlernel populolion. Fffeclive lrocking lokes core of ony overlop,
ond will help o nerchonl lo od|usl lheir spending for o nosl effeclive R0í.
The noin lypes of offlioles con be broken up os.
Personol web siles
0onlenl ond niche siles
Fnoil lisls
Loyolly siles lpoinls or cosh bock or choriloble donolionsI
0oupon ond pronolions siles
0onporison shopping lsee olso PP0 odverlisingI
Seorch offlioles lseorch orbilrogeI
lffliole norkeling cone lo lhe fore os o woy for personol web siles lo noke noney,
lhough lhis now forns o snoll porl of lhe norkeling nix. lffliole norkeling does slill
provide sone incone for lhese web siles. However, we will focus on lhose endeovours
which ore creoled purely for offliole norkeling.
0onlenl ond niche siles ore web siles creoled specifcolly oround o lopic, ond ony
producls pronoled will corry offliole lrocking. For exonple, on offliole nighl creole
o sile dedicoled lo digilol coneros, wilh lips ond downloods lo help you gel lhe nosl
oul of your conero. íl could review o nunber of differenl coneros, ond offer links lo
purchose lhose coneros online. lll of lhose links will be offliole links.
5ó 57
offliole norkeling · tccIs cf tbe trade
tccIs cf lhe lrode
lhe level of supporl offered lo lhe nerchonl. lffliole nelworks usuolly chorge lhe
nerchonl o percenloge of lhe connission eorned by lhe offliole lcolled o connission
overrideI, so lhol lhere ore incenlives for lhe nelworks if lhey perforn well. ls o rough
guide, lhis is lypicolly 3O% of lhe connission reworded lo lhe offliole.
Sone leoding offliole nelworks ore.
0onnission Junclion - www.c|.con
LinkShore - www.linkshore.con
lffliole Window - www.offliolewindow.con
TrodeDoubler - www.lrodedoubler.con
lffliole norkeling lodoy forns o fundonenlol porl of nosl e-reloilers` slrolegies. So,
whol lools does o nerchonl need lo hove o successful progronne?
lny reloiler should hove o prcduct feed, eilher XML or 0S\. l producl feed bosicolly
is o woy of providing infornolion oboul lhe producls on o nerchonl`s web sile in o woy
lhol breoks up lhe infornolion eosily, ond is slondordised. l producl feed will probobly
conloin lhe following infornolion for eoch producl.
Producl none
Producl URL
Producl piclure
Producl price
Shipping price
Slock slolus. in slock / oul of slock
lfflioles, porliculorly seorch offlioles, con use lhis lo pronole individuol producls.
l producl feed is node ovoiloble on o sinple URL, ond disploys conlenl lhol
offlioles con use in lheir conpoigns. You con view o producl feed by visiling
Merchonls need lo creole o sel of banners and buttcns lhol con be ploced on offliole
web siles. ll o nininun, lhe following sizes should be ovoiloble.
/ó8 x óO lbonnerI
125 x 125 lsquoreI
12O x óO lbullonI
12O x óOO lskyscroperI
offliole norkeling · how il works · bcw dc afhIiates prcmcte mercbants?

lll lhol is required is lhol lhe click-lhrough lo lhe nerchonl`s web sile is lrocked.
afhIiate netwcrks
ls well os lhe offliole ond lhe nerchonl, lhere is o generolly o very inporlonl lhird
porly in lhe offliole norkeling nix - lhe offliole nelwork.
While sone snoll offliole progronnes ond sone very lorge offliole progronnes
lsuch os lnozon lssociolesI ore run by lhe nerchonl, nosl nerchonls opl lo
use on offliole nelwork lo provide nosl of lhe lechnicol solulions required for on
offliole progronne.
lffliole nelworks provide lrocking solulions, reporling on progronnes lo bolh offlioles
ond nerchonls, hosling of creolive bonners, connission poynenl oplions ond supporl
lo bolh offlioles ond nerchonls. lffliole nelworks hove nony offlioles, ond nony
nerchonls, signed up lo lhen, so lhey ore on ideol source for recruiling offlioles if
you ore o nerchonl, or for fnding nerchonls lo pronole if you ore on offliole. To lhe
nerchonls, lhey provide o one-poynenl solulion, os lhe nerchonl will be invoiced for
oll lhe connission colleclively owed, which is lhen dispersed lo lhe offlioles.
lffliole nelworks usuolly chorge lhe offlioles nolhing lo |oin. They con chorge o
nerchonl o sel-up fee, which will cover lhe cosl noking sure lhol lhe lrocking solulion
is successfully inlegroled, ond con chorge o nonlhly nonogenenl fee, depending on
6ccd5earcb.ccm cffers a tccIbar. Prcceeds frcm afhIiate Iinks are sbared witb cbarities.
AfhIiate netwcrks act as a gateway between mercbants and afhIiates.
5ee tbe cnIine advertising
cbapter fcr exampIes cf
banner sizes.
58 5?
offliole norkeling · setting up a campaign
be oble lo give offlioles conpelling reosons why your progronne is beller.
Wilh lhis in nind, you need lo delernine lhe gool of your offliole norkeling. íf you ore
o new business, you nighl |usl wonl lo build lroffc ond brond oworeness. Depending
on whol induslry you ore in, your gool could be new cusloner leods, or il could be
increosed reloil soles. Moke sure you ore cleor on whol you wonl, ond lhol your web
sile refecls lhis.
Then, you need lo decide whelher you ore going lo run your own progronne, fron
offliole recruilnenl lo lrocking ond poying, or whelher you ore going lo use on offliole
nelwork. íf you ore using on offliole nelwork, you`ll need lo do your honework on lhe
besl nelwork or nelworks lo |oin. Look ol.
Where your conpelilors ore
Who hos lhe kind of offlioles you wonl
Whol lhe |oining fees ond nonlhly fees ore
How nuch supporl lhey con offer you
Whol counlries lhe nelwork is in
You`ll olso need lo decide whelher you will hire on offliole nonoger lo run your
progronne, whelher you nighl oulsource your progronne nonogenenl, or whelher
you olreody hove lhe resources lo run lhe progronne yourself.
You need lo do o full conpelilor onolysis, focussing on your conpelilors` offliole
progronnes. Look ol.
0onnission liers
0ookie periods
0reolive offerings
Which offlioles lhey work wilh
íncenlives offered lo offlioles
Prepore lhe bosics lhol you`ll need lo slorl o progronne.
Producl feed
Bonners ond olher creolive offerings
Using your conpelilor reseorch, decide on connission, connission liers, cookie
period ond incenlives.
Tesl lhe lrocking soflwore on your sile, ond noke sure lhol il does nol conficl wilh ony
olher lrocking you ore using.
Recruil offlioles. use your conpelilor onolysis lo conlocl polenliol offlioles, pronole
your progronne lhrough offliole foruns, use your offliole nelwork conlocl chonnels
lo opprooch offlioles, opprooch siles lhol you lhink fl your user denogrophic.
offliole norkeling · tccIs cf tbe trade
Hoving inleroclive bonners, such os gifl wizords or producl seorches, neon lhol
polenliol cusloners con inlerocl wilh lhe brond before lhey even cone lhrough lo lhe
nerchonl`s web sile!
íf lhe nerchonl or lhe offliole nelwork hosls lhe bonners, lhese con be updoled
wilhoul lhe offlioles hoving lo do onylhing. This neons lhol lhe nessoge con be kepl
currenl ocross oll of lhe nerchonl conpoigns.
Merchonls need lo consider who will be keeping tabs and driving tbe success of
lhe offliole conpoign. Merchonls nighl be oble lo run lhe progronne in-house
wilh currenl sloffng resources, or con hire on offliole nonoger. íl is olso possible lo
oulsource lhe nonogenenl of lhe offliole progronne lo on ogency lhol speciolises
in offliole norkeling.
Loslly, nerchonls need lo keep in tcucb wilh lheir offlioles. lhe nelworks hove
chonnels for connunicoling wilh o lorge nunber of offlioles, bul il is olso worlhwhile
lo inlerocl on sone of lhe offliole norkeling foruns in order lo keep inforned.
Wbat tccIs dces an afhIiate need?
lfflioles need lo gel lo grips wilh tbe spectrum cf eHarketing tactics, ond choose whol
works besl for lhen. Poid seorch offlioles will focus on PP0 loclics, while offlioles
running bespoke web siles will probobly pul o lol of energy inlo SF0. íl depends on
where lheir lolenl lies, ond where lhey see o gop in lhe norkel.
For offlioles, keeping up lo dole wilh nerchonls, olher offlioles ond lhe induslry is
probobly lhe key lo growlh. Thol, ond fnding lhe line lo pul il oll inlo proclice! Jcining
fcrums ond keeping lobs wilh induslry leoders will help lo do |usl lhol.
Sone noloble offliole norkeling foruns.
Webnoslerworld. www.webnoslerworld.con
lfflioles/U forun. www.offlioles/u.con
lffliole norkeling is forning such on inlegrol porl of eMorkeling - how would you
go oboul selling up ond lounching o new conpoign? lffliole norkeling should grow
your business, ond grow wilh your business, so il`s inporlonl lo plon ond prepore for
long-losling success.
Firsl up, you need o cleor ideo of your business`s idenlily, gools ond Unique Selling
Poinls. No doubl you will hove conpelilors lhol offlioles olreody pronole, you need lo
setting up o conpoign
óO ó1
offliole norkeling · tbe bigger picture
There ore differenl lypes of connission, bosed on lhe nerchonl`s induslry.
Revenue Shore
The nosl essenliol elenenl lo offliole norkeling is lrocking. Trocking soflwore ploces
o cookie on o user`s browser when lhol user clicks on on offliole link. The cookie
period is delernined by lhe nerchonl. íf lhe user perforns lhe desired oclion wilhin
lhe cookie period, lhe offliole is oworded connission.
lffliole nelworks ore oflen used os on inlernediory belween offlioles ond nerchonls.
lffliole nelworks provide lrocking solulions, reporling ond supporl lo bolh offlioles
ond nerchonls.
lfflioles use o nunber of neons lo pronole nerchonls. These include.
Personol web siles
0onlenl ond niche siles
Fnoil lisls
Loyolly siles lpoinls or cosh bock or choriloble donolionsI
0oupon ond pronolions siles
0onporison shopping lsee olso PP0 odverlisingI
Seorch offlioles lseorch orbilrogeI
0ne of lhe keys lo successful offliole norkeling is ongoing connunicolion belween
nerchonls ond offlioles. This con be lhoughl of lhe nerchonl norkeling lhe
offliole progronne lo offlioles, so lhol lhe offlioles in lurn will norkel lhe nerchonl`s
bcw it aII hts tcgetber
ls offlioles ore norkeling in on online environnenl, every one of lhe loclics in lhis
book will be enployed by offlioles. Sone offlioles even run offliole norkeling
conpoigns for lheir own web siles!
Bul os o nerchonl, how does offliole norkeling fl inlo lhe overoll norkeling nix?
For slorlers, offliole norkeling con ollow nerchonls lo odd elenenls lo lheir
eMorkeling wilh o fxed 0Pl. ls on exonple, o nerchonl nighl wonl lo pronole lheir
producls lhrough PP0 odverlising, bul locks lhe experlise lo run o conpoign. ínsleod
of poying on ogency, lhe nerchonl con recruil seorch offlioles lo run PP0 odverlising,
ond lhe nerchonl will only ever poy for perfornonce.
tbe bigger piclure
offliole norkeling · setting up a campaign
lnd il doesn`l oll slop once you`ve lounched! The key lo successful offliole norkeling
is ongoing connunicolion ond norkeling lo your offlioles. You need lo noke sure
you ore on lop of volidoling soles, so lhey gel lheir connission. You need lo ensure
lhol you sloy conpelilive wilh your connission offering. lnd, you need lo keep your
offlioles up lo dole wilh ony infornolion lhol could noke lhen send nore cusloners
your woy - nore revenue for you ond lhus nore cosh for lhen!
While offliole norkeling cerloinly deserves increosing recognilion for ils key role in
growlh, il is slill o young induslry wilh oll lhe growing poins lhol lhol involves.
Wbat is bcIding pecpIe back?
There ore seldon conlrocls in ploce belween offlioles ond nerchonls. For
o nerchonl, lhis neons lhol on offliole could decide lo slop pronoling your
progronne, wilh no nolice given. This could leod lo o sudden lroffc ond
soles drop, depending on how relionl lhe nerchonl hod been on lhol offliole.
Sinilorly, nerchonls noy decide lo lerninole o progronne, neoning o loss
of revenue for offlioles. Porliculorly if lillle nolice is given, offlioles nighl
hove spenl line ond noney selling up pronolions, only lo hove lhe conpoign
pulled oul fron underneolh. Mosl infonously, lS0S.con did lhis o couple of
yeors ogo.
There is slill lillle lo no induslry regulolion, lhough lhe no|orily of lhe induslry
does slrive lo besl proclices. While sone offlioles hove resorled lo shody
proclices in lhe posl lwilh odwore ond enoil sponI, lhe no|orily hove bonded
logelher lo blocklisl lhis kind of behoviour. The speclre slill renoins lhough.
Sone nerchonls feor o loss of brond conlrol.
lffliole progronnes ore nol eosily scoloble.
Bul, of course, lhere ore so nony benefls lo offliole norkeling.
íl`s poy for perfornonce norkeling, so nerchonls ore only poying for growlh.
The nerchonl soles force |usl gol bigger, os well os ils bronding polenliol.
There is o very low borrier lo enlry for bolh offlioles ond nerchonls.
lffliole norkeling is o key lool for ony web sile seeking growlh. ín lhis perfornonce
bosed norkeling, nerchonls reword offlioles connission for successful referrols.
prcs and cons
ó2 ó3
offliole norkeling · case study
ín 2OO7, Prezzybox.con lounched o brond new conlenl ilen for ils offlioles. \idibox. These ore video conlenl
unils - bonners which conloin o producl video ond o link lo lhol producl on lhe Prezzybox.con web sile. These
video conlenl unils were very successful becouse lhe conlenl wos unique in lhe offliole oreno ond so hod o lorge
loke up onongsl offlioles. Being o nore inleresling woy of disploying conlenl, lhe \idiboxes ollrocled o higher
click-lhrough role, which ogoin node lhen nore oppeoling lo offlioles.
Prezzybox.con`s connilnenl lo on innovolive ond successful offliole progronne hos seen lhen eorn innense
respecl in lhe offliole oreno, which is lronsloling lo ongoing heollhy soles growlh. ín focl, Prezzybox.con hos
oulgrown ils offces lwice in six yeors, ond looks sel lo noinloin lhis successful lrock record.
case study questicns
Porl of offliole norkeling involves norkeling o conpony lo offlioles. How hos Prezzybox.con
ochieved lhis, ond whol ore lhe effecls of lhis?
Why does Prezzybox.con connunicole differenlly lo ils super offlioles?
Whol node lhe \idiboxes enlicing lo offlioles?
ín o conpelilive norkel, how does offliole norkeling help build o conpony`s success? lre lhere ony
oddilionol considerolions when o norkel is conpelilive?
cbapter questicns
Whol foclors should be considered when delernining whol connissions should be when you ore
plonning on offliole conpoign? How do lhese differ for revenue shoring conpoigns ond
0Pl conpoigns?
Whol is lhe difference belween o lifeline cookie ond o lock-in cookie? How do you lhink lock-in
cookies offecl lhe connission levels offered by nerchonls?
Why do you lhink sone offlioles run offliole progronnes for lheir own web siles?
How con o nerchonl lry lo ensure lhol lheir own norkeling efforls do nol overlop wilh offlioles`? Why
would o nerchonl wonl lo reduce overlop?
offliole norkeling · tbe bigger picture
Working closely wilh offlioles, nerchonls con gel nony nore cose sludies for
onolysing ond oplinising lheir web siles, porliculorly when il cones lo conversion. ls
offlioles ore poid for perfornonce, lhey will be nore lhon willing lo odvise on woys lo
inprove conversion roles.
lffliole norkeling con be used lo conplenenl olher conpoigns, whelher lhey be
offine or online. Moking sure lhol lhere ore bonners lo supporl lhese conpoigns, lhe
nerchonl con ensure o wider oudience for lheir olher norkeling efforls.
lffliole norkeling ollows for lorgeled lroffc fron niche web siles. While lhe nerchonl
con focus on o brood speclrun of web siles, offliole norkeling ollows for lhe lorgeling
of niche lroffc sources.
case study: Prezzybcx.ccm
Prezzybox.con is o UK online reloiler in o very conpelilive norkel. gifls ond godgels. Wilh nony olher ployers
in lhe norkel conpeling for lhe sone cusloners, Prezzybox.con runs o successful offliole progronne lhol
sees lhen leoding lhe woy in perfornonce norkeling.
lffliole norkeling hos ployed o sizeoble role in lhe growlh of Prezzybox.con ond now occounls for oboul 35%
of soles. lffliole norkeling hos conlribuled on lwo levels, nonely brond growlh ond soles generolion. ín focl,
Prezzybox.con hos won severol induslry owords for ils offliole progronne. ín 2OO8, lhese owords included
`Besl Use of 0reolive` ond `Besl Merchonl ínnovolion`.
l subslonliol elenenl of offliole norkeling is nonoging relolionships wilh offlioles. The Prezzybox.con offliole
progronne ond ils offliole nonogers hove been voled besl by offlioles, ond ils offliole nonogers ore regulorly
inviled lo speok ol induslry evenls ond conferences. How hove lhey ochieved lhis?
Prezzybox.con hos o wide offliole bose, ond conslonlly recruils new offlioles vio offliole gel-logelhers, offliole
foruns ond blogs ond lhrough keyword seorches on 0oogle. íls super offlioles, lhose offlioles lhol drive lhe
no|orily of offliole soles, occounl for oboul 1% of oll offlioles. Zok Fdwords, Monoging Direclor of Prezzybox.
con, soys, ¨We lend lo offer oll offlioles lhe sone opporlunilies for pronolion, bul obviously focus o lol of our
ollenlion on our super offlioles.¨
Super offlioles con be given exlro connission os on incenlive, ond lhe offliole nonogers ensure lhol lhese
offlioles ore up lo dole wilh oll of lhe lolesl offers, new producls ond pronolions. Prezzybox.con connunicoles
lhese deloils lo oll lheir offlioles os well. However, lhey use noss connunicolion for oll lheir offlioles ond
one-on-one connunicolion, such os phone colls or inslonl nessenger, wilh lheir super offlioles. 0ne of lhe
feolures of lhe offliole progronne is on offliole resource cenlre, which hos exlensive supporl infornolion for
offlioles such os reol line producl beslseller reporls.




Wbat`s inside: l look ol lhe induslry known os seorch ond lhe differenl
lypes of seorch resulls. orgonic resulls ond poid resulls. We loy lhe foundolion
wilh key lerns ond concepls before looking ol tbe impcrtance cf searcb lo o
norkeler. The lhree-woy reIaticnsbip between searcb engines, users ond
webmasters follows, ond lhen o look ol bcw searcb engines wcrk. This leods
lo seorch engine norkeling, node up of SF0 ond PP0, ond keywcrds.
offliole norkeling · furtber reading
0ollins, S lNovenber 1O, 2OOOI Hislory of lffliole Morkeling,
0lickZ Nelwork |occessed 2 Decenber 2OO7!
e-0onsulloncy l0clober 2OOóI lffliole Morkeling Nelworks Buyer`s 0uide l2OOóI,
e-0onsulloncy.con hllp.//www.e-consulloncy.con/publicolions/offliole-norkeling-nelworks-buyers-guide/,
|occessed 2 Decenber 2OO7!
Hollond, l publisher lJonuory 11 2OOóI lffliole Sunnil 2OOó Wrop-Up Reporl -- 0onnissions lo Reoch $ó.5
Billion in 2OOó,
MorkelingSherpo |occessed 2 Decenber 2OO7!
My Turnkey Business,
|occessed 7 lpril 2OO8!
0lsen, S l0clober 1O, 2OO3I \olue0lick buys norkeler 0onnission Junclion,
0NFT News.con |occessed 2 Decenber 2OO7!
furtber reading
- offliole odvice fron o leon heoded by Jess Lulhi who hos been in lhe offliole norkeling induslry since ils
slorl in lhe UK.
- o blog fron Shown 0ollins, on offliole since 1??7 ond founder of lffliole Sunnil, lhe leoding induslry
óó ó7
searcb engine marketing
poges lSFRPsI. They ore nol infuenced by fnonciol poynenl ond ore lherefore olso
colled nolurol seorch resulls. 0rgonic seorch resulls need lo be consislenlly relioble
lo ollrocl lond keepI users. 0oogle`s growlh ond success os o seorch engine con
be direclly linked lo ils superior seorch olgorilhn which relurns highly relevonl
orgonic resulls.
paid searcb resuIts
Poid seorch, olso known os Poy Per 0lick lPP0I odverlising, involves lhe disploying of
sponsored resulls olongside lhe orgonic resulls. ldverlisers bid for plocenenl, ond
poy lhe seorch engine when lheir odverl is clicked on. Poid seorch resulls nusl be
dislinguished fron orgonic resulls since poid plocenenl inlroduces bios. PP0 odverls
ore usuolly disployed ol lhe lop ond on lhe righl side of lhe SFRPs. Seorch engines
ollrocl ond keep users lhrough orgonic seorch, bul lhey noke nosl of lheir noney
fron poid seorch.
searcb engine marketing
Fvery doy, oll oround lhe world, nillions of people use seorch engines lo fnd conlenl
on lhe ínlernel. Seorch engines ore web-bosed progronnes lhol index lhe web ond
ollow people lo fnd whol lhey ore looking for. ¨Seorch¨ or ¨seorch norkeling¨ is oflen
used lo refer lo lhe induslry lhol hos buill up oround seorch engines.

0oogle, Yohoo! ond Microsofl`s Live ore oll well known inlernolionol seorch engines.
0oogle is by for lhe leoding ployer in lhe norkel. l conScore sludy of worldwide
seorch engine oclivily, releose in 0clober 2OO7, showed lhol 0oogle hos |usl over óO%
of lhe globol seorch engine norkel shore. ín Furope, olnosl 8O% of seorches ore
on 0oogle.
6IcbaI searcb market sbare. 5curce: ccm5ccre 2007.
When we lolk ¨seorch¨, we refer lo lwo differenl kinds of resulls.
crganic searcb resuIts
0rgonic seorch resulls ore lhe prinory producl of o seorch engine. These resulls
ore lhe lislings generolly found on lhe lefl hond side on lhe seorch engine resulls
5earcb Prcperty 5earcbes IBiIIicn! Harket 5bare
Worldwide ó1,O3ó 1OO%
0oogle Siles 37,O?/ ó1%
Yohoo! Siles 8,5/? 1/%
Boidu.con ínc. 3,253 5%
Microsofl Siles 2,1óó /%
NHN 0orporolion 2,O// 3%
eBoy 1,31? 2%
Tine Worner Nelwork 1,212 2%
lsk Nelwork 7/3 1%
Fox ínleroclive Medio ó83 1%
Lycos, ínc. //1 1%
ó8 ó?
seorch engine norkeling · lhe inporlonce of seorch lo o norkeler · a tbree-way reIaticnsbip
need prinorily vio seorch. Seorch drives lorgeled lroffc lond lherefore solesI lo web
siles. l web seorch is o signol of inlenl fron o web user.
5earcb engines are tbe dccrway tc tbe Internet.
lccording lo conScore, ?5% of lhe globol ínlernel populolion visiled o seorch engine
in lugusl 2OO7.
Tbe searcb industry is BI6.
The doily seorch volune nunbers ore in lhe hundred nillions. lccording lo 0onScore
fgures, lhere were nore lhon 1O billion seorches in lhe US olone during Jonuory 2OO8!
Thol`s oround 322 nillion per doy.
Tc be fcund ycu must be visibIe.
íf you wonl your web sile lo generole o signifconl onounl of lroffc, il needs lo be lisled
on lhe no|or seorch engines ond lisled high up enough lo be seen. Slolislics show lhol
users ore nol likely lo view lislings beyond lhe frsl 3O resulls, wilh lhe lop ó lobove lhe
foldI lislings en|oying lhe lion`s shore of clicks lFyeloolsI.
Tcp cf searcb equates tc tcp cf mind awareness.
Beyond lroffc, o high ronking web sile is voluoble for brond perceplion. Web users
oflen perceive seorch engine resulls os on indicolion of oulhorily. Seorch visibilily
pronoles brond recognilion ond reseorch hos shown lhol seorch engine lislings con
slinulole brond recoll by 22O% lFnquiro, 2OO7I.
PecpIe trust crganic searcb.
Reseorch hos shown lhe people fnd orgonic resulls nore relevonl ond nore lrusled
lhon poid seorch resulls lFnquiro, 2OO/I

Catcb pctentiaI custcmers at every pbase cf tbe buying cycIe.
Mosl purchoses ore sub|ecl lo o buying cycle. ll differenl poinls in lhol cycle, prospecls
ore seorching wilh differenl key phroses. 0ive lhen whol lhey wonl ol eoch phose, ond
lhey will keep coning bock lill lhey`re reody lo buy. ín oddilion, lhey`ll be reody lo buy
nore quickly becouse infornolion is lhe besl woy lo shorlen lhe buying cycle.
Hany pecpIe bave a searcb engine as tbeir brcwser bcme page.
0flen, lhe hone poge of o browser is sel lo o seorch engine. Mony users enler URLs
inlo lhe seorch engine insleod of lhe oddress bor of lhe browser - neoning lhol even
if lhey know lhe URL of o web sile, lhey ore fnding il lhrough seorch.
a tbree-way reIaticnsbip
- searcb engines, webmasters and users
Seorch engines, ínlernel users ond web sile owners ore involved in o synbiolic lhree-
woy relolionship. Foch porly depends on lhe olher lwo lo gel whol lhey need.
seorch engine norkeling · key terms and ccncepts
tc a marketer
ls seorch engines hove becone essenliol lo o web user`s ínlernel experience so hos
seorch becone essenliol lo o norkeler. Seorch is inporlonl for o nunber of reosons.
5earcb is gcaI criented: pecpIe use searcb tc hnd tbe tbings tbey want
and need.
The ínlernel is o highly conpelilive environnenl, wilh lilerolly billions of poges in
exislence. So how does onyone fnd lhe poge lhey`re ofler? Web users fnd whol lhey
key terms and ccncepts
Abcve tbe fcId The conlenl lhol con be seen on o screen wilhoul hoving lo scroll down.
AIgcritbm When il cones lo seorch, o seorch engine`s olgorilhn is ils sel of rules for
conpuling ronking.
Brcwser ln opplicolion used lo occess lhe ínlernel. Populor browsers include Firefox, ínlernel
Fxplorer ond Sofori.
Index The doloboses for keywords creoled by lhe seorch engines.
Keywcrd l word or words used by o seorcher on o seorch engine. ín SF0, keywords ore lhe words
lhol o web sile is oplinised lo ronk for, ond in PP0, keywords ore bid on by odverlisers.
Keywcrd pbrase More lhon one keyword con be referred lo os o keyword phrose.
0rganic searcb resuIts The lislings on o SFRP resulling fron lhe seorch engine`s olgorilhn.
These ore nol poid for.
Paid searcb resuIts The lislings on o SFRP lhol ore poid for.
PPC Poy Per 0lick is odverlising on seorch engines where lhe odverliser poys only for eoch click on
lheir odverl.
Panking ín seorch, ronking is used lo describe lhe relolive posilion of o web poge in lhe SFRPs.
5earcb engine l lool for seorching lhe ínlernel. Users of seorch engines enler keywords relevonl
lo lheir seorch, ond lhe seorch engine relurns resulls fron ils doloboses.
5EH Seorch Fngine Morkeling refers lo norkeling lhol is reloled lo seorch.
5E0 Seorch Fngine 0plinisolion is lhe proclice lhol oins lo inprove o web sile`s ronking in lhe
seorch engines for specifc keywords.
5EPP Seorch Fngine Resulls Poge - lhe poge lhol shows lhe resulls for o seorch on o
seorch engine.
5pider ln oulonoled progron lhol scons or crowls web poges lo golher infornolion for
seorch engines.
5pcnscred Iinks The poid seorch resulls on o SFRP.
UPL Universol Resource Locolor - lhe oddress of o web poge on lhe ínlernel.
tbe impcrtance of seorch
7O 71
seorch engine norkeling · lhe inporlonce of seorch lo o norkeler · keywcrds - making sense cf it aII
searcb engine marketing
Seorch engine norkeling lSFMI hos lwo orns. seorch engine oplinisolion lSF0I ond
poy per click lPP0I odverlising. These correspond lo lhe lwo lypes of seorch resulls.
5E0 + PPC = 5EH
SF0 oins ol inproving o web sile`s ronking in lhe nolurol seorch resulls. PP0
odverlising involves bidding for plocenenl in lhe poid seorch resulls seclion of lhe
Bolh SF0 ond PP0 odverlising ore bosed oround lhe sone fundonenlol concepl.
keywcrds - making sense cf it aII
Keywords, or key phroses, ore whol o user enlers inlo o seorch engine query lo fnd
web siles. Bolh SF0 ond PP0 odverlising involve selecling lhe keywords lhol ore
relevonl lo o conpony`s web sile ond ore used by polenliol cusloners. SF0 oins lo
hove o web sile ronk in lhe nolurol resulls for ils lorgel keywords. ín PP0 odverlising,
lhe odverliser bids on desired keywords lo ochieve ronkings in lhe poid resulls.
The following lwo choplers deol wilh lhe lwo orns of seorch engine norkeling. seorch
engine oplinisolion ond poy per click odverlising.
searcb engine cptimisaticn
- long lern R0í
- high volune
- nore exposure, bronding ond oworeness
- lough lo quonlify
- lols of ongoing work
- resulls con loke o while lo be seen
searcb engine marketing
pay per cIick
- quick low cosl selup
- highly neosuroble ond lrockoble
- nininol developnenl line required, if ol oll
- con be nore expensive
- 0P0 is clinbing
- conslonl noniloring required
seorch engine norkeling · lhe inporlonce of seorch lo o norkeler · a tbree-way reIaticnsbip
Users want tc hnd wbat tbey are Iccking fcr cn tbe Internet.
They use seorch engines lo leod lhen lo web siles, ond lhey fovour seorch engines lhol
deliver lhe nosl relevonl ond useful resulls.
5earcb engines want tc make mcney frcm seIIing advertising.
The nore users lhey hove, lhe nore odverlising seorch engines con sell. Therefore,
seorch engines nusl lisl lheir resulls occording lo relevonce ond inporlonce in order
lo ollrocl ond keep users. ín lurn, seorch engines fovour siles lhol ore relevonl ond
useful lo users.
Web site cwners, webmasters and cnIine marketers want searcb
engines tc send trafhc tc tbeir site.
Therefore, lhey need lo noke sure lhol lheir siles ore relevonl ond inporlonl in bolh
lhe eyes of lhe seorch engines ond lhe users.
Poge ond Brin sun il up in lheir pre-0oogle poper The lnolony of o Lorge-Scole
Hyperlexluol Web Seorch Fngine.
¨The nosl inporlonl neosure of o seorch engine is lhe quolily of ils seorch resulls.¨
wbat dces a searcb engine dc?
Seorch engines hove four noin funclions.
They crowl lhe Web lvio spidersI.
They index lhe Web docunenls ond poges lhey fnd.
Seorch engines process user queries.
Finolly, lhey relurn ronked resulls fron lhe index.
l seorch engine is node up of o nunber of porls oll working logelher.
l crowling spider, olso known os o web crowler, rcbct or bol, is on oulonoled
indexing progron. íl goes fron poge lo poge, following links ond indexing or
recording whol il fnds.
The index is whol lhe spider creoles. íl is o ¨librory¨ of poges on lhe ínlernel
ond il consisls of lens of billions of poges! The seorch engine creoles doloboses
for keywords, so il knows where lo go lo when o user enlers o query.
The engine is lhe porl lhol does lhe ocluol seorching. Users inpul o seorch
query by lyping o keyword or phrose inlo lhe seorch bor. The engine lhen
checks ils index lo fnd relevonl poges ond delivers lhen ordered fron nosl
relevonl ond inporlonl lo leosl relevonl ond uninporlonl.
The 5EPP lseorch engine resulls pogeI is lhe ordered lisling of resulls for lhe
user`s query. l SFRP conloins o descriplion ond link lo lhe resull.



Wbat`s inside: ln intrcducticn lo SF0, ond o brief bistcry followed by
lhe key terms and ccncepts you need. ín bcw it wcrks, we look ol lhe fve
noin oreos of SF0, nonely web site structure, key pbrase researcb, writing
ccntent, aII impcrtant Iinks ond usage data. When il cones lo SF0, you olso
need lo know wbat nct tc dc. Following oll lhis we hove lhe tccIs cf tbe trade,
lhe prcs and ccns of SF0, ond o look ol tbe bigger picture.
seorch engine norkeling · references
Brin, S. ond Poge, L. The lnolony of o Lorge-Scole Hyperlexluol Web Seorch Fngine,
|occessed 3 lpril 2OO8!
conScore l21 Februory 2OO8I Press Releose. 0onscore Releoses 2OO8 US Seorch Fngine Ronkings,
0onscore Press 0enler, |occessed 3 lpril 2OO8!
conScore l7 Moy 2OO8I conScore Releoses Morch 2OO8 Furopeon Seorch Ronkings,
conScore, ínc |occessed 1 June 2OO8!
conScore l1O 0clober 2OO7I ó1 Billion Seorches 0onducled Worldwide in lugusl,
conScore, ínc |occessed ? June 2OO8!
Fnquiro Seorch Solulions lDecenber 2OO7I The Brond Lifl of Seorch,
Fnquiro Seorch Solulions, ínc
Fnquiro Seorch Solulions lMorch 2OO/I ínlo lhe Mind of lhe Seorcher,
Fnquiro Seorch Solulions ínc
Fyelools, ínc. Fyelools, Fnquiro, ond Did-il uncover Seorch`s 0olden Triongle,
Fyelools, ínc |occessed 3 lpril 2OO8!
Fishkin, Rond l25 Februory 2OOóI Beginner`s 0uide lo Seorch Fngine 0plinizolion,
|occessed 3 lpril 2OO8!
0oogle, 0oogle seorches nore siles nore quickly, delivering nore relevonl resulls,
0oogle.con |occessed 3 lpril 2OO8!
7/ 75
seorch engine oplinisolion · key terms and ccncepts
key terms and ccncepts
AIt Text This refers lo lhe ¨oll¨ ollribule for lhe inoge HTML log. íl is used in HTML lo ollribule o lexl
feld lo on inoge on o web poge, nornolly wilh o descriplive funclion, lelling o user whol on inoge is
oboul ond disploying lhe lexl in inslonce where lhe inoge is unoble lo lood.
Ancbcr Text The visible, clickoble lexl in o link.
BackIink lll lhe links on olher poges lhol will loke lhe user lo o specifc web poge. Foch link lo lhol
specifc poge is known os on inbound/bocklink. The nunber of bocklinks infuences PogeRonk so lhe
nore bocklinks lhe beller - gel linking!
Dcmain Name The none of o web sile lhol dislinguishes il fron olher syslens on lhe World Wide
Reading Tags Heoding logs lH1, H2, H3 elcI ore slondord elenenls used lo defne heodings ond
subheodings on o web poge. The nunber indicoles lhe inporlonce, so H1 logs ore viewed by lhe spiders
os being nore inporlonl lhol lhe H3 logs. Using lorgel key phroses in your H logs is essenliol for effeclive
Rcme Page The frsl poge of ony web sile. The hone poge gives users o glinpse inlo whol your sile is
oboul - very nuch like lhe index in o book, or o nogozine.
RTHL The obbreviolion for HyperTexl Morkup Longuoge, reod by web browsers. 0erloin HTML logs ore
used lo slruclure lhe infornolion ond feolures wilhin o web poge.
RyperIink l link in o docunenl leleclronicI lhol ollows you, once you click on il, lo follow lhe link lo lhe
relevonl web poge.
IP Address The ínlernel Prolocol líPI oddress is o exclusive nunber, which is used lo represenl every
single conpuler in o nelwork.
Keywcrd Frequency The nunber of lines o keyword or key phrose oppeors on o web sile.
Keywcrd Pbrase Two or nore words lhol ore conbined lo forn o seorch query - oflen referred lo os
keywords. íl is usuolly beller lo oplinise for o phrose rolher lhon o single word.
Keywcrd Pankings This lern refers lo where lhe keywords/phroses lorgeled by SF0 ronk onongsl
lhe seorch engines - if your lorgeled lerns do nol oppeor on lhe frsl 3 poges, slorl worrying.
Landing Page The poge o user reoches when clicking on o poid or orgonic seorch engine lisling. The
poges lhol hove lhe nosl success ore lhose lhol nolch up os closely os possible wilh lhe user`s seorch
Link l link is o URL inbedded on o web poge. íf you click on lhe link you will be loken lo lhol poge.
Link Bait l lechnique for providing conlenl lhol ollrocls links fron olher web poges.
LccaIisaticn The proclice of creoling o locol version of o websile, for o differenl counlry/longuoge.
Heta Tags Melo logs ore lhere lo lell lhe spiders exoclly whol lhe web poges ore oboul. íl`s inporlonl
lhol your Melo logs ore oplinised for lhe lorgeled key phroses. Melo logs ore node up of nelo lilles,
descriplions ond keywords.
PerscnaIised 5earcb Personolisolion neons lhol seorch resulls ore personolised lo, or vory,
occording lo whol seorch engines lhink o user is ocluolly inleresled in.
Peferrer When o user clicks on o link fron one sile lo onolher, lhe sile lhe user lefl is lhe referrer.
Mosl browsers log lhe referrer`s URL in referrer slrings. This infornolion is vilol lo delernining which
queries ore being used lo fnd specifc siles.
Pcbct.txt l fle wrillen ond slored in lhe rool direclory of o web sile lhol reslricls lhe seorch engine
spiders fron indexing cerloin poges of lhe web sile.
seorch engine oplinisolion · intrcducticn
Wilh nillions of people perforning nillions of seorches eoch doy lo fnd conlenl on lhe
ínlernel, il nokes sense lhol norkelers wonl lheir producls lo be found by polenliol
consuners. Seorch engines use closely guorded olgorilhns lo delernine lhe resulls
lhol ore disployed. However, delernining whol foclors lhese olgorilhns loke inlo
occounl hos leod lo o growing proclice known os seorch engine oplinisolion.
Seorch engine oplinisolion lSF0I is lhe proclice of oplinising o web sile so os lo
ochieve preferred ronking on lhe seorch engine resulls poges lSFRPsI. Soneone who
proclices SF0 professionolly is olso known os on SF0 lseorch engine opliniserI.
SF0 con be splil inlo lwo dislincl conps. while hol SF0 ond block hol SF0 lwilh sone
grey hol-weorers in belweenI. Block hol SF0 refers lo lrying lo gone lhe seorch
engines. These SF0s use dubious neons lo ochieve high ronkings, ond lheir web siles
ore occosionolly block-lisled by lhe seorch engines. While hol SF0, on lhe olher hond,
refers lo working wilhin lhe poronelers sel by seorch engines lo oplinise o web sile
for beller user experience. Seorch engines wonl lo send users lo lhe web sile lhol is
nosl suiled lo lheir needs, so while hol SF0 should ensure lhol users con fnd whol
lhey ore looking for.
By lhe nid-?Os, webnoslers hod begun lo oplinise lheir siles for seorch engines
due lo o growing oworeness of lhe inporlonce of being lisled by lhe vorious engines.
íniliolly, oll o webnosler needed lo do wos subnil lhe URL of o web poge for il lo
be indexed. Seorch engines relied on lhe nelo dolo, infornolion lhol webnoslers
inserled in lhe code of o web poge, lo delernine whol o web poge wos oboul ond lo
index il oppropriolely.
índuslry onolysl Donny Sullivon records lhol lhe eorliesl known use of lhe lern
¨seorch engine oplinizolion¨ wos o spon nessoge posled on Usenel, on online forun
or nessoge boord, on July 2ó, 1??7.
Reolising lhe inporlonce of being ronked highly in seorch resulls, webnoslers begon
using lhe seorch engine`s relionce on nelo dolo lo nonipulole lhe ronking for lheir web
siles. To conbol lhis, seorch engines in lurn hove developed nore conplex olgorilhns
including o nunber of olher ronking foclors.
While ol Slonford Universily, Lorry Poge ond Sergey Brin developed o seorch engine,
colled Bockrub, lhol relied on o nolhenolicol olgorilhn lo ronk web poges. They
founded 0oogle in 1??8, which relied on PogeRonk, hyperlink onolysis os well os on-
poge foclors lo delernine lhe proninence of o web poge. This enobled 0oogle lo ovoid
lhe sone kind of nonipulolion of on-poge foclors lo delernine ronking.

7ó 77
seorch engine oplinisolion · how il works · weII researcbed key pbrases
users. These ore olso known os cn page factcrs. SF0 olso involves cff page factcrs
- lhese generolly build links lo lhe web sile. lclivilies lo increose links lo o web sile,
including sociol nedio ond WebPR, ore considered off poge SF0.
SF0 is on exlrenely effeclive woy of generoling new business lo o sile. íl is o conlinuous
process ond o woy of lhinking oboul how seorch engines see your web sile ond how
users use seorch engines lo fnd your web sile. íl`s seorch psychology.
Seorch engine oplinisolion is o foirly lechnicol proclice bul il con eosily be broken
down inlo fve noin oreos.
l seorch engine friendly web sile slruclure
l well reseorched lisl of key phroses
0onlenl oplinised lo lorgel lhose key phroses
Link populorily
Fnerging lrends
1. searcb engine friendIy web site
Seorch engines encounler lwo kinds of obslocles.
Technicol chollenges lhol prevenl lhe seorch engine spider fron occessing
l conpelilive norkeling environnenl where everyone wonls lo ronk highly
To ensure lhol seorch engines con occess your conlenl, you nusl renove lechnicol
borriers. Those who wish lo ochieve lhe besl resulls nusl follow besl web dev proclices.
These besl proclices ore oullined in lhe chopler on web developnenl ond design.
Rond Fishkin of SF0noz.org soys. ¨The key lo ensuring lhol o sile`s conlenls ore fully
crowloble is lo provide direcl, HTML links lo lo eoch poge you wonl lhe seorch engine
spiders lo index. Renenber lhol if o poge connol be occessed fron lhe hone poge
lwhere nosl spiders ore likely lo slorl lheir crowlI il is likely lhol il will nol be indexed
by lhe seorch engines.¨
The chopler on web developnenl ond design delves nore deeply inlo building o seorch
engine friendly web sile.
2. weII researcbed key pbrases
Key phroses ore lhe very foundolion of seorch. When o user enlers o query on o
seorch engine, she uses lhe words lhol she lhinks ore relevonl lo her seorch. The
seorch engine lhen relurns lhose poges il believes ore nosl relevonl lo lhe words lhe
seorcher used.
Keywcrd cr key pbrase?
Key pbrases are made up
cf keywcrds, but ycu can
get away witb referring tc
a key pbrase as keywcrds.
seorch engine oplinisolion · key terms and ccncepts
bcw it works
Fron hllp.//www.google.con/lechnology/.
`PogeRonk relies on lhe uniquely denocrolic nolure of lhe web by using ils vosl
link slruclure os on indicolor of on individuol poge`s volue. ín essence, 0oogle
inlerprels o link fron poge l lo poge B os o vole, by poge l, for poge B. Bul,
0oogle looks ol nore lhon lhe sheer volune of voles, or links o poge receives, il
olso onolyzes lhe poge lhol cosls lhe vole. \oles cosl by poges lhol ore lhenselves
¨inporlonl¨ weigh nore heovily ond help lo noke olher poges ¨inporlonl.¨`
PogeRonk wos bosed on lhe proclice of ocodenic cilolions. The nore lines on
ocodenic poper is ciled, lhe nore likely il is on oulhorily poper on lhe sub|ecl. Poge
ond Brin used o sinilor lheory for lheir seorch engine - lhe nore lines o web poge
or web sile is linked lo, lhe nore likely il is lhol lhe connunily considers lhol poge
on oulhorily.
Ronking highly in seorch resulls is vilol lo web siles, so webnoslers hove odopled os
seorch engines hove updoled lheir olgorilhns lo ovoid being ¨goned¨. Todoy, 0oogle
soys il uses nore lhon 2OO differenl foclors in ils olgorilhn lwhich chonges over /OO
lines yeorlyI lo delernine relevonce ond ronking. None of lhe no|or seorch engines
disclose lhe elenenls lhey use lo ronk poges, bul lhere ore nony SF0 proclilioners
who spend line onolysing polenl opplicolions lo lry lo delernine whol lhese ore.
Seorch engines need lo help users fnd whol lhey`re looking for. To noke sure lhey lisl
lhe besl resulls frsl, lhey look for signols of.
SF0, olso colled orgonic or nolurol oplinisolion, involves oplinising web siles lo
ochieve high ronkings on lhe seorch engines for cerloin selecled key phroses.
This is ochieved by noking chonges lo lhe HTML code, conlenl ond slruclure of o web
sile, noking il nore occessible for seorch engines, ond by exlension, eosier lo fnd by
key terms and ccncepts ccntinued
UPL Uniforn lor UniversolI Resource Locolor. This is o web poge`s oddress e.g. hllp.//www.golloquirk.con.
UPL Pewriting Presenling seorch-friendly URLs wilhoul queslion norks, rewriling lhen on lhe
server lo lheir slondord fornol suiloble for use in querying dynonic conlenl.
UsabiIity Usobilily is o neosure of how eosy il is for o user lo conplele o desired losk. Siles wilh
excellenl usobilily fore for beller lhon lhose lhol ore diffcull lo use.
78 7?
seorch engine oplinisolion · how il works · weII researcbed key pbrases
HisspeIIings are
impcrtant, but wben ycu
are seIIing scmetbing,
ccnsider wbat tbe
misspeIIing teIIs ycu
abcut tbe trafhc ycu are
getting. Witb everytbing,
anaIyse ycur trafhc tc
assess fcr quaIity.
Bolh ore lerns used by soneone looking lo book o holel in 0ope Town, bul il is likely
lhol soneone looking for o luxury holel is inlending lo spend nore. Thol neons lhol
porliculor leod hos o higher volue, porliculorly if you hove o holel booking web sile lhol
offers o ronge of occonnodolion.
keywcrd researcb
How do you know where lo slorl on building your keyword lisl? íl requires o lillle
lhoughl, ond o foir onounl of reseorch using lools which ore reodily ovoiloble lo help
you bolh grow ond refne your lisl of keywords.
Think oboul lhe words you would use lo describe your business, ond oboul lhe
queslions or needs of your cusloners lhol il fulfls. How would soneone osk for whol
you ore offering? 0onsider synonyns ond nisspellings os well.
Beor in nind lhol people nighl nol osk for your services in lhe sone woy you describe
lhen. You nighl sell ¨herbol infusions¨ whereos nosl people would osk for ¨herbol
leos¨, ollhough sone nighl requesl o ¨lisone¨.
íf you ore selling Tonogolchis, renenber lhol lhe spelling con be lough lo recoll, ond
you nighl need lo consider connon nisspellings like ¨lunogochi¨ or ¨lonogochi¨.
5urvey custcmers and Icck at ycur web site referraI Icgs
Look lo see whol lerns cusloners ore olreody using lo fnd you, ond odd lhose lo your
lisl. íf lhey ore olreody sending you sone lroffc, il is worlh seeing if you con increose
lhol lroffc.
Use keywcrd researcb tccIs
There ore severol lools ovoiloble for keyword discovery, ond sone of lhen ore free!
Sone lools will scon your web sile ond suggesl keywords bosed on your currenl
conlenl. Mosl will lel you enler keywords, ond will lhen relurn suggeslions bosed on
posl reseorch dolo wilh.
Sinilor keywords
0onnon keywords used wilh lhol keyword
0onnon nisspellings
Frequency of lhe keywords in seorch queries
índuslry reloled keywords
Keywords lhol ore sending lroffc lo your conpelilors
How nony olher siles ore lorgeling your keywords
See TccIs cf tbe Trade for sone lools lhol you con use.
Beoring in nind lhe foclors lhol noke o good keyword, you need lo oin for lhe righl
nix of keywords. Low volune lerns, wilh low levels of conpelilion noy be o good woy
seorch engine oplinisolion · how il works · weII researcbed key pbrases
Seorch engines hove buill o sophislicoled underslonding of senonlics ond lhe woy we
use longuoge. So, if o user seorches for ¨cor renlol¨ lhe seorch engine will look for
poges lhol ore relevonl lo ¨cor renlol¨ os well os possibly ¨cor hire¨, ¨vehicle hire¨ ond
so forlh. Seorch engines hove olso buill up knowledge oround connon nisspellings
ond synonyns ond connon reloled seorches, so os lo lry lo relurn lhe besl resulls
for o user.
Becouse of lhis, il is cruciol lhol web siles conloin conlenl wilh keywords lhol ore likely
lo be used by lheir lorgel oudience. Web siles need lo oppeor when lheir polenliol
cusloners ore seorching for lhen.
ls o web sile owner, or lhe norkeler for o web sile, we need lo build o lisl of sone of
lhe lerns our polenliol cusloners ore likely lo use lo fnd lhe lhings we ore offering. l
big porl of keyword reseorch is underslonding seorch psychology. When we build our
key phrose or keyword lisl, we ore lopping inlo lhe nenlol process of seorchers ond
pulling logelher lhe righl nix of keywords lo lorgel.
There ore four lhings lo consider when choosing o keyword.
- 5earcb vcIume
How nony seorchers ore using lhol phrose lo fnd whol lhey wonl? For exonple, lhere
is on eslinoled nonlhly seorch volune of over 2 nillion for lhe keyword ¨holel¨, bul on
eslinoled 385 seorches per nonlh for o keyword like ¨0ope Town wolerfronl holel¨.
- Ccmpetiticn
How nony olher web siles oul lhere ore lorgeling lhol sone phrose? For exonple,
0oogle fnds over 7?5,OOO,OOO resulls for ¨holel¨ bul only 1,35O for ¨0ope Town
Wolerfronl Holel¨.
- Prcpensity tc ccnvert
Whol is lhe likelihood lhol lhe seorcher using lhol key phrose is going lo converl on
your sile? l conversion is o desired oclion loken by lhe visilor lo your web sile.
Reloled lo propensily lo converl, is lhe relevonce of lhe selecled lern lo whol you
ore offering. íf you ore selling roons ol o holel ol lhe \&l Wolerfronl, which of lhe
lwo lerns l¨holel¨ ond ¨0ope Town Wolerfronl holel¨I do you lhink will leod lo nore
- ¥aIue per ccnversicn
Whol is lhe overoge volue per prospecl ollrocled by lhe keyword? Depending on lhe
nolure of your web sile, lhe overoge volue per leod vories. Using lhe holel exonple
ogoin, consider lhese lwo lerns.
¨luxury 0ope Town holel¨ ond ¨budgel 0ope Town holel¨
8O 81
seorch engine oplinisolion · how il works · cptimising ccntent fcr key pbrases
Bcdy ccntent: use lhe key phrose ol leosl lhree lines, nore if lhere is o lol
of conlenl ond il nokes sense. lin for oboul 35O words of conlenl, bul don`l
overdo il! Thol could look like spon lo lhe seorch engines.
BcId: use <slrong> logs oround lhe keyword ol leosl once.
AIt tag fcr an image: use il ol leosl once lo describe on inoge on lhe poge.
UPL: use o URL rewrile so lhol il oppeors in lhe URL of lhe poge.
Heta descripticn: use il ol leosl once in lhe nelo descriplion of lhe poge. íl
should enlice users lo click lhrough lo your sile fron lhe SFRP.
Heta tags: use lhe keywords in lhe nelo logs lo provide conlexl lo lhe seorch
Link ancbcr text lo onolher poge. don`l use il when linking lo onolher poge
on your sile. The onchor lexl describes lhe poge being linked lo, ond so could
dilule lhe relevonce of lhe poge you ore linking fron.
Dcmain name: if possible, use lhe key phrose in your donoin none, ollhough
fovour usobilily or nenoroble donoin nones.
cptimising images
ínoges should olso be oplinised wilh lhe relevonl keywords. Seorch engines connol
see inoges, so rely on lhe woy lhol on inoge is described lo delernine whol lhe inoge
is oboul. Screen reoders olso reod oul lhe inoge descriplions, which con help visuolly
inpoired reoders lo noke sense of o web sile. Loslly, inoges ore sonelines olso
shown on lhe SFRPs, ond of course one con olso seorch inoges using nosl of lhe
no|or seorch engines.
Page targeting tbe pbrase ¨bandmade bags".
seorch engine oplinisolion · how il works · weII researcbed key pbrases
lo gel lroffc in lhe shorl lern, bul don`l be scored off by high-levels of conpelilion in
lhe high-volue, high-volune oreos. íl nighl loke longer lo gel lhere, bul once lhere,
lhe revenue con noke il oll worlhwhile.
íl is o good ideo lo creole o spreodsheel of lhe lisl of keywords, where you con olso
slore infornolion relevonl lo lhol keyword.
This will help you lo choose lhe righl keywords lo lorgel. These lisls should be creoled
for lhe whole web sile, ond lhen con be broken down for eoch poge you wonl lo
3. cptimising ccntent fcr key pbrases
0nce keywords ond phroses ore selecled, we need lo ensure lhol lhe sile conloins
conlenl lo lorgel lhose key phroses. We nusl ensure lhol lhe conlenl is properly
slruclured ond lhol il sends signols of relevonce. 0onlenl is lhe nosl inporlonl porl
of your web sile. We nusl creole relevonl, lorgeled conlenl oining ol our selecled
key phroses.
0onlenl olreody hos severol roles lo ploy on your sile.
íl provides infornolion lo visilors.
íl nusl engoge wilh lhen.
íl nusl convince lhen lo do whol you wonl.
Now il nusl olso send signols of relevonce lo seorch engines. You need lo use lhe
keywords on lhe conlenl poge in o woy lhol seorch engines will pick up, ond users
will underslond.
Foch web poge should be oplinised for lwo lo lhree key phroses. lhe prinory key
phrose, lhe secondory ond lhe lerliory. l poge con be oplinised for up lo fve key
phroses, bul il is beller lo hove nore niche poges lhon fewer unfocused poges.
Here ore sone guidelines.
TitIe tag: use lhe key phrose in lhe lille, ond os close lo lhe beginning os
R1 beader tag: use lhe key phrose in lhe heoder log, ond os nuch os possible
in lhe olher H logs.
cr pbrase
Ccmpetiticn Prcpensity tc
¥aIue cf
RcteI 3,870 90% 2% $18
Luxury bcteIs 3ó5 80% 35% $35
82 83
seorch engine oplinisolion · how il works · Iink pcpuIarity
Wby migbt a site want tc
teII tbe searcb engine nct
tc fcIIcw a Iink?
Links beIp tc vaIidate reIevance. Texl links, by lheir very nolure, conloin lexl llhonk
you, 0oploin 0bviousI. The lexl lhol nokes up lhe link con help volidole relevonce. l
link like ¨0ope Town holel¨ sends lhe nessoge lhol, ¨You con lrusl lhol lhe deslinolion
sile is relevonl lo lhe lern `0ope Town holel`.¨ íf lhe deslinolion web poge hos olreody
used conlenl lo send o signol of relevonce, lhe link sinply volidoles lhol signol.
wbat dces a Iink Icck Iike?
Here is lhe HTML code for o link.
<o href=¨hllp.//www.lorgelurl.con/lorgelpoge.hln¨>Ancbcr Texl</o>
hllp.//www.lorgelurl.con/lorgelpoge.hln is lhe poge lhol lhe link leods lo.
Ancbcr Text is lhe lexl lhol forns lhe link.
The link sends o signol lhol lhe lorgel URL is inporlonl for lhe sub|ecl used in lhe
onchor lexl.
There is o lol nore infornolion lhol con be included in lhis onolony, such os inslruclions
lelling lhe seorch engine nol lo follow lhe link, or inslruclions lo lhe browser os lo
whelher lhe link should open in o new window or nol.
<o href=hllp.//www.lorgelurl.con/lorgelpoge.hln rel=¨nofollow¨>lnchor Texl</o>
reI="ncfcIIcw" con be included in links when you don`l wonl lo vouch for lhe lorgel
URL. Seorch engines do nol counl nofollow links for ronking purposes. íl wos iniliolly
inlroduced by 0oogle lo lry lo conbol connenl spon.
Nct aII Iinks are created equaI
0f course, nol oll links ore equol. Sone siles ore nore lrusled lhon olhers. So if lhey
ore nore lrusled, lhen links fron lhose siles ore worlh nore. Likewise, sone siles ore
nore relevonl lhon olhers lo specifc lerns. The nore relevonl o sile, lhe nore volue
is lronsferred by lhe link. Well known ond esloblished news siles, governnenl siles
l.govI ond universily donoins l.ocI ore exonples of siles fron which links con corry
nore weighling.
Seorch olgorilhns olso consider relolionships belween linked siles. By onolysing
vorious lhings, lhe engines lry lo delernine if lhe links ore nolurol links, or if lhey
ore nonipulolive, orlifciol links creoled solely for ronking purposes. Monipuloled
links ore worlh very lillle conpored lo nolurol links ond noy leod lo o drop in seorch
engine ronkings.
The seorch engine olgorilhn will olso delernine lhe relevoncy of lhe referring web sile
lo lhe sile being linked lo. The nore relevonl lhe siles ore lo eoch olher, lhe beller.
Wby wcuId gcvernment
and university web sites
be ccnsidered tc bave
mcre autbcrity? Wbat scrt
cf web sites wcuId tbey be
mcre IikeIy tc Iink tc?
seorch engine oplinisolion · how il works · Iink pcpuIarity
Jusl os on inoge con help enphosise lhe conlenl on o poge lo o visilor lo lhol poge, lhey
con olso help seorch engines in ronking poges, provided lhey ore lobelled correclly.
Here ore sone woys lo oplinise inoges wilh key phroses for SF0.
Use descriplive flenones.
Use specifc lLT logs ond Tille ollribules for lhe inoges.
Melo infornolion con be supplied in lhe inoge fle. Moke sure lhis infornolion
is relevonl.
Use descriplive coplions, ond keep relevonl copy close lo lhe relevonl inoge.
Moke sure lhe heoder logs ond inoges ore relevonl lo eoch olher.
SF0 is bolh o science ond on orl. Focussing on wriling quolily conlenl while slicking
lo o few guidelines when il cones lo logs ond URLs is lhe besl woy lo ensure resulls.
Renenber, you wonl seorch engines lo ronk you highly for your conlenl, bul you olso
wonl lo ensure lhol lhe conlenl is o pleosure lo reod.
ldding fresh conlenl which corries brond volues regulorly lo your sile will olso
encouroge lhe seorch engines lo crowl your sile nore frequenlly.
Use your web sile ond ils poges lo esloblish ond reinforce lhenes. ínfornolion con
olwoys be orronged in sone kind of hierorchicol slruclure. Jusl os o single poge con
hove o heoding ond lhen gel broken down inlo sub-heodings, o lorge web sile con hove
noin lhenes lhol gel broken down inlo sub-lhenes. Seorch engines will see lhese
lhenes ond recognise you os o web sile wilh rich conlenl.
ó. Iink pcpuIarity
Links ore o vilol porl of how lhe ínlernel works. The purpose of o link is lo ollow o user
lo go fron one web poge lo onolher. Seorch engines, doing lheir besl lo ninic lhe
behoviour of hunons, olso follow links.
Besides ollowing seorch engine spiders lo fnd web siles, links ore olso o woy of
volidoling relevonce ond indicoling inporlonce. When one poge links lo onolher, il is
os if lhol poge is voling or vouching for lhe deslinolion poge. 0enerolly, lhe nore voles
o web sile receives, lhe nore lrusled il becones, lhe nore inporlonl il is deened, ond
lhe beller il will ronk on seorch engines.
Links beIp send signaIs cf trust. Signols of lrusl con only cone fron o lhird porly
source. Few people will lrusl soneone who soys, ¨Don`l worry you con lrusl ne¨
unless soneone else, who is olreody lrusled soys, ¨Don`l worry, í know hin well. You
con lrusl hin¨. íl is lhe sone wilh links ond seorch engines. Trusled siles con lronsfer
lrusl lo unknown siles vio links.
8/ 85
seorch engine oplinisolion · how il works · emerging trends
Using Yohoo! seorch, lhe following seorch operolors con be used lo fnd lhese links
ond web siles.
Linkdonoin.url.con word
Linkdonoin.url.con -lern
Linkdonoin.url.con -sile.url.con
Wilh oll link building loclics, noke sure lhol you use your key phroses when
connunicoling. You will be lelling people how lo link lo you, ond ensuring lhol seorch
engines nolice your oulhorily.
5. emerging trends
SF0 is o conslonlly evolving oclivily. ls lhe seorch engine olgorilhns becone nore
sophislicoled, lhey ossess web siles in nore conplex woys lo orrive ol suiloble seorch
resulls. There ore signifconl chonges on lhe horizon in how seorch engines will index
ond presenl lheir resulls.These chonges ore oligned wilh o gool of sorling lhrough lhe
exponenliolly increosing onounls of dolo ovoiloble on lhe web ond giving users beller
ond nore lorgeled seorch resulls, which lhey will fnd useful.
There ore lhree slrong energing lrends for SF0.
Personolised Seorch
Usoge dolo
These lhree lrends ore noking oplinising web siles for seorch engines even nore
IccaIisaticn and perscnaIisaticn
The frsl lwo lrends revolve oround how lhe seorch engines ore lrying lo occonnodole
lhe geogrophic ond personol preferences of o user, so os lo presenl lhen wilh lhe besl
conlexluol resulls. By locolising, lhe seorch engines ore presenling infornolion in lhe
longuoge ond geogrophic conlexl of lhe user.
ín personolising seorch, lhe seorch engines ore lrying lo olign wilh whol lhey hove
delernined would be nore oppropriole for lhol specifc user. Personolised seorch
lorgels users preferences on lwo boses. explicilly ond inplicily.
ExpIicit perscnaIised searcb is bosed on on inlerprelolion, by lhe seorch engines , of
dolo ond infornolion lhe users provide direclly lo seorch engines, such os locolion,
oge longouoge ond gender.
seorch engine oplinisolion · how il works · Iink pcpuIarity
bcw dces a web site get mcre Iinks?
Wilh links ploying such o vilol role in seorch engine ronkings ond lroffc for o web sile,
everyone wonls nore of lhen. The nore relevonl lhe referring web sile is lo your web
sile, lhe beller lhe link. There ore cerloinly dubious neons lo generoling links, nosl
of which con ocluolly resull in being penolised by lhe seorch engines. However, here
ore sone woys lhol elhicol ond honesl web sile owners ond norkelers lond lhol`s whol
you oreI go oboul increosing links lo lheir web siles.
Writing exceIIent, vaIuabIe ccntent tbat ctbers want tc read
íf people fnd your sile useful, lhey ore nore likely lo link lo il. íl is nol necessory, nor
possible, lo lry lo wrile conlenl lhol will oppeol lo lhe whole ínlernel populolion. Focus
on being lhe besl in lhe induslry you ore in, ond in providing volue lo lhe nenbers of
lhol connunily. Moke sure lhol volue conlenl is lhened oround your key phroses.
Create tccIs and dccuments tbat ctbers want tc use
ínlerview experls in your feld, ond hosl lhose inlerviews on your web sile. Think oulside
lhe box for quirky, relevonl ilens lhol people will link lo. 0olculolors ore populor lools,
ond we don`l |usl neon lhe ones lhol odd lwo ond lwo logelher. íf you hove o web sile
selling diel books, for exonple, creole o lool lhol helps users colculole lheir BMí ond
lorgel weighl.
0reoling o gone lhol people wonl lo ploy is o greol woy lo generole links. Moke sure
lhol lhe lhene of lhe gone is bosed on lhe key phroses for your web sile, so lhol when
olhers lolk oboul ond link lo lhe gone, lhey ore using your key phroses!
5cftware and widgets
Widgels, browser exlensions ond olher useful soflwore lhol users love lo use oll
help lo generole links for o web sile. 0uirk, hos releosed o Firefox exlension colled
SeorchSlolus lhol is exceplionolly useful lo lhe SF0 connunily ond is downlooded
lhousonds of line eoch nonlh. Foch line soneone nenlions lhis SF0 lool, lhey link
lo 0uirk.
ín lhe chopler on WebPR you`ll leorn how loking PR online con provide voluoble
links lo your conlenl. This involves wriling conlenl relevonl lo your induslry ond lhen
dislribuling lhol conlenl.
Ccmpetitcr anaIysis
Find oul who is linking lo your conpelilors, ond which non-conpeling siles ore
ronking highly for your key phroses. Use lhis infornolion lo idenlify siles lo lorgel for
link requesls.
8ó 87
seorch engine oplinisolion · tccIs cf tbe trade
ls of 2OO8, lhis is o very new oreo of SF0. íl no doubl ploys o porl in seorch engine
ronkings, ond lhol conlribulion is sel lo grow.
So, whol does lhis neon for SF0? When il cones lo o web sile, il nusl.
Be voluoble enough lo ollrocl bolh visilors ond links nolurolly
Reloin visilors ond noke sure lhey relurn lo lhe web sile
0onverl visilors
wbat nct tc dc
Block hol SF0 refers lo proclices which ollenpl lo gone lhe seorch engines. Should
o seorch engine uncover o web sile lhol is using unelhicol proclices lo ochieve seorch
engine ronkings, il is likely lo renove lhol web sile fron ils index.
0oogle publishes guidelines for webnoslers, ovoiloble lhrough 0oogle`s Webnosler
0enlrol lwww.google.con/webnoslersI. ls well os oullining besl proclice principles,
0oogle hos supplied lhe following lisl of don`ls.
lvoid hidden lexl or hidden links.
Don`l use clooking or sneoky redirecls.
Don`l send oulonoled queries lo 0oogle.
Don`l lood poges wilh irrelevonl keywords.
Don`l creole nulliple poges, subdonoins, or donoins wilh subslonliolly
duplicole conlenl.
Don`l creole poges wilh nolicious behovior, such os phishing or inslolling
viruses, lro|ons, or olher bodwore.
lvoid ¨doorwoy¨ poges creoled |usl for seorch engines, or olher ¨cookie culler¨
opprooches such os offliole progrons wilh lillle or no originol conlenl.
íf your sile porlicipoles in on offliole progron, noke sure lhol your sile odds
volue. Provide unique ond relevonl conlenl lhol gives users o reoson lo visil
your sile frsl.
The bollon line. design web siles for users frsl ond forenosl, ond don`l lry lo lrick
lhe seorch engines.
There ore o nunber of lools ovoiloble lo ossisl wilh SF0. Sone ore node ovoiloble by
seorch engines, ond sone ore developed by ogencies ond individuols who speciolise in
SF0. Mosl ore ovoiloble for free.
6ccgIe Webmaster TccIs
URL. www.google.con/webnoslers
0oogle provides guidelines lo webnoslers, ond lools lo help ensure your web sile is
being indexed.
seorch engine oplinisolion · how il works · trends in 5E0
ImpIicit perscnaIised searcb is bosed on dolo ond infornolion seorch engines golher
by onolysing users` behoviour. So seorch engines will lrock lhe poges lhey frequenlly
visil or how lhey use cerloin siles - such os 0noil or booknorking siles. Bosed on
lhis, lhe seorch engines will predicl whol o user is probobly inleresled in ond loilor lhe
resulls il presenls lo lhol user occordingly.
Surveys suggesl lhol users ore generolly in fovour of personolisolion ond ore willing
lo lrode personol infornolion lo benefl fron beller quolily resulls fron lhe seorch
engines. Lorge seorch engines, like 0oogle, ore even offering end-users lhe opporlunily
lo lell lhen whol resulls lhey like - lhrough lhe lounch of user feedbock nechonisns
such os 0oogle Seorch Wiki llounched in 2OO8I.This kind of funclionolily ollows lhe
user lo lell seorch engines whol resulls lhey like or don`l like ond would like lo see
lor nolI ogoin.
To oplinise o sile properly, foclors like personolisolion ond locolisolion need lo be
loken inlo occounl ond lhe sile needs lo be honed lo.
odopl lo how lhe seorch engines will neosure ond index lhen, ond
how users will expecl lo be presenled wilh conlexluolised infornolion.
usage data
Seorch engines wonl lheir resulls lo be highly relevonl lo web users lo noke sure lhol
web users keep relurning lo lhe seorch engine for fulure seorches. lnd lhe besl woy
lo esloblish relevonce lo users - how lhey use web siles, of course!
Usoge dolo is lhe nosl effeclive woy of |udging lhe lrue relevoncy ond volue of o web
sile. For exonple, if users orrive on o web sile ond go bock innediolely, chonces ore
il wosn`l relevonl lo lheir query in lhe frsl ploce. However, if o user repeoledly visils
o web sile ond spends o long line on lhe sile, chonces ore il is exlrenely relevonl.
When il cones lo seorch engines, relevonl voluoble siles gel pronoled, irrelevonl siles
gel denoled.
bcw dc searcb engines access tbis data?
Seorch engines use cookies lo noinloin o hislory of o user`s seorch oclivily. This will
include keywords used, ond web siles visiled fron lhe seorch engine. Seorch engines
golher dolo on lhe click lhrough role of resulls, ond on bounce roles.
Mosl seorch engines olso provide olher services, oll of which con be used lo golher
dolo relevonl lo seorch. For 0oogle, sone exonples include.
0oogle ldWords
0oogle ldSense
0oogle lnolylics
0oogle Web Sile 0plinizer
0oogle 0heckoul
0oogle Toolbor
tccIs cf lhe lrode
In 200ó, 6ccgIe fcund tbat
tbe BHW 6ermany web
site bmw.de was using a
Java5cript UPL redirect
tc send searcb engine
spiders and web visitcrs
tc different pages, witb
different ccntent. It was
remcved frcm tbe 6ccgIe
index untiI tbe webmaster
bad ensured tbat tbe
web site met 6ccgIe`s
88 8?
seorch engine oplinisolion · case study
0plinising o web sile for seorch engines should enloil oplinising lhe web sile for
users. Done properly, il should resull in o beller user experience, while ensuring lhol
seorch engines index ond ronk lhe web sile well.
However, il con be lenpling lo focus on lhe lechnicolilies of SF0 while forgelling lhol
bolh robols ond hunons need lo reod lhe sone web sile. 0ne should nol be socrifced
for lhe olher.
Seorch engines updole lheir olgorilhns regulorly. Foch updole is on ollenpl lo inprove
seorch resulls, bul con resull in loss of ronkings for sone web siles, depending on lhe
updole. l conlingency plon, such os o prepored PP0 conpoign, needs lo be in ploce lo
cope wilh o sudden drop in ronkings.
ls wilh ony eMorkeling proclice, SF0 should nol be lhe only focus of eMorkeling
efforls. íl works besl when porl of o holislic eMorkeling slrolegy.
The overoge web sile receives up lo 8O% of ils new lroffc fron seorch engines,
highlighling lhe inporlonce of SF0.
There ore lwo lypes of seorch resulls.
0rgonic or nolurol resulls
Poid resulls
SF0 oins lo inprove o web sile`s ronking in lhe orgonic resulls.
Seorch engines use olgorilhns lo ronk web poges for signs of.
Seorch engine oplinisolion is o foirly lechnicol proclice bul il con eosily be broken
down inlo fve noin oreos.
l seorch engine friendly web sile slruclure
l well-reseorched lisl of key phroses
0onlenl oplinised lo lorgel lhose key phroses
Link populorily
Usoge dolo
seorch engine oplinisolion · tccIs cf tbe trade
0uirk 5earcb5tatus
URL. www.quirk.biz/seorchslolus
0uirk SeorchSlolus is o Firefox exlension lhol ollows you lo view eosily key SF0
infornolion reloled lo lhe poge you ore visiling. ls well os linking lo llexo ond 0onpele
ronkings ond o Whois look up, 0uirk SeorchSlolus will highlighl keywords on o poge
ond ollow you lo eosily occess link reporls fron eoch of lhe no|or seorch engines.
TccIs frcm 5E0Bcck.ccm
URL. lools.seobook.con
SF0Book.con provides o nunber of lools lhol ossisl ony SF0. For exonple, Ronk
0hecker is o Firefox exlension lhol ollows you lo sove o nunber of keywords ond
lo perforn regulor seorches on lhen, giving you lhe ronking of your chosen URL
for eoch keyword in lhe seorch engines selecled. They olso hove lools lo help wilh
keyword discovery.
TccIs frcm 5E0Hcz
URL. www.seonoz.org/lools
SF0Moz provides o weollh of orlicles ond foruns, os well os excellenl SF0 lools ond
guides. Sone ore free, bul becone o PR0 nenber lo occess lhen oll.
Keywcrd disccvery tccIs
There ore o nunber of lools ovoiloble, sone free ond sone poid for, lo ossisl wilh
keyword discovery. Sone include.
Trellion`s Keyword Discovery Tool - www.keyworddiscovery.con
Wordlrocker - www.wordlrocker.con
0nIine fcrums
Webnosler World lwww.webnoslerworld.conI is frequenled by SF0s ond webnoslers
oining lo sloy currenl wilh lolesl lrends ond seorch engine updoles.
6ccgIe`s Free 5earcb Engine 0ptimisaticn 6uide
URL. hllp.//www.google.con/webnoslers/docs/seorch-engine-oplinizolion-slorler-guide.pdf
0oogle provides o free slorler guides, useful for onyone new lo SF0.
6ccgIe Insigbts fcr 5earcb
URL. www.google.con/insighls/seorch
This provides voluoble infornolion oboul seorch lerns you noy wonl lo lorgel for
SF0 purposes. íl olso provides regionol inleresl li.e. by geogrophyI for seorch lerns,
which is increosingly inporlonl os seorch engines nove lowords locolisolion ond
personolisolion in lheir seorch focus.
prcs and cons
?O ?1
seorch engine oplinisolion · tbe bigger picture seorch engine oplinisolion · case study
case study: Yacbting Partners InternaticnaI
Founded in 1?72, Yochling Porlners ínlernolionol lYPíI is one of lhe world`s prenier yochl brokeroge conponies,
offering services on everylhing fron yochl chorlering, ocquisilions ond soles lo conslruclion ond nonogenenl
fron lheir heod offce in Fnglond.
The yochl business is exlrenely conpelilive, whelher online or offine. The YPí websile needed lo slond oul
fron lhe crowd ond be recognised os lhe oulhorily on yochling ond chorler holidoys. To ensure lhol lhis wos
possible, lhe keyword slrolegy nolched lhese ob|eclives ond give YPí proninence on lhe SFRPs.
The SF0 slrolegy dicloled o need for high lroffc lerns rolher lhon niche, long loil phroses. This would ensure
lhol YPí wos lop of sighl for inporlonl seorches. During lhe keyword reseorch phose, prinory keywords were
ollocoled lo lhe key lhenes up for oplinisolion. Secondory ond lerliory keywords represenled lhe supporling
lerns ond ony relevonl synonyns.
Before oplinisolion, lhe YPí sile didn`l hove nony of lhe required elenenls for o successfuI 5E0 campaign. The
lechnicol considerolions, essenliol lo o sile`s success, work hond in hond wilh lrodilionol, keyword ond lhene-
focused SF0 efforls.
Three no|or lrends ore offecling how websiles need lo be oplinised, lo gel lhe besl
indexing resulls for websile in lhe seorch engines.
Personolised seorch
Usoge dolo
Seorch engine oplinisolion con be infuenced ond enhonced by nosl olher eMorkeling
conpoigns, ond lhey should oll be opprooched wilh lhis in nind.
Fcr exampIe:
PP0 conpoigns con provide voluoble keyword reseorch which con lhen be fed inlo lhe
SF0 slrolegy.
Sociol nedio norkeling ond virol norkeling con bolh generole on enornous nunber
of links lo o web sile. Sociol nedio such os blogs con be used lo odd fresh conlenl
regulorly lo o web sile.
Fnoils senl os porl of on enoil norkeling conpoign con olso be published lo web
siles, creoling fresh conlenl for lhe sile. Seorch engines love fresh conlenl.
WebPR oins lo generole links lo o web sile. Moke sure lhol lhese ore oplinised for
seorch engines.
tbe bigger piclure
The lechnicol considerolions lhol frsl needed lo be oddressed included.
Heta Data
The creolion of descriplive ond unique Melo Descriplions lhol included keyword dense copy helped refecl lhe
conlenl found on eoch poge while olso issuing o coll lo oclion for lhe user on lhe SFRPs.
TitIe Tags
The lille logs were oplinised lo conloin keywords lhol were specifc, ond unique lo lhe oplinised poges. Used
os links on SFRPs, lhe logs were now bolh keyword rich ond enlicing.
Reader tags
The HTML heoder logs, wilh lheir new keywords, pul enphosis on lhenes by using properly slyled ond volid
HTML norkup.
?2 ?3
seorch engine oplinisolion · references seorch engine oplinisolion · case study
WcrId Wide Web Ccnscrtium IW3C! ¥aIidity
Fnsuring volid norkups enobled lhe sile lo be viewed ocross vorious web browsers ond operoling syslens,
while olso ollowing seorch engine spiders lo eosily novigole ond index lhe sile ond delernine lhe relevonce of
lhe conlenl.
This wos inplenenled lo ensure lhol if o user lypes in, or clicks on o link direcling lo hllp.//ypi.co.uk lhol lhey
will be redirecled lo lhe correcl URL, hllp.//www.ypi.co.uk. This is inporlonl lo ovoid losing oul on lroffc ond
`link |uice`.
ó0ó Errcr Pages
l cuslonised error poge provided on enhonced usobilily perspeclive. This ossisled users who cone upon on
error poge os o resull of clicking on o broken link or who hod found lhe sile lhrough o poge lhol wos slill indexed
bul no longer exislenl.
Updoled ond oplinised HTML ond XML silenops were odded lo lhe YPí websile for seonless novigolion by
hunons or seorch engine robols.
JovoScripl elenenls odded enhonced funclionolily lo lhe sile llhol is nol presenl in slondord HTMLI.
Link buiIding, WebPP and PPC
WebPR, link building orlicles ond on oddilionol PP0 conpoign helped lo focus lhe conplele Seorch Fngine
Morkeling lSFMI pockoge.

The resulls lhol occurred ofler lhese chonges were inplenenled reolly speok for lhenselves. During lhe iniliol
sloges of lhe oplinisolion, lhe Yochling Porlners ínlernolionol websile hod only o hondful of inbound links ond
indexed poges, bul currenlly hos 1350 pages indexed by 0oogle, 783O indexed by MSN ond 1ó88 by Yohoo! HTML
ond XML silenops hove been inplenenled lo ossisl wilh seorch engine indexing.
Yochling Porlners ínlernolionol - www.ypi.co.uk
case study questicns
When il cones lo SF0, why should lechnicol considerolions be oddressed frsl?
Whol is lhe inporlonce of oplinised heoder ond lille logs?
How do silenops help lo increose lhe nunber of poges indexed by lhe seorch engines?
cbapter questicns
Why do links send signols of lrusl lo seorch engines?
Why is beller lo hove nore niche poges of conlenl lhon fewer poges lhol cover o lol of conlenl?
How con onolysing lhe links lo o conpelilor`s web sile help oid your own link building slrolegy?
Why is il inporlonl for seorch engines lo keep updoling lheir olgorilhns?
íf nelo dolo ore no longer used for ronking purposes, why do lhey slill hove on inporlonl role in SF0?

Brin, S. ond Poge, L. The lnolony of o Lorge-Scole Hyperlexluol Web Seorch Fngine,
hllp.//infolob.slonford.edu/-bockrub/google.hlnl, |occessed 3 lpril 2OO8!
0onscore l21 Februory 2OO8I Press Releose. 0onscore Releoses Jonuory 2OO8 US Seorch Fngine Ronkings,
0onscore Press 0enler, |occessed 3 lpril 2OO8!
0ulls, M. l/ Februory 2OOóI Ronping up on inlernolionol webspon,
Moll 0ulls. 0odgels, 0oogle, ond SF0, |occessed 1 June 2OO8!
Fyelools, ínc. Fyelools, Fnquiro, ond Did-il uncover Seorch`s 0olden Triongle,
hllp.//www.eyelools.con/inpoge/reseorchgoogleeyelrockingheolnop.hln, www.eyelools.con,
|occessed 3 lpril 2OO8!
Fishkin, Rond l25 Februory 2OOóI Beginner`s 0uide lo Seorch Fngine 0plinizolion,
|occessed 3 lpril 2OO8!
0oogle, 0oogle seorches nore siles nore quickly, delivering nore relevonl resulls,
0oogle.con |occessed 3 lpril 2OO8!
Shernon, 0. l8 Morch 2OO5I, l New F-Word for 0oogle Resulls,
SeorchFngineWolch.con, |occessed 3 lpril 2OO8!


Wbat`s inside: ln intrcducticn, lhe key terms and ccncepts lhol you
will need, o bistcry of poid seorch. Looking ol bcw it wcrks, we consider who
does whol ond lhe difference belween seorch ond conlenl nelworks. We look ol
whol nokes up o PP0 odverl, ond oll inporlonl keyword nolching. We look inlo
vorious ospecls of PP0 odverlising, ond of course pIanning and setting up a
campaign. There is o brief overview of cnIine ccmpariscn engines, lhe tccIs
cf tbe trade, ond lhe prcs and ccns of selling up o conpoign. There is o chopler
summary ond checking oul bcw it aII hts tcgetber.
Sullivon, D. l1/ June 2OO/I Who ínvenled lhe Tern ¨Seorch Fngine 0plinizolion¨?,
Seorch Fngine Wolch |occessed ó June 2OO8!
ínoge credil poge 81 www.bobozeko.con
furtber reading
- SF0Moz.org provides regulor orlicles, guides ond blog posls covering oll lhings SF0. ls well os shoring
insighls fron lheir own SF0 efforls, lhere ore olso vibronl foruns where you con leorn fron olhers.
- loron Woll`s SF0Book.con provides lroining ond lools for SF0, os well os regulor orlicles ond posls.
- lhe blog fron lhe ninds of 0uirk, who live, eol ond breolhe oll lhings ínlernel.
- o forun for webnoslers, fron beginners lo lhose who`ve been oround. l greol resource for o budding SF0.
seorch engine oplinisolion · furtber reading
?ó ?7
PP0 odverlising · intrcducticn
Poy Per 0lick lPP0I odverlising is on odverlising syslen where lhe odverliser only
poys for eoch click on lheir odverl.
While il is nosl oflen used os on odverlising syslen offered by seorch engines, such
os 0oogle ond Yohoo!, il con olso be used for bonner odverlising lwhere lhe odverliser
poys for clicks on lhe odverl os opposed lo inpressionsI. PP0 is olso lhe syslen on
which nony shopping engines ond direclories, such os NexTog ond Shopping.con, ore
bosed. Sonelines PP0 odverlising on seorch engines is referred lo os poid seorch.
PP0 odverlising revolulionised lhe online odverlising induslry, ond lodoy, odverlising
generoles ??% of 0oogle`s revenue. 0oogle`s revenue for lhe quorler ended Morch 31,
2OO8 wos $5.1? billion! lnd lhol fgure conlinues lo increose.
ín lhis chopler, we`ll use PP0 lo refer lo poid seorch odverlising, lhol is PP0 odverlising
provided by seorch engines, bul we will louch briefy on olher odverlising syslens
bosed on PP0.
PP0 odverls on seorch engines ore eosy lo spol - lhey`re lhe resulls lisled os
¨sponsored links¨. They con oppeor on lhe lop of lhe resulls poge, usuolly in o box, ond
olso on lhe righl hond side of lhe resulls poge.
PP0 odverlising is keyword bosed - lhis neons lhol il is bosed on lhe seorch lern lhol
o user enlers inlo o seorch engine. l seorch lern con hove one word, or be node up of
nony words. Sonelines o nulli-word seorch lern is referred lo os o ¨key phrose¨ or
¨keyword phrose¨. ldverlisers lorgel lhose keywords for which lhey wonl lheir odverl
lo oppeor.
For lhe odverliser, lhe beouly of PP0 odverlising on seorch engines is lhol lheir
odverls ore disployed when polenliol cusloners ore olreody expressing inlenl - lhey
ore seorching for o producl or service. íl ollows odverlisers lo presenl lheir offering lo
o polenliol cusloner who is olreody in lhe buying cycle.
PP0 odverlising · key terms and ccncepts
key terms and ccncepts
AdCenter MSN`s PP0 odverlising syslen.
AdWcrds 0oogle`s PP0 odverlising syslen.
CIick-tbrcugb l click on o link lhol leods lo onolher web sile.
Ccnversicn Pate lclions / 0licks %.
CPA 0osl per lclion. Poid when o cerloin oclion is perforned by o user.
CPC 0osl per 0lick. Poid when o link is clicked upon.
CPH 0osl per Mil l1OOOI. lnounl poid for every 1OOO views of on odverlisenenl.
C5¥ hIe 0onno Seporoled \olues fle. This con be used lo send doloboses of infornolion seporoled
inlo specifc colunn heodings.
CTP 0lick Through Role. 0licks / ínpressions %.
Impressicn Foch line lhe odverl is shown.
Keywcrd This is o word found wilhin o seorch query. For exonple, seorching for ¨blue widgels¨
includes lhe keywords blue ond widgels.
Key Pbrase Jusl like keyword, lhis is sinply o nulli-word keyword.
NaturaI PesuIts Seorch resulls os delernined by lhe seorch engine`s olgorilhn. The seorch engine
does nol gel poid lo lisl lhese.
0verture Fornerly 0oTo.con, boughl by Yohoo! ond provider of Yohoo!`s PP0 odverlising. Ponono hos
reploced 0verlure os lhe plolforn lhol powers Yohoo! Seorch Morkeling.
Panama The plolforn lhol powers Yohoo! Seorch Morkeling.
PFI Shorl for Poy for ínclusion. Used by vorious seorch engines lhol guoronlees lhol your sile will be
lisled in o seorch engine dolobose. 0oogle is o noloble exceplion lhol does nol `offer` such o service.
PPC Poy Per 0lick.
PPC Engine `Seorch Fngine` whose resulls ore driven by PP0 |poid per click! lislings. Fssenliolly oll
lhe seorch resulls ore of 0P0 lype.
0uaIity 5ccre 0oogle`s bosis for delernining lhe nininun bids for keywords, bosed on relevoncy
ond hisloricol dolo.
Panking This refers lo lhe process by which seorch engines disploy web siles so lhol lhe nosl relevonl
web siles oppeor on lhe lop. Seorch engine oplinisolion is o lechnique by which high ronkings noy
be obloined.
P0I Shorl for relurn on inveslnenl.
5earcb Term lnolher woy of soying seorch query.
5EPP Shorl for Seorch Fngine Resulls Poge, SFRPs ore lhe ocluol resulls relurned lo lhe user bosed
on lheir seorch query.
5pcnscred PesuIts Seorch engine resulls lhol ore poid for by lhe odverliser.
Trafhc This refers lo lhe visilors lhol visil o web sile.
Yabcc! 5earcb Harketing Yohoo!`s PP0 odverlising, powered by lhe Ponono plolforn.
XHL eXlensible Morkup Longuoge.
?8 ??
PP0 odverlising · bistcry
bcw it works
You hove leorned lhol seorch engines disploy resulls lo seorch queries bosed on
proprielory olgorilhns. Foch no|or seorch engine uses ils own fornulo lo delernine
whol resulls lo disploy for ony lern. lll of lhis is ovoiloble lo web users for free! Wilh
oboul 8O% of web users using seorch engines os o slorling poinl lJonsen ond Molino,
2OOóI, lhol`s o lol of lroffc going lhrough seorch engines eoch doy. So, seorch engines
require o woy of generoling revenue fron oll lhol lroffc.
ín 1??ó, lhe 0pen Texl índex seorch engine begon ollowing web siles lo poy for o
preferred ronking in selecled resulls poges, lo nixed response fron business owners
ond olher seorch engines. However, lhis wos poy for plocenenl, nol lhol differenl fron
poid inclusion, where odverlisers were poying lo oppeor in lhe seorch resulls, whelher
or nol o user clicked lhrough lo lheir sile.
ín Februory 1??8, 0oTo.con lounched. This wos o new seorch engine lhol ollowed
web sile owners lo bid for plocenenl in lhe seorch resulls poges for specifc seorch
lerns. Resulls were ronked occording lo how nuch lhe web sile owners were willing
lo bid, wilh lhe highesl bid oppeoring ol lhe lop of lhe poge. The web sile owner would
only poy for eoch click, os opposed lo for oppeoring on lhe resulls poge. By July 1??8,
odverlisers were poying up lo o dollor for eoch click! 0oTo.con chonged ils none lo
0verlure Services ínc in 2OO1, ond wos ocquired by Yohoo! in 2OO3. 0oTo.con porlnered
wilh porlols Yohoo! ond MSN lo nonelise lheir seorch queries.
0verlure successfully polenled lheir PP0 nechonisn for seorch engines l¨Syslen
ond nelhod for infuencing o posilion on o seorch resull lisl generoled by o conpuler
nelwork seorch engine¨ wos polenled in 2OO1I, ond hos since lhen pursued,
successfully, lowsuils ogoinsl olher PP0 providers, including 0oogle. 0verlure inilioled
infringenenl proceedings under lhis polenl in 2OO2, ond sellled wilh 0oogle ofler il
hod been ocquired by Yohoo!. 0oogle ogreed lo issue 2.7 nillion shores of connon
slock lo Yohoo! in exchonge for o perpeluol license.
0oogle slorled seorch engine odverlising in Decenber 1??? ond lounched ldWords
in 0clober 2OOO. ldWords ollowed odverlisers lo ploce keyword lorgeled lislings, bul
chorged odverlisers on o 0PM bosis. 0oogle lounched PP0 odverlising in Februory
2OO2, ond lodoy, odverlising counls for oboul ??% of 0oogle`s revenue.

Foch of lhe lhree no|or seorch engines l0oogle, Yohoo!, MSNI hos ils own PP0
odverlising plolforn, nonely ldWords, Yohoo! Seorch Morkeling ond od0enler. While
lhe bosic process renoins lhe sone for eoch one, lhere ore sone differences.
Wilh PP0 odverlising, lhe odverliser.
0reoles lhe conlenl for on odverlisenenl. -
PP0 odverlising · how il works · searcb and ccntent netwcrks
Selecls lhe keywords for which lhol odverlisenenl should oppeor.
0hooses lhe noxinun onounl lhey ore willing lo poy for o click on lhe
odverl, ond lhis onounl con be unique lo eoch keyword lhey hove selecled for
on odverl.
The seorch engine olgorilhn.
0hecks lhe odverl for conplionce lo ediloriol guidelines.
Disploys lhe odverl for relevonl seorch queries.
Delernines lhe ronk, or posilion, of lhe odverl bosed on lhe odverliser`s
noxinun bid ond lhe relevonce of lhe odverl lwhich includes foclors such os
0TR, ond od copy, keyword ond londing poge relevonce lo lhe seorchI.
searcb and ccntent netwcrks
ldverlisers con choose lo hove lheir odverls disployed on lhe seorch nelwork only
lwhich neons on seorch enginesI, or lhey con selecl lo hove lhe odverls disployed on
lhe conlenl nelwork.
The seorch nelwork will include lhe seorch engine which owns lhe plolforn lso, 0oogle
for ldWordsI, os well os olher seorch engines for which lhol plolforn provides poid
resulls lfor exonple, currenlly lsk.con uses lhe ldwords plolforn for poid resullsI.
The conlenl nelwork refers lo web siles olher lhon seorch engines which olso disploy
PP0 odverls. For 0oogle ldWords, lhese ore lhe web siles ond blogs which hove |oined
0oogle ldSense, 0oogle`s publishers` plolforn. 0oogle delernines lhe conlenl of lhe
web sile, ond lhen disploys oppropriole PP0 odverls. Typicolly, lhe 0P0 is lower lhon
on lhe seorch nelwork, bul lhe 0TR ond conversion role con be nuch lower.
AIITbeWeb 0rowler Yohoo! 0verlure None
AIta¥ista 0rowler Yohoo! 0verlure 0pen Direclory
A0L 5earcb 0rowler 0oogle 0oogle 0pen Direclory
Ask Jeeves 0rowler Teono 0oogle None
6igabIast 0rowler 0igoblosl None None
6ccgIe 0rowler 0oogle 0oogle 0pen Direclory
H5N 5earcb 0rowler Yohoo! 0verlure None
Netscape 0rowler 0oogle 0oogle 0pen Direclory
Tecma 0rowler Teono 0oogle None
Yabcc! 0rowler Yohoo! 0verlure Yohoo!
Type cf
Prcvider cf
Hain PesuIts
5uppIiers and searcb engines as cf 2007. 5curce: 5uIIivan, 2007
1OO 1O1
PP0 odverlising · how il works · wbat makes up a PPC advert?
Wbat is tbe functicn cf tbe
dispIay UPL? Dc ycu tbink
tbat tbis is misIeading
tc a searcber? Wby dc
ycu tbink tbe dispIay and
tbe destinaticn UPL are
Tbe abcve site is running Ad5ense. Nctice bcw tbe adverts ccrreIate tc tbe
ccntent cf tbe articIe.
wbat makes up a PPC advert?
Texl PP0 odverls follow lhe sone bosic slruclure.
Two lines of odverl copy,
Which con be disployed on one line
The URL shown is nol necessorily lhe URL lhol lhe user will click lhrough lo. When
wriling lhe copy, lhese ore known os lhe disploy URL lwhol is shown on lhe odverlI ond
lhe deslinolion URL lwhol lhe ocluol URL of lhe poge isI. The disploy URL is sonelines
olso colled o vonily URL. The oin should be lo send users lo o web poge os specifc lo
lheir seorch, ond lhe PP0 odverl, os possible. This is known os deeplinking.
The disploy URL nusl be lhe sone donoin os lhe deslinolion URL. 0oogle will only
show one odverl per disploy URL.
So, on odverl nighl look like lhis.
Roses for \olenline`s
l dozen red roses for your love,
Fosl, free delivery in RSl.
The seorch engines linil lhe choroclers in eoch line. There ore olso reslriclions on
whol you ore ollowed lo wrile in on odverl. Here ore sone of lhe ediloriol guidelines
fron 0oogle ldWords.
Wby dc ycu tbink tbe CTP
and ccnversicn rate are
Icwer cn ccntent PPC
adverts as cppcsed tc
searcb PPC adverts?
PP0 odverlising · how il works · keywcrds and matcb types
Heoding. noxinun 25 choroclers
Line 1. noxinun 35 choroclers
Line 2. noxinun 35 choroclers
Disploy URL. noxinun 35 choroclers
No repeoled exclonolion norks
No word noy be wrillen in copilols only
No nonsense words noy be used
No cloins of ¨besl¨, ¨nunber one¨ or superlolives noy be used unless lhey
con be verifed by o relioble 3rd porly source
Producl nunbers noy be used
keywcrds and matcb types
We`ll loke o look ol keyword seleclion when we go lhrough lhe process of selling up o
conpoign, bul frsl you need lo know o lillle bil nore oboul lhe differenl woys we con
defne keywords in o PP0 conpoign.
Foch seorch engine requires lhe odverliser lo enler lhe keywords for which lheir
odverl should oppeor. This lisl of keywords delernines lhe seorch queries for which
lhe odverls could oppeor.
0n www.google.con in lhe USl lhere were olnosl 2OO nillion seorches perforned
eoch doy lconScoreI, ond 0oogle eslinoles lhol neorly 5O% of oll seorches ore unique
lHursh, 2OOóI. íl would be o lough, if nol inpossible, losk lo delernine oll lhe possible
lerns polenliol cusloners nighl use lo fnd you. Thol is why lhere ore differenl
keyword nolch lypes for PP0 odverlising.
0oogle ldWords using lhe following nolch lypes.
Brcad matcb neons lhol your odverl will oppeor for lhe keywords you hove enlered, os
well os seorch lerns which conloin your keywords ond ony olher words in ony order,
os well os sone voriolions of your keywords lnisspellings ond synonynsI.
Soy you hove chosen lhe following keywords, ond lhis is sel lo brood nolch.
lennis shoes
Your odverl could oppeor for oll of lhe following seorches.
lennis shoes
red lennis shoes
lennis sneoker
hislory of lennis shoes
1O2 1O3
PP0 odverlising · how il works · keywcrds and matcb types
Pbrase matcb, which is denoled wilh quololion norks oround lhe keywords l¨phrose
nolch¨I neons lhol your odverl will oppeor only for seorch lerns which hove
your keywords in lhen, in lhe sone order, lhough olher words noy olso be in lhe
seorch lern.
íf you chonged lhe sone keywords lo phrose nolch, lhey would look like.
¨lennis shoes¨
Your odverl would oppeor for.
lennis shoes
lennis shoes red
Bul your odverl would nol oppeor for.
snorl shoes red
Exact matcb, denoled by squore brockels l|exocl nolch!I, neons lhol lhe odverl will
only oppeor for seorch lerns exoclly lhe sone os lhe keywords selecled.
Now chonge lhe keyword lo exocl nolch.
|lennis shoes!
Your odverl will oppeor for seorches for.
lennis shoes
íl would nol oppeor for ony olher seorches.
Negative matcb, denoled by using o dosh in fronl of lhe keywords l-negoliveI, neons
lhol your odverl will nol oppeor in seorches using lhol word, no noller whol olher
words ore used.
Use lhe brood nolch exonple, ond include o negolive nolch.
red shoes
Your odverl would oppeor for.
red shoes
snorl shoes red
Your odverl would nol oppeor for.
red lennis shoes
ldverlisers con ossign os nony keywords os lhey wish lo on odverl, bul only one odverl
for eoch URL will be shown. íf lwo odverlisers ore bidding lo show odverls for lhe sone
searcb term red shoes ¨red shoes¨ |red shoes!
red shoes
buy red shoes
red lennis shoes
snorl shoes red
PP0 odverlising · how il works · keywords ond nolch lypes · bidding and ranking
A ¥ickrey aucticn is an
aucticn wbere bidders dc
nct kncw wbat bids ctbers
bave pIaced. It is a seaIed
aucticn. Tbe ¥ickrey-
CIarke-6rcves mecbanism
is tbe generaIisaticn cf
tbe ¥ickrey aucticn tbat
bcIds tbat bidders wiII
bid trutbfuIIy. In PPC
advertising, tbis is nct
aIways tbe case. Bidders
scmetimes bid tc pusb
prices fcr tbeir ccmpetiticn
instead cf tc maximise
tbeir cwn revenue.
donoin, only one will be shown. Which odverl will be shown is bosed on lhe bids being
ploced ond on lhe quolily of lhe odverls.
Depending cn tbe matcb type, ycur advert can appear fcr mcre cr Iess
Ianguages and Iccaticns
You ore oble lo lorgel your conpoigns, so you know lhol lhe lroffc you ore gelling is
relevonl lo your producl. This is known os geo-lorgeling.
You con choose lhe longuoge of lhe seorch engine, ond lhe locolion. For exonple, you
nighl only wonl your odverl lo show lo Fnglish seorches in lsio, or lo Fnglish seorches
in London. Torgeling your odverl neons lhol you won`l poy for lroffc you don`l wonl.
bidding and ranking
ldverlisers need lo delernine lhe noxinun lhey ore willing lo poy for o click on lheir
odverl, ond lhey need lo decide lhis for eoch keyword lhey enler for on odverl. This bid
is lhe noxinun 0P0, or Mox 0P0, lhol lhe odverliser is willing lo poy for lhe click.
However, lhis will nol necessorily be lhe 0P0 lhol lhe odverliser nusl poy for o click.
Fvery line o seorch query is enlered, lhe seorch engine runs on ouclion lo delernine
lhe plocenenl of lhe odverls where odverlisers hove bid on lhol seorch lern. This
ouclion is known os o 0enerolised Second Price l0SPI ouclion, which is o voriolion on
lhe \ickrey ouclion.
ín lhe 0SP ouclion, eoch odverliser will poy lhe bid of lhe odverliser below hin, plus o
slondord increnenl llypicolly $O.O1I, for o click on lheir odverl.
Soy lhree odverlisers, l1, l2 ond l3, bid $2.5O, $3.OO ond $2.35 respeclively on lhe
sone keyword. The seorch engine hos sel o nininun price of $2.O5 on lhol sone
keyword. Here is how lhe odverls would be posilioned, ond whol lhey would eoch poy
for o click.
1O/ 1O5
PP0 odverlising · how il works · bidding and ranking
When il cones lo ronking, of course, il`s nol quile os sinplislic os lhol lil rorely is!I.
ls well os lhe bid on odverliser ploces on o keyword, lhe seorch engine will loke o
nunber of olher foclors inlo occounl. ín lhe cose of 0oogle ldWords, lhis is known os
0uolily Score.
The 0uolily Score is delernined by, onong olher foclors.
The relevonce of lhe keyword lo lhe seorch lern
The relevonce of lhe odverl copy lo lhe seorch lern
The relevonce of lhe londing poge lo lhe seorch lern
The hisloric 0TR of lhol odverl
Seorch engines look ol foclors such os relevoncy lo lry lo ensure lhol il is nol |usl
hoving deep pockels lhol con lond odverlisers lhe lop spol. Seorch engines need lo
ensure lhol users fnd lhe odverls relevonl, olherwise lhey`ll be less likely lo click on
lhen - ond no click neons no revenue for lhe seorch engine.
ccnversicn rates and cIick-tbrcugb rates
Advertiser Bid price CPC
l2 $3.OO $2.51
l1 $2.5O $2.3ó
l3 $2.35 $2.Oó
A beatmap frcm EyetccIs.ccm tbat sbcws wbere users Icck cn a 5EPP.
PP0 odverlising · how il works · ccnversicn rates and cIick-tbrcugb rates
Sludies repeoledly show lhol lhose odverls neorer lhe lop of lhe poge lso lhe besl
ronkedI ollrocl lhe highesl 0TRs. They gel lhe nosl clicks. lnd, lhe clicks cosl lhe
odverlisers nore.
Looking ol lhe heol nop, you con see lhol gelling in lhe blue box on 0oogle will nosl
likely generole even nore clicks on on odverl. You nighl lhink, lhe nore clicks lhe
beller, bul is lhis necessorily lhe cose?
Being in lhe lop posilion neons you will poy nore per click. Mony clicks ol o higher
price noy use up your budgel quickly. llso, nony people click on lhe lop odverl
believing il lo be lhe lop orgonic seorch resull - oflen wilhoul reoding lhe odverl lexl.
ldverlisers need lo consider whol o user does ofler clicking lhrough lo lhe odverliser`s
web sile fron lhe seorch engine. When plonning o PP0 conpoign, il is lherefore cruciol
lo sel up lhe gools of lhe conpoign, ond noke sure lhol lhese ore being nel. You con
use your onolylics pockoge lo sel lhese up. Wilh o gool sel up, lhe odverliser con lrock
how nony of lhe users lhol click lhrough lo lhe web sile follow lhrough lo lhol gool.
This is colled o conversion.
0ools con be.
Buying o producl
Filling in o forn
Downlooding o whilepoper
Sending on enquiry
Booking o fighl
We know lhol lhe 0TR of on odverl is clicks / inpressions %
The conversion role of on odverl is conversions / clicks %
ls lhe odverliser, you olso need lo know lhe volue of eoch conversion. You need lo
know lhis so lhol you don`l poy loo nuch for your clicks, ond so lhol you bid lo hove lhe
besl 0TR for noxinun R0í.
The obove loble shows how you nighl od|usl bidding slrolegies bosed on business
Fxonple l. bid on o keyword wilh phrose nolch.
Fxonple B. bid on lhe sone keyword wilh phrose nolch, bul bid for o higher
posilion. The conversion role of lhe web sile renoins lhe sone, bul becouse of
lhe higher 0P0, lhe 0Pl increoses, ollhough lhere ore nore conversions.
Impressicns CIicks CPC TctaI Ccst CTP Ccnversicns Ccnversicn Pate CPA
A 113/ 55 $ O.8? $ /8.?5 5% 5 ?% $ ?.7?
B 113/ 123 $ 1.3ó $ 1ó7.28 11% 11 ?% $ 15.21
C 225ó 225 $ O.8? $ 2OO.25 1O% 11 5% $ 18.2O
1Oó 1O7
PP0 odverlising · how il works · ccnversicn rates and cIick-tbrcugb rates
Fxonple 0. bid on lhe sone keyword, bul wilh brood nolch lhis line. Becouse
lhe lroffc is less lorgeled, lhe conversion role on lhe web sile is lower. This
neons lhol lhe 0Pl increoses ogoin.
The conpoign needs lo be run occording lo business rules. l PP0 conpoign con oin
for noxinun conversions, bul lhis is usuolly ol o higher 0Pl.
ls well os deciding on your 0P0 bids for your keywords, you ore oble lo delernine lhe
budgels for your conpoign. You con sel doily budgels, nonlhly budgels or no budgel.
0nce your budgel is reoched, your odverls ore poused, so you con be sure lhol you
never overspend. íf you ore concerned oboul overspending, you con sel o doily budgel.
However, lhis con neon lhol your odverls do nol run os oflen os you would wish
lhen lo.
The differenl odverlising plolforns offer odvonced bidding oplions, oll oined ol helping
you lo run your odverlising conpoign beller. You con bid for plocenenl on lhe SFRP, or
you con bid bosed on how nuch you ore willing lo poy for click. You ore oble lo bid for
odverls during cerloin lines of lhe doy only, colled scheduling.
wbicb pIatfcrm sbcuId I cbccse?
There is sone lheory lhol differenl plolforns ore beller for differenl induslries, for
exonple, lhol Yohoo! fores beller lhon 0oogle on lrovel odverlising. However, lhis
is sub|eclive, ond nosl lorge odverlisers will run PP0 conpoigns on o nunber of
plolforns. ls wilh nosl lhings in eMorkeling, il is oll oboul lesling.
There ore sone snoll differences wilh eoch plolforn in lerns of ediloriol policy, ond
eoch syslen hos o differenl user inlerfoce. 0oogle ldWords is perhops lhe nosl well
known, ollows users lo lronsocl in lhe currency of lheir choice, ond olso offers lroining
progronnes ond cerlifcolions.
0oogle ldWords olso currenlly hos lhe besl geo-lorgeling worldwide, ollhough geo-
lorgeling is offered by bolh MSN`s od0enler ond Yohoo! Seorch Morkeling.
tbe Icng taiI
0oogle hos eslinoled lhol 5O% of seorches ore unique. This neons lhol lhe sun of
seorches which ore unique is oboul lhe sone os lhe sun of non-unique seorches.
Looking o lillle nore closely ol seorch lerns will show o snoll nunber of high volune
seorches, ond lhen o lorge nunber of lower volune seorches slrelching oul lo lhose
unique seorches.
5cbeduIing aIIcws tbe
advertiser tc sbcw tbeir
adverts cnIy at certain
times cf tbe day. Fcr
exampIe, an advertiser
migbt want tc time tbeir
adverts tc sbcw at tbe
usuaI time fcr Iuncb
PP0 odverlising · how il works · pIanning and setting up a campaign
This is sonelines referred lo os lhe long loil of seorch. Figuring oul lhose low volune,
niche seorch lerns con do wonders for o PP0 conpoign. 0enerolly lhere is nol nuch
conpelilion for lhose seorch lerns, ond lhe seorch lern ilself is very lorgeled.
pIanning and setting up a campaign
1. Dc ycur bcmewcrk
For o successful conpoign, you need o full online ond on offine onolysis of lhe
business, cusloner denogrophics, lhe induslry ond conpelilors. While il is relolively
quick lo sel up o conpoign, pre-plonning will show dividends loler! You need o brond,
on idenlily ond o cleor unique selling poinl. You only gel 3 lines lo odverlise, you need
lo noke sure you know whol should be in lhere!
2. Dehne ycur gcaIs
You need lo know whol you wonl lo ochieve wilh your PP0 conpoign. Bronding
conpoigns, for exonple, ore very differenl lo conpoigns lhol increose soles. Whol do
you wonl users lo do once lhey click on your odverl?
3. Budget, CPA and targets
Delernine how nuch you ore willing lo spend lo ochieve your gool - your lorgel 0Pl.
Decide how nuch budgel you ore going lo ollocole lo your PP0 conpoign. íf your gool
is lo increose revenue, your budgel nighl be unliniled so long os revenue is increosing
ond you ore wilhin your lorgel 0Pl.
In tbe Icng taiI, tbe sum cf tbe Icw vcIume searcbes matcbes tbe bigb vcIume searcbes.
AdWcrds cffers an
AdWcrds 5tarter Editicn
- sign up fcr an acccunt
tc see bcw it wcrks!
Ycu can sign up frcm
adwcrds.gccgIe.ccm. Just
cbccse ¨5tarter editicn"
after ycu cIick tc sign up.
1O8 1O?
PP0 odverlising · how il works · pIanning and setting up a campaign
ó. Keywcrd researcb
You need lo delernine whol keywords polenliol cusloners ore likely lo use when
seorching for lhe service lhol you offer. llong wilh lhol, you need lo know.
Whol connon nisspellings o cusloner nighl use
Whol words would show lhol lhey ore nol likely lo purchose fron you lwords
like free ond cheopI
ls porl of your keyword reseorch, you need lo look ol expecled volunes for your
keywords, so you know how lo bid on keywords. See Tools of lhe Trode for sone
There ore olso lools which will show you sinilor or reloled keywords, so you con expond
your keyword lisl even furlher. lgoin, fnd suggeslions in Tools of lhe Trode.
5. Write tbe adverts
Using your keyword reseorch, wrile conpelling odverls lo pronole your producls.
ldverls con be unique lo o keyword, or you con group lhen ond hove o nunber of
keywords for one odverl.
Moke sure you use on oppropriole disploy URL, ond lhol you lorgel lhe londing poge for
eoch odverl. llwoys include o coll lo oclion.
ó. PIace ycur bids
Bosed on your gools ond keyword reseorch, sel lhe noxinun bids for your keywords.
Don`l sel lhese loo high ol lhis sloge - you`ll lweok lhe bids os you lesl your
7. Heasure, anaIyse, test, cptimise!
Wilh conversion lrocking in ploce, you con onolyse your R0í down lo o keyword level,
ond lhen focus on lhose keywords which ore converling besl.
0onsider seeing how chonging lhe lexl of your odverl con increose lhe 0TR, or perhops
beller your conversion role. Tesl differenl londing poges lo see whol converls beller.
Ianding pages
PP0 odverlising is nol |usl oboul creoling odverls ond bidding for keywords. The
process conlinues once o user hos clicked on your odverl. The poge lhol lhe user
reoches by clicking on on odverl is colled o Ianding page.
Londing poges con noke or breok on odverlising conpoign. Poorly execuled PP0
conpoigns will send oll users lo lhe hone poge of o web sile. 0onpoigns lhol converl
will noke sure lhol users lond on o poge lhol is relevonl lo lheir seorch. The oin is lo
PP0 odverlising · cnIine ccmpariscn engines
keep lhe user os focused on lhe gool - conversion - os possible. Sending lhe user lo
lhe hone poge gives hin loo nony olher oplions lo choose fron.
For exonple, if soneone seorched for ¨0onon F0S /5OD¨, o poorly run conpoign
would send lhol user lo www.conon.co.uk. l beller conpoign would hove lhe user
clicking lhrough lo www.conon.co.uk/ForHone/ProduclFinder/0oneros/Digilol
Londing poges olso indicole relevonce lo lhe seorch engine, which con increose lhe
0uolily Score of lhe odverl, ond in lurn lower lhe 0P0 of lhe keyword. ldding poges lo
lhe web sile which ore keyword rich con olso corry SF0 benefls.
PP0 conpoigns oflen hove lhousonds of keywords, which con neon lhol lhere will
be o lol of londing poges lo be buill! 0reoling dynonic londing poges neons lhol wilh
o sinple scripl, unique keyword rich londing poges con be creoled for every seorch.
The scripl will loke lhe keyword lhol lhe seorcher hos used, ond inserl il in predefned
ploces on lhe londing poge. The user will lhen be londing on o poge lhol is highly
relevonl lo lheir seorch!
Dynonic londing poges con be creoled wilh o sinple scripl lhol will ollow for o londing
poge lo be creoled for every keyword in lhe PP0 conpoign.

ls we nenlioned, PP0 does nol only opply lo seorch engine odverlising. We hove seen
lhol odverls con be ploced on conlenl siles. PP0 con olso refer lo disploy odverlising,
where odverlisers poy only for eoch click lhrough lo lheir sile, os opposed lo eoch
inpression of lhe bonner. PP0 is olso used by nony online conporison engines.
You hove probobly cone ocross online conporison engines when seorching for o
porliculor producl. Populor conporison engines include.
NexTog lwww.nexlog.conI
PriceRunner lwww.pricerunner.conI
Kelkoo lwww.kelkoo.co.ukI
Pongoro lwww.pongoro.conI
Junp lwww.|unp.co.zoI
These engines conlrocl wilh reloilers. The reloilers supply lhe engine wilh o producl
feed lXML or 0S\I which conloins lhe following infornolion.
Producl none
Producl price
Prodcul URL
Producl seriol nunber
cnIine ccmpariscn engines
Tbe bcunce rate cf tbe
Ianding page aIsc affects
tbe 0uaIity 5ccre cf an
advert. 5ee tbe web
anaIytics cbapter fcr mcre
11O 111
PP0 odverlising · cnIine ccmpariscn engines
Producl inoge
Producl descriplion
Producl keywords
When o user seorches for o producl on one of lhe conporison engines, lhe engine
will lisl oll reloilers who offer lhol producl. When lhe engines conlrocl lhe reloilers,
lhey olso ogree on how nuch lhe reloiler is willing lo poy for eoch click fron lhe
conporison engine lhrough lo lhe reloiler`s web sile. The nininun 0P0 will vory fron
colegory lo colegory lconsuner eleclronics, for exonple, could hove o higher 0P0 lhon
boby clolhesI.
When resulls ore shown, priorily is given lo lhose reloilers who ore willing lo poy
o higher 0P0. However, lhe user hos lhe oplion of sorling resulls by price,
olphobelicolly, elc.
0nline conporison engines forn on inporlonl porl of lhe online norkeling nix for on
online reloiler. ls well os conporing producls fron differenl reloilers, lhey olso offer
users lhe chonce lo review producls, os well os reloilers. Mony users prefer lo slorl
lheir producl seorch on o conporison engine, os lhey con see o voriely of prices for lhe
sone producl in one ploce.
A sbcpping ccmpariscn engine wiII sbcw cffers frcm a number cf retaiIers.
PP0 odverlising · tccIs cf tbe trade
So, whol con you do lo norkel your sile nore effeclively lhrough online
conporison engines?
Meosure conversion fron lhe clicks you gel fron lhe conporison engine.
You`re poying for lhe lroffc, noke sure il`s worlhwhile.
0plinise lhe producl feed you supply.
Moke sure il`s up lo dole!
Producl nones should be cleor.
Foch producl nusl hove o unique URL.
Moke sure you ore oble lo describe your producl succinclly.
Moke sure your price is righl.
Don`l overpoy for clicks.
Fnsure your pricing ond cusloner service ore conpelilive. you don`l
hove nuch spoce lo enlice lhe user lo click lhrough lo you!

The foundolion of seorch norkeling is keyword reseorch, ond lhere ore o nunber of
lools lhol will bolh oid you in growing your keyword lisl, ond in delernining keyword
volunes. Sone ore free ond sone ore poid for. Mony keyword volune lools hove relied
on 0verlure, ond os Yohoo! is no longer supporling lhis lool, lhe infornolion is nol
necessorily occurole. lll lhese lools should be used os guidelines only. Tesl lhe dolo
wilh your own conpoigns lo delernine whol works besl for you.
tccIs cf lhe lrode
6ccgIe`s Ad Preview TccI
112 113
PP0 odverlising · tccIs cf tbe trade
Keyword volune lools.
0oogle Trends
Keyword suggeslion lools.
0oogle ldWords hos on ld Preview Tool, which ollows you lo see where your odverl
would oppeor on lhe poge lwilhoul using lhe seorch engine ond lhus skewing doloI.
This con be occessed ol odwords.google.con/selecl/ldTorgelingPreviewTool
Sone poid services lhol oid wilh keyword reseorch ore.
Spreodsheels, such os Microsofl`s Fxcel, ore useful lo oid you in building your keyword
lisls. 0elling lo grips wilh funclions such os concolenolion will be useful.
sbcuId I cr sbcuIdn`t I
PP0 conpoigns ore relolively quick lo sel-up, con provide high volunes of lroffc, ond
ore by nolure highly lrockoble - whol`s nol lo love? Bul lhere ore sone pilfolls lhol you
oughl lo be owore of.
1. CIick fraud
0lick froud occurs when your odverl is clicked on by soneone who is nol o legilinole
polenliol cusloner. Becouse on odverliser hos lo poy for every click on his odverl,
sonelines unscrupulous conpelilors con click on lhe odverl lo force lhe poynenl.
There ore even oulonoled bols lhol con click on odverls, cosling odverlisers
The seorch engines, however, hove loken neosures lo conbol lhis. ldverlisers con
reporl suspecled click froud, ond lhe seorch engines will refund involid or froudulenl
clicks ofler invesligolion.
Whol con you do? Keep on eye on your conpoign. lny sudden leop in 0TRs should be
invesligoled, ond you should poy porliculor ollenlion lo see if lhe conversion role drops
lwhich would indicole polenliol froudI or sloys lhe sone. Pouse lhe conpoign if you
suspecl froud, ond olerl lhe seorch engine.
prcs and cons
6ccgIe said in February
2007 tbat cIick fraud
acccunts fcr cnIy 0.02% cf
cIicks. Ycu can read mcre
cn tbeir bIcg: adwcrds.
PP0 odverlising · summary
2. Bidding wars and cIimbing CPCs
High lroffc keywords ore expensive, ond lhe bollle lo sloy on lop neons lhol lhe 0P0 of
lhese keywords is escololing. 0onvincing yourself lhol il`s nunber one or nolhing con
resull in burning lhrough your conpoign budgel quickly, wilh nolhing lo show for il.
Whol con you do? Keep focused on your conpoign gools ond R0í, ond keep invesligoling
lo fnd lhe lcheoperI niche keywords lhol work for you.
3. Ycu gctta keep an eye cn tbings
PP0 conpoigns require o lol of noniloring, ond lhe bigger your conpoign gels, lhe
nore line lhis lokes. PP0 odverlising con provide o fonloslic R0í, bul you need lo
check in ond lweok regulorly lo noke sure lhol il conlinues lo perforn for you.
Whol con you do? Moke sure lhol you hove ollocoled lhe line required lo run o
successful conpoign. There ore olso lools ovoiloble lhol noke nonoging lorge
conpoigns eosier.
Bul renenber, lhere ore oll lhe good reosons below lond nony, nony nore!I why PPC
wcrks fcr ycu:
Nc tc Icw ccst barrier
You only poy for lroffc, lhere ore nininol sel-up fees involved.
Tracking every cent
PP0 odverlising ollows you lo lrock your odverlising spend down lo o keyword
level, so you con leorn whol works ond whol doesn`l on o nicro scole.
Targeted advert pIacement
You con noke your odverlising relevonl wilh lhe nony fllers ovoiloble when
selecling where lo show your odverls.
Ycu`re giving ycur custcmers wbat tbey want
PP0 odverlising lels you ploce your odverl in fronl of people who ore
seorching for your producl. íl lels you provide o solulion, os opposed lo
creoling on inlerruplion. Whol nore could you wonl?

PP0 odverlising usuolly refers lo lhe odverlising syslen offered by seorch engines in
which on odverliser poys for eoch click on his odverl. 0nline conporison engines olso
run on o PP0 bosis, where odverlisers provide o producl feed for lislings.
PP0 odverlising is keyword bosed. 0n seorch engines, lhe 0P0 is delernined by on
ouclion, known os o 0enerolised Second Price ouclion.
Seorch lorgeled odverlising refers lo PP0 odverls disployed on lhe SFRPs. These ore
lisled obove ond olongside lhe orgonic seorch resulls, ond ore norked os Sponsored.
11/ 115
PP0 odverlising · summary
0onlenl lorgeling refers lo PP0 odverls being disployed on conlenl poges, such os
blogs ond olher web siles.
The success of on odverl noy be delernined by ils 0TR, bul lhe success of o conpoign
will be delernined by ils conversion role.
0lick-lhrough role = clicks / inpressions %
0onversion role = conversions / clicks %
Flenenls for o successful conpoign.
Reseorch your induslry
Defne your gools
lllocole budgels ond lorgel 0Pls
Keyword reseorch
Relevonl odcopy wilh cleor coll lo oclion
Bidding so os lo noxinise R0í
Meosure, onolyse, lesl, oplinise!
bcw it aII hts tcgetber
PP0 odverlising ond SF0 lseorch engine oplinisolionI should go hond in hond lo creole
on effeclive SFM lseorch engine norkelingI slrolegy.
PP0 provides on excellenl resource lo reseorch keyword volunes ond conversion
success. The knowledge con lhen be used lo inprove lhe SF0 of o sile, os you will
olreody know lhe relevonce of lhese keywords lo your inlended oudience. ín lurn,
inproved SF0 ronkings con help lo reduce lhe 0P0 of your PP0 conpoign, ond logelher
wilh your PP0 conpoign, con see inproved 0TRs lhroughoul.
PP0 odverlising con olso help lo give your brond innediole seorch engine presence
for your offine conpoigns, when lhese nighl nol yel be highly ronked in lhe nolurol
seorch resulls. PP0 odverlising con olso be used logelher wilh online repulolion
nonogenenl. íf o conpony is unoble lo conbol negolive seorch resulls lhrough
lhe nolurol ronkings, lhey ore olwoys oble lo bid for PP0 odverls lhol con presenl
lheir view.
tbe bigger piclure
PP0 odverlising · case study
case study: 5cutbern 5un
Soulhern Sun lwww.soulhernsun.conI lounched o new web sile in Moy 2OOó. The chonges included on updoled
look ond feel, o greoler quonlily ond quolily of infornolion, ond beller booking funclionolily. ls oflen hoppens
wilh o sile re-lounch, Soulhern Sun losl oll of lhe previously good orgonic seorch engine ronkings. l new web
sile needs line lo clinb up lhe seorch engine ronkings, ond il con loke o nininun of lhree nonlhs before il
slorls receiving orgonic lroffc. Soulhern Sun could polenliolly hove losl oul on bookings becouse of lhe decreose
in orgonic lroffc. Therefore, lhey required o woy of ensuring lhol lheir sile.
0onlinued lo receive o sleody fow of bookings despile lenpororily poor orgonic ronkings
Received enough lroffc lo onolyse user behoviour ond responses
Received enough lroffc lo generole lrusl fron seorch engines ond clinb up lhe SFRPs os fosl os
Wilh lhe new sile, Soulhern Sun hoped lo increose lhe nunber of bookings node online, ond lo lop inlo lhe
inlernolionol lourisl ond business lrovel norkel. This neonl lhey needed lo nigrole o signifconl onounl of lheir
offine pronolions ond speciol offers lo lheir web sile in such o woy os lo ollrocl o fovouroble online response.
0uirk eMorkeling, lhe online ogency for Soulhern Sun, sel up o PP0 conpoign wilh lhe inlenlion of.
Sending lroffc lo lhe sile
lllrocling inlernolionol lroffc
Splil-lesling conpoigns
Seporole conpoigns were buill for.
Locol vs. inlernolionol lroffc
Brond ond holel-specifc vs. ploce-specifc
Speciol offers ond conpoigns vs. nornol lroffc
0uirk did on exlensive keyword reseorch exercise lo idenlify high lroffc generoling keywords in order lo gel os
nuch lroffc os possible, os well os niche long loil keywords for beller cosl per conversion. Keywords specifc
lo Soulhern Sun`s vorious cusloner groups were lorgeled, such os fonilies, business lrovellers, couples ond
Furlhernore, odverls were sel up which lesled lhe besl norkeling nessoge i.e. whelher people responded
besl lo.
The Soulhern Sun brond
l speciol offer
l wide voriely of holels ond bronds
Locolion ond convenience
ls o resull, 0uirk could ossess whelher differenl groups of people were infuenced by differenl odverls, os
keyword reseorch hod been done occording lo cusloner groups.
ín order lo delernine whelher people responded beller lo speciol offers ond conpoigns or |usl holel ond oreo
11ó 117
PP0 odverlising · case study
deloils, londing poge splil lesls were conducled. Trocking for vorious differenl sloges of lhe holel buying process
wos inplenenled, including lhe holel roon quole ond lhe fnol lhonk you for poynenl poge so lhol il would
becone evidenl where ony drop-offs occurred.
0ne of lhe greol odvonloges of PP0 is lhol il gels innediole resulls. ls soon os lhe new sile wenl live, so did
lhe PP0 conpoign, which neonl lroffc fron doy one. The lroffc generoled by lhe PP0 odverlising ensured lhol
lhe sile wos noliced by seorch engines ond wos lrusled os o volid Soulh lfricon holel sile.
Splil lesling reveoled sone very inleresling ond useful behoviours ond lrends.
The overoll besl response wos lo lhe odverls conloining lhe Soulhern Sun brond, porliculorly fron
lhe locol Soulh lfricon norkel. This wos very posilive for Soulhern Sun ond gove lhen o dislincl PP0
odvonloge wilh regord lo 0oogle`s quolily os il neonl high click-lhrough on conpelilive key phroses like
¨0ope Town holels¨. íl olso showed lhol lheir brond wos nol os well recognised in lhe UK ond USl.
Seorch norkeling is driven by neeling o need, whereos offine norkeling involves creoling o need. Splil
lesling picked up lhol lhe lvery successfulI offine norkeling conpoigns were nol so successful when
oclively norkeled lhrough PP0, ond lhol lhey do beller when odverlised fron wilhin lhe web sile. The
conpoign hod on overoge booking role of O.38%. The londing poges lhol supplied o lisl of holels in on
oreo or offering o service for oulperforned lhis wilh on overoge booking role of 3./5%.
ínlernolionol lroffc responded differenlly lo vorious offers ond holel deloils conpored lo locol lroffc.
ín generol, lhere wos o beller response locolly wilh on R0í of 78O% vs. /3O%.
Running o PP0 conpoign when you lounch or re-lounch o sile will.
lllrocl enough lroffc lo ensure you don`l lose business
Tesl sile slruclure ond browser behoviour
lllow you lo ossess fron where lroffc cones, so you con lesl ond oplinise presenlolion of your producl
lo your cusloners
case study questicns
Whol infornolion fron lhe PP0 conpoign could be used lo help lo oplinise lhe web sile?
Why does o PP0 conpoign give inslonl lroffc while SF0 does nol?
Whol is lhe inporlonce of londing poges in o PP0 conpoign? Whol sorl of differenl londing poges do
you lhink would be used?
cbapter questicns
Whol is lhe difference belween lhe disploy URL ond lhe londing poge URL, ond whol is lhe funclion
of eoch?
How is lhe conlenl nelwork differenl lo lhe seorch nelwork? How do lhe differences offecl
lhe odverliser?
Whol is lhe inporlonce of long loil keywords in o PP0 conpoign?
Bolh PP0 odverlising ond SF0 ore bosed on keywords. How con PP0 odverlising ond SF0 be used lo
conplenenl eoch olher?
PP0 odverlising · furtber reading
llexo, llpril 3 2OO8I Troffc Hislory 0roph for 0oogle.con,
llexo.con, |occessed 3 lpril 2OO8!
Fllon, l lMorch 2OO3I 0verlure ond 0oogle. ínlernel Poy Per 0lick lPP0I ldverlising luclions,
London Business School, |occessed 3 lpril 2OO8!
Fyelools, ínc. Fyelools, Fnquiro, ond Did-il uncover Seorch`s 0olden Triongle,
hllp.//www.eyelools.con/inpoge/reseorchgoogleeyelrockingheolnop.hln, www.eyelools.con,
|occessed 3 lpril 2OO8!
0oogle, lJonuory 31 2OO8I Finonciol Releose,
0oogle Press 0enler, |occessed 3 lpril 2OO8!
0oogle Wolch lJuly 1ó 2OO7I 0oogle onnounces plon for lwo-yeor expirolion, bul.,
hllp.//www.google-wolch.org/cgi-bin/cookie.hln, 0oogle-wolch.org,
|occessed 3 lpril 2OO8!
Jonsen, Bernord ond Molino, Poulo l2OOóI The effecliveness of Web seorch engines for relrieving relevonl
pp. 1O77 |occessed 3 lpril 2OO8!
Sullivon, D. l23 Morch 2OO3I Seorch Fngine Resulls 0horl,
SeorchFngineWolch.con, |occessed 3 lpril 2OO8!
Sullivon, D. llpril 2O 2OOóI Seorches Per Doy,
SeorchFngineWolch.con, |occessed 3 lpril 2OO8!
furtber reading
- including proclicol slep by slep guides lo inproving your PP0 conpoigns, PP0 Hero provides regulor posls
on oll lhings PP0
- 0ordon 0hoi`s insighlful connenls on PP0 ond seorch cone fron o weollh of experience
11? 118
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vcucber included wilh lhis book.
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Fnler your unique reference nunber ond your nobile lelephone nunber, ond we`ll SMS
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Use the voucher to set up your 0oogle AdWords campaign!

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12O 121
Hake ycur ccre keywcrd Iist specihc and reIevant Be specifc ond relevonl lo your
business ond specifc offerings. lvoid generol keywords - lhey generole od inpressions,
bul lend lo be less relevonl lo ony porliculor seorch. Use words lhol defne your business,
including producls ond lechnologies, brond nones, loglines, induslry |orgon, ond words
seorched for on your sile.
Expand ycur Iist by adding variaticns and reIated terms Since nore specifc keywords
produce fewer llhough nore relevonlI inpressions, increose your od exposure - wilhoul
socrifcing relevonce - by odding ollernole phrosings, spelling voriolions, plurols ond
singulors, ond keywords sinilor or reloled lo lhose on your core lisl. íf ovoiloble, nine
keyword lisls fron reloled conpoigns ond leveroge keyword generolion lools.
Pehne ycur Iist by eIiminating cverbrcad and ineffective keywcrds Regionol odverlisers
ond niche businesses should ovoid keywords so brood lhol lhey spill beyond lhe lorgel. íf
you occupy o liniled niche or serve o locol oudience, your keywords should refecl lhol.
lnd sone keywords - for inslonce, words lhol ore very connon or nol induslry-specifc
- ore loo generol for ony lisl.
Target tbe gecgrapby ycu serve Use geogrophic keywords lo lorgel o locol or regionol
oudience. íf you sell lyres in 0ope Town, replocing ¨lyres¨ wilh ¨lyres 0ope Town¨ con ovoid
irrelevonl pilches lo seorch users in Johonnesburg. You con olso lorgel your conpoign by
counlry ond by longuoge lo help focus your nessoge on your lrue oudience.
Target ad deIivery witb keywcrd matcbing cpticns Refne your lorgeling using keyword
nolching oplions. Brood nolch, lhe defoull, disploys your od when oll lhe words in your
keyword oppeor in lhe seorch query. Phrose nolch requires lhol lhe words oppeor in lhe
sone sequence, exocl nolch requires exoclly lhol. Negolive keywords exclude seorches
for which your od would be irrelevonl ond ore useful in lorgeling onbiguous keywords.
¨nouse -conpuler¨ gives you lhe oninol, nol lhe peripherol. ídenlify high-inpression
unlorgeled phroses ond noke lhen negolive keywords.
6rcup ycur keywcrds inteIIigentIy 0rouping keywords occording lo conlenl clorifes
possibililies for keyword exponsion, helps slreonline conpoign nonogenenl, ond lels
you wrile specifc, lorgeled od creolive for eoch group. 0roup keywords by colegory, by
producl, by offer - wholever colegories noke sense in lhe conlexl of your conpoign.
Cbeck ycur keywcrds cn 6ccgIe 0nce you hove o workoble keyword lisl, give il o lesl
drive on 0oogle. The seorch resulls should be sinilor in sub|ecl noller ond conlenl lo
your own sile. íf nol, you`ll wonl lo rework your keyword lisl lo ensure lhol il brings your
nessoge lo on oudience lhol will fnd your sile relevonl.







6ccgIe AdWcrds ¥cucber
Ccnvey tbe reIevance cf ycur site and give a cIear reascn tc cIick To encouroge
click-lhrough, noke your od`s relevonce obvious by loiloring lhe creolive lo lhe
keyword lhol lriggers il - for inslonce, including lhe keyword proninenlly in lhe
lop line of lhe lexl. Moke il cleor lo users why lhey should click.
Hake sure ycur destinaticn page deIivers cn ycur ad`s prcmise 0onsciously
choose lhe deslinolion poge on your sile ond fne-lune il lo nolch lhe gool of lhe
conpoign. íncorporole ony lrocking nechonisns your nelrics require. lbove oll,
noke lhe conneclion belween your od ond ils deslinolion poge cleor. 0usloners
should fnd wholever node lhen wonl lo click - confdenl lhol lhey ore in lhe
righl ploce ond lhol il is relevonl lo lheir seorch.
Ask tbe rigbt questicns - tben test, test, and test scme mcre Slep bock ond
consider your keywords ond creolive in lhe conlexl of your overoll conpoign.
lre lhey consislenl wilh lhe norkeling ob|eclives? lre lhey os specifc ond
relevonl os possible? Does lhe nessoging nop bock lo lhe gool? Then lounch
your conpoign, gouge lhe resulls, ond lune your keywords ond creolive for
noxinun effecliveness.
Top 10 0ptimisation Tips Ior Advertising on 0oogle kindly supplied by 0oogle
Ìnc. For more inIormation, visit www.google.com/adwords.
6ccgIe AdWcrds vcucber Terms and Ccnditicns:
0ne pronolionol credil per cusloner. Pronolionol credil is ovoiloble only lo new 0oogle ldWords cusloners whose occounls ore less
lhon 1/ doys old ol lhe line you enler your pronolionol code. Use of 0oogle ldWords ond redenplion of lhe pronolionol credil is
sub|ecl lo od opprovol, volid regislrolion ond occeplonce of lhen currenl ldverlising Terns ond 0ondilions ond on occounl oclivolion fee
lcurrenlly ZlR 5OI. The pronolionol credil will be oulonolicolly crediled lo your new 0oogle ldWords occounl once you hove enlered
your pronolionol code ond billing preferences. You will be chorged for ony odverlising chorges lhol exceed lhe pronolionol credil, ond
you ore solely responsible for lhe poynenl of ony loxes incurred. íf you do nol wish lo incur oddilionol chorges beyond lhe pronolionol
credil lhen you should nonilor your occounl ond pouse or delele your conpoign before or once lhis onounl hos been reoched. The
pronolionol credil is non-lronsferoble ond noy nol be sold or borlered. íf you indicole lhol your 0oogle ldWords occounl should be
sub|ecl lo o differenl currency lo lhe one in which your pronolionol credil hos been oworded, lhen lhe ocluol onounl of lhe pronolionol
credil noy be sub|ecl lo foreign currency fucluolions. Using lnericon Fxpress os o poynenl nelhod on 0oogle.co.zo/ods, you con only
sel up o conpoign in USD. 0ffer noy be chonged or revoked ol ony line for ony reoson by 0oogle írelond Liniled ond/or ony offlioled
conpony offering lhe ldWords service in your counlry. \oid where prohibiled or reslricled by low. 0oogle ond ldWords ore lrodenorks
of 0oogle ínc. ond ore regislered in lhe US ond olher counlries. Your use of lhis voucher ond/or lhe pronolionol credil conslilules your
occeplonce of lhese lerns ond condilions.
6ccgIe AdWcrds ¥cucber


Wbat`s inside: ln intrcducticn tc scciaI media ond o brief breokdown
of lhe bistcry of lhis phenonenon, followed by lhe key terms and ccncepts
required. There`s so nuch lo leorn in bcw it wcrks, ond il`s broken up inlo sociol
nedio for bcckmarking and aggregating, for creating and sbaring ccntent,
sociol nelworks for ccnnecting ond blogging ond podcosling for creating ccntent
and cpinicn. We loke ol look ol marketing using scciaI media ond how sociol
nedio hos cbanged traditicnaI media. There`s o lillle difference lo lhe tccIs cf
tbe trade, ond of course we end wilh lhe prcs and ccns, o summary ond o look
ol bcw it aII hts tcgetber.
12/ 125
sociol nedio · intrcducticn
Blogs, wikis, sociol booknorks, log clouds - new words for new lhings, ond new woys
lo use words. You noy be living in lhe world of sociol nedio, bul lo nony il`s o |unbled
|ungle wilh no cleor slruclure.
The nony focels of sociol nedio ore olso colled Web 2.O, consuner generoled nedio,
cilizen nedio ond new nedio. ín focl, conporing sociol nedio lo lrodilionol nedio is
probobly lhe nosl useful woy of defning whol exoclly lhis neons.
Mosl sinply pul, sociol nedio ore nedio lfron wrillen lo visuol lo oudio lo oudio visuolI
lhol ore designed lo be shored. Shoring neons lhol il is eosy lo connenl on, lhol il is
eosy lo send, ond lhol lhere ore no high cosls ossocioled wilh viewing lhe nedio. lnd,
becouse of lhe connecled nolure of lhe ínlernel, il neons lhol shoring, connenling
ond viewing con oll be lrocked ond neosured.
The ínlernel, ond lhe soflwore developed lo run on il, hos node il sinple for onyone
lo publish ond dislribule. íl hos olso node il sinple for onyone lo occess lhe conlenl
lhol hos been published.
The reoln of sociol nedio is oboul colloborolion, users generoling conlenl, shoring
ond, nosl of oll, il is oboul connecling.

Blogs ore probobly lhe besl known exonple of sociol nedio. 0ne of lhe eorliesl online
|ournols recorded wos www.links.nel, lhe online diory of Juslin Holl, which he kepl for
11 yeors fron 1??/ lHornonci, 2OO5I. Fron lhe very frsl doys of lhe ínlernel, eorly
odoplers used il lo creole personol conlenl.
These online diories were referred lo os ¨weblogs¨ for ¨web¨ ond ¨log¨, bul in lpril or
Moy of 1???, Peler Merholz unwillingly coined lhe lern ¨blog¨ by odding lhe following
lo lhe sidebor of his web sile pelerne.con.
¨For Whol íl`s Worlh
í`ve decided lo pronounce lhe word ¨weblog¨ os wee`- blog. 0r ¨blog¨ for shorl.¨
TraditicnaI Hedia 5cciaI Hedia
Fixed, unchongeoble ínslonlly updoleoble
0onnenlory liniled ond nol reol-line Unliniled reol-line connenlory
Liniled, line-deloyed beslseller lisls ínslonl populorily gouge
lrchives poorly occessible lrchives occessible
Liniled nedio nix lll nedio con be nixed
0onnillee publishers índividuol publishers
Finile ínfnile
Shoring nol encouroged Shoring ond porlicipolion encouroged
0onlrol Freedon
sociol nedio · key terms and ccncepts
key terms and ccncepts
BIcg l blog is o lype of web sile lhol ollows users lbloggersI lo posl enlries on differenl lopics ond oflen
ollows reoders lo connenl on lhese posls.
BIcgcspbere The world of blogs, bloggers ond blog posls.
Bcckmarking Soving lhe web oddress of o web poge or web sile so lhol il noy be eosily referred lo.
Booknorks con be nonoged wilh o browser, or wilh on online lool.
CbickIets ín sociol nedio, chicklels ore lillle bullons lhol nokes il eosy lo shore or sove infornolion
using sociol nedio services.
Crcwdscurcing Hornessing lhe skills, lolenls ond ideos of o brooder connunily, usuolly lhrough
sociol nedio.
FIcg l foke blog is known os o fog.
FcIkscncmy 0olegorisolion or loxonony bosed on sociol nedio logs.
HicrcbIcgging The proclice of sending brief lexl updoles lusuolly, 1/O - 2OO choroclersI, inoges os
well os oudio clips ond publishing lhen online, eilher lo be viewed by onyone or by o reslricled group
which con be chosen by lhe user.
PermaIink l unique URL which poinls lo lhe pernonenl locolion of o single blog posl ond ils
ossocioled connenls ond TrockBocks.
Ping Pockel ínlernel 0roper - o ulilily lhol verifes o link or o conneclion lo lhe ínlernel.
5cciaI netwcrk ín lhe online sense, lhis refers lo o lype of web sile nodel where individuol nenbers
becone porl of o brooder virluol connunily.
Tag ín sociol nedio, logs indicole or lobel whol conlenl is oboul.
Taxcncmy 0lossifcolion ond division inlo ordered colegories, usuolly hierorchicol. ín sociol nedio,
loxonony con refer lo lhe colegorizolion of conlenl on lhe ínlernel.
TrackBack l nechonisn used in o blog lhol shows o lisl of enlries in olher blogs lhol refer lo o posl
on lhe frsl blog.
¥Icg l video bosed blog, olso colled o video blog.
Wiki l sinple web sile lhol con be ediled in reol line by o nunber of users.
Developers begon creoling lools lhol node il eosier for onyone lo slorl o blog. Blogger,
o populor blogging plolforn, wos lounched in lugusl 1??? ond ocquired by 0oogle in
2OO3. ín 2OO1, Wikipedio, probobly lhe nosl well known wiki, wos creoled.
Technoroli, which lrocks blogs ond logged sociol nedio, lounched in 2OO2. ls of lpril
2OO8, Technoroli wos lrocking 112.8 nillion blogs ond noled in 2OO7 lhol 1./ new blogs
were being creoled every second.
Sociol nedio is nol |usl oboul blogging, lhough, ond severol plolforns lhol node
shoring olher kinds of conlenl eosier hove cone lo lhe fore. Flickr, lhe online pholo
shoring lool, lounched in Februory 2OO/ ond wos boughl by Yohoo! in June 2OO5.
By lhis sloge, lhe sociol nedio buzzwords ond neologisns were being picked up by
lhe noinslreon press, ond in 2OO/, Merrion-Websler diclionory chose ¨blog¨ os lhe
word of lhe yeor.
12ó 127
sociol nedio · bistcry
bcw it works
YouTube, lhe online video shoring web sile, previewed in Moy 2OO5 ond lounched six
nonlhs loler. íl wos ocquired by 0oogle in Novenber 2OOó for $1.ó5 billion. Twiller,
which ollows for users lo shore 1/O chorocler lweels, lounched in 0clober 2OOó.
ín 2OOó, Tine Mogozine noned ¨You¨ os lhe Tine Person of lhe Yeor for ¨lhe growlh
ond infuence of user-generoled conlenl on lhe inlernel.¨
Sociol nedio hos chonged lhe world we norkel in, ond con be used os on inlegrol porl
of on online norkeling conpoign. Sociol nedio is oll oboul lhe woys lhol we creole,
connecl ond shore online.
bcckmarking and aggregating
- sbaring tbings ycu Iike
íf lhere ore web siles lhol you visil oflen, or lhol you would like lo keep os o reference
lo cone bock lo, il is eosy lo use your browser lo ¨booknork¨ lhen. This neons lhol
you slore lhe URL so lhol you con locole il ogoin eosily. íl olso gives you o personol
librory of web siles lhol you con slore on your conpuler.
Sociol booknorking siles, however, ollow you slore lhese links online, use logs lo
describe lhen ond shore lhese lisls wilh olher users. Sone of lhese siles lel you
subnil URLs lhol olher users vole on, while olhers ollow you lo use lhe logs soved lo
browse lhrough lhe lisls ond librories lhol hove been generoled.
Web siles which wonl lo encouroge users lo subnil conlenl lo booknorking ond
oggregoling siles use chicklels. These ore bullons ploced oround lhe conlenl lhol
noke il eosier lo subnil ond shore lhe orlicle.
These services ollow you lo see whol lhe connunily of web users fnds useful,
inleresling or hunorous. You ore oble lo fnd olher users wilh sinilor inleresls lo
yours, ond explore lhe web siles lhol lhey hove found lhol you nighl nol hove cone
ocross yel.
Sociol booknorking ollows like-ninded people lo shore inleresling ond relevonl conlenl
wilh one onolher eosily. íl con olso be on excellenl lool for nenbers of o conpony or
orgonisolion lo eornork relevonl web siles ond orlicles. 0onlenl subnilled lo o sociol
booknorking or oggregoling sile con dronolicolly increose lroffc lo o web sile, ond
expose lhe sile lo nony new eyebolls.
del.icio.us ldel.icio.usI is o sociol booknorking sile which wos creoled in 2OO3 by
Joshuo Schocler ond lodoy boosls over 3 nillion users llrringlon, 2OO7I. íl wos
designed lo be o sile which would help ínlernel users orgonise online nedio in o quick,
sociol nedio · how il works · bcckmarking and aggregating
eosy lo occess ond user-friendly fornol. Now owned by Yohoo!, lhe prinory funclion of
del.icio.us is lo ollow you lo slore oll of your booknorks online ond lhen lo ollow you
lo occess lhose booknorks fron ony conpuler onywhere in lhe world. del.icio.us is
nore of o connunily bosed lool in conporison lo lhe olher sociol booknorking lools
oul lhere, os il ollows olhers lo see your booknorks. Fssenliolly il lels you idenlify
olher people whose inleresls ond concerns porollel yours ond gronls you occess lo oll
of lheir booknorks os well.
0heck oul del.icio.us/quirkenorkelinglexlbook lo see sone of lhe URLs we lhink ore
relevonl lo your eMorkeling sludies ond coreer.
Digg lwww.digg.conI, Huti lwww.nuli.co.zoI ond Peddit lwww.reddil.conI ore siles
where users subnil conlenl which olher users con lhen vole on. Populorily, bosed
on voles, noves lhe subnilled conlenl up ond down lisls which ore ovoiloble on
lhese siles. Subnilling ond voling requires regislrolion, bul lhere ore nony, nony
people who visil lhese siles lo gel on overview of conlenl lhol is ¨hol¨. ín focl, in eorly
2OO8, Digg wos ol 17O in lhe llexo ronkings. lllhough ils lroffc is declining, il`s slill
generoling plenly of lroffc eoch doy.
lppeoring on lhe lop of lhese lisls generoles o huge increose in lroffc for lhe conlenl
siles, so nuch so lhol servers con crosh if lhe leop in visilors is unexpecled. 0elling
inlo lhe lop lislings is o prize eyed by nony o norkeler, bul ony ollenpl lo nonipulole
lislings usuolly bockfres ond con generole plenly of connunily bocklosh.
The connunilies oround lhese siles differ denogrophicolly, ond lhis is refecled in lhe
conlenl. For exonple, Digg hos been lechnology focused, while Reddil lends lo hove
nore generol news.
5tumbIeupcn lwww.slunbleupon.conI lels you explore lhe Web lhrough your inleresls,
bosed on how olher Web users log conlenl. Users selecl colegories of inleresl ond
booknork URLs lo lhose colegories. You con lhen choose lo ¨slunble¨ lhrough lhe
Web using lhe colegory of your choice. The service will rondonly show you o web sile
lhol hos been subnilled lo lhol colegory.
Slunbleupon ollows users lo explore lhe web bosed on lhe loxonony opplied by olher
users. ínsleod of looking lo seorch engines for relevonce, users ore insleod oppeoling
lo lhe knowledge of o connunily.
Tecbncrati lwww.lechnoroli.conI slorled life os o reol-line blog seorch engine bul
hos since evolved lo incorporole olher forns of user generoled conlenl including
inoges ond videos. lccording lo lechnoroli.con/oboul, Technoroli fnds ilself lrocking
over 112 nillion blogs ond 25O nillion pieces of logged sociol nedio os of eorly
2OO8. ínlernolionolly il is THF blog oggregolor ond on essenliol lool for onyone who
operoles online.
AIexa is a service tbat
ranks tbe pcpuIarity cf
web sites. It is based cn
tbe Internet babits cf users
cf tbe AIexa tccIbar as weII
as tbe 0uirk 5earcb5tatus
Firefcx extensicn, sc tbese
rankings are based cn a
percentage cf tbe gIcbaI
Internet pcpuIaticn.
5cme Internet
ccmmentatcrs refer tc tbis
taxcncmy as a fcIkscncmy
- a way cf categcrising
ccntent tbat tbe ccmmunity
creates, as cppcsed tc
bierarcbicaI categcrisaticn
by a centraI bcdy.
128 12?
sociol nedio · how il works · bcckmarking and aggregating
Technoroli`s core is o log-bosed index lhol ollows users lo conducl seorches on lopics
lhol inleresl lhen. 0onlribulors ore oble lo log lheir individuol posls - lhe beller
logged o posl, lhe beller chonce il hos of being picked up by o relevonl seorch. ínsleod
of conlribulors being seporoled inlo colegories il is lhe conlenl of eoch individuol
posl lhol is indexed. Technoroli doesn`l |usl seorch lhe blogs of subscribed nenbers
lhough - il olso operoles os o nornol seorch engine.
Technoroli con olso be used lo keep lobs on ínlernel buzz, bolh lo nonilor online
repulolion ond lo see whol lrends ore energing.
bcckmarking and aggregating as marketing tccIs
Seeing how users colegorise your conlenl will give you on ideo of how your web sile
ond conpony ore perceived by your oudience. íl nighl be renorkobly differenl lo whol
you lhink lhey see you os. Look ol whol olher web siles ore logged sinilorly. You nighl
fnd new conpelilors, ond possibly new ideos.
You con olso use lhese services lo shore whol olher URLs your conpony fnds
inleresling. This con be o useful resource lo odd lo on online press roon, os well os o
ulilily lhol fonolics of your conpony would gel reolly exciled oboul.
To creole link love ond lroffc, invesligole whol sorl of conlenl your lorgel oudience
loves voling for, ond gel creoling lhol conlenl. l word of worning. never do lhe
conlenl subnission ond voling yourself. íl`s one sure-fre woy lo incur lhe wrolh of
lhese connunilies.
0rgonic growlh is lhe only woy lo go here. íl nighl loke line os you build your repulolion
ond worlh onongsl lhe connunily, bul lhe end resull con be very worlhwhile.
ls o conlenl provider, noke sure you hove lhe oppropriole chicklels odded lo your
conlenl lo noke il eosier lo shore.

ccntent sbaring - create and sbare
YouTube noy be lhe frsl conlenl shoring sile lhol cones lo nind, bul users shore
inoges, oudio ond infornolion os well os video. íf il con be creoled, il con be shored.
There ore nony siles lhol focililole lhol shoring of videos, inoges ond oudio, ond lhey
ore exceplionolly populor. Fron Flickr lo YouTube, lhey hove oll lopped inlo lhe focl
lhol we love lo creole conlenl for olhers lo view.
CbickIets can be standard, Iike cn www.gcttaquirk.ccm cn tbe Ieft, cr can be
adapted as www.timescnIine.cc.uk bave dcne cn tbe rigbt.
sociol nedio · how il works · ccntent sbaring
The key word here is free. lhere ore no fees for |oining, whelher you ore uplooding
conlenl or viewing conlenl lollhough preniun poid for nenberships con ollow you
furlher feoluresI. This neons lhol lhese siles ollrocl on enornous oudience. ín focl,
occording lo llexo ronkings, YouTube is lhe second nosl visiled sile in lhe world!
Mony of lhese services olso encouroge dislribulion of lheir conlenl. YouTube ollows
videos lo be enbedded eosily inlo olher web siles, ond Flickr hos generoled o nunber
of opplicolions ond widgels lhol ollows lhe inoges lo be shown oll over lhe web lond
even prinled onlo cords ond slickers vio www.noo.conI.
Mosl of lhese web siles rely on odverlising lo supporl lhe free services lhey offer ond
sone hove o preniun poid for nenbership version which is wilhoul odverls.
videc sbaring
YouTube lwww.youlube.conI is essenliolly o web sile which, by using Flosh lechnology,
ollows users lo uplood, view ond shore videos wilh lhe resl of lhe connecled world.
These videos con ronge fron nusic, novie ond lelevision clips lo honenode onoleur
videos ond vlogs.
YouTube hos óO% of oll online video viewers wilh up lo 7? nillion viewers in on evening
lYen, 2OO8I ond over ó5,OOO videos uplooded every doy. This nokes il bolh lhe prenier
online video sile ond sociol video shoring sile online. This inplies lhol nosl video
consunplion on lhe Web is olreody bosed on sociol nedio, ond lhol lhere ore over 13O
nillion online viewers of video overoll libid, 2OO8I. YouTube wos ocquired by 0oogle in
2OOó for $1.ó5 billion. ín focl, occording lo conScore dolo, lhe nunber of seorches on
YouTube noke il lhe second lorgesl seorch engine.
YouTube is o conplex sile offering nunerous feolures, yel il is sinple lo use. While il is
possible for unregislered users lo wolch nosl of lhe publicly ovoiloble videos, o quick,
slroighlforword regislrolion process ollows nenbers lo uplood on unliniled nunber
of clips, connenl on ond odd video responses lo lhen ond subscribe lo conlenl feeds
lhol colch lheir ollenlion ond inleresl. Frequenlly enhonced funclionolily ond clever
feolures on YouTube conlinuolly push lhis sile lo deliver bigger ond beller services lo
ils ever-increosing user bose.
Mony norkelers hove odopled lhe opporlunilies offorded by YouTube. There ore lwo
ospecls of norkeling lhrough YouTube - self-pronolion of people ond producls such
os nusic videos, novie previews, inlerviews, video-odverlisenenls, ond sponsored
odverls, supplied by 0oogle ldWords.
YouTube hos chonged lhe woy we view video odverls. Morkelers, such os BMW, hove
shown lhol if on odverl is good enough, nony people will choose lo wolch il. BMW
hos creoled o BMW Soulh lfrico chonnel on YouTube, ond hos uplooded nony of
lheir odverls. 0ne of lhen hos been viewed over o nillion lines since lugusl 2OOó.
A vIcg is a videc bIcg.
13O 131
sociol nedio · how il works · ccntent sbaring
These ore people who hove chosen lo wolch lhis odverl ol o nedio cosl of zero! 0lher
odverlisers hove reolised lhol for longer odverls con be creoled ond uplooded. ls long
os lhe conlenl is good, lhere will be viewers. Tine conslroinls ore nol lhe sone os lhey
ore for T\ nelworks.
Sovvy norkelers olso reolise lhe polenliol of wolching for orgonic nenlions of lheir
brond, ond lhen copilolising on lhis. ln unknown leenoge girl, wilh lhe YouTube
occounl none Bowiechick, node o 75 second video clip oboul her breok-up wilh
o boyfriend. While noking lhe clip she ployed wilh sone of lhe effecls on her new
webcon, like pulling eors on her heod ond o nousloche on her foce wilh ils fociol
lrocking soflwore. Three doys ofler uplooding lhe video, 178,OOO people hod seen
lhis video ond ?OO hod connenled on il. The connenls hod nolhing lo do wilh lhe
breok up bul wilh lhe Logilech webcon she hod used in lhe video. Following lhis, lhe
conero broke inlo lnozon`s Top 1OO beslselling producls lisl. Logilech were obviously
lislening ond node lhe nosl of lhe opporlunily by beconing YouTube`s offciol porlner
lSondovol, 2OOóI.
The nediun of online video shoring olso neons lhol conferences ore oble lo generole
o for greoler oudience lhon ever before. The conponies lhol sponsor or run lhese
conferences ore oble lo engoge wilh o lorger oudience by noking freely ovoiloble
videos of lhe vorious sessions held. TFD lwww.led.conI ond Nokio`s Nokio World ore
excellenl exonples of orgonisolions lhol increose inleresl by noking lheir renorkoble
presenlolions ovoiloble for free.
kncwIedge sbaring - tbe wiki
Howord 0. ¨Word¨ 0unninghon, pioneer of lhe wiki, begon progronning lhe
WikiWikiWeb soflwore in 1??/ ond inslolled il on lhe web sile of his soflwore consulloncy
in 1??5. Bock lhen he described o wiki os ¨The sinplesl online dolobose lhol could
possibly work.¨ 13 yeors loler lhis is probobly slill lhe nosl occurole descriplion.
BHW 5cutb Africa`s YcuTube success.
¨Wiki wiki" means
¨rapidIy" in tbe Rawaiian
sociol nedio · how il works · ccntent sbaring
Fssenliolly, o wiki is o piece of soflwore which users con creole ond edil online, using
sinple nork-up longuoge vio o web browser. They supporl hyperlinks ond hove o
sinple lexl synlox for creoling new poges ond links belween inlernol poges. ín ils
nosl bosic forn, o wiki is o web sile lhol supporls user colloborolion lhrough o voriely
of funclions.
There ore nunerous lypes of wiki soflwore ovoiloble lhol shore lhe following
Create and update dccuments: Wiki users hove lhe obilily lo creole ond updole
docunenls eosily.
Peview versicns: Mosl wikis slore eoch version of o docunenl. This funclionolily
nokes il eosy for users lo view lhe vorious nodifcolions lhol o docunenl hos
undergone over line.
Ccmmunity-criented tccIs: Mosl wikis provide users wilh on obilily lo
engoge in sone forn of discussion oboul lhe docunenls on which lhey
ore colloboroling.
Wikis con be open lo oll, such os Wikipedio lwww.wikipedio.orgI ond Wikilrovel
lwww.wikilrovel.orgI, lhey con be open lo or oined ol cerloin connunilies only, such
os 0eek Dinner ollendees lgeekdinner.pbwiki.conI, or lhey con be privole ond open
only lo individuols wilhin on orgonisolion. ínlernol wikis ore exceplionolly useful for
creoling knowledge boses wilhin orgonisolions ond conponies.
If ycu`d Iike tc try cut
setting up ycur cwn wiki,
www.pbwiki.ccm prcvides
free wikis and bas a bcst cf
A wiki can be edited by anycne wbc can access it!
132 133
sociol nedio · how il works · ccntent sbaring
Wikipedia: tbe mcst famcus wiki cf aII
Wikipedio lwww.wikipedio.orgI is o free, web-bosed, conlenl encyclopoedio lhol is
roled one of lhe lop len visiled siles in lhe world. 0riginolly creoled in 2OO1 by Jones
Woles ond Lorry Songer, lhis online encyclopoedio hos received bolh proise ond
crilicisn. Roughly 15 lines lhe size of Fncyclopoedio Brilonnico, wilh nore lhon ?
nillion orlicles in over 25O longuoges, lhis encyclopoedio is increosing in size ol on
exponenliol level lWikipedio. lboulI. However, wilh lhe increosed odoplion of lhis lool,
crilicisn hos olso increosed os lo lhe volidily of lhe defnilions.
lll defnilions seen on Wikipedio ore wrillen by o colloborolive leon of volunleers
fron oround lhe world. lnyone con subnil o defnilion ond lhese con lhen be ediled
by onyone who hos occess lo lhe ínlernel. This conbinolion of conlribulors leods lo
o denocrolic woy of including lhe nosl up lo dole infornolion. Since defnilions ore
reviewed frequenlly, il should decreose lhe onounl of bios ond inoccurocy, while
building o unique sociol nelwork wilh people of sinilor inleresls conlribuling.
lll Wikipedio defnilions should olso be referenced exlernolly. lllhough onyone con
conlribule lo Wikipedio, lhere is o pernission ronking syslen which hos been insliluled
lo noinloin lhe level of credibilily lhol is ossocioled wilh Wikipedio. Furlher neosures
include o discussion lob on nosl orlicles where ocodenics con queslion lhe volidily of
lhe sources ond ils conlenl.
Wikipedio orlicles lend lo ronk highly in lhe SFRPs, so lhe ollure of o link lo your web
sile fron o relevonl orlicle is lenpling indeed. Wikipedio hos insliluled o policy lhol oll
exlernol links ore ¨no follow¨ links so os lo conbol spon.
Wikipedio is o useful reseorch lool. Wilh so nuch infornolion on lhe ínlernel, nony
users ore slorling lo look ol o hunon ediled los opposed lo seorch engine olgorilhn
dislilledI woy lo enbork on reseorch. For o conpony lo be reochoble vio o link fron
lhis reseorch bose con very lroffc ond repulolion worlhy.
0onponies should olso loke nole of whol is being wrillen oboul lhen on Wikipedio,
ond noke lronsporenl efforls lo correcl infornolion.
ccntent creating and sbaring as a marketing tccI
0onlenl shoring siles, fron video lo pholos lo nusic lo knowledge, provide norkelers
wilh o snopshol of how users inlerocl wilh ond perceive lheir brond. Mosl of lhe
siles hove RSS feeds ovoiloble, where norkelers con keep o lob on nenlions of
lheir brond.
These siles ond services ollow norkelers lhe opporlunily lo copilolise on lhe creolivily
of lheir consuners lo furlher onplify lheir brond. By noking conlenl eosily ovoiloble,
ond renoving reslriclions on use of lhol conlenl, conponies con nurlure creolive
inleroclions lhol ore likely lo spreod.
¨nc fcIIcw" Iinks mean
tbat Wikipedia is indicating
tc tbe searcb engines tbat
tbey dc nct necessariIy
endcrse tbe web sites
being Iinked tc.
sociol nedio · how il works · ccnnecting
Wikis con be used when creoling on evenl wilh o nelwork. Fncouroging users lo
inlerocl ollows lhen greoler conneclion ond ownership of lhe oulcone, ond provides
o neons for ongoing connunicolion.
crcwdscurcing - unIeasbing tbe pcwer
cf tbe cnIine ccmmunity
l lern frsl used in Wired nogozine bock in 2OOó, ¨crowdsourcing¨ hos becone o
powerful ond cosl effeclive nelhod of ochieving business gools lhrough lhe use of
lhe nosses. Sinply pul, business ond corporoles invile lhe public lo subnil ideos
ond innovolions for new ond exisling producls, in exchonge for o once-off or o snoll
percenloge of fulure royollies.
Sociol nedio hos spurred on lhis innovolion, ond hos ollowed lhe business world lo lop
inlo lhe consuner psyche wilh lillle fnonciol oulloy.
ccnnecting - scciaI netwcrking
Sociol nelworking refers lo lhe forning ond subslonlioling of online sociol nelworks
for connunilies of people. The connunilies ore people who shore inleresls ond
oclivilies, or ore inleresled in exploring lhe inleresls ond oclivilies of olhers. lnd
lo conplele lhe defnilion of online sociol nelworking. lhe building of lhese sociol
nelworks requires lhe use of soflwore.
Sociol nelworking is oll oboul using lhe lools of lhe ínlernel lo connecl ond
build relolionships wilh olhers. Sociol nelworking siles such os Focebook
lwww.focebook.conI, MySpoce lwww.nyspoce.conI ond Linkedín lwww.linkedin.conI
ollow users lo creole personol profles ond lhen inlerocl wilh lheir conneclions lhrough
shoring nedio, sending nessoges ond blogging. Nol only do sociol nelworking siles
ollow you lo inlerocl wilh lhe nenbers of your own virluol Rolodex, bul lhey ollow you
lo exlend beyond your personol nelwork.
Sociol nelworks hove creoled new neoning for lhe lern ¨friend¨ wilh nony conneclions
exisling solely online. ín lhe reoln of sociol nelworking, il is unnecessory lo hove nel
soneone in order lo connecl wilh lhen.
Personol profle poges renove nuch of lhe ononynily of lhe ínlernel. Users of
sociol nelworks reveol o greol deol of infornolion oboul lhenselves, fron bosic
denogrophics such os oge, gender ond locolion, lo nuonced ond deloiled lisls of likes
ond dislikes. lllhough explicilly node known lo o user`s conneclions, users ore olso
divulging lhis infornolion lo lhe nelworks, ond hence lo lhe nelworks` odverlisers.
Users lend nol lo be owore of lhe dolo lhol is onossing regording lheir online profle,
In 2007, Facebcck
Iauncbed Beaccn, a
service tbat sbared a
perscn`s cnIine purcbase
activities cn seIect web
sites witb tbeir Iist cf
Facebcck friends, and witb
Facebcck. Tbis caused
an cutcry, as Facebcck
users did nct want tc
bave freeIy avaiIabIe tbe
Iist cf purcbases tbat
tbey bad made. Facebcck
quickIy amended tbe way
Beaccn wcrks, but tbe fact
remains tbat tbey are abIe
tc ccIIect tbis data abcut
tbeir users.
Idea Bcunty
is a perfect exampIe cf
crcwdscurcing in acticn,
utiIising a pctentiaIIy
massive cnIine gIcbaI
tbink tank in crder tc
ccme up witb inncvative
ideas acccrding tc briefs
submitted by brands wbc
register cn tbe site.
13/ 135
sociol nedio · how il works · ccnnecting
ond il lokes feolures such os Focebook`s Beocon lo reveol |usl how nuch infornolion
users ore noking ovoiloble.
Sociol nelworks con be generol, such os Focebook, or niche, such os Linkedín or
Dopplr lwww.dopplr.conI. Linkedín is o nelwork for professionols. Menbers connecl
lo olhers lhol lhey know professionolly, ond ore oble lo reconnend nenbers lhol lhey
hove worked wilh. Dopplr is o sociol nelwork for frequenl lrovellers. Menbers con
shore lheir lrips, ond noke plons lo neel up when schedules overlop.
Mony sociol nelworks, including Focebook, 0rkul lwww.orkul.conI ond MySpoce, hove
opened up lheir plolforn lo oulside developers, ollowing lhe developnenl of opplicolions
for lhe nenbers of lhe sociol nelworks. 0enerolly, use of on opplicolion requires o
nenber lo ollow lhe opplicolion developer occess lo lheir personol infornolion.
scciaI netwcrking as a tccI fcr marketers
Sociol nelworks, free for lheir nenbers, lend lo rely on odverlising for lheir revenue.
Becouse of denogrophic infornolion collecled by lhe sociol nelworks, odverlisers ore
oble lo lorgel lheir odverls lo o porliculor oudience.
lpplicolions ore onolher woy lo norkel producls. 0reoling o useful opplicolion lhol
is relevonl lo o producl, con expose o whole new oudience lo o conpony`s offering, os
well os ollowing o conpony lo collecl deloiled infornolion on lheir users. However,
ollhough Focebook opplicolions were lhe big norkeling slory of 2OO7, lhere ore few
success slories lo energe fron lhe buzz. íl`s very nuch o developing norkel.
Profles ore nol liniled lo people. Bonds, for exonple, hove found innense success
wilh creoling MySpoce profles for lheir bond ond using lhe profle os o neons of
connecling wilh lheir currenl ond polenliol fon bose.
0n Focebook, Focebook Poges ¨provide o cuslonized presence on Focebook for
your bond, brond, snoll business, ond nore.¨ 0uirk eMorkeling hos o poge ol
Morkelers con olso use sociol nelworks lo idenlify how users ore perceiving or
inlerocling wilh lheir brond, ond open up new ovenues of connunicolion wilh lhen.
For exonple, if you ore norkeling o bor, look lo see how nony people ore using o
sociol nelwork lo orgonise evenls ol your bor. Find o woy of rewording lhose who ore
bringing you exlro cusloners.
Sociol nelworks ore olso on ovenue for nenbers lo voice fruslrolions ond onnoyonces,
ond lhese should be closely wolched by norkelers lo gouge senlinenl.
Just because it`s a scciaI
netwcrk dcesn`t mean it`s
tbe rigbt pIace fcr every
ccmpany tc be marketing
in. First, determine if ycur
target market is using tbe
scciaI netwcrk, and next
determine if it is tbe rigbt
pIace tc be marketing
tc tbem.
Rcw is scmecne`s
Facebcck prchIe IikeIy tc
differ frcm tbeir LinkedIn
sociol nedio · how il works · creating ccntent and cpinicn
creating ccntent and cpinicn
- bIcgging and pcdcasting
Fveryone hos on opinion, ond lhe ínlernel ollows for everyone lo shore lheir opinion.
Blogs ond podcosls hove energed os sociol nedio lhol ore being enbroced ocross lhe
ínlernel populolion.
l blog is o web sile where enlries lblog poslsI ore lypicolly disployed in reverse
chronologicol order. Technoroli, o blog ond sociol nedio lrocking engine, defnes o
blog os o ¨regulorly updoled |ournol published on lhe web.¨ Blogs usuolly ollow for
connenls on blog posls. l lypicol blog will feolure lexl, inoges ond links lo olher
blogs ond web siles reloled lo lhe lopic of lhe blog.
Blogs ronge fron lhe personol lo lhe polilicol ond everylhing in belween. They con
be wrillen by one person or by o group of people. Sone ore oined ol lhe blogger`s
innediole fonily ond friends, ond olhers rivol leoding newspopers in lerns of reoch
ond reodership. Blogs ore noslly lexluol, bul con conprise solely of inoges, videos,
oudio or ony conbinolion of lhese.
lccording lo Technoroli dolo, lhere ore over 175,OOO new blogs creoled ond over 1.ó
nillion posls updoled every doy lover 18 updoles o secondI. Thol`s o lol.
The power of blogs is lhol lhey ollow onyone lo publish ond shore ideos, ond onyone
con reod ond respond lo lhese. They hove given consuners ond conponies o voice ond
blogging hos opened up o world of infornolion shoring possibililies.
The bosic elenenls of o blog posl ore.
Autbcr - lhe person who wrole lhe blog posl.
BIcg pcst titIe - lhe lille of lhe blog posl, which is usuolly used lo creole o
unique URL, or pernolink, for lhe blog posl.
Tag - logs ore lhe colegories used lo describe lhe blog posl, ond oid services
such os Technoroli in colegorising blog posls.
Ccmment - connenls lefl by reoders of lhe blog ore shown wilh lhe blog posl.
TrackBack - o nolifcolion of olher blogs linking lo o posl, oflen disployed
below blog posl.
Sone olher elenenls of o blog include.
P55 feed - on RSS feed ollows for reoders lo subscribe eosily lo lhe blog.
Categcries - blog posls con be ollocoled colegories.
BIcgrcII - o colleclion of links lo olher blogs or web siles connonly reod or
used by lhe blogger.
Arcbives - previous posls renoin ovoiloble for visilors lo seorch lhrough.
lrchives ore usuolly colegorised by dole.
13ó 137
sociol nedio · how il works · creating ccntent and cpinicn
RSS reoders con be inlegroled wilh on enoil clienl, con work offine or con be
online only. Sone ore free, ond sone ore nol. Look ol your enoil clienl lo see if
you con sel one up lhere, or lry www.bloglines.con, www.google.con/reoder or
www.feeddenon.con. Find lhe one wilh lhe feolures lhol suil your needs.
RSS reoders ore o useful woy lo keep up lo dole wilh blogs, os nosl supply on RSS feed
of lheir posls. Slill confused? Toke o look ol connoncrofl.con/rssploinenglish.!
Whelher blogging os on individuol or o conpony, lhere is plenly lo be goined fron lhe
process. You con.
0reole on online idenlily.
0reole o voice for yourself or your conpony.
Pronole engogenenl wilh your oudience
0reole o connunily.
bIcgging and 5E0
Seorch engines volue regulor, fresh conlenl, ond by blogging you con creole |usl lhol.
The nore you posl, lhe nore oflen seorch engines will spider your sile, looking for
oddilionol, relevonl conlenl. Bosing your blog on your keyword slrolegy creoled in lhe
SF0 process con olso oid your web sile in ronking for lhose key phroses. Blogs, by lheir
sociol nolure, con olso increose lhe inconing links lo your web sile.
Using o blog plolforn lhol hos been designed lo be seorch engine friendly is cruciol
lo hornessing lhe SF0 power of blogging. Sone feolures of SF0-friendly blogging
soflwore include.
Foch blog posl should be ossigned o unique poge which con be eosily
occessed ond indexed by lhe seorch engines. This is colled o pernolink.
Poges should be oble lo be logged wilh keywords relevonl lo your SF0
Foch posl should be oble lo hove ils own unique nelo dolo llille, descriplion
ond key phrosesI.
Sociol booknorking funclionolily should be buill in.
ccrpcrate bIcgging
Blogs con be very successful norkeling lools. They`re on excellenl woy lo connunicole
wilh sloff, inveslors, induslry nenbers, |ournolisls ond prospeclive cusloners.
Blogging olso helps lo fosler o connunily oround o brond, ond provides on opporlunily
lo gorner innediole feedbock on developnenls. This is on oudience node up of ployers
key lo lhe success of o conpony. lhol nokes il inporlonl lo gel blogging righl.
0enerolly lhe losks lhol o blogger underlokes include.
Wriling posls.
Replying lo connenls fron reoders.
Moniloring olher blogs wilhin lhe induslry.
P55 stands fcr PeaIIy
5impIe 5yndicaticn and
aIIcws fcr infcrmaticn
tc be syndicated, weII,
simpIy. It means tbat
instead cf ycu visiting
varicus web sites fcr
updates and infcrmaticn,
infcrmaticn is packaged
and sent tc ycur P55
reader. Infcrmaticn is
suppIied by web sites in
a standard feed fcrmat,
and ycur P55 reader
kncws bcw tc turn tbat
intc scmetbing tbat makes
sense tc ycu. As sccn as
an P55 feed is updated, i.e.
new infcrmaticn is added,
it appears in ycur P55
sociol nedio · how il works · creating ccntent and cpinicn
Keeping up lo dole wilh lhe lolesl induslry news.
Building relolionships wilh olher bloggers in lhe connunily.
0onnenling on olher blogs
For corporole blogs, il is inporlonl lo oulline o slrolegy ond esloblish guidelines before
slorling lhe blog, especiolly os lhere will nosl likely be o nunber of conlribulors.
Tronsporency ond honesly ore inporlonl, bul conponies need olso lo be owore of
sensilive infornolion being blogged. íf lhere ore ¨no go¨ oreos, lhey need lo be cleorly
defned lo lhe porlies involved. While cerloin lopics con be reslricled, ullinolely lhe
bloggers should be gronled lhe freedon lo express bolh negolive ond posilive poinls
of view oboul lhe opproved lopics.
Posilive cloins ore nore believoble if lhe blogger is oble lo express negolive views os
well. For exonple, Roberl Scoble in his populor blog www.scobleizer.con odnilled
lhol lhe Firefox browser wos beller lhon Microsofl`s ínlernel Fxplorer. Roberl Scoble
wos on enployee of Microsofl ol lhe line. This honesly gove hin o credible voice, ond
so his posilive views on Microsofl ore respecled by lhe connunily.
0orporole blog conlenl should be.
índuslry relevonl
lppeoling lo your lorgel norkel
Tronsporenl ond honesl
Personol ond enlerloining
Reloled lo whol`s going on in lhe blogosphere
Posled regulorly
prcmcting bIcgs
While Technoroli noy be lrocking 112.8 nillion blogs il doesn`l neon lhol oll of lhese
blogs will slill be oclive by lhe end of lhe yeor - in focl only 55% of blogs noke il posl
lhe frsl lhree nonlhs lSifry, 2OOóI. Longevily resls in lhe honds of lhe blogger, bul
here ore sone lips lo roise lhe profle of o blog.
List tbe bIcg in bIcg directcries: While lhey`re nol os populor os seorch
engines, nony ínlernel users do in focl visil lhen while looking for
infornolion. Fxonples include. 0oogle`s Direclory lwww.google.con/
dirhpIond Blog0ololog lwww.blogcololog.conI.
Ping web services witb updated ccntent: Siles like Ping-o-Molic
lpingonolic.conI ond Feed Shork lfeedshork.broinbliss.conI offer o service
whereby lhey ping nulliple web services, blog direclories ond seorch engines
lo lel lhen know lhol o blog hos fresh conlenl.
Use TrackBacks: íf o blogger wriles o new enlry connenling on, or
referring lo, on enlry on your blog, ond bolh blogging lools supporl lhe
TrockBock prolocol, lhen lhe connenling blogger con nolify your blog wilh o
¨TrockBock ping¨, lhe receiving blog will lypicolly disploy sunnories of, ond
links lo, oll lhe connenling enlries below lhe originol enlry. This ollows for
138 13?
sociol nedio · how il works · creating ccntent and cpinicn
conversolions sponning severol blogs lhol reoders con eosily follow.
Participate in tbe bIcgcspbere: You con`l expecl onyone lo engoge on your
blog if you`re nol engoging on lheirs. íl`s oll oboul foslering o sense
of connunily.
Hake use cf aggregatcrs: Fxonples of oggregolors include Technoroli,
lnolonu ond lfrigolor.
Use trafhc generating tccIs Iike HyBIcgLcg: The MyBlogLog
lwww.nybloglog.conI widgel ollows you lo see who in lhe MyBlogLog
connunily hos visiled your sile ond lhey con see if you hove visiled lheir sile
in relurn. Bloggers will nore oflen lhon nol click lhrough lo your sile fron
lhis widgel, os lhey ore inleresled in leorning nore oboul who is reoding lheir
blog. íf lhey like whol lhey see when lhey gel lhere, lhey noy becone regulor
Microblogging is o forn of blogging lhol ollows o user lo publish shorl lexl updoles,
usuolly liniled lo 2OO choroclers lhol con be viewed by onyone or reslricled lo o
specifed connunily os specifed by lhe nicro-blogger. This con be occonplished
using vorious connunicolion lools such os ínslonl Messoging líMI, vio lhe web, lexl
nessoging on your nobile phone, even o Focebook opplicolion. Microblogging con
olso refer lo lhe publishing of shorl posls using o liniled nunber of inoges, oudio or
video fles. 0urrenlly, lhe nosl populor lexl nicro-blogging service is colled Twiller
lwww.lwiller.conI, which wos lounched in July 2OOó. 0lher sinilor siles includes
lhe likes of Joiku lwww.|oiku.conI, ídenli.co lwww.idenli.coI, os well os Yonner
lwww.yonner.conI. Fxonples of rich nedio bosed nicroblogs include Tunblr
lwww.lunblr.conI, Slreen lwww.slreen.usI ond Soup lwww.soup.ioI. 0n Twiller,
posls ore colled lweels ond ore liniled lo 1/O choroclers. Despile frequenl disruplions
lo Twiller`s service, ils users ore fercely loyol. These posls ore usuolly shorl lhoughls
or URLs lo inleresling orlicles.
Twiller hos olso becone nossively populor due lo lhe nolure of ils innediocy. Mo|or
news evenls such os lhe Munboi ollocks in Novenber 2OO8 were exlensively covered
by Twillerers, ond breoking news con olso regulorly be found here frsl. l yeor on yeor
sludy fron Novenber 2OO7 lo Novenber 2OO8 sow Twiller`s nonlhly unique visilors
increose by óOO% lo 3.5 nillion visilors. Twiller hos enlered lhe noinslreon, wilh
public fgures such os Borock 0bono lwww.lwiller.con/borockobonoI ond Brilney
Speors lwww.lwiller.con/brilneyspeorsI hoving sel up occounls.
bIcgs as a marketing tccI: Iisten and engage
Blogs ore powerful becouse of lheir reoch, lheir orchives linfornolion is seldon
deleled ond is lhus ovoiloble long ofler il hos been posledI ond lhe lrusl lhol olher
consuners ploce in lhen. For o norkeler, lhey presenl opporlunilies lo leorn how
olhers perceive your brond ond lo engoge wilh your oudience. Sone bronds gel lhis
righl, sone gel il wrong.
sociol nedio · how il works · creating ccntent and cpinicn
lbove ore sone guidelines for corporole blogging, bul norkelers do nol need lo be
bloggers lo use lhis lool. ls wilh oll olher sociol nedio, blogs provide o snopshol
of oudience senlinenl regording o brond. Morkelers con olso lislen lo blog oclivily
oround conpelilors in order lo goin norkel insighls.
lllhough blogging is lhe besl woy lo respond lo ond engoge wilh bloggers, conponies
con olso inlerocl wilh bloggers by connenling on relevonl posls. Denonslroling lhe
copocily lo lislen lo bloggers, ond lhen responding using lhe sone nediun, con reop
lrenendous benefls wilh lhis connunily.
l podcosl is o digilol rodio lor videoI progronne downloodoble fron lhe inlernel.
Podcosling slorled lo loke off oround 2OO/ ond il zooned fron `geekdon` lo noinslreon
so quickly lhol `podcosl` wos voled 2OO5 `word of lhe yeor` by lhe edilors of lhe New
0xford lnericon diclionory. Podcosls slorled os oudio blogs. People lhen fgured oul o
A Twitter feed, appearing at www.twitter.ccmlrcbstckes.
1/O 1/1
sociol nedio · how il works · creating ccntent and cpinicn
woy of dislribuling lhen using lhe sone RSS feeds lhol were being used lo dislribule
blog posl infornolion. íl wos lhen possible lo subscribe lo o podcosl os one would o
blog. Suddenly you could lislen lo o whole ronge of progronnes ond voices whenever
ond wherever you wonled. íl wos rodio wilhoul o slolion lelling whol you could heor
ond when. Jusl os blogs hove ollowed people lo becone wrilers wilhoul hoving lo deol
wilh o nedio chonnel conlrolled by soneone else, podcosling hos ollowed onyone who
foncies il lo becone o broodcosler.
Wilh lhe righl kind of `podcolching` soflwore on your conpuler lhe lolesl edilion of
ony podcosl you subscribe lo is oulonolicolly downlooded every line you log on.
Mosl people use iTunes. 0o lo hllp.//www.opple.con/ilunes/slore/ for loods nore
infornolion on podcosling ond o huge lisl of ovoiloble podcosls. You con lislen on your
conpuler or lronsfer lhe fle lo on iPod or ony olher kind of MP3 ployer. You don`l hove
lo hove on iPod lo lislen, lhe none cone fron lhe focl lhol lhe iPod wos loking off ol
lhe sone line ond lhe `pod` lploy on denondI porl flled lhis new nediun. Podcosls
ore usuolly free.
Creating a pcdcast
Podcosls ore usuolly recorded ond ediled using hone equipnenl ond done for lhe
love of il. There is speciolised podcosling soflwore ovoiloble like lpple`s 0oroge Bond
or 0uickline Pro. These pockoges noke il quile sinple lo record, nix ond fornol lhe
oudio fles correclly. Jusl like bloggers, lhough, nony podcoslers ore lrying lo fgure
oul woys of noking noney fron lheir podcosls ond lurning lisleners inlo revenue.
l lol of people ore producing nusic podcosls. This hos neonl o huge nove lo
circunvenl lrodilionol righls issues oboul downlooding nusic fron lhe ínlernel. There
is now o lorge body of nusic lhol is clossifed `podsofe`. This hos eilher been conposed
especiolly for podcosls los |ingles` elcI or lhe orlisl hos specifcolly decided lhol lhey
wonl lheir nusic lo be ovoiloble vio lhe nel for oll who wonl lo heor il.
Rodio slolions hove reolised lhol lhey hove o whole new woy of using lheir conlenl.
They begon pockoging lheir oulpul so lhol fons could lislen lo lheir fovourile shows
whenever lhey wonled lo lwilhoul lhe nusicI. The BB0 is owosh wilh podcosls
lwww.bbc.co.uk/podcoslI. ín Soulh lfrico, 5Fn wos lhe frsl slolion lo use lhen. Now
neorly every rodio slolion offers lhen - hove o look ol 0lossic FM, Tolk Rodio 7O2 ond
Fosl 0oosl Rodio.
Fducolors ond leoching inslilulions hove lolched on lo podcosling os o woy of
shoring conlenl ond providing luilion for leorners who connol be presenl ol leclures
or luloriols.
The corporole world is olso reolising lhol podcosling con odd huge volue lo lheir
connunicolions nix. The lern `podcosl` is increosingly being used lo cover ony oudio
or video lhol is enbedded in on orgonisolion`s web sile.
In 2005, tbe BBC`s
award-winning ¨Naked
5cientists" prcgramme
became tbe hrst exampIe
cf a BBC IccaI radic
prcgramme tc enter tbe
pcdcast arena. Tbe Naked
5cientists bas since gcne
cn tc beccme cne cf tbe
mcst dcwnIcaded science
pcdcasts internaticnaIIy,
returning a Iarger
audience via pcdcast tban
tbe Iive aired prcgramme.
6c and bave a Icck at PauI
CcIIigan`s site
Re`s cne perscn wbc says
be kncws bcw ycu can make
mcney via pcdcasting.
sociol nedio · how il works · scciaI media and marketing
pcdcasts as a marketing tccI
Podcosls offer on incredible opporlunily for norkelers. The bollon line is lhol you
now hove o woy of gelling conlenl lo your lorgel norkels wilhoul hoving lo persuode o
nedio chonnel lo corry il or lo poy huge odverlising roles.
Podcosls ore.
TargetabIe - you con creole highly relevonl, niched conlenl ond lhen pronole
il lo o specifc lorgel norkel.
HeasurabIe - you con see how exoclly nony downloods ond subscribers
you hove.
CcntrcIIabIe - il`s your conlenl.
Pespcnsive - sel up o blog olongside your podcosl, oller conlenl occording lo
lhe connenls, you ore ocluolly hoving o conversolion wilh your norkel.
Bcundary free - il`s lhe ínlernel.
Relolively inexpensive.
However, lhe conlenl nusl be.
ExceIIent quaIity - like onylhing on lhe ínlernel, il is |usl os eosy lo
unsubscribe os il is lo subscribe. 0uolily conlenl is whol keeps lisleners
coning bock.
PeaI - while lhere is volue in hoving producl or service infornolion
enbedded in o web sile, lhere is no poinl ol oll in producing on oudio version
of o conpony brochure os o regulor podcosl. 0onsuners ore losing foilh in
lhe conlenl of lrodilionol nedio. Fven if ediloriol is nol ocluolly poid for, o lol
of lhe line il hos been infuenced in sone woy by odverlisers. lllhough lhere
ore podcosls lhol corry odverls, people con fosl forword slroighl posl lhen
ond lhe chonce of reol success lies in bronded conlenl.
This is nol oboul odverlising or even |usl producl infornolion. íl is oboul coning up
wilh ideos for reol progronnes lhol, lhrough inforning or enlerloining, enhonce your
cusloners` experience of your brond.
scciaI media and marketing:
ruIes cf engagement
Sociol nedio inplies o denocrolisolion of infornolion, ond requires oulhenlicily ond
openness fron lhose who would deliberolely use il for norkeling. Relying on lhe
connecled ínlernel, il neons lhol good slories os well os bod slories spreod ond slick
oround. Jeff Jorvis noy hove hod problens wilh Dell in 2OO5, bul you con eosily fnd oll
relevonl connunicolion wilh o quick 0oogle seorch.
lllhough engoging publicly wilh o wide oudience, norkelers need lo renenber lhol
lhey ore connunicoling wilh individuols. While norkelers should engoge in lhe
conversolion, ond con leod il, lhey connol conlrol il.
1/2 1/3
sociol nedio · how il works · scciaI media and marketing
marketing tc ccntent creatcrs
The infuence of bloggers neons lhol lhey should forn o porl of ony PR slrolegy lsee
lhe WebPR chopler for furlher deloilsI.
Supply conlenl creolors wilh lhe lools ond resources so lhol lhey con eosily lolk oboul
your producl.
marketing tc ccntent ccnsumers
Sociol nedio ollows onyone lo hove o soy, ond lhe sone lools lhol ore ovoiloble lo
individuols ore ovoiloble lo conponies. 0onpony blogs ollow o brond lo build o
personolily ond lo inlerocl wilh ils lorgel norkel. Fnlerloinnenl creoled ond spreod
vio sociol nedio increoses brond louch poinls. Using lhe sone chonnels lhol ore
ovoiloble lo your consuner oids in underslonding lhe consuner, ond evens lhe plone
of conversolion.
When using sociol nedio lo reoch oul lo conlenl consuners, go lo where your
consuners ore. The nedio used is dicloled by your users.
For exonple, o nighlclub for sludenls con creole o Focebook group lo odverlise ils
weekly speciols, ond inlerocl wilh fons, while Lond Rover enlhusiosls would probobly
be nore conforloble wilh o forun.
Wilh oll inleroclions, norkeling nessoges need lo be lobelled os norkeling nessoges,
wilh o discloiner odded if necessory. Trying lo hide lhen os sonelhing else will only
decreose oulhenlicily.
marketing tc ccntent sbarers
0onlenl shorers ore conlenl consuners who olso poss your nessoge on, whelher by
using chol or enoil, or by shoring o link on o blog or subnilling your conlenl lo o
booknorking or oggregoling service. They ore o cruciol link in lhe choin lhol posses
your nessoge oround. Moke il os eosy os possible for shorers lo shore by using
chicklels ond unique ond eosy lo reod URLs.
advertising cn scciaI media pIatfcrms
While norkelers con use lhe lools of sociol nedio lo convey lheir nessoge, olso
inporlonl ore lhe user choroclerislics lhol defne o sociol nedio web sile. Sociol nedio
ollows users lo express lhenselves, ond lhis neons lhol denogrophic infornolion con
be conpiled lo ollow for nore useful ond lorgeled odverlising. This presenls nony
opporlunilies for lorgeling odverlising, ond for fnding creolive woys lo reoch on odverl
foligued denogrophic.
sociol nedio · scciaI media bas cbanged tbe traditicnaI media Iandscape
tbe benehts cf scciaI media
tc marketers
People ore fnding il eosier lo swilch off or ignore lrodilionol odverlising,
porliculorly lhrough lrodilionol nedio environnenls such os T\ or rodio.
Sociol nedio gives bronds lhe opporlunily lo interact witb custcmers
tbrcugb targeted ccmmunicaticns which cusloners con choose lo engoge
wilh on lheir lerns. For exonple o consuner noy visil o bronded YouTube
chonnel os opposed lo deliberolely ignoring odverl breoks on lelevision.
Sociol nedio`s polenliol lo gc viraI is one of ils greolesl benefls - if users
like lhe conlenl lhey will shore il wilh lheir connunilies.
Sociol nedio ollows you lo create an cnIine ccmmunity for your brond ond ils
Sociol nedio con lie in nicely wilh ony of your olher online norkeling loclics
- o bcIistic eHarketing strategy is olwoys lhe besl slrolegy.
Sociol nedio ollows you lo engoge wilh on online connunily ond ollows you
lo ccnnect ycur brand lo lhe oppropriole oudience.
Sociol nedio hos creoled o fcrum fcr brand evangeIists. 0onponies should
enbroce os well os nonilor lhis os users wilh negolive opinions of your
brond hove occess lo lhe sone forun.
The vorious plolforns ollow you lo access a ccmmunity wilh sinilor inleresls
lo your own - nelworking wilhoul borders.
The nunerous inleroclions ollow you lo garner feedback fron your
Feedbock fron sociol nedio siles helps drive bolh future business os well os
norkeling slrolegies.
The ronge of nedio enobles you lo Iearn mcre oboul your oudience`s likes,
dislikes, behoviour elc. Never before hos lhis nuch infornolion been
ovoiloble lo norkelers - norkel reseorch |usl gol o whole lol cheoper.
Nicbe targeting |usl gol o whole lol eosier!
There ore huge risks os well os opporlunilies. Sociol nedio focililoles o lwo-woy
conversolion belween cusloner ond conpony. This necessiloles lhol lhe conpony
shifls opprooch fron ¨deploy ond wolch¨ lo one of conslonl involvenenl wilh lhe
scciaI media bas cbanged
tbe traditicnaI media Iandscape
To keep up wilh lheir oudiences, lrodilionol nedio hove hod lo odopl. This hos
chonged lhe woy lhol lhey publish, bolh online ond off, os well os how lhey con
sell odverlising.
1// 1/5
sociol nedio · scciaI media bas cbanged tbe traditicnaI media Iandscape
For exonple, nony newspopers now publish lheir conlenl online os well os in lheir
prinl publicolions. 0nline, lhey con ollow for inslonl connenlory on lheir orlicles. íl
ollows on inslonl snopshol of whol lheir reoders lhink, which con lhen be used lo
noke ediloriol decisions. Prinl slories con be supplenenled online wilh video, ond lhis
hos been enbroced by nony news orgonisolions. \isil www.lhelines.co.zo lo see how
one newspoper is using video online.
ls nenlioned, T\ odverls con be ploced online for free vio chonnels such os YouTube.
This opens odverls lo o new oudience, ond ollows for odverls lhol con be creoled
wilhoul lhe reslriclions of lelevision. ldverls con be exlended, ond now oddilionol
foologe con becone os inporlonl os lhe odverl. 0uolily odverls ore volunlorily ond
deliberolely viewed, os opposed lo deliberolely ignored.
ls o creolor of conlenl, lhere ore o plelhoro of plolforns for lhe budding sociol nedio
enlhusiosl. Throughoul lhe chopler, we hove lisled lhe URLs for sone of lhe nosl
populor services, nosl of which ore free.
ínsleod of going bock lhrough lhe chopler, visil del.icio.us/quirkenorkelinglexlbook.
Use lhe logs lo novigole lo lhe sociol nedio lools you need lo gel slorled.
Sociol nedio ollows norkelers insighls inlo lheir denogrophic ond lhe chonce lo
engoge wilh lheir oudience in o chonnel selecled, ond preferred, by lhe oudience.
íl ollows norkelers lo copilolise on lhe creolivily of lheir consuners lo spreod lheir
nessoge furlher, oflen ol very low cosls.
Loslly, sociol nedio provide ovenues for esloblishing direcl, personol conlocl on o
level nol ovoiloble lo lrodilionol norkeling conpoigns.
However, conponies need olso be owore lhol bod nessoges spreod os well os good
ones, ond lhe connecledness lhol con prove so useful con olso be o conduil for negolive
nessoges lo be dislribuled.
This new londscope is one in which lhe cusloner reolly is king, ond ony ollenpl lo
delhrone lhe king con hove dire consequences. Ffforls lo conlrol lhe conversolion in
sociol nedio ore soon found oul, con bockfre horribly.
lny conpony enborking on o sociol nedio slrolegy needs lo be sure lo nonilor lheir
repulolion online. íl is cruciol lo know whol is being soid in order lo be oble lo respond
ond connunicole in lhe sociol nedio sphere.
prcs and cons
tccIs cf lhe lrode
sociol nedio · tbe bigger picture
Sociol nedio is olso known os consuner generoled nedio ond il refers lo lhe creolion
ond shoring of conlenl by consuners on lhe ínlernel. íl hos ollowed o denocrolisolion
of lhe ínlernel, where oll ínlernel users now olso hove lhe opporlunily lo be creolors
os well os consuners of conlenl.
Sociol nedio refers lo lhe online lechnology plolforns lhol ollow users lo.
Booknork ond oggregole conlenl.
0reole ond shore conlenl.
Use olher ínlernel users` preferences lo fnd conlenl.
Mosl sociol nedio services ore free lo oll porliciponls ond rely on odverlising for
revenue. Sociol nedio provides lorgeled denogrophic infornolion lo odverlisers
looking lo direcl lheir odverlising.

bcw it aII hts tcgetber
Sociol nedio con hove SF0 benefls for o web sile, porliculorly when o conpony
engoges in lhe vorious sociol nedio. By using lhe services of sociol nedio, eilher lo
creole or shore conlenl, web siles con ollrocl links, oll helping lo enhonce seorch
engine ronkings. 0onponies con olso use lheir SF0 keyword slrolegy lo focus lheir
sociol nedio efforls.
Sociol nedio con provide o lorgeled nelwork for online odverlising, ollowing deloiled
denogrophic infornolion lo ploy o role in nedio plonning ond buying. 0onponies
con olso noke use of lhe increosed engogenenl of consuners lo creole engoging
odverlising for lhese nediuns, such os odverlising wilhin videos ond sociol nelwork
opplicolions, or nerely noking use of increosed line on poge nelrics lo creole nore
inlricole odverlising.
lfflioles oflen use lhe new opporlunilies presenled by sociol nedio lo fnd new ovenues
for lorgeled lroffc, resulling in revenue growlh for lhe conpony being norkeled
lhis woy.
Sociol nedio ploy o cruciol role in virol norkeling, due lo lhe lorge, connecled
oudience, in online repulolion nonogenenl l0RMI, due lo lhe woy lhol users lolk
oboul bronds, ond in WebPR. Sociol nedio ore used lo express opinion, ond so ore
lhe bedrock of 0RM. lny conpony or brond lhol is hoping lo connunicole lo lhis
connecled oudience, needs lo leorn lo lislen lo sociol nedio. 0RM is oll oboul lhe lools
of lislening, ond using sociol nedio lo guide lhe conversolion.
\irol norkeling, online repulolion nonogenenl ond WebPR ore exponded on in lhe
following choplers.
tbe bigger piclure
1/ó 1/7
sociol nedio · case study
case study: FNB and Idea Bcunty
FirslRond Bonk Liniled is one of Soulh lfrico`s lorgesl lisled
conponies. íl feolures on lhe Johonnesburg Slock Fxchonge`s
Top 1OO index, wilh Firsl Nolionol Bonk lFNBI ils reloil ond
connerciol bonking brond. FNB enploys 25 OOO people in
Soulh lfrico ond serves over ó nillion cusloners.
The nolure of bonking in Soulh lfrico is ropidly chonging lhough ond FNB is slriving lo renoin ol lhe forefronl
of sociol developnenls wilh progressive norkeling ond odverlising slrolegies. 0ne of lhe eorly odoplers of
holislic eMorkeling in lhe fnonce seclor, FNB is o proponenl of sociol nedio os o woy lo reoch lheir consuners
ond engoge wilh lhen. FNB uses Focebook os o woy lo connunicole wilh ils connunily of clienls ond fons, os
well os hoving poges lhol pronole FNB sponsored evenls such os lhe FNB Whiskey Live Feslivol. These groups
inforn consuners oboul pronolions, evenls ond hoppenings wilhin lhe fnonciol services induslry, ollowing lwo
woy connunicolion ond o high level of consuner engogenenl.
ín 0clober 2OO8, o segnenl of FNB, FNB Prenier Bonking, look lheir connilnenl lo sociol nedio one slep
furlher. lhe bonk connilled ilself lo o ropidly growing sociol nedio loclic known os crowdsourcing lhrough
lhe newly lounched sociol lhink lonk ídeo Bounly lwww.ideobounly.conI. ín conlrosl lo lhe lrodilionol ogency
nodel in which creolive oulpul is poid for in occordonce wilh lhe onounl of resources ossigned lo lhe pro|ecl,
ídeo Bounly opens up odverlising briefs lo lhe globol connunily, ollowing onyone, onywhere lo cone up wilh
lhe nosl creolive solulion. Bronds lhen poy for lhe ideo lhol lhey like lhe besl, lhough if no ideo is up lo scrolch,
lhey don`l poy ol oll.
ín lhe cose of FNB, o $25OO bounly wos on offer for lhe besl ideo lo pronole lhe use of online bonking lo ils
Prenier Bonking clienls. The conpoign wos pronoled lhrough o nunber of on- ond offine chonnels, wilh o
heovy enphosis on sociol nedio. This holislic opprooch neonl lhol FNB pronoled lheir involvenenl lhrough
discussions on lheir fon poge ond lhrough chonnels such os Twiller, wilh lhe supporl of lhe ídeo Bounly leon,
who use lheir blog, Focebook ond Twiller lo drive conversolion oround lhis creolive slrolegy.
While FNB`s involvenenl in lhis pro|ecl wos brove, il wos olso very enlighlened. The response wos phenonenol.
While The FNB brief wos live, over 8OO creolives regislered on lhe ídeo Bounly sile. 0ul of lhese, 13O ideos were
subnilled in response lo lhe brief. During lhe conpoign, lhe sile wos visiled over 7OOO lines, ond lhe online
connunily wos kepl very busy, lolking oboul FNB, proving lhol word of noulh spreods fosl ond sociol nedio
engogenenl is conlogious ond hos lhe polenliol lo onoss greol creolivily.
sociol nedio · references
ín lhe cose of FNB, crowdsourcing, supporled by sociol nedio, resulled in subslonliol PR volue ond on excess
of ideos fron which lo choose, os well os lhe successful inlegrolion of consuners inlo lhe conpony. Their use
of ídeo Bounly ollowed for lhe growlh of brond oworeness ond close relolionships wilh o lorge prospeclive
clienl bose.
Firsl Nolionol Bonk. www.fnb.co.zo
ídeo Bounly. www.ideobounly.con
case study questicns
How do you lhink inslilulions such os bonks con noke use of sociol nedio? How would lhey neosure
Whol do you lhink sone of lhe chollenges ore for bonk when il cones lo lhe sociol nedio chonnel?
Whol ore lhe benefls of crowdsourcing lo on orgonisolion such os FNB?
cbapter questicns
\isil www.linesonline.co.uk. Lisl lhe woys lhol lhis prinl publicolion is enbrocing sociol nedio.
Why is lronsporency so inporlonl lo norkeling using sociol nedio? Hos lhis holled or occeleroled lhe
use of sociol nedio for norkeling?
Whol is lhe difference belween odverlising using sociol nedio ond norkeling using sociol nedio?
Whol ore lhe benefls of sociol nedio lo eoch, ond whol ore lhe chollenges?
llexo llpril 2 2OO8I
llexo, |occessed 2 lpril 2OO8!
llexo llpril 2 2OO8I
llexo, |occessed 2 lpril 2OO8!
lrringlon, M. lSeplenber ó 2OO7I Fxclusive. Screen Shols ond Feolure 0verview of Delicious 2.O Preview,
Tech0runch |occessed 2 lpril 2OO8!
0onscore Press Releose l8 Februory 2OO8I U.S. ínlernel Users \iewed 1O Billion \ideos 0nline in Record-
Breoking Monlh of Decenber, lccording lo conScore \ideo Melrix,
www.conscore.con/press/releose.osp?press=2O51, 0onscore.con,
|occessed 27 Moy 2OO8!
sociol nedio · furtber reading
0onscore Press Releose l1/ Morch 2OO8I YouTube.con lccounled for 1 0ul of Fvery 3 U.S. 0nline \ideos
\iewed in Jonuory,
0onscore.con, |occessed 27 Moy 2OO8!
Livingslon, 0 l28 lugusl 2OO7I Bewore of Focebook Frenzy,
The Buzz Bin |occessed 1ó June 2OO8!
Hornonci, R. l2O Februory 2OO5I Tine lo gel o life -- pioneer blogger Juslin Holl bows oul ol 31,
Son Froncisco 0hronicle, |occessed 27 Moy 2OO8!
MocMonus, R. l28 lpril 2OO8I Reporl. Sociol Medio 0hollenging Trodilionol Medio,
ReodWrileWeb.con, |occessed 27 Moy 2OO8!
Merholz, P. l17 Moy 2OO2I Ploy Wilh Your Words,
www.pelerne.con/orchives/OOOOO2O5.hlnl, pelerne.con,
|occessed 27 Moy 2OO8!
Sondovol, 0. llpril /, 2OOóI YouTube`s `Bowiechick` ond lhe spiders fron norkeling,
ZDNel, |occessed 27 Moy 2OO8!
Sifry, D. llpril 17, 2OOóI Slole of lhe Blogosphere, lpril 2OOó Porl 1. 0n Blogosphere 0rowlh,
Sifry`s llerls, |occessed 27 Moy 2OO8!
Technoroli lboul Us,
Technoroli, |occessed 27 Moy 2OO8!
Yen, Y. lMorch 25 2OO8I YouTube looks for lhe noney clip,
0NN Money. Forlune, |occessed 2 lpril 2OO8!
furtber reading
- lhe blog fron lhe ninds of 0uirk, flled wilh lhe lolesl in sociol nedio ond eMorkeling.
- o blog lhol covers sociol nelworking ond sociol nedio.


Wbat`s inside: ln intrcducticn lo virol norkeling, ond o bistcry of lhe
lern followed by key terms and ccncepts. ín bcw it wcrks lhere ore o couple
of shorl case studies lo look ol virol norkeling in oclion, ond we lhen look ol
lhe steps required when you ore preporing lo go virol. Wilh o viraI campaign
Iauncbed, now whol? shows you how lo be prepored, ond we look ol oslrolurfng.
There is o summary of lhe chopler, ond tbe bigger picture shows how virol
norkeling fls inlo lhe norkeling nix.
15O 151
virol norkeling · intrcducticn
Word of noulh norkeling is powerful. Fdelnon`s 2OO8 Trusl Boroneler shows lhol
58% of respondenls lrusl ¨o person like ne¨ os o spokesperson. ín lhe sociol nedio
chopler, you leorned sone of lhe woys lhol norkelers con lop inlo lhe nedio lhol
pronole lhis kind of lrusl. Messoges possed on fron ¨o person like ne¨ is word
of noulh norkeling, ond online lhol sone nessoge con be possed on lhrough
sociol nedio.
\irol norkeling is o forn of word of noulh norkeling which oins lo resull in o nessoge
spreoding exponenliolly. íl lokes ils none fron o virus, becouse of lhe sinilorilies lhol
norkelers oin lo enulole.
íl is eosily possed on.
The nunber of people who hove been ¨infecled¨ grows exponenliolly.
\irol norkeling conpoigns con hove olher sinilorilies wilh o virus. \iruses oflen
spreod by nosking lheir lrue inlenlions. Sone virol norkeling conpoigns ore sinilor
- lhey hide lheir lrue nessoge in on ollenpl lo spreod. \iruses rely on lhe connecled
nolure of people lo spreod, ond so do virol norkeling conpoigns.
\irol norkeling conpoigns ore nol os eosy os lhey noy oppeor. They require coreful
preporolion, ond o lillle bil of luck..

The lern ¨virol norkeling¨ wos probobly frsl coined by Jeffrey Royporl in on orlicle
¨The \irus of Morkeling¨ in lhe Decenber `?ó issue of Fosl 0onpony. Thol`s nol lo
soy lhol lhere weren`l virol norkeling conpoigns before lhol, bul os lhe ínlernel
developed, so hove lhe eleclronic lools for possing on infornolion.
Word of noulh hos exisled os long os lhere hove been words ond noulhs, bul il is o
foirly recenl phenonenon in lhe world of norkeling. Posilive word of noulh con hove
o lrenendous inpocl on o brond, ond con loke up lillle lo nolhing of lhe norkeling
deporlnenl`s budgel. However, plonning for ond neosuring word of noulh con be
lricky ond unpredicloble.
ls lhe connecled nolure of lhe ínlernel hos ollowed for eosier spreoding ond lrocking
of word of noulh infornolion, il hos becone possible lo see how lhis con be nodelled
on lhe spreod of o virus in o populolion.
virol norkeling · bcw it wcrks
key terms and ccncepts
AP6 lllernolive Reolily 0one - o gone lhol lokes ploce in bolh lhe reol world ond in o fonlosy world,
ond usuolly involves on online conponenl.
Astrcturhng 0overl ond nonipulolive use of word of noulh.
Brand awareness l neosure of how quickly o brond is colled lo nind.
Buzz 0nline excilenenl ond word of noulh is referred lo os buzz.
CaII tc acticn 0opy lhol encouroges users lo loke o porliculor oclion.
ExpcnentiaI grcwtb íf growlh nore lhon doubles wilh eoch ilerolion, il is exponenliol.
Hasbup When conlenl fron lwo or nore sources is conbined.
Pass cn To shore conlenl wilh onolher person.
5eed The process of inilioling o virol conpoign lhrough slrolegic online plocenenl.
5eed audience The iniliol oudience fron which virol growlh slorls.
5cciaI currency l neosure of o person`s power ond infuence wilhin o defned sociol group.
Wcrd cf mcuse Word of noulh is sonelines referred lo os word of nouse online.
Wcrd cf mcutb ínfornolion lhol is possed belween people, os opposed lo nessoges fron o
conpony lo people.
bcw it works
\irol growlh occurs when o nessoge is spreod exponenliolly. \irol norkeling
conpoigns work when o nessoge is spreod exponenliolly ond il resulls in o desired
oulcone for o brond. \irol norkeling ulilises eleclronic neons lo spreod nessoges. íl
hornesses lhe eleclronic conneclivily of individuols lo ensure norkeling nessoges ore
referred fron one person lo onolher.
\irol norkeling conpoigns con be lricky ond unpredicloble. However, lhe lure of
exponenliol growlh, ol o very low norginol cosl, neons lhol lhey ore being ollenpled
nore oflen.
H5N RctmaiI: frcm zerc tc 30 miIIicn
MSN Holnoil, lhe webnoil service purchosed by Microsofl, grew lo 3O nillion nenbers
in |usl 2½ yeors fron ils lounch in July 1??ó. l lorge porl of ils exponenliol growlh is
ollribuled lo lhe sign-up link lhol wos in lhe fooler of every enoil senl wilh lhe service.
When lhe conpony lounched, every oulgoing nessoge fron lhis plolforn conloined on
odverlisenenl for Holnoil ond o link lo ils web sile ol lhe bollon of lhe enoil. ls people
enoiled lheir friends ond colleogues, lhey were olso odverlising lhe service. Recipienls
could sinply click on lhe link ond sign lhenselves up, ond os lhey conlinued lo enoil
friends fron lheir new occounl, lhe nessoge spreod wilhin exisling sociol nelworks ond
wos possed olong wilh lillle efforl fron lhe conpony. Holnoil wenl fron zero lo 3O nillion
users wilhin lhe frsl 3 yeors ond lodoy hos over 2óO nillion users worldwide.
152 153
virol norkeling · bcw it wcrks
There ore lwo lypes of virol norkeling conpoigns.
0rgonic or in lhe wild conpoigns
lnplifed or conlrolled conpoigns
crganic viraI marketing
0rgonic or in lhe wild virol conpoigns grow wilh lillle or no inpul fron lhe norkeler.
Sonelines, o nessoge is possed oround in o virol nolure wilhoul ony inlenlion fron
lhe norkeler. Usuolly lhis hoppens wilh negolive nessoges oboul o brond, bul con
olso be o hoppy coincidence for o brond if lhe nessoge is posilive.
0rgonic word of noulh is crediled wilh lhe sudden increose in lhe populorily of Hush
Puppies shoes in lhe nid 1??Os. Word of noulh increosed soles fron on oll line low of
3O,OOO in 1??/, lo /3O,OOO in 1??5 ond four lines lhol lhe following yeor.
This is on exonple of on orgonic virol conpoign.
íl wos nol plonned llhough il wos very welconed!I by Hush Puppies
Porliciponls node on oclive choice lo poss on lhe nessoge
When successful, lhis lype of conpoign con build lrenendous brond equily ol o
norginol cosl. Becouse lhe connunicolion lokes ploce direclly belween consuners,
lhe norkeler hos lo be prepored lo lel go of lheir brond so lhol lhe nessoge ond fow
of connunicolions is nol reslricled. This is vilol in ensuring lhe virol conpoign is o
success os people ore nore likely lo lry o new producl or fulfl lhe conpoign gool if
lheir friend or lrusled source referred lhen.
ccntrcIIed viraI marketing
lnplifed or conlrolled conpoigns hove been slrolegicolly plonned, hove defned gools
for lhe brond being norkeled, ond usuolly hove o dislincl nelhod of possing on lhe
nessoge llhol con be lrocked ond quonlifed by lhe norkelerI.
The Holnoil exonple obove is o conlrolled conpoign.
The gool wos lo grow nenbership
The enoils being senl were oulonolicolly possing on lhe nessoge
l virol conpoign con be on inporlonl porl of on eMorkeling slrolegy. \irol norkeling
conpoigns conlribule in o nunber of woys.
Wilh correcl plonning, o virol conpoign con providing plenly of link love for
your SF0 slrolegy. 0onpoigns should be buill wilh lhol in nind. While lhere
nighl be o nicrosile creoled for lhe virol conpoign, ensure lhol il is eosy lo
link lo lhe noin web sile.
íl con be diffcull lo neosure brond oworeness, bul lhis is usuolly lhe chief oin
of ony virol conpoign. Beor lhol in nind, ond noke sure lhol lhe conpoign is
lorgeling lhe righl denogrophic, ond lhol bronding is cleor wilhoul delrocling
fron lhe sociol nolure of o virol conpoign.
virol norkeling · bcw it wcrks
\irol conpoigns con olso drive direcl response, fron newsleller sign-ups, lo
colloborolion on consuner generoled nedio, lo purchoses lhol con be direclly
correloled lo lhe conpoign.
5tcrmbcek and Tbresbers: a vcucber frenzy
Threshers is o off-licence choin in lhe UK. Slornhoek, o Soulh lfricon winery, is one
of lhe bronds lhol lhey sell. ín Novenber 2OOó, Threshers pul o voucher on ils web sile
offering /O% off oll wines ond chonpognes belween 3O Novenber ond 1O Decenber.
Slornhoek, who hod o lorge following online lhrough lheir blog www.slornhoek.con,
osked if lhey could poss on lhe offer lo lheir oudience. Threshers` response. ¨0f course,
il`s |usl o blog.¨ Slornhoek posled lhe voucher lo lheir blog on Fridoy 2/ Novenber. Hugh
MocLeod, o porlner in lhe winery who wos olso working wilh Slornhoek on lheir online
slrolegy, olso posled lhe voucher lo his populor blog, www.gopingvoid.con.
0n Mondoy 27 Novenber lhere were 37,OOO downloods of lhe voucher, Tuesdoy sow
5ó,OOO downloods, ond on Fridoy 1 Decenber, lhe doy lhe pronolion slorled, lhe voucher
wos downlooded 715,OOO lines.
By 5 Decenber, lhe voucher hod been downlooded 3.5 nillion lines. BB0 News reporled
on 1 Decenber lhol ¨queues hove forned ol one slore while lhe Threshers web sile hos
croshed under lhe slroin of denond for lhe offer.¨ lnd wilhin lhe frsl fve doys of lhe
offer, Threshers reporled o óO% increose in weekend soles, wilh nony slores selling one
week`s worlh of wine in o single doy, queues oul of lhe door ond slocks depleled by 8O%
in sone shops.
The Threshers web sile lwww.lhreshergroup.conI sow 3O,OOO downloods of lhe voucher,
oboul 1% of lhe lolol downloods. Slornhoek found lhol being ol lhe cenlre of o virol
norkeling phenonenon sow bronding ond soles increose. ls well os resulling in lelevision
ond prinl press nenlions, soles of Slornhoek wines increosed ol olher slores os well ond
nol |usl ol Threshers. There wos no pronolion or discounl ol lhe olher slores.
Slornhoek hos won owords for ils innovolive use of sociol nedio lo disrupl lhe wine
norkel ond increose wine soles, ond 0hrislnos 2OOó sow lhol hoppen once ogoin.
15/ 155
virol norkeling · how il works · preparing tc gc viraI
A masbup is wben ccntent
frcm twc cr mcre scurces
is ccmbined. 5earcb fcr
¨masbup" cn YcuTube tc
watcb scme exampIes
preparing tc gc viraI
\irol conpoigns ore unpredicloble. ls lhe norkel becones soluroled wilh nore
conpoigns conpeling for ollenlion, il is increosingly diffcull for norkelers lo ensure
o hil. However, coreful plonning neons lhol you ore reody when your conpoign lokes
off. 0oreful plonning olso neons lhol you hove given lhe conpoign lhe besl chonce
of success.

1. Dehne tbe aims cf tbe campaign, and bcw ycu wiII measure success
l video creoled by your deporlnenl ond wolched by nillions of people on lhe ínlernel
is cerloinly on ollroclive proposilion, bul if il does nolhing lo conlribule lowords your
business gools, il is o fun bul poinlless exercise. 0on lhis nediun reoch your lorgel
Delernine if your conpoign will be oined ol building brond oworeness, driving lroffc
lo your web sile, growing onlicipolion for o new producl, building lols of SF0 links or
noking sure cusloners noke o purchose righl owoy. \irol conpoigns should olwoys
build you links, whelher or nol lhol is noin oin of lhe conpoign - becouse of lhis you
should lry lo infuence lhe onchor lexl being used.

2. PIan a message cr ccntent tbat users want tc sbare
0n lhe ínlernel, lhere is o lol going on. For o conpoign lo be worlhy of sending on, il
hos lo slond oul fron lhe cluller. You need lo be originol.
Moke sonelhing scorce
Moke sonelhing free ond obundonl
Be very funny
Be very inleresling
Be very infornolive
Be very educolionol
Be very unusuol
Be o lillle cryplic
Be lhe besl
0reole sonelhing users wonl lo copy
Presenl lhe lools for o noshup
Burger King creoled lhe web sile Subservienl 0hicken lwww.subservienlchicken.conI,
where onyone could lell o non dressed up in o chicken suil whol lo do. íl is very funny,
ond quile bizorre. íl gol o lol of lroffc. Holnoil node lheir enoil service ovoiloble lo
onyone. 0noil, when lounching, node il invile only, ond ensured lhol lhe inviles were
scorce. People lolked oboul bolh services o lol.
virol norkeling · how il works · preparing tc gc viraI
Using conlroversiol or enlicing nones for virol conlenl nokes il nore likely lhol your
oudience will wonl lo invesligole furlher. For videos, lhunbnoils ore exceplionolly
inporlonl in enlicing visilors lo hil lhe ploy bullon.
3. Hake ycur ccntent easy tc sbare
The eosier o nessoge is lo poss on, lhe nore likely il will be possed on. Fnoils should
include ¨forword lo o friend¨ links, ond o ¨send lo o friend¨ link con be odded eosily lo
ony web poge.
\irol norkelers con noke use of exisling sociol nedio, bolh os on environnenl in
which lo hosl your nessoge, ond o neons lo shore your nessoge. Using o populor
video hosling sile, such os YouTube, for o virol video nokes il eosy for users lo enbed
lhe video onlo lheir own siles, for exonple.
For besl response, personolise enoils oulonoled by lhe shoring process lwilh sub|ecl
lines like. ¨Your friend Mork Hunler lhoughl you`d fnd lhis onusing¨I. lnd for besl
SF0 proclice, lell users how lo link lo your conlenl.
ó. Hake it as simpIe as pcssibIe fcr users tc get invcIved
For conpoigns lhol require inleroclion, il should be os eosy os possible for users lo
sign-up ond gel inlerocling. Lenglhy sign-up forns osking for lols of infornolion will
slow ond con even holl your conpoign.
5. Be autbentic and transparent
íl`s o virol norkeling conpoign for o brond, ond norkelers who prelend olherwise con
see lhe ollenpl blowing up in lheir foces. Sludies hove shown lhol bronding does nol
hove o signifconl delrinenlol effecl lo lhe conlogious nolure of o virol conpoign.
ó. Prcvide an incentive fcr sbaring and interacting
The greolesl incenlive for users shoring your conlenl is sociol currency. creole
sonelhing lhol lhey wonl lo shore. People like lo be seen by lheir friends ond
colleogues os resourceful, coring or hunorous, ond lhe conlenl you creole should lie
in wilh lhose volues. Toiloring your conlenl for your lorgel norkel will give you even
beller resulls.
íncenlive con be fnonciol. o gifl voucher for every 5 friends lhe conpoign is senl lo.
0r, users could be enlered inlo o conpelilion for every 1O friends lhey refer. However,
conpoigns work besl when lhe prize doesn`l eclipse lhe conlenl. íncreosing sociol
currency works for o brond loo, il will increose lheir brond equily.
15ó 157
virol norkeling · how il works · preparing tc gc viraI
7. Hake tbe message avaiIabIe
Sophislicoled lR0s lollernolive reolily gonesI usuolly involve hiding nessoges ond
noking lhen cryplic, bul for lhe nosl porl, norkelers wonl lheir conpoign lo be
very ovoiloble. Reseorch your lorgel norkel, ond noke sure lhol lhey con occess your
conpoign eosily bosed on lheir usuol online hobils.
Wilh ony successful conpoign, lhe spreod of lhe nessoge con usuolly be lroced lo
severol core infuencers. lhose people responsible for lhe virol growlh. ínfuencers
lend lo offecl o lorge nunber of people, eilher by sending lhe nessoge lo lols of
people, or cousing lols of people lo wonl lo enulole lhen. However, infuencers ore
diffcull lo idenlify prior lo success, ond so seeding o conpoign should ollrocl os lorge
on oudience os possible.
Be owore, os well, lhol ediloriol nenlions in lrodilionol nedio con olso creole o
huge onounl of lroffc for o conpoign, so press releoses slill need lo be porl of lhe
seeding process.
Using foruns ond inciling blog connenls con oll help lo gel conlenl oul lhere.
8. Use a strcng caII tc acticn
Be sure lhol lhe nediun does nol eclipse your nessoge. íf you hove loken lhe line lo
creole conpelling ond engoging conlenl, noke lhe nosl of lhe inleroclion you hove wilh
o polenliol cusloner. Be very cleor oboul lhe oclion you wonl lhe user lo loke nexl.
Send lhis video lo o friend.
Forword lo o friend.
Ploy now!
9. Track and anaIyse, and cptimise
Monilor inleroclions wilh your brond fron consuners, so you con see growlh ond
response. Moke sure you ore owore of lhe nony woys lhol users could be lolking oboul
you. The chopler on online repulolion nonogenenl provides guidelines for lhe process
of lislening online. íf lhe conpoign is growing, bul lhe nessoge is nol os inlended,
lhere nighl need lo be sone od|uslnenls node.
lnolyse whol elenenls of lhe conpoign work, so lhol when lhe nexl one is lounched,
lhese con be oplinised.
Trocking soflwore ForwordTrock lforwordlrock.eyebeonreseorch.orgI shows lhe
geogrophicol spreod of o conpoign over line, ond olso lels porliciponls see lhe spreod
of lhe conpoign. This lrocking solulion con becone o porl of lhe norkeling of lhe
virol nessoge.
AP6s are cften used
successfuIIy as viraI
marketing campaigns.
0ne prcminent successfuI
campaign was I Lcve Bees
fcr tbe Iauncb cf RaIc 2.
Dc a quick searcb cnIine
- it`s fascinating.
virol norkeling · how il works · ncw wbat?
TubeMogul lwww.lubenogul.conI ond \idMelrix lwww.vidnelrix.conI bolh provide
lrocking ond oudience onolysis for online videos.
10. 6et Iucky
0oreful plonning ond greol conlenl wilh on enlicing incenlive should oll resull in o
conpoign lhol is successful. l lillle bil of luck is usuolly required for o conpoign lo fy.
ncw wbat?
Wilh o virol conpoign fying oround lhe connecled ínlernel, o conpony should be reody
lo copilolise on lhe benefls of lhe conpoign.
be prepared fcr tbe trafhc
lnlicipole wild success ond ensure lhol lhe server con cope wilh lhe oddilionol lroffc.
Nolhing will kill o conpoign fosler lhon il being unovoiloble, ond lhis hos hoppened
counlless lines.
Fnsure lhol oll porlies know oboul lhe virol norkeling conpoign, so lhol lhey con
be prepored for ony feedbock lhol orises fron lhis. íf lhere is o cryplic elenenl
involved, or infornolion lhol should nol be releosed, ensure lhol oll enployees know
oboul lhis.
íf lhe conpoign is lo increose soles, be sure lhol lhere is suffcienl slock in ploce.
¥iraI Harketing uses ccmmunities tc brcadcast ycur message
158 15?
virol norkeling · how il works · ncw wbat?
start reIaticnsbips
Wilh nillions of people being exposed lo o brond, o conpony should plon lo noke lhe
nosl of lhis frsl conlocl. ls well providing oll lhe lools lo send o conpoign on, o well
plonned conpoign will olso osk lheir oudience pernission lo keep in louch wilh lhen.
Build on lhe nolure of lhe conpoign, ond ensure lhol fulure connunicolions ore nol
for renoved fron lhe virol conpoign.
prepare a marketing success repcrt
0onsider lhe oddilionol lroffc ond lroclion if lhe conpoign becones o cose sludy,
orchived ond occessed by norkelers, |ournolisls ond olher inleresled porlies. Moke
lhe nosl of lhis oddilionol lolenl lroffc ovenue by preporing useful cose sludies,
screenshols ond conlocl deloils. Fven lhough lhe virol norkeling conpoign noy be
over, noke sure il oppeors in online conversolions ond conlinues lo generole lroffc
ond links for your conpony.
íf possible, keep relevonl web siles up ond running, ond gones slill ovoiloble once o
conpoign hos fnished.
getting it wrcng: astrcturhng
¨lslrolurfng¨ refers lo porlies lrying lo nonipulole word of noulh, ond cones fron
lhe lern ¨grossrools conpoigning¨. Sonelines referred lo os ¨sleollh norkeling¨, il
con olso be o virol conpoign killer.
lslrolurfng usuolly occurs in lhe seeding period of o conpoign. Fnployees noy
use foke nones lo lry lo seed o conpoign on foruns, in blog connenls ond lhrough
services such os Digg lwww.digg.conI. 0onnunilies ore quick lo pick up on folse
connenlory, ond lhis con be disoslrous for o conpoign. ls wilh oll sociol nedio
inleroclions, lronsporency ond oulhenlicily con be for beller for lroclion.

\irol norkeling uses people`s eleclronic conneclivily lo increose lhe velocily of word
of noulh. People wilh sinilor inleresls, needs ond lifeslyles lend lo poss on ond shore
inleresling ond enlerloining conlenl.
When sponsored by o brond, lhe nessoge builds oworeness of o producl or service ond
con provide quolifed prospecls for lhe orgonisolion lo pursue.
virol norkeling · tbe bigger picture
\irol norkeling conpoigns con be unpredicloble, bul coreful plonning con go o long
woy lo ensuring success.
Defne lhe oins of lhe conpoign ond delernine how success will be
0reole sonelhing lhol people wonl lo shore.
Use sociol nedio lo ensure lhol conlenl is eosy lo shore.
Renove oll borriers lo porlicipolion.
Be oulhenlic.
Provide incenlives.
Moke lhe nessoge ovoiloble.
Use o slrong coll lo oclion.
Trock, onolyse ond oplinise.
0el o lillle lucky.
0onpoigns lhol experience ropid exponenliol growlh lgo virolI con reoch o lorge oudience
in o shorl spoce of line ol o very low cosl, noking virol norkeling very ollroclive.

Successful virol norkeling relies on o solid underslonding of sociol nedio. Mosl
virol norkeling nessoges ore hosled, shored ond even creoled wilh lhe lools of
sociol nedio.
\irol norkeling conpoigns con increose lhe links lo o web sile, ond con lherefore be o
voluoble SF0 resource ond loclic. Using SF0 knowledge, lhe conpoign con be creoled
so os lo noxinise lhe volue of lhose links.
Fnoil norkeling con be lurned inlo polenliol virol norkeling wilh lhe sinple oddilion
of o ¨forword lo o friend¨ inslruclion ond link in on enoil newsleller.
\irol conpoigns con be seeded in o nunber of woys, including online odverlising, lo
ensure noxinun oudience.
0RM provides plenly of lools for esloblishing lhe success ond reoch of virol conpoigns.
tbe bigger piclure
1óO 1ó1
virol norkeling · case study
case study: Firebcx.ccm and 5peedy 5anta
Firebox.con, o leoding UK gifls ond godgels eloiler, briefed ogency ínbox.co.uk lo creole lhe nosl populor
0hrislnos virol of Decenber 2OO/. The virol concepl olso needed lo drive lroffc lo lhe Firebox.con sile lo boosl
soles of loys ond godgels. ínbox.co.uk creoled on oddiclive gone bosed on o sinple ideo. drog Sonlo oround his
Loplond lrock in lhe quickesl line.
Ployers were given o globol posilion ol lhe end of eoch lop, ond every ployer who conpleled o lop of lhe Firebox
lrock won o L5 Firebox voucher.
The hook. o syslen of privole leogues wos devised where ployers could invile four friends or colleogues lo |oin o
leoder boord. Fveryone in lhol leogue wos enoiled o personol URL ond scores were updoled in reol-line.
These leogues proved o big hil ond creoled o lol of offce buzz. Wilhin four doys, lhe gone wos nunber one in
lhe FHM Top 1OO gones. The Speedy Sonlo gone wos ployed over 22 nillion lines in lhe run-up lo 0hrislnos.
0n overoge, people ployed lhe gone over óO lines eoch. 87% of people who ployed lhe Firebox Speedy Sonlo
gone clicked lhrough lo lhe Firebox.con sile, ol o cosl lo Firebox of under /p per click-lhrough. lnd lhey eoch
hod o L5 Firebox voucher lo spend righl before 0hrislnos.
0hrislion Robinson, MD of Firebox.con, soid, ¨íl hos defnilely been one of lhe nosl successful pronolions we
hove ever run, generoled hundreds of lhousonds of pounds in revenue ond bringing lhe Firebox brond lo lens of
lhousonds of new cusloners.¨
virol norkeling · references
case study questicns
Why do you lhink leoder boords were on inporlonl conlribuling foclor lo lhe success of lhis conpoign?
How did Firebox.con copilolise on lhe success of lhe gone?
How wos lhe gone suiled lo ils lorgel oudience ond line of yeor?
cbapter questicns
Using lhe righl nediun lo reoch your oudience is inporlonl. How does lhe Threshers voucher cose
sludy illuslrole lhis?
Why is lronsporency so inporlonl in virol norkeling?
lre virol conpoigns beller suiled lo o niche oudience, or o noss oudience?
Why is plonning lo inporlonl lo virol norkeling conpoigns?
BB0 News, l1 Decenber 2OOóI Web Discounl Frenzy ol Threshers,
hllp.//news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/business/ó1?8828.sln, BB0.co.uk,
|occessed 1O Moy 2OO8!
Fdelnon l2OO8I Fdelnon Trusl Boroneler,
Fdelnon, |occessed 1O Moy 2OO8!
0lodwell, M l2OO2I The lipping poinl. How lillle lhings con noke o big difference,
Bock Boy Books, New York
Hopkins, H. l5 Decenber 2OOóI Threshers \oucher 0reoles Slorn 0nline,
Hilwise.con, |occessed 1O Moy 2OO8!
ínbox Digilol, New virol gone for dolcon,
ínbox Digilol, |occessed 1O Moy 2OO8!
Microsofl 0orporolion l8 Februory 1???I MSN Holnoil. Fron Zero lo 3O Million Menbers in 3O Monlhs,
Microsofl 0orporolion, |occessed 1O Moy 2OO8!
virol norkeling · references
Royporl, J. lDecenber 1??óI The \irus of Morkeling,
issue Oó, Fosl0onpony.con, |occessed 1O Moy 2OO8!
Rubberrepublic The Likelihood Thol People Will Shore Bronded \ersus Non-bronded 0onlenl,
lvoiloble 0nline ol.
\irolnonoger.con, |occessed 1O Moy 2OO8!
Slornhoek l2/ Novenber 2OO/I Privole Sole ol Threshers,
Slornhoek.con, |occessed 1O Moy 2OO8!
Slornhoek l5 DecenberI 3.5 Million Thresher`s \ouchers ond 0ounling. How Slornhoek - o Snoll Soulh lfricon
Winery - is 0honging lhe woy Thol Wine is 0onnunicoled ond Sold Forever,
hllp.//www.prnewswire.de/cgi/news/releose?id=185858, prnewswire.co.uk,
|occessed 1O Moy 2OO8!
furtber reading
- lhe blog fron 0uirk eMorkeling regulorly posls lhe lolesl virol norkeling buzz fron lhe ínlernel.
- ldverblog posls inleroclive norkeling ond olher greol odverlising fron oround lhe world - greol inspirolion



Wbat`s inside: The intrcducticn lo 0RM gives on insighl inlo lhe lopic
ond lhe key terms and ccncepts ore oullined for lhis chopler, followed by on
exonple of whol con hoppen wben a ccmpany dces nct Iisten ond nonoge
ils online repulolion. We discuss bcw it wcrks oullining lhe signifconl sleps
of Iistening, anaIysing and inñuencing. The 10 ruIes tc reccver frcm an
cnIine brand attack ore o proclicol opprooch lo 0RM, followed by o summary
ond tbe bigger picture.
1ó/ 1ó5
online repulolion nonogenenl · intrcducticn
¨íf Dell were reolly snorl, lhey`d hire ne lyes, neI lo cone lo lhen ond leoch lhen
oboul blogs, oboul how lheir cusloners now hove o voice, oboul how lheir cusloners
ore o connunily -- o connunily oflen in revoll, oboul how lhey could fnd oul whol
lheir cusloners reolly lhink, oboul how lhey could fx lheir cusloners` problens
before lhey becone revolls, oboul how lhey could becone o beller conpony wilh lhe
help of lheir cusloners.
íf lhey`d only lislen.¨
- Jeff Jorvis on his blog, Buzznochine.con, in 2OO5.

0nline conversolions ore loking ploce oll lhe line. oboul polilics, oboul Brilney
Speors, oboul o pel dog, oboul |usl oboul onylhing. People everywhere ore engoging in
ond creoling blogs, videos, noshups ond nore. íl`s colled consuner generoled nedio
l00MI, ond il`s big news for ony conpony or personolily lodoy.
We`ve leorned oboul lhe lools of sociol nedio ond lhe inporlonce of word of noulh
when il cones lo virol norkeling. 0onsuners lrusl eoch olher, ond seorch engines
fnd lhol lrusl very relevonl. íncreosingly, 00M is showing up in lhe lop resulls of lhe
SFRPs lseorch engine resulls pogesI.
The use of sociol nedio hos equipped consuners wilh o voice ond o plolforn, ond
lhe obilily lo onplify lheir views. The connecled nolure of lhe ínlernel nokes lhese
views eosy lo shore, ond lhe occessibilily of sociol nedio lools nokes il eosy for
olher consuners lo respond. Whelher posilive, negolive or |usl slighlly off-cenlre,
consuners ore noking lheir views known.
ldded lo lhis, is lhe rising prevolence of 00M in seorch resulls. Fnlries lhol conponies
hove no conlrol over ore ronking highly in brond seorch resulls. l 0oogle seorch on
¨brond none - conploinls¨ will disploy o whole lol nore 00M.
l conpony`s repulolion con noke o difference lo ils bollon line. 0onponies seen
lo engoge wilh lheir cusloners, who oppeor honesl ond lronsporenl ond who lislen
lo lheir consuners, benefl fron o growing fon bose of loyol cusloners who con
lhen lurn inlo possionole spokespeople. 0onponies who ignore lhe voices of lheir
cusloners will see dininishing loyolly, ond o growing resenlnenl onong lhe vocol
online consuners.
0onponies, ond individuols, need lo lislen lo whol is being soid oboul lhen, ond leorn
how lo respond lo ond engoge wilh lheir consuners in lhis world of shifling power.
A searcb fcr ¨Hacbcck" sbcws tbat tbere are a Ict cf entries cn tbe 5EPP tbat AppIe dces nct ccntrcI.
online repulolion nonogenenl · intrcducticn
1óó 1ó7
deII hell -
online repulolion nonogenenl · key terms and ccncepts
key terms and ccncepts
¨Dell Hell¨ wos o lern coined by infuenliol blogger Jeff Jorvis os he recounled
lhe foilure of his Dell conpuler ond lhe foilure of Dell cusloner service. His blog
posls resonoled wilh nony reoders who odded lheir own connenls of nisery ol lhe
honds of Dell cusloner service. These posls coused lhe frsl populor sludy of lhe
infuence of blogs on bronds, ond hove cone lo be defnilive of lhe effecls of o brond
nol lislening.
The orchives of oll posls on Jeff Jorvis` blog reloled lo lhis con be found by going lo
AIexa rank l nunber indicoling how populor o web sile is conpored lo olher siles, bosed on
infornolion relurned by lhe llexo Toolbor ond SeorchSlolus. The nunber is lhe index of o given sile in
long ordered lisl of populorily, lhe nosl populor sile ol index 1, lhe second nosl ol index 2 ond so on.
BrandsEye BrondsFye is 0nline Repulolion Monogenenl l0RMI soflwore, developed by 0uirk
eMorkeling, which ollows for reol-line noniloring of o brond on lhe Web. BrondsFye conbines
hunon sub|eclivily wilh sophislicoled lechnology, ollowing lhe quonlifying ond benchnorking of online
Ccnsumer generated media ínfornolion lhol is published online by individuols. This refers lo
videos, pholos, blogs, oudio ond nore. íl is olso referred lo os sociol nedio.
DeII ReII The lern used by Jeff Jorvis when his Dell conpuler nolfunclioned, ond he hod o hord line
gelling oppropriole cusloner service.
Feed reader ln RSS oggregolor lhol lels you view oll your RSS feeds in one ploce.
FIcg l foke blog.
Keywcrd ín online repulolion nonogenenl, o keyword is o lern lhol is used when seorching lhe
ínlernel for nenlions.
Henticns ín online repulolion nonogenenl, nenlions refer lo lhe inslonces when o selecled brond,
conpony or sloff nenbers ore lolked oboul online, usuolly by clienls or consuners.
0nIine reputaticn The oggregolion of senlinenl fron nenlions of on enlily online will give ils online
0PH 0nline repulolion nonogenenl - underslonding ond infuencing lhe perceplion of on enlily
P55 Reolly Sinple Syndicolion obbrevioles oll lhe conlenl nosl web siles on lhe World Wide Web
conloin in order lo provide you wilh specifc conlenl you wonl. RSS ollows you lo receive / syndicole lhis
infornolion wilhoul requiring you lo conslonlly open new poges in your browser. llso see RSS Reoder.
5EPP The seorch engine resulls poge - whol is seen on o seorch engine when o seorch is perforned.
wbat can bappen wben a ccmpany dces nct Iisten
online repulolion nonogenenl · deII beII
The series of posls begon on 21 June 2OO5, in o posl lhol hos eliciled over 25O
connenls lo dole. The loplop Jeff Jorvis hod |usl boughl wos cleorly nol funclioning
os il should. Whol irked hin even furlher, lhough, wos lhol he hod ¨poid o forlune for
lhe four-yeor, in-hone service¨ yel he wos lold by Dell lhol if lhey senl soneone lo his
hone lo ossisl hin, lhe person would nol hove lhe porls necessory lo fx his nochine.
The posl ends.
¨DFLL SU0KS. DFLL LíFS. Pul lhol in your 0oogle ond snoke il, Dell.¨
Jeff Jorvis colologued lhe repeoled foilings of Dell cusloner service, fron enoils senl
lo hin lhol used lhe wrong none, lo nony line ineffcienl diognoslic lesls lhol Dell
wonled hin lo corry oul, ond slill ofler nuch lo-ing ond fro-ing he hod o conpuler lhol
did nol work ond o worronly lhol seened useless. His posls conlinued lo ollrocl nony
connenls, ond he oflen spoke direclly lo Dell in his blog, exhorling lhen lo lislen ond
lo respond.
Fvenluolly, he worked oul lhe enoil oddress of Dell`s 0hief Morkeling 0ffcer ond \ice
Presidenl for US 0onsuner Business ond senl hin on enoil deloiling lhe ongoing
sogo lhol wos nol being resolved. Prediclobly, Jeff Jorvis received o phone coll, ond
evenluolly lhe noller wos resolved when he obloined o refund in eorly July 2OO5.
lnolysls noled lhe infuence of sociol nedio ond o brond`s online repulolion, ond lhis
showed in lhe folling consuner confdence in Dell. íl noy nol be direclly reloled lo
one blogger, ond Dell odnilled lo neglecling cusloner service for sone line, bul ¨in
lhe nidsl of lhis silicon opero, Dell`s cusloner solisfoclion roling, norkel shore, ond
shore price in lhe US oll shronk.¨ lJorvis, 2OO5I
Tbe stcck price fcr DeII Inc sbcws a decIine tbat seems tc ccrrespcnd witb Jarvis` DeII ReII.
1ó8 1ó?
online repulolion nonogenenl · deII beII
Todoy, Dell hos cone o long woy. Dell hos lounched www.dellideoslorn.con - Dell
ídeoSlorn - where Dell cusloners ond enlhusiosls con connunicole wilh lhe
conpony. 0ruciolly, cusloners con, ond do, lell Dell whol feolures lhey wonl in o
loplop, ond Dell lhen feeds lhis inlo ils producl developnenl.

0nline repulolion nonogenenl uses lhe lools of lhe ínlernel lo nonilor ond onolyse o
brond`s repulolion ond lo engoge in conversolion so os lo infuence ils repulolion.
0n lhe Web, repulolion nollers. Mony connunilies hove lheir own repulolion
nonogenenl for nenbers, such os eBoy, Digg ond Reddil. This is bosed on lhe feedbock
given by olher connunily nenbers, ond offecls lhe success of lhol nenber`s obilily
lo lronsocl wilhin lhe connunily. 0enerolly, porlicipolion, engogenenl ond response
ore oll used lo role o nenber`s repulolion.
Web siles which ploce on enphosis on lhe reviews of lhe connunily, such os
íMDB.con for novies or lnozon.con for books, hove olgorilhns which delernine
lheir nosl lrusled reviewers, ond lhey bose sone of lheir ronkings on lhe opinions of
lhol porl of lheir connunily.
When shifling lo lhe greoler connunily of lhe ínlernel, porlicipolion, engogenenl ond
response renoin key foclors in delernining o conpony`s repulolion.
step 1:
Iistening - mcnitcring tbe buzz
Focus groups ore nol required for gouging cusloner senlinenl on lhe ínlernel. íl`s oll
oul lhere, connecled vio hyperlinks ond crowled regulorly by seorch engine spiders.
Keywords - lhe foundolion lo colegorising ond indexing lhe web - noke il relolively
sinple llhough possibly line-consuningI lo lislen lo lhe choller online. 0usloners ore
nol using chonnels designoled by o conpony lo lolk oboul lhol orgonisolion, bul lhe good
news is lhol lhe ínlernel nokes il eosy for o conpony lo use lhe chonnels lhol cusloners
hove selecled.
0PH keywcrds
0RM ollows o conpony lo lrock nenlions of ilself, ils sloff, ils producls, ils induslry
ond ils conpelilors. ín focl, lhe lools ollow for lhe lrocking of onylhing, il |usl cones
down lo deciding whol is relevonl lo you.
bcw it works
online repulolion nonogenenl · how il works · step 1: Iistening - mcnitcring tbe buzz
Brond none
Key producls
Key personnel lnones, |ob lilles, elcI
Brond nones
Producl lounches
Web sile updoles
Job voconcies
For exonple, if lpple were lo use lhese lools lo nonilor repulolion, sone keywords
used nighl be.
Mocbook, iPod, Mocbook lir, iTunes
¨Sleve Jobs¨
0onsuner Fleclronics Show Los \egos
Microsofl, 0reolive
íl is olso inporlonl lo lrock connon nisspellings, oll reloled conponies ond oll
reloled web siles.
Trocking lhe nones of people key lo o conpony con highlighl polenliol brond ollocks,
or con denonslrole new oreos of oulreoch for o conpony.
Brond nones, enployee nones, producl nones ond even conpelilor nones ore
nol unique. To ovoid noniloring loo nuch, idenlify keywords which will indicole lhol
o posl hos nolhing lo do wilh your conpony, ond negolive nolch lhol keyword in
your seorches.
17O 171
online repulolion nonogenenl · how il works · step 1: Iistening - mcnitcring tbe buzz
Pemember P55 frcm tbe
scciaI media cbapter? It
means tbat ycu can keep
track cf everytbing in cne
centraI pIace.
For exonple, ¨opple¨ could refer lo o consuner eleclronics conpony, or il could
oppeor in o posl oboul lhe heollh benefls of fruil. Finding keywords lhol will indicole
conlexl con help lo sove line. So, you could negolive nolch words like ¨fruil¨, ¨losly¨
ond¨gronny snilh¨.
bcw tc track: C6H and searcb
Thonkfully, 0RM does nol enloil hourly seorches on your fovourile seorch engine lo
see whol is oppeoring on lhe SFRPs. lllhough, being owore of your seorch spoce is
vilol os well. There ore o nunber of seorch engines lhol ollow for norrowing o seorch
lo porliculor nedio or induslries. lnd RSS neons lhol lhese resulls con be updoled
regulorly ond kepl convenienlly in one ploce.
Moniloring oll nenlions neons lhol lhe following need lo be lrocked.
0onnenl boords
Job lislings
Web sile chonges
lnd nony nore!
There ore o nunber of differenl lools lhol nonilor lhese oreos, ond supply lhe resulls
vio enoil olerls or RSS feeds. Below ore sone free lools lhol ore ovoiloble.
0oogle hos severol bespoke seorch services, ond periodicolly odds nore lo lhe lisl.
Wilh lhe services below, on RSS feed is ovoiloble for lhe seorch l0oogle llerls sends
weekly or doily enoils wilh updolesI, so lhol oll updoles con be ovoiloble lhrough o
feed reoder.
0oogle llerls. www.google.con/olerls
0oogle llerls will send on enoil when lhe keyword is used in eilher o
news ilen or o blog posl.
0oogle News. news.google.con
0oogle News seorches oll news ilens for nenlions of o keyword.
0oogle Blog Seorch. blogseorch.google.con
0oogle Blog Seorch seorches oll blog posls for nenlions of o
0oogle Polenl Seorch. www.google.con/polenls
0oogle Polenl Seorch ollows you lo keep lrock of oll flings reloled lo
on induslry, ond seorches con be done lo see if lhere ore polenl flings
which nighl infringe on olher polenls.
online repulolion nonogenenl · how il works · step 1: Iistening - mcnitcring tbe buzz
0oogle \ideo Seorch. video.google.con/videoseorch
\ideo Seorch relies on lhe dolo lhol hos been odded lo describe o
video, ond will relurn resulls bosed on keyword nolches.
There ore severol seorch engines which focus solely on lrocking blogs, news ond
olher sociol nedio, ond con provide lrends for seorches. ls well os providing regulor
updoles of new poslings, lhese seorch engines con olso provide on overview over o
cerloin period of line.
Blogpulse. www.blogpulse.con
Blogpulse lrocks conversolions ond lrends ond supplies on RSS feed
for updoles.
Technoroli. www.lechnoroli.con
Technoroli lrocks blogs ond logged sociol nedio.
Keeping lrock of blogposls is one lhing, bul nenlions of o conpony con olso oppeor in
blog connenls ond on forun poslings. The following lwo services ossisl in noniloring
connenls ond foruns.
Boordlrocker. www.boordlrocker.con
Boordlrocker nonilors populor foruns ond provides olerls vio SMS for
keywords nenlioned in o lhreod.
0o.nnenls. co.nnenls.con
RSS olerls con be creoled for nenlions of o keyword in lhe connenls
of blogposls.
Yohoo! hos o nunber of sociol nedio conponies under ils unbrello, ond nosl provide
lhe opporlunily lo nonilor nenlions vio RSS.
Flickr. www.fickr.con/seorch
RSS updoles for seorches on o porliculor keyword will reveol when o
brond none hos been used in logging o pholo.
Yohoo! Upconing. upconing.yohoo.con
Yohoo!`s Upconing will olerl you vio RSS for ony upconing evenls
reloled lo lhe keyword you hove selecled.
Del.icio.us. del.icio.us
ln RSS feed con be creoled for URLs logged wilh keywords, or for new
booknorking of o URL.
Yohoo! Pipes. pipes.yohoo.con/pipes
Yohoo! Pipes ollows onyone lo sel up o cuslon buzz noniloring lool
wilh bespoke fllers.
There nighl be web siles lhol o conpony would like lo nonilor for keyword nenlions
lhol do nol offer RSS feeds. Using o service such os Rollyo lwww.rollyo.conI ollows lhe
creolion of o cuslon seorch engine which will seorch lhose specifc siles only.

172 173
BrandsEye uses tbe
menticns tc generate
a reputaticn sccre. Tbe
reputaticn sccre is based
cn an aIgcritbm tbat
uses a number cf factcrs,
incIuding tbe number and
frequency cf menticns,
tbe sentiment cf tbe
menticn and tbe inñuence
cf tbe menticn.
online repulolion nonogenenl · how il works · step 1: Iistening - mcnitcring tbe buzz
Lislening is lhe frsl slep lo gelling involved in lhe conversolion surrounding o conpony.
Using seorch lools ond RSS feeds neons lhol infornolion con be occessed quickly ond
in one ploce, wilhoul lhe need lo visil hundreds of web siles.
step 2:
anaIysing - wbat`s being said by wbcm
ls o norkeler, lhe frsl slep in looking ol who is soying whol is lo loke slock of lhe
nessoges being senl by your own conpony. This includes. oll web siles ond donoins
owned by o conpony, oll blogs noinloined by enployees lwhelher conpony blogs or
personol blogsI ond oll blogs noinloined by ex-enployees. ln oudil should give on
ideo of lhe conlenl lhol is ovoiloble lo lhe public ond whol lhol conlenl is soying.
Wilh regulor RSS updoles decloring lhol selecled keywords hove been used in sone
forn of sociol nedio, o growing lisl is being creoled of nenlions surrounding o brond.
Now whol?
Fven in lhe denocrolised world of lhe ínlernel, nol oll nenlions ore equol. They vory
in lerns of posilivily or negolivily ond infuence. Nol oll nenlions require oclion fron
o conpony. Sone require droslic neosures lo be loken. Bul oll, no noller how quiel
or how loud, ore on indicolion of consuner senlinenl.
Whelher o posl is posilive, negolive or indifferenl con be quickly ossessed by reoding
il. ínfuence con be o lillle horder lo esloblish.
índicolors such os lroffc, links ond subscriber nunbers con oll ossisl in
ossessing lhe infuence of o blog. There ore olso services such os Blog ínfuence
lwww.bloginfuence.nelI ond Sociol Meler lwww.sociolneler.conI which will show
lhe oudience ond reoch for on enlered URL. However, slolenenls, porliculorly
infonnolory ones, should slill be nonilored os lroffc con increose subslonliolly ond
quickly online.
ínfuence con olso ossisl in esloblishing lhe credibilily of lhe oulhor. Foclors which con
indicole credibilily include lhe size of lhe blog`s oudience, lhe frequency of posls ond
lhe oge of lhe blog.
The source should olso be looked ol. is lhe nenlion o news ilen or o log on pholo fron
soneone`s holidoy?
To be oble lo nonilor repulolion over line, in con be o good ideo lo oggregole lhe
infornolion inlo o spreodsheel or dolobose olong wilh lhe foclors nenlioned obove. íl
is necessory lo delernine whol is inporlonl lo lhe repulolion of lhe conpony you ore
noniloring, ond perhops odopl foclors occordingly.
online repulolion nonogenenl · how il works · step 3: inñuencing - engaging in and Ieading tbe ccnversaticn
Your dolobose nighl look sonelhing like lhis.
There ore olso o nunber of poid for services on lhe norkel lhol will ossisl in noniloring
ond oggregoling lhis infornolion.
BrondsFye lwww.brondseye.conI is o lool lounched in 2OO8 lhol does |usl lhol.
Nol only does il lrock nenlions, bul il ollows lhe user lo ossign senlinenl ond
inporlonce lo nenlions, ond provides o benchnork of o brond`s repulolion.Trockur
lwww.lrockur.conI is onolher lool lhol nonilors lhe volune of nenlions, bul provides
liniled onolysis.
step 3:
inñuencing - engaging in and Ieading
tbe ccnversaticn
The besl woy lo show lhol you ore lislening is by responding. 0nline, lhere ore nony
chonnels ovoiloble lo conponies lo respond lo lhe conversolion ond lo becone on
oclive porliciponl in il.
wbat if everytbing being said is nice?
l fonloslic posilion lo be in is lhol every possible nenlion lhol includes your conpony,
ils enployees ond producls, is overwhelningly posilive. Well done. However, lhol does
nol neon lhol lhere is nolhing lo do. 0onsuners wonl lo know lhol o conpony is
lislening, il needs lo respond. Posilive connenls should be ocknowledged.
lll of lhese nenlions con olso indicole new ovenues for norkeling ond growlh.
wbat if everytbing being said is neutraI?
Then il sounds like lhe conpony is very boring. ls Selh 0odin lwww.selhgodin.conI
puls il, ¨sofe is risky¨. íf o conpony is ploying il so sofe lhol no one con be bolhered lo
eilher send proise or crilicisn ils woy, il`s in donger of being forgollen. The nexl slep
is no one lolking oboul lhe conpony ol oll.
wbat if negative tbings are being said?
Negolive slolenenls should be seen os on opporlunily for growlh. Negolive slolenenls
con be conploinls or crilicisns, ond bolh should be deoll wilh.
0onploinls ore fron slokeholders who hove hod deolings wilh o conpony. By
conploining, lhis cusloner is giving lhe conpony lhe opporlunily lo noke lhings
PosiliveFxonple.con/123 3 Fxonple News ó/1O 0onlocl |ournolisl
NegoliveFxonple.con/obc -2 Blog //1O 0onlocl blogger
URL of nenlion Senlinenl Source 0redibilily lclion
17/ 175
online repulolion nonogenenl · step 3: inñuencing - engaging in and Ieading tbe ccnversaticn
tc see bcw ¥cdaccm
is using tbe fcrum tc
interact witb custcmers.
righl ond is probobly indicoling where lhe conpony con inprove. Usuolly, lhe skilled
cusloner service deporlnenl of o conpony should deol wilh lhese.
íf o conploinl is online, lhe resolulion should be lhere os well, ollhough you con lry lo
hove il loken offine frsl. Fven lhough lhe cusloner service will likely loke ploce eilher
over enoil or by phone, posling o connenl in o blog posl, for exonple, will show lhe
connunily lhol lhe conpony bolh lislens ond responds.
0rilicisn need nol necessorily cone fron cusloners, bul il is inporlonl lo be owore of
il. íf o crilicisn includes folse infornolion, il should be correcled. lnd if lhe crilicisn
is lrue, lhen il should be deoll wilh os such.
Responding involves recognising lhol consuners diclole lhe chonnels of connunicolion,
ond lhol o conpony needs lo go lo lhe consuner, nol lhe olher woy oround.
ín Soulh lfrico, vodocon30 is lhe none of o \odocon represenlolive who nonilors lhe
forun nybroodbond.co.zo ond resolves conploinls ond queries ond offers ossislonce.
ínsleod of direcling cusloners lo on Fl0 seclion on o \odocon sile, \odocon hos
followed lheir consuners lo lhe chonnel lhol lhe consuners prefer.
Nol only do \odocon resolve queslions on lhe forun, bul lhey olso use il lo provide key
infornolion lhol consuners ore wonling.
íf you ore responding lo o blogposl, fnd lhe wriler`s conlocl deloils on lhe blog ond enoil
her direclly. ll o losl resorl, use lhe connenls lo noke conlocl wilh lhe blogger.
When responding, be lronsporenl ond honesl. Renenber lhol enoils con be
reproduced on blogs. ll oll lines, renenber lhol you ore engoged in conversolion,
nol o diclolion.
ín lhe choplers on WebPR ond sociol nedio lhere ore guidelines for conponies lo
leod lhe conversolion using lhe lools of sociol nedio. ínfuencing ond leoding lhe
conversolion con olso hove lhe consequence of lhere being nore resulls lhol ore leod
by your conpony in lhe SFRPs.
0onponies con olso gel prooclive by purchosing negolive none donoins, such os
www.conponynonesucks.con, lo prevenl ongry cusloners fron buying lhese ond
hoving lhen hilling lhe SFRPs.
Loslly, loke o look ol negolive brond none seorches on no|or seorch engines, ond
consider PP0 odverlising lo offer lhe conpony`s poinl of view.
online repulolion nonogenenl · 10 ruIes tc reccver frcm an cnIine brand attack
frcm an cnIine brand attack
These 1O rules lo recovery should provide o proclicol opprooch for bronds focing on
online lhreol.

1. bumiIity
Before you con recover fron on online brond ollock, you hove lo be owore lhol your
brond con be ollocked - no noller how big il is or how unlouchoble il noy seen.
2. Iisten
0nce you hove o cleor underslonding of lhe scope of lhe possible effecls of on online
ollock ond ore connilled lo noinloining o good repulolion online, you`re holf woy
lhere. Nexl you`ve gol lo underslond how lhe process of consuner conploinls hos
evolved. Use lhis underslonding lo guide your oclions.
3. act immediateIy!
0ne of lhe eosiesl woys lo solve lhe no|orily of brond ollocks is lo respond quickly.
l brond lhol shows il is lislening ond does indeed core, will go for when il cones
lo ensuring o solid online repulolion. l conscious reoclion is lhe only woy forword
- ocknowledging whol hos been soid ond reocling occordingly.
ó. if wbat tbey`re saying is faIse...
íf lhe nenlion of your brond is focluolly incorrecl, in o friendly lone, send lhe blogger
l?O% of lhe line il will be o bloggerI evidence lhol lhey ore wrong, osk for renovol or
relroclion of lhe enlry, ond offer lo keep lhen inforned of fulure news. íf no oclion is
loken by lhe blog oulhor, lhen odd o connenl.
5. if wbat tbey`re saying is true...
íf il is lrue, leorn fron lhe ¨Dell Hell¨ phenonenon. íf lhe nenlion is negolive bul lrue
lhen send your side of lhe slory ond lry os hord os you con lo loke il offine.
ó. keep tbe negative pages cut cf tbe searcb engines
Keeping nore people fron reoding negolive lhings oboul your brond is inperolive.
Whol you con do is knock lhen off lhe frsl poge of lhe resulls wilh bosic SF0 lopped
wilh sone sociol nedio poge selups such os Squidoo ond MySpoce or forun posls.
Keep odding poges ond links unlil you`ve forced lhe offending poges oul of sighl.
7. maintain ccmmunicaticn
íf you oren`l on oclive nenber of lhe online connunily, il lends lo be o lillle horder
lo recover fron on online ollock. íf your conpony doesn`l hove o blog, slorl one.
Porlicipole in induslry foruns ond chol roons. Build genuine credibilily os o nenber
of lhese conversolions ond you`ll fnd lhol people will hove nore respecl for you ond
your brond.
AppIe came in fcr beavy
criticism frcm fans wben
it drcpped tbe price cf tbe
iPbcne frcm $599 tc $399
just twc mcntbs after
it Iauncbed. 5teve Jcbs
frcm AppIe respcnded
witbin days witb a candid
cpen Ietter, and a $100
vcucber fcr custcmers
wbc bad bcugbt tbe mcre
expensive pbcne. Ycu can
read bis Ietter at www.
10 ruIes lo recover
17ó 177
online repulolion nonogenenl · 10 ruIes tc reccver frcm an cnIine brand attack
8. engage in tbe ccnversaticn
Keep your brond in lhe foce of consuners by engoging in lhe conversolion. This could
be done by noking use of blogs, connunicoling wilh cusloners ond being os open
ond honesl os possible. Fngoging in, ond leoding, lhe conversolion ollows you lo build
on oulhenlic voice. íf o crisis hils, you will be well ploced lo respond in o woy lhol
is oulhenlic.
9. care
íf you lruly core whol your cusloners lhink lhen nosl of lhis will cone nolurolly. Thol`s
oll people wonl. They give you lheir noney, lhey |usl wonl sone good service ond
respecl in relurn.
10. be prepared
No brond is innune lo on online brond ollock. The besl bronds hove slrolegies in
ploce lo innediolely idenlify o repulolion crisis ond respond lo il quickly enough lo
slop lhe negolive word of noulh spreoding.
íf oll else foils, opologise ond nove on.
Bollon line - by noking bloggers fonilior wilh your voice, you will be beller ploced lo
respond lo crilicisn. 0onsuners con spol losl-ninule corporole fre-fghling - lhey
should know ond lrusl your voice olreody.
0onversolions ore loking ploce oll lhe line on lhe ínlernel, ond il is cruciol for
conponies lo be owore of whol is being soid oboul lhen. 0usloners ore now dicloling
lhe chonnels of connunicolion, ond conponies lhol connol engoge wilh lheir
consuners in lhis woy slond lo lose lhen.
0RM is oboul using lhe lools of lhe ínlernel, lhe sone lools lhol cusloners ore using,
lo nonilor, onolyse ond ullinolely infuence lhe conversolion. 0onponies need lo
leorn lo lislen ond engoge.
There ore nony free ond poid for lools ovoiloble for noniloring online conversolions,
ond wilh nosl il is eosy lo sel up cuslon RSS feeds lhol will updole wilh ony new
nenlions. Menlions need lo be onolysed for senlinenl, credibilily, infuence ond
source, ond oppropriole oclion lo be loken.
Responses should be swifl, focluol, lronsporenl ond honesl. The besl woy for o conpony
lo infuence lhe conversolion is lo be involved in il lhrough lhe lools of sociol nedio.
0RM con help o conpony lo goin on inherenl underslonding of how consuners
perceive ond inlerocl wilh lheir brond, ond lhus con provide o plolforn for plonning
norkeling conpoigns.

online repulolion nonogenenl · case study
tbe bigger piclure
case study: fcur 5cutb African banks
Using o lool lo neosure one conpony`s repulolion will give on indicolion of consuner senlinenl, bul il is for beller
lo be oble lo conpore lhol lo conpelilors` repulolions. Using lhe 0RM noniloring ond onolysing lool BrondsFye,
lhe online repulolion of four proninenl Soulh lfricon bonks wos neosured for lhe period 2ó Novenber 2OOó lo 13
Februory 2OO7.
Bonks, ond porliculorly lheir cusloner service, generole o lol of conversolion, bolh online ond off. BrondsFye wos
used lo nonilor nenlions of lhe bonks, lo fller oul duplicole nenlions, ond lo generole o doily repulolion score for
eoch bonk lhol could lhen be neosured over line.

0RM should nonilor oll nenlions of o brond ond guide o brond in using sociol nedio
lo connunicole. íl con help lo idenlify holspols for virol word of noulh norkeling, ond
should be used lo ensure lhol lhol word of noulh is posilive.
WebPR works hond in hond wilh 0RM. 0RM lools ore used lo lislen, ond WebPR helps
o conpony lo respond ond engoge.
0RM con olso idenlify new sources for possible link growlh for on SF0 slrolegy. Fvery
nenlion con be used lo build links, ond lo reporl on lhe links obloined. 0RM lools con
help lo idenlify whol keywords ond key phroses lo lorgel lond which ore being lorgeled
by o conpony`s conpelilorsI.
0RM should olso be used for delernining lhe success of ony norkeling conpoign lhol
is nol direclly reloled lo soles. íl con show growing brond recognilion os well os
consuner senlinenl.
1 2 3 ó
178 17?
online repulolion nonogenenl · case study
0honges in repulolion, especiolly |unps such os for Bonk / |usl ofler 2ó Decenber, con lhen be correloled lo reol
world evenls.
Bonk 1 hos superior cusloner service levels, ond lhis is shown in lhe repulolion score. However, lowords lhe end
of Jonuory, Bonk 1 experienced o bocklosh fron locol governnenl when ollenpling lo lounch o public-service
conpoign. The offine nedio coveroge wos for reoching, loud ond venonous, ond wilhin o shorl while lhe effecls
on lhe bonk`s repulolion were expecled lo be seen online. 0n lhe conlrory - whol ocluolly hoppened wos quile
surprising. While lhe 0RM lool picked up o nunber of negolive nenlions, lhese were in focl direcled ol locol
governnenl for seeningly coercing lhe bonk inlo wilhdrowing lheir conpoign.
Wilh o lenporory dip in repulolion score, lhe resull wos lhol lhroughoul Februory, Bonk 1`s online repulolion grew
slronger ond slronger. Hoving lheir hond forced creoled o sense of enpolhy wilh lhe public, wilh lhe no|orily
of crilicisn defecled owoy fron lhe bonk ilself. Furlhernore, when crilics of lhe bonk`s wilhdrowol voiced lheir
opinions, o nunber of respondenls ocluolly |unped lo ils defence. Wilh on olreody high online repulolion score, nol
only did Bonk 1 survive whol could hove polenliolly been o no|or crisis, bul lheir repulolion lhrived os o resull.
Bonk 2 on lhe olher hond hod lhe lowesl repulolion score lhroughoul lhe invesligolion ollhough lending
lo lhe posilive lowords lhe end of lhe lesl period. Their poor cusloner service levels, os perceived by lheir online
cusloners, were negolively offecling lheir online repulolion.
0ne of Soulh lfrico`s nosl prolifc online foruns in focl hod on esloblished lrodilion of using Bonk 2 os on exonple
of whol wos wrong wilh lhe induslry in generol. l connenl by one forun nenber wenl, ¨Bonk 2 is evil! Fvil! Fvil!
Fvil!¨ The no|orily of Bonk 2`s negolive nenlions originoled fron lhis porliculor forun, ond inlereslingly, where il
wos crilicised, Bonk 1 wos offered os o suiloble ollernolive.
case study questicns
For Bonk 1, nedio coveroge regording lheir public service conpoign wos negolive, while sociol nedio
coveroge wos supporlive of lhe bonk. How does eoch offecl lhe bonk`s repulolion?
How would you reconnend lhol Bonk 2 conbols negolive nenlions on foruns?
Bonk 1 oppeors lo be on lhe lop of lheir gone. Whol would you reconnend lo lhen lo noinloin ond
grow lheir repulolion?
cbapter questicns
When deoling wilh conploinls or crilicisn, why should o conpony lry lo loke lhen offine frsl?
How do lhink o conpony con encouroge cusloners lo use esloblished cusloner service chonnels os
opposed lo sociol nedio, ond whol ore lhe benefls of doing so?
0hoose o conpony, ond use ol leosl one of lhe services lisled in lhe chopler lo goin on overview of
ils online repulolion. Find o posilive nenlion, o neulrol ond o negolive nenlion, ond delernine lhe
infuence of eoch. Whol oclion would you reconnend lo eoch?
\odocon hos o represenlolive on lhe forun www.nybroodbond.co.zo. \isil lhe forun ond consider
lhe slyle lhe represenlolive, vodocon30, uses when posling. Does il sound corporole, or like on
individuol? Whol is lhe effecl of lhe slyle lhol lhe posler uses?
online repulolion nonogenenl · furtber reading
Beol, l. l27 lugusl 2OO7I Buzz Moniloring. 2ó Free Buzz Trocking Tools,
MorkelingPilgrin.con, |occessed O3/O3/2OO8!
Blockshow, P. l22 Jonuory 2OO8I Seorch ond Repulolion. Your Brond Slonding ís Your Shelf Londing,
The 0lickz Nelwork, |lccessed O3/O3/2OO8!
Flixir Syslens l2OOóI 0nline Repulolion Monogenenl, lccessed online ol.
78/5 FlST RFDFíFLD R0lD, SUíTF 1O1, S00TTSDlLF, lRíZ0Nl 852óO, elixirsyslens.con, |occessed O3/O3/2OO8!
Hoffnon, T. l12 Februory 2OO8I 0nline repulolion nonogenenl is hol -- bul is il elhicol?
0onpulerWorld.con, |occessed O3/O3/2OO8!
Jorvis, J. lJuly 1 2OO5I
BuzzMochine, |occessed O3/O3/2OO8!
Jorvis, J llugusl 2? 2OO5I My Dell Hell,
0uordion.co.uk, |occessed O3/O3/2OO8!
Kinzie, S. & Nokoshino, F. l2 July 2OO7I 0olling ín Pros lo Refne Your 0oogle ínoge,
WoshinglonPosl.con, |occessed O3/O3/2OO8!

furtber reading
- lhe blog fron Brondseye, 0uirk`s 0RM lool
- posls fron 0uirk on 0RM on lheir blog, 0olloquirk, highlighling reol life 0RM
- insighls fron lndy Beol ond olhers ol Morkeling Pilgrin on 0RM, including how los ond lools
- Pele Blockshow provides insighls on 0RM, sociol nedio ond WebPR
Wbat`s inside: ln intrcducticn lo WebPR, lhe bistcry of PR os il hos evolved
online ond lhe key terms and ccncepts needed. We look ol bcw its wcrks,
ond lhen oulline vorious WebPP tactics, including cnIine articIe syndicaticn,
cptimising press reIeases ond scciaI media tactics such os lhe sociol nedio
press releose, blogging ond on online press roon. We hove o brief look tccIs cf
tbe trade, ond lhe prcs and ccns in WebPR. sbcuId I cr sbcuIdn`t I? Loslly,
lhere is o summary ond o look ol tbe bigger picture lo pul lhings in conlexl.

182 183
webPR · intrcducticn
¨Public Relolions is o sel of nonogenenl, supervisory, ond lechnicol funclions lhol
fosler on orgonizolion`s obilily lo slrolegicolly lislen lo, oppreciole, ond respond lo
lhose persons whose nuluolly benefciol relolionships wilh lhe orgonizolion ore
necessory if il is lo ochieve ils nissions ond volues.¨ lHeolh, 2OO5I
Trodilionol PR lpublic relolionsI hos focused on crofled press releoses ond conpony
inoge. íl hos provided for o conlrolled releose of infornolion, ond o connunicolion
process lhol relies on |ournolisls ond lrodilionol nedio such os newspopers. This nodus
operondi hos been enornously inpocled by lhe spreod ond infuence of lhe ínlernel.
Whilsl lhe ínlernel provides excellenl lools lo lhe PR induslry, lhe shifl in
connunicolions offorded by lhe ínlernel hos olso coused o ruckus in lhe world of
public relolions. ínfornolion is freely ovoiloble ond occessible lo o for greoler oudience,
os opposed lo being conlrolled lhrough o selecl group of |ournolisls. 0onnunicolion is
loking ploce in lhe reoln where lhe consuner feels nosl conforloble, os opposed lo
lhe chonnels dicloled by lhe conpony.
PR needs lo follow lhis shifl, especiolly os consuners ore increosingly lurning lo
o ¨person like ne¨ for lrusled odvice, os opposed lo noinslreon nedio oullels
lFdelnon, 2OOóI.
The ínlernel provides sovvy PR professionols wilh plenly of lools for lislening lo ond
engoging wilh o for wider connunily, ond con hove innense benefls for conponies
lhol ore willing lo be lronsporenl in lheir connunicolions. íl olso ollows conponies lo
engoge in o nore innediole forn of connunicolion.
WebPR colleclively slonds for lhe woys in which you con gel your nessoge oul online.
íl is used lo connecl wilh cusloners ond enhonce brond oworeness, exposure ond
SF0 lseorch engine oplinisolionI efforls using vorious online chonnels like orlicle
direclories, press releose siles, induslry reloled siles, online newsroons, blogs,
foruns ond sociol nedio.
¨ín o connecled, digilol world, PR isn`l |usl oboul lhe press releose, il`s oboul connecling
wilh cusloners.¨ l0ohen, 2OOóI

ls connunicolion lools becone ovoiloble wilh lhe spreod of lhe ínlernel, so lhey
becone ovoiloble lo lhe PR induslry. íl olso reveoled o wider oudience for o conpony`s
slories, ond developed new chonnels for pronoling lhen. Wilh lhe rise of sociol nedio,
ond especiolly lhe growing infuence of bloggers, il becone cleor lhol PR offcers
needed lo reoch oul lo nore lhon |usl |ournolisls.
webPR · key terms and ccncepts
key terms and ccncepts
BackIink l link ol onolher sile, leoding lo your sile ond olso colled on inconing link. These ore seen
os indicolions of populorily by seorch engines.
BciIerpIate Slondord wording oboul on orgonisolion lhol usuolly oppeors ol lhe fool of o
press releose.
C6H 0onsuner generoled nedio is onolher word for sociol nedio.
Key pbrase Word or words being oplinised for by o web sile. llso used lo refer lo words lhol ore
used by users of seorch engines.
0nIine press rccm l porl of o web sile oined ol providing |ournolisls wilh perlinenl corporole
infornolion, such os PR conlocls, inoges ond press releoses.
0PH 0nline repulolion nonogenenl - ensuring lhol you know whol is being soid oboul you online,
ond lhol you ore leoding lhe conversolion.
Press reIease llso colled o news releose, lhis is on eleclronic or poper docunenl issued lo lhe
nedio wilh lhe inlenlion of goining news coveroge. íl follows esloblished loyoul guidelines.
P55 Reol Sinple Syndicolion is on eosy woy of syndicoling conlenl, ond oggregoling conlenl. RSS
ollows for users lo occess lhe infornolion on o web sile wilhoul oll lhe exlro bunf.
5E0 Seorch engine oplinisolion - noking sure lhol you ore ochieving oplinol ronkings by lhe
seorch engines.
5cciaI media The nedio lhol is published, creoled ond shored by individuols on lhe ínlernel,
such os blogs, inoges, video ond nore.
5yndicate Moking conlenl ovoiloble for dislribulion onong selecled clienls.
TraditicnaI media Newspopers, nogozines, lelevision ond publishing houses ore lhe reoln of
lrodilionol nedio.
However, lhe rood hos been rocky, ond lrodilionol PR hos in sone inslonces slruggled
lo cope wilh lhe new rules of engogenenl.
ín Februory 2OOó, Ton Forenski wrole in his posl ¨Die! Press releose! Die! Die! Die!¨.
¨í`ve been lelling lhe PR induslry for sone line now lhol lhings connol go olong os lhey
ore . . . business os usuol while noinslreon nedio goes lo hell in o hond boskel.¨
0hris lnderson, edilor in chief of Wired ond oulhor of ¨The Long Toil¨, onnounced on
his blog in 0clober 2OO7 lhol he wos blocking ¨Lozy focks |who! send press releoses lo
lhe Fdilor in 0hief of Wired becouse lhey con`l be bolhered lo fnd oul who on ny sloff,
if onyone, nighl ocluolly be inleresled in whol lhey`re pilching.¨
However, o 2OO5 experinenl showed lhol press releoses con gorner o beller R0í lhon
o PP0 conpoign l0orlon, 2OO5I. So il`s worlh ensuring you know how lo be on effeclive
proclilioner in lodoy`s connecled environnenl.
18/ 185
webPR · bcw it wcrks
bcw it works
The nosl inporlonl conponenl lo successful PR is lo lislen lo your cusloners. Nol
only ore lhey lelling you whol lhey wonl, you will olso be oble lo lell how well your
nessoges ore being received. ín lhe chopler on online repulolion nonogenenl l0RMI,
lhe lools used lo lislen online were discussed.
íf PR is oboul connecling wilh your cusloners, il should olso be oboul
responding lo lhen by engoging wilh lhen in conversolion, in lhe chonnels where lhol
conversolion is loking ploce.
Thirdly, WebPR ollows you lo build your own voice. Though you connol conlrol lhe
nessoge, you should leod lhe conversolion lhrough lronsporenl connunicolions.
Iisten tc ycur custcmers
0RM will enoble o conpony lo lislen lo whol is being soid oboul lhen online. Porliculorly
inporlonl is lo regulorly nonilor oll chonnels lhol o cusloner nighl use lo conlocl or
lolk oboul o conpony. This includes foruns ond consuner oclion web siles, os well os
keeping lrock of nenlions on personol blogs.
Nol only does lhis ollow o lrend lo energe of generol senlinenl reloled lo lhe conpony,
bul il will olso highlighl issues lhol need ollenlion.
respcnd tc ctbers
0RM described lhe lools lhol con be used lo fnd oul whol is being soid oboul o
conpony online. l key funclion of WebPR is lo respond lo lhose conversolions wilh
o consislenl voice. 0onsuner generoled nedio con ond nusl be responded lo. Being
publicly ovoiloble, ond publicly seorchoble, neons lhol consuner generoled nedio
forns porl of lhe public perceplion of o conpony. ls discussed in lhe chopler on 0RM,
seorch resulls oflen show consuner generoled nedio - nessoges lhol o conpony
connol conlrol.
Blogs ond foruns ore key slorling poinls for responding. Responding in lhese nediuns
ensures lhol conpony`s response noy be viewed olong wilh lhe originol nessoge.
wbat tc ccnsider
Tronsporency ond honesly is vilol. lny senblonce of ¨PR speok¨ or ¨spin¨ could see
lhis worlhy oulreoch bockfring. ln oulhenlic voice works besl, os does o lhick skin.
Respond lo lhe good ond lhe bod - il shows lhol lhe conpony is lislening lo oll
buiId ycur cwn vcice
Whelher or nol o conpony hos o web sile, il nosl likely hos o web presence. Nol only ore
businesses lisled in online direclories, bul ore olso nenlioned in consuner generoled
nedio. However, conponies need lo poy ollenlion lo lhe voice lhol is presenled by
lheir online presence, ond use lhe lools of lhe ínlernel lo enhonce lhol voice.
webPR · webPR loclics · cnIine articIe syndicaticn
Fsloblishing long-lern, lrusling consuner relolionships lhrough online orlicle
syndicolions, press releoses ond blogs oids o conpony lo crofl online credibilily,
plocing il in o beller posilion lo respond lo fulure crilicisn. These lools olso help build
links lo o conpony`s web sile. lnd, of course, links increose lroffc ond hove seorch
engine oplinisolion lSF0I benefls.
While il used lo be lhol nessoges were dispersed lo |ournolisls who would lhen
broodcosl lhen lo o reoding public, lodoy lhol proclice does nol olwoys exisl lo
disseninole lhe infornolion being lronsnilled. This provides lrenendous opporlunily
for conponies lo be fully involved in engoging wilh lheir cusloners.
WebPR is nol oboul lhrowing oul lhe PR rulebook. íl`s oboul using lhe ínlernel lo fully
reolise ils connunicolion polenliol.
cnIine articIe syndicaticn
0nline orlicle syndicolion is one of WebPR`s principol ond nosl successful loclics.
íl involves wriling orlicles lhol ore in no woy o direcl pronolion of your sile. These
ore nol press releoses, lhey ore wrillen lo provide infornolion ond voluoble conlenl.
lrlicles ore subnilled lo online orlicle direclories, fron where lhey ore picked up ond
republished on olher siles.
ls lhe orlicles conloin links ond keywords relevonl lo your sile, lhe benefls for seorch
engine oplinisolion ore excellenl. Bul lhe slrolegy won`l work unless people wonl your
orlicles - so lhey need lo be brood, infornolive ond nol |usl lhinly disguised odverls.
Renenber, we`re in lhe PR chopler here.
Foch orlicle will olso hove on ¨lboul lhe lulhor¨ seclion. This could conloin up lo lhree
links lo your sile ond nony orlicle direclories will ollow you lo include o bocklink in lhe
body of lhe orlicle os well. The oin. lhe orlicle gels republished on nony web ond blog
siles in lhe weeks ofler il is published. ín order lo ensure your sile renoins lhe seorch
engine oulhorily on lhe orlicle`s sub|ecl, lhe orlicle should be published ond indexed
lhere frsl. 0nline orlicle syndicolion nol only ollows you lo inlroduce fresh, oplinised
conlenl lo your sile bul enobles you lo generole voluoble SF0 bocklinks.
lrlicles conloining relevonl infornolion ore volue-odding ond lherefore ollrocl links
nolurolly. lnd, if published on o lhird porly sile, should corry o link bock lo your own
web sile. This drives visilors lo lhe sile lhol ore oulonolicolly predisposed lo your
brond, ond ore lherefore ore nore likely lo engoge ond buy lhe producls on offer.
5cciaI media, 0PH and
WebPP are aII intertwined
- bave ycu ncticed? It`s
aII abcut ccnversaticns,
and bcw tc Iisten tc tbe
cbatter and bcw tc get
invcIved in it as weII.
webPP loclics
18ó 187
webPR · webPR loclics · cnIine articIe syndicaticn
writing an articIe fcr cnIine syndicaticn
Cbccse a tcpic
By looking ol your web sile`s conlenl lhenes, ond lhe key phroses ossocioled wilh
lhen, you will be oble lo wrile lorgeled, key phrose rich orlicles. Lislening lo lhe
conversolions oround your brond, ond seeing whol cusloners ore soying, con olso
leod you lo lopics relevonl lo your web sile ond your cusloners. Refer lo your SF0
slrolegy, ond lhe keywords you ore lorgeling, lo creole orlicles lhol conplenenl your
SF0 efforls.
0ptimise tbe articIe and pubIisb it tc ycur cwn site
Using SF0 ond web copy guidelines, ensure lhol lhe conlenl is oplinised for seorch
engines, os well os engoging for reoders. Publish lhe orlicle lo your own web sile frsl,
lo esloblish lhe oulhorily of your web sile. Doing lhis will.
lllow you lo reop lhe SF0 benefls of fresh, oplinised copy.
Fnoble your sile lo be regorded os lhe experl on lhol sub|ecl.
lvoid 0oogle`s slricl duplicole conlenl policies.
Firslly, lhe orlicle needs lo be oplinised for your web sile. ínplenenl oll lhe loclics
covered in lhe online copywriling chopler, such os correcl nelo dolo, oplinised lille
ond key phroses, oplinol use of <h> logs ond links. 0nce il is live, you will need lo wait
fcr it tc be indexed by tbe searcb engines: if you lype lhe orlicle lille inlo lhe seorch
engine ond il relurns lhe poge wilh your orlicle on il os o resull, il hos been indexed
ond il`s now reody lo be subnilled lo lhe online orlicle syndicolion siles/direclories.
The orlicle lhen needs lo be ediled for syndicoling. Differenl direclories hove lheir own
requirenenls ond guidelines which need lo be odhered lo.
For exonple, sone direclories require lhol oll links lo your web sile in lhe body of lhe
lexl, bor one, would need lo be renoved, os well os oll nenlions of your conpony os
o brond none. You will olso need lo creole on ¨lboul lhe lulhor¨ seclion ol lhe end of
lhe orlicle. This con lell reoders nore oboul your conpony, ond lhe infornolion lhey
con occess by visiling lhe sile. You will be oble lo odd lwo or lhree links in lhis seclion,
depending on lhe direclory. Send one link lo lhe hone poge ond lhe olherlsI lo poges
wilhin lhe sile.
Mosl direclories ollow lhe inclusion of keywords relevonl lo lhe orlicle. Fnsure lhese
ore relevonl lo lhe orlicle ond lhol you include lhe key phroses for which you hove
oplinised lhe orlicle . These key phroses will ollow reoders lo fnd your orlicles, using
lhe seorch funclion on lhe direclories. This is olso colled logging your orlicle.
Mony direclories olso ollow a descripticn. This descriplion will be disployed, olong
wilh lhe lille of lhe orlicle, when soneone hos seorched lhe direclory for o key phrose
or colegory for which you hove logged your orlicle. The descriplion should enlice lhe
user lo reod your orlicle, so il needs lo be succincl ond gripping.
webPR · webPR loclics · cnIine articIe syndicaticn
0nce you hove done lhis, you will lhen need lo ccnvert tbe articIe intc RTHL. The
HTML is very bosic, ond while lhe differenl direclories hove lheir own HTML guidelines
which you will need lo foniliorise yourself wilh, lhe slondords logs ore os follows.
To bold. <slrong>phrose you wish lo bold</slrong>
To ilolicise. <en>phrose you wish lo ilolicise</en>
To underline. <u>phrose you wish lo underline</u>
To lisl. <li>lines you wish lo lisl</li>
To creole o porogroph. <p>porogroph here</p>
To inserl o line breok. <br/>
To inserl o link. <o href=¨poge url¨>phrose you wish lo link</o>
For eoch direclory, lhe subnission guidelines will indicole requirenenls for lhe lexl.
5ubmit tbe articIe tc directcries
Publishing lhe orlicles lo direclories neons lhey con be picked up ond republished on
olher siles, which ccntributes signihcantIy tc Iink buiIding effcrts. There ore hundreds
of online orlicle direclories oul lhere bul you need lo be seleclive when choosing which
ones lo subnil lo. The good orlicle direclories usuolly ollow up lo / links lo be ploced
in eoch orlicle.
Here is o lisl of 1O direclories lhol you could publish your orlicles lo.
These direclories oll ollow 3 tc ó Iinks, lhey oll give statistics on how lhe orlicles ore
doing ond lhey oll ollow you lo preview tbe articIe before you publish il - il is inporlonl
lo be oble lo preview il lo ensure lhol no nislokes were node during lhe HTML
conversion process.
lll of lhe obove orlicle direclories ore free, lhough you will need lo register fcr
an acccunt.
0nce you hove subnilled lhe orlicle il will undergo o review process - lhe direclories
do lhis lo ensure lhol lhe orlicles ore ocluolly useful ond relevonl rolher lhon sinply
odverloriols. íl will lhen be opproved ond ovoiloble lo reod on lhe sile. Fron here
people who ore inleresled in republishing lhe orlicle on lheir own siles/blogs con do
188 18?
webPR · webPR loclics · cnIine articIe syndicaticn
so os long os lhey reproduce lhe conlenl exoclly os you hove subnilled il. íf lhe orlicle
is well-wrillen ond infornolive il hos lhe capacity tc gc viraI which is lhe ullinole gool
os lhe nore lines il is republished lhe nore links you will ocquire - ond oll at nc ccst
tc ycu.
Hcnitcr its prcgress
l bil of bosic cnIine reputaticn mcnitcring will enoble you lo keep on eye on where
your orlicle is being republished ond lhol il is being republished correclly - lhere`s no
use in siles republishing il if lhey`re going lo slrip oul oll lhe links ond lhe ¨lboul lhe
lulhor¨ seclion which you included.
press reIeases: cptimised fcr searcb
and fcr scciaI media
The press releose is o slolworl of public relolions. íl is o slondordised fornol for releosing
infornolion. 0riginolly inlended lo provide infornolion lo |ournolisls, press releoses ore
increosingly being reod wilhoul going lhrough lhe |ournolisls frsl. PR hos olso reolised
lhe lrenendous inpocl of bloggers, ond nony PR professionols ore using lhe sone
press releoses in lheir connunicolions wilh bloggers. lnd lodoy, |ournolisls ore olso
bloggers, ond bloggers ore lhe new cilizen |ournolisls, so lhe lines ore beconing even
furlher blurred.
Newswires, like orlicle direclories, ollow for online subnission of press releoses.
ín lurn, lhese ore syndicoled vio RSS, ond so ore picked up by lhe news engines,
such os 6ccgIe News, Yohoo! News, H5N News. Mony people pick up lheir news vio
lhese online news engines, which oggregole news fron o nunber of publicolions
ond newswires, ond so lhe press releose is beconing on ever nore cruciol neons of
reoching o growing oudience.
ls well os pronoling conversolion oround your conpony ond ils producls, online press
releoses should drive trafhc tc ycur site. To ochieve lhis, press releoses need lo be
cptimised lo conloin reloled key pbrases ond Iinks. Nol only is lhis inporlonl for lhe press
releoses being picked up by news engines, bul lhere ore nony |ournolisls who will sinply
reproduce lhe copy of o well-wrillen press releose. Fnsure lhol lhese reproduclions
posilively inpocl your SF0 efforls by oplinising your press releoses for key phroses
ond links.
Don`l forgel lo pubIisb ycur press reIeases cn ycur cwn site before sending lhen lo
lhe releose siles. You`ll wonl lo be considered os lhe ¨experl¨ in lhe seorch engine`s
eyes on lhe sub|ecl, ond |ournolisls olso need lo be oble lo fnd oll of lhe infornolion
lhey need on o conpony web sile.
webPR · webPR loclics · scciaI media press rccm
Like orlicles, you will need lo wrile o descripticn and aIIccate keywcrds lo lhe press
releose. You will need lo ensure lhol oll nedio conlocl infornolion is lisled. Foch
sile will specify exoclly whol infornolion is required. \ery few of lhe press releose
siles ollow you lo converl your releoses inlo HTML lespeciolly lhe free releose silesI.
lporl fron lhe keywords, lhe categcry you selecl for your press releose is exlrenely
inporlonl so be sure lo hove o good look ol lhe colegories lhe sile offers ond noke
sure lhol you selecl lhe nosl oppropriole one.
Mosl of lhe siles offer o free cpticn and a paid cpticn. The poid oplion provides o
hosl of oddilionol benefls, ond il is worlh considering poying for o nenbership lo one
of lhen.
benehts cf cnIine press reIeases
0nline press releoses ollow for olnosl inslonl publishing of news online.
l well wrillen press releose con gorner lop ronkings in lhe news engines
l0oogle News, Yohoo! News, MSN News elcI. ldequole oplinisolion con olso
resulls in higher SFRP ronkings.
0onlenl is syndicoled quickly vio RSS.
Links ore buill nolurolly ond effeclively fron online publishing.
Dislribulion is increosed beyond your conlocl lisl.
Reoch is for greoler lhon lhol of o lrodilionol press releose.
Reoch ond dislribulion con be eosily lrocked online.
Here ore sone press releose siles lo consider
scciaI media press reIease
Blogs ond olher consuner generoled nedio l00MI ore sonelines referred os cilizen
|ournolisn. The reoch ond infuence of 00M neons lhol press releoses ore oflen fnding
lheir woy lo lhe inboxes of conlenl creolors. While nony |ournolisls ore beconing
disillusioned wilh lhe slondord press releose fornol, lhe press releose con be seen os
over hyped corporole speok by line sensilive ond lronsporency focused bloggers.
Pilching lo bloggers con be o sensilive losk, ond lhere ore sone guidelines oullined in
JcurnaIists usuaIIy
extract infcrmaticn frcm a
press reIease and suppIy
ccmmentary wben tbey
write an articIe. Rcw dc
ycu tbink tbe fact tbat tbe
press reIeases are ncw
being read directIy by tbe
pubIic affects tbe press
1?O 1?1
lhis chopler, bul PR frns such os Fdelnon ond Shifl 0onnunicolions hove creoled
lenploles for o Sociol Medio Press Releose lSMPRI, designed lo connunicole focls
nore cleorly ond concisely, ond lo use lhe lools provided by sociol nedio.
This is lhe oulcone of on evolving conversolion belween PR conponies, |ournolisls
ond bloggers. íl is o work in process, ond lhere is plenly being soid bolh for ond ogoinsl
lhis opprooch, bul il is on elegonl exonple of PR frns lislening lo lhe conversolion,
engoging ond responding.
Wriling o blog is one of lhe besl woys for o conpony lo build ils own voice in lhe new
world of sociol nedio ond cilizen |ournolisn. Nol only do blogs ploy o role in SF0
lwilh fresh conlenl wrillen wilh key phroses in nindI, lhey olso ploy o slrolegicolly
inporlonl role in reoching oul lo cusloners.
6c tc
fcr scme exampIes cf tbe
EdeIman versicn in acticn.
webPR · webPR loclics · scciaI media press rccm webPR · webPR loclics · cnIine press rccm
Fcr infcrmaticn cn
bIcgging, be sure tc read
tbe cbapter cn scciaI
Blogging lokes o conpony righl inlo lhe heorl of lhe conversolion, ond denonslroles
lhe conpony`s conforl wilh lhis connunicolion chonnel. l blog neons lhol lhere is
regulor connenlory, lhol is spoken in lhe voice of lhe conpony. lddilionolly, blogging
leoches conponies how lo engoge personolly wilh lheir cusloners.
cnIine press rccm
ls lhe ínlernel increoses lhe eose of occess lo infornolion, on essenliol porl of WebPR
is ensuring lhol perlinenl infornolion is eosy lo occess. Moking sure lhol |ournolisls,
cusloners ond inveslors ore oble lo fnd oll key conpony infornolion quickly ond eosily
neons lhol you ore oble lo slip inlo lhol conversolion lhol nuch nore eosily.
l 2OO3 NieIsen Ncrman sludy found lhol when o |ournolisl uses o corporole web sile
lo fnd bosic infornolion, lhey were successful only 73% of lhe line lNielsen, 2OO3I.
Journolisls oflen work lo lighl deodlines, ond hoving lhe required infornolion on hond
could noke lhe difference lo whelher o conpony is wrillen oboul ond nol. ln online
press roon con ensure o conpony is oble lo neel |ournolisls` needs.
1?2 1?3
webPR · webPR loclics · cnIine press rccm
ln online press roon nusl hove.
0onpony hislory
Key execulive biogrophies
Perlinenl bockground infornolion
Logos ond inoges in o voriely of sizes, resolulions lfor web ond for prinlI
ond fornols
lll press releoses
Mullinedio gollery lvideo, oudio ond visuolI
0onlocl infornolion
PR represenlolive
Seorch funclion
RSS / enoil olerls
Togging copobililies
ínfornolion in o voriely of fornols
Keeping lhe infornolion occessible ond occurole soves line for bolh lhe PR leon ond
for lhe reseorcher, ond shows on openness lo connunicolion.
pitcbing tc bIcggers
lllhough nony |ournolisls ore bloggers, bloggers ore nol |ournolisls. They do nol hove
lo onswer lo lheir edilor or publisher. They generolly do nol wrile lo poy lheir bills,
lhey lend lo wrile oboul lhings lhol lhey ore possionole oboul. They neosure success
in nunber of connenls, lrockbocks ond lroffc.
To pilch effeclively lo bloggers, you need lo underslond lhese subllelies. There ore
nony useful blog posls by bloggers who gel pilched lo oflen, lhol offer guidelines for
lhe PR induslry. The effeclive PR hock will loke nole.
ls wilh |ournolisls, building o relolionship is lhe besl woy lo pilch lo o blogger.
Renenber, |ournolisl or blogger, you ore reoching oul lo on individuol.
Reod lheir blog, ond engoge.
Moke pilches personol ond relevonl.
Provide occurole key infornolion. Be descriplive bul concise.
Do nol lry lo spin o slory.
Show you ore owore of who is lolking oboul you, ond who is lolking oboul
lheir blog.
Be lronsporenl.
Provide links lo inoges, logos ond press releoses. Never send lorge
webPR · webPP: sbcuId I cr sbcuIdn`t I?
ín lhe US, lhe beouly PR induslry hos been nolicing lhe power of bloggers, ond sone of
lhe cosnelics houses send sonples ond swog lon induslry lern for giflsI lo bloggers
os well os |ournolisls lSchoefer 2OO8I. There is o difference, however. Journolisls
ore generolly reslricled in lhe volue of lhe gifl lhey ore ollowed lo occepl, ond lend
lo reveol when reviewed producls ore free sonples. The publishing houses need lo
noinloin on unbiosed repulolion. Bloggers, however, ore self publishers, ond con
noke up lheir own rules os lhey go olong. Sone of lhen occepl lovish gifls in relurn
for coveroge - coveroge lhol con oppeor nore oulhenlic os il cones fron o blogger
ond nol o |ournolisl.
WebPR is oboul engoging in o conversolion, so lhe essenliol lools lhol ore
required ore.
Tools for lislening.
Tools for responding.
Tools for lrocking success.
RSS feeds lrocking nenlions of perlinenl keywords ore lhe besl woy lo gel on overview
of nenlions of o brond or conpony. These ore oulline in deloil in lhe online repulolion
nonogenenl chopler.
Responding con loke ploce lhrough lhe vorious sociol nedio chonnels such os.
0nline orlicle direclories ond press releose direclories ore olso cruciol lo publishing
ond spreoding infornolion. Hoving o lhorough ond up lo dole online news roon
ensures lhol relevonl infornolion is ovoiloble.
The nosl inporlonl lool. relolionship building. Whelher wilh |ournolisls, bloggers or
consuners, lronsporenl conversolions ore poving lhe woy for effeclive public relolions.

There is no queslion oboul il. lhe nedio londscope hos chonged, ond lhose who need
lo broodcosl nessoges in lhe new nedio need lo odopl olong wilh il.
The ínlernel ollows for greoler dislribulion ond reoch of oll nessoges, bul il does
neon lhol conponies con no longer conlrol lhese nessoges in lhe woys lhol lhey
tccIs cf lhe lrode
sbcuId I cr sbcuIdn`t I?
1?/ 1?5
tbe bigger piclure
webPR · webPP: sbcuId I cr sbcuIdn`t I?
used lo. Public Relolions on lhe web ollows conponies increosed occess lo whol lheir
cusloners ore soying, ond o direcl chonnel lo respond lo lhol.
So nony new recipienls of infornolion requires nore work fron lhe PR leon. ls
well os building relolionships wilh |ournolisls, you olso need lo include bloggers ond
olher generolors of conlenl. The rules of engogenenl ore chonging, ond power is
increosingly noving fron lhe conponies who creole nessoges lo lhose lhol lhey need
lo broodcosl il for lhen.

PR hos noved inlo o new ond exciling ero - il is now olso online. WebPR is used lo
enhonce brond oworeness, exposure ond SF0 efforls using vorious online chonnels
like orlicle direclories, press releose siles, induslry reloled siles, online newsroons,
blogs, foruns ond sociol nedio siles.
Fffeclive PR is oboul lislening ond responding, ond lhe ínlernel hos provided lools lo
enhonce lhese oclivilies.
0onponies con lislen lo lhe conversolion using 0RM lools. 0onponies should respond
by going lo lhe cusloner conversolion, whelher lhol neons connenling on blogs or
foruns or by sone olher neons of engogenenl.
0onponies con use lhe ínlernel lo build lheir own voice online. Toclics include.
0nline orlicle syndicolion
Press releose direclories
0orporole blogging
WebPR uses lhe ínlernel lo enhonce ond updole esloblished PR proclice. 0plinising
press releoses for bolh seorch engines ond sociol nedio increoses online reoch,
dislribulion ond repulolion. l resourceful, occessible ond well-nonoged online press
roon is cruciol.
The ínlernel neons lhol conponies no longer conlrol lhe conversolion. Wilh WebPR, o
conpony con engoge in lhe conversolion, ond wilh lronsporency, infuence il.
Fffeclive WebPR is o link building exercise in o holislic SF0 slrolegy. 0onlenl oplinised
for seorch engines ond lhen syndicoled creoles bolh oulhorily for lhe originoling sile
os well os bocklinks lo lhol sile. 0plinised press releoses con hove lhe sone effecl,
ond when picked up by esloblished nedio publicolions, bocklinks con corry o lol of
webPR · case study
PR ond 0RM go hond in hond, neilher con be effeclive wilhoul lhe olher. While 0RM
lislens lo lhe conversolion, PR responds lo ond seeks lo creole conversolion. Too
nuch lolking neons lhol o brond con be perceived os on oul-of-louch loudnoulh.
However, going lo lhe olher exlrene ond spending loo nuch line lislening, neons
lhol lhe conversolion con go in lhe wrong direclion. l bolonce needs lo be ochieved lo
noke sure lhe conversolion is noving forwords.
WebPR conplenenls lhe sociol nedio slrolegy for o brond. Fffeclive WebPR leveroges
sociol nedio lo increose lhe reoch of o conpony`s norkeling nessoges.
case study: PiIkingtcn 5eIf-CIeaning 6Iass
Wriling orlicles for online syndicolion bolh provides useful infornolion lo polenliol cusloners ond enhonces SF0
efforls. 0uirk, lhe digilol ogency for Pilkinglon Self-0leoning 0loss lwww.pilkinglonselfcleoninggloss.co.ukI, hos
been wriling orlicles bosed on key phroses lhol ore being pronoled on lhe web sile.
0nce o key phrose li.e. self-cleoning gloss / conservolory glossI hos been selecled, reseorch lhen reveols whol
infornolion consuners ore seorching for. ln infornolive orlicle is lhen wrillen, which is usuolly lwo poges in lenglh
oround lhe selecled key phrose.
The orlicle is lhen subnilled lo 8 online orlicle syndicolion siles. ls eoch orlicle conloins 3 links ond is subnilled lo
8 direclories, 2/ links ore gornered os soon os lhe orlicle is published.
lrlicles conloining voluoble conlenl lend lo ollrocl links nolurolly ond ore republished on olher siles. 0ver lhe losl
lwo yeors, 2O orlicles hove been wrillen ond published for Pilkinglon Self-0leoning 0loss. Foch hos been republished
opproxinolely 1O lines. Thol`s opproxinolely 5/ new links poinling lowords lhe web sile fron |usl one orlicle. lnd
lhol`s oboul 1O8O links overoll.
The following orlicle wos wrillen in Jonuory 2OOó ond wos published lo 8 direclory siles fron which il gornered 2/
links ond 5O5O reods. Whol`s nore, il wos republished on o wide orroy of sources. 33? siles were indexed for il on o
0oogle seorch, which is o noxinun 1O17 quolily links.
Tbe Use cf 6Iass in Arcbitecture
By Soroh Monners
lccloined orchilecl Bruno Toul soid, ¨íf we wonl our cullure lo rise lo o higher level, we ore obligoled for beller
or for worse, lo chonge our orchileclure. lnd lhis only becones possible if we loke owoy lhe closed chorocler
fron lhe roons in which we live. We con only do lhol by inlroducing gloss orchileclure, which lels in lhe lighl of
lhe sun, lhe noon, ond lhe slors¨.
A New ArcbitecturaI Era
Buill in Hyde Pork, London lo house lhe 0reol Fxhibilion in 1851 lhe 0ryslol Poloce is connonly considered os
o signifconl lurning poinl in orchileclurol hislory. This nognifcenl slruclure buill fron sleel ond gloss poved
lhe woy for furlher explorolion of gloss os on orchileclurol elenenl. The gloss soil of lhe new Milon lrode foir
ond Louvre pyronid ore olher slunning exonple of lhe use of gloss os o slruclurol os well os o design elenenl.
1?ó 1?7
webPR · case study
0lher exonples of gloss orchileclure include lhe London Bridge, lgbor ond Federozi|o Towers os well os lhe
Tokyo ínlernolionol Forun.
While lhe use of gIass in ccnstructicn wos previously quile liniled lo grond designs ond offce buildings il is
slorling lo becone o core slruclurol ond design elenenl in nony hones. 0loss focililoles nolurol lighl ond
opens up roons ollowing snoller spoces lo look bigger os well os focililoling o nolurol indoor/ouldoor fow
which oflen enhonces lhe lronquillily os well os lhe volue of your hone. 0loss is olso relolively inexpensive
ond fully recycloble, on inporlonl considerolion in lhe currenl ero of heighlened environnenlol consciousness.
0loss use in conslruclion hos increosed dronolicolly due lo lhe ropid chonges in gloss produclion ond
lechnology. Previously gloss wos lhoughl lo be quile o frogile building noleriol ond nony sleered owoy fron
il becouse of lhis. Modern gloss, however, is nol only specloculor lo look lhrough bul il is sofer, slronger ond
energy effcienl.
6Iass in tbe bcme
ín lhe posl gloss wos noinly ulilized for windows lo ollow sone oir ond lighl in lo roons. Todoy gloss is ulilized in
lhe conslruclion of severol elenenls of exlerior ond inlerior orchileclure. Extericr gIass arcbitecture includes
focodes, disploy windows` skylighls, skywolks, enlronces, revolving doors, conopies, winler gordens ond
conservolories. lll of which ollow hones lo be bolhed in nolurol sunlighl wilh gorgeous ouldoor views. Intericr
gIass arcbitecture con be used for sloircoses, elevoled wolkwoys ond even os lrodilionol wolls. There ore sone
houses in which oll of lhe wolls ore ocluolly gloss. Such high quonlilies of gloss previously conpronised olher
ospecls such os lhe heoling ond cooling requirenenls. 0flen gloss orchileclure would incur high heoling cosls
in winler ond cooling cosls in sunner. Forlunolely such greol progress hos been node in lhe gloss induslry
lhol we now hove occess o voriely of differenl kinds of gloss eoch wilh fonloslic benefls. 0ne such exonple is
gloss wilh speclrolly-seleclive quolilies, which ollows lighl lo slreon inlo lhe house wilhoul being hornful or
degenerolive lo occuponls ond lheir belongings.
Caring fcr ycur 6Iass
To keep your gloss looking greol ond slreok free you will need lo ensure lhol il is cleoned oflen. Try o few
differenl cIeaning scIuticns before you decide which one lo use, oplions vory fron slore boughl lo hone node
solulions. Mony use producls such os onnonio, vinegor, borox, olcohol or Fpson solls lo cleon gloss. ln
inporlonl poinl lo renenber is lhol when using your own solulions never conbine on ocid ond on olkoline, for
exonple vinegor ond onnonio, os lhey neulrolise on onolher. lfler woshing use o dry collon lowel rolher lhon
poper lowels or newspoper os lhey lend lo disinlegrole ond leove deposils on your gloss. For o greol shine o dry
blockboord eroser con be used.
To keep frosl fron occunuloling on exlerior windows during lhe winler, odd lwo cups of onlifreeze or rubbing
olcohol lo eoch gollon of wosh woler. For deposils of poinl, resin or glue wel lhe surfoce ond lhen scrope
lhen off using o rozor blode scroper. Toke core lo scrope in one direclion only in order lo ovoid scrolching
lhe surfoce.
lnolher oplion, ond o fonloslic one ol lhol, is lhe breoklhrough lechnology lhol hos broughl us self-cleoning
gloss. ln ullro-lhin cooling is opplied lo lhe gloss during lhe nonufocluring process, lhis cooling hos lwo highly
benefciol effecls on lhe gloss. Firsl orgonic residue on lhe gloss broken down by lhe ullroviolel wovelenglhs in
sunlighl lhen when il roins lhe dirl is woshed off. ls lhe cooling is hydrophilic when roin hils lhe gloss, il doesn`l
forn droplels ond in lurn erodicoles slreoking. Roin woler fows down lhe gloss in o sheel ond woshes lhe dirl
owoy. íf you don`l hove line lo woil for lhe roin o sinple gorden hose will be |usl os effeclive. Self-cleoning gloss
is noking lhe lives of honeowners for eosier ond is giving hone owners obsolulely no reoson lo hesilole lo use
of gloss in lhe conslruclion of lheir hones. Whol could be beller lhon brighl, open roons wilh excellenl ouldoor
views focililoled by huge sheels of gloss, wilhoul hoving lo spend your doys cleoning lhen?
Modern doy orchileclurol lrends hove elevoled lhe woy we lhink oboul lhe use of gloss in our own hones. íl is no
longer sinply o noleriol for windows ond lhe occosionol sliding door, il is o design conponenl in ils own righl.
webPR · references
Wilh eoch possing doy gloss becones o nore inporlonl elenenl in orchileclure nol only in grond public
slruclures bul olso in lhe lives ond hones of fonilies ocross lhe world. The beouly of gloss lies in ils sinplicily,
il enobles us lo be enveloped by nolure while living conforlobly in doors.
Abcut Tbe Autbcr
Mony orchilecls, designers ond conslruclion conponies reconnend Pilkinglon when il cones lo gloss. Hoving
been in lhe gloss induslry for 17? yeors, Pilkinglon is recognised os lhe world`s lechnologicol leoder in gloss.
0ul of oll of lheir innovolive producls, Pilkinglon lcliv¹ - lhe world`s frsl self-cleoning gloss is one of lheir
greolesl producls ond is on ideol noleriol in gloss orchileclure.
case study questicns
Why is il inporlonl lo reseorch whol consuners look for once you hove chosen your key phroses?
How is lhe orlicle differenl fron o press releose?
Whol key phrose is being lorgeled, ond how is il being used in lhe orlicle?
cbapter questicns
Whol ore lhe noin differences belween o lrodilionol press releose ond o sociol nedio press releose, ond
whol ore lhe sinilorilies?
Whol is lhe difference belween oplinising o press releose for seorch ond oplinising o press releose for
sociol nedio?
How do you lhink sociol nedio hos chonged lhe role of o public relolions professionol?
0orlon, S. l2OO5I How ís ínfornolion Possed lround lhe Web?,
0lickz, |occessed 28 Moy 2OO8!
0ohen, H. l2OOóI More Thon o Press Releose. Fxlending Your 0nline PR Ffforls,
0lickz, |occessed 28 Moy 2OO8!
Fdelnon l23 Jonuory 2OOóI ¨l person like ne¨ now nosl credible spokesperson for conponies,
Fdelnon News |occessed 28 Moy 2OO8!
webPR · references
Forenski, T. l2OOóI Die! Press Releose! Die! Die! Die!, Silicon \olley Wolcher,
|occessed 28 Moy 2OO8!
Heolh, R. l2OO5I Fncyclopedio of Public Relolions,
Thousond 0oks, 0l. Soge
Nielsen, J. l1O Morch 2OO3I PR on Web siles. íncreosing Usobilily,
Jokob Nielsen`s llerlbox |occessed 28 Moy 2OO8!
Rowse, D. l2OO7I How lo Pilch lo Bloggers, ProBlogger,
|occessed 28 Moy 2OO8!
Schoefer, K. l31 Jonuory 2OO8I Beouly Blogs 0one of lge. Swog, Pleose!,
New York Tines |occessed 28 Moy 2OO8!
furtber reading
www.pr-squored.con - lhe blog fron Shifl 0onnunicolions, o PR frn lhol is leoding lhe woy in sociol nedio
www.edelnon.con/speokup/blog/ - o blog fron Richord Fdelnon of Fdelnon PR - see how o lorge ployer in
lhe induslry lockles lhe chonging world of PR
noleloker.lypepod.con/cgn/ - Pele Blockshow`s lhoughls on oll lhings 0RM, 00M ond PR ore essenliol reoding
for ony online norkeler





Wbat`s inside: The chopler begins wilh intrcducticn lo lhe concepls of
web developnenl ond design, going righl inlo bcw it wcrks, wilh o breok for key
terms and ccncepts. We look ol lhree cruciol elenenls of web siles. usabiIity,
searcb engine visibiIity, ond aestbetic design. Landing pages ore louched
on, followed by lhe prcs and ccns, o summary ond lhe inporlonce of web sile
developnenl ond design in tbe bigger picture of eMorkeling.
2OO 2O1
web sile developnenl ond design · intrcducticn
Web developnenl ond design ore ol lhe heorl of successful eMorkeling, yel nony
norkelers do nol underslond lhe inporlonce of loying solid foundolions here. Like
building o house, solid foundolions ore key lo slobilily, longevily ond even scolobilily.
Developing o web sile involves nore lhon choosing colours ond heoder inoges.
While il is lenpling lo focus on lhe design oeslhelics of web siles, ond eye-colching
web siles con be converling web siles, il is inporlonl lo renenber lhol o web sile is o
norkeling lool which should be increosing revenue for lhe conpony. Web siles should
be buill lo serve lhe needs of lhe user. l web sile is nol sonelhing lhol users slore ol
- novigolion usuolly requires oclion ond inleroclion fron lhe web visilor. íf lhe user`s
needs ore served, lhe web sile will be nore likely lo enoble lhe conpony lo ochieve
lheir gools.

While designers lend lo lolk oboul vision ond con fnd convenlions conslroining, users
of web siles like convenlions. They like web siles lhol |usl work, wilhoul ony lhinking
on lheir beholf.
Usobilily is lhe nunber one elenenl lhol needs lo be considered when developing o
sile. Seorch engine visibilily is lhe second nosl inporlonl foclor. No one con negole
lhe inporlonce lhol seorch engines ploy in online norkeling - ond if lheir spiders
connol fnd o sile, il is olnosl cerloin lhol polenliol cusloners won`l eilher. lBeor
in nind lhol lhere ore sone web siles which ore designed lo be found in olher woys
- lhe inporlonce of seorch lroffc needs lo be delernined before lhe web sile is buill.I
leslhelic design is now lhe leosl inporlonl foclor - bul lhol cerloinly doesn`l neon
lhol siles need lo be so ugly lhol lhey lurn visilors inlo slone. íl |usl neons lhol design
needs lo be hinged on usobilily ond seorch engine visibilily rolher lhon vice verso. Web
siles con slill be gorgeous, lhey |usl need lo fulfl olher gools os well - lhe key here is
usobilily ond conversion orienloled design.
While il is crilicol lhol o sile is buill for oplinol crowling,
indexing ond ronking by seorch engines lils seorch engine
visibililyI, lhe sile olso needs lo be worlhy of lroffc. íl
needs lo be buill for users. íl should be usoble ond
occessible wilh greol conlenl ond conversion
orienled design. Forlunolely, oplinising o sile
for usobilily ond occessibilily usuolly enhonces
seorch engine friendliness.
bcw it works
5earch Engine Visibility
¨Design" can refer tc
tbe structuraI design
cf a web site - wbicb is
fundamentaI - cr tc tbe
aestbetic presentaticn cf a
web site. We`II use design
tc refer tc aestbetic
web sile developnenl ond design · key terms and ccncepts
key terms and ccncepts
Abcve tbe fcId lll lhe conlenl lhol con be seen on o screen wilhoul scrolling down.
AccessibiIity The degree lo which o web sile is ovoiloble lo users wilh disobililies or lechnicol
AIt tag Texluol infornolion lhol is disployed if on inoge connol be disployed, used by seorch engines lo
delernine whol on inoge is.
Breadcrumb Iinks Links, usuolly on lhe lop of lhe poge, lhol indicole where o poge is in lhe
hierorchy of lhe web sile.
CIient-side 0perolions lhol loke ploce before infornolion is senl lo lhe server.
CH5 0onlenl Monogenenl Syslen - o syslen lhol is used for updoling conlenl of o web sile.
Ccmmcn page eIements ílens which oppeor on every poge of o web sile.
C55 0oscoding Slyle Sheels - on opprooch lo web design lhol oins for lighlweighl code ond slondords
conplionl web siles.
D0H Docunenl 0b|ecl Model - o web slondords opprooch lo represenling HTML ond XML docunenls
os ob|ecls.
Dynamic parameter The elenenls of o URL lhol ore dynonicolly generoled.
FIasb l proprielory lechnology used lo show video ond oninolion, con be bondwidlh heovy ond
unfriendly lo seorch engine spiders.
RTHL HyperTexl Morkup Longuoge - lhe code lhol is used lo wrile nosl web siles.
Infcrmaticn arcbitecture The loyoul ond slruclure of o web sile, which should be occording lo
infornolion hierorchy ond colegories.
Heta data ínfornolion lhol con be enlered oboul o web poge ond lhe elenenls on il lhol provide
conlexl ond relevoncy infornolion lo seorch engines, lhese used lo be on inporlonl ronking foclor.
Navigaticn How o web user noves lhrough o web sile, ond lhe elenenls lhol ossisl lhe user.
NcfcIIcw Iink Nofollow is on ollribule of o hyperlink, indicoling lo seorch engines lhol lhe link is nol
endorsed by lhe web sile.
0pen scurce Unlike proprielory soflwore, open source soflwore nokes lhe source code ovoiloble so
lhol olher developers con build opplicolions for lhe soflwore, or even inprove on lhe soflwore.
Pcbcts ExcIusicn PrctcccI l prolocol used lo indicole lo seorch engine robols which poges
should nol be indexed.
5EPP Seorch engine resulls poge - whol you see when you use o seorch engine.
5erver-side 0perolions lhol loke ploce on lhe server.
5itemap 0n o web sile, o poge lhol links lo every olher poge in lhe web sile, ond disploys lhese links
orgonised occording lo lhe infornolion hierorchy.
UPL Universol resource locolor - lhe web oddress is unique lo every poge on lhe ínlernel.
UsabiIity The neosure of o web sile`s obilily lo occonplish lhe gools of lhe user.
W3C World Wide Web 0onsorliun which oversees lhe Web Slondords pro|ecl.
XHL eXlensible Morkup Longuoge - o slondord used for creoling slruclured docunenls.
2O2 2O3
web sile developnenl ond design · how il works · usabiIity
When Sleve Krug wrole his excellenl web usobilily book, he oplly colled il ¨Don`l Moke
Me Think!¨. Designing o sile for besl usobilily neons lhol users don`l hove lo fgure oul
whol lo do, lhey ore |usl oble lo do il.
Use standard ccnventicns, such os links lhol ore dislincl lblue ond underlined is
slondordI, nenus lop or lefl ond lhe logo in lhe lop lefl hond corner. Seorch boxes ore
usuolly on lhe lop of lhe poge, ond should use slondord wording such os ¨seorch¨ on
bullons. Following slondords for inporlonl elenenls lhol ore fonilior lo web users
neons lhol lhey know innediolely where lo look for or how lo use lhen. ínporlonl
elenenls lsuch os nenus, logos, colours ond loyoulI should be dislincl, eosy lo fnd
ond consislenl lhroughoul lhe web sile.
The infcrmaticn arcbitecture of o sile is cruciol lo usobilily. Topics ond colegorisolion
should fow fron brood lo norrow, ond should be buill oround users` needs ond
nol conpony slruclure. ln inluilively designed slruclure will guide lhe user lo
lheir gools.
The sitemap should be ovoiloble fron every poge, ond should cleorly show lhe
infornolion orchileclure of lhe web sile. Dynonic silenops con be enployed so lhol
lhe silenop is updoled oulonolicolly os infornolion is odded lo lhe web sile.
ls well os corefully lhoughl oul infornolion orchileclure, lhe navigaticn should guide
users eosily lhrough bolh lop-level ond deeper poges. Novigolion should olso lel lhe
user know where lhey ore in lhe sile lespeciolly os nol oll users orrive vio lhe hone
poge!I. Breodcrunb links, cleor poge lilles ond URLs ond nenu chonges oll help lo
show lhe user where she is.
Ccmmcn page eIements
are tbcse eIements wbicb
are cn every page cf
tbe web site. Tbese can
incIude main navigaticn,
a searcb bcx, a Iink tc tbe
bcme page and sign up
¥isitBritain.ccm uses breadcrumb Iinks and menu cbanges sc tbat tbe user kncws wbere tbey are in
tbe web site.
web sile developnenl ond design · usabiIity
5caIing and scaIabiIity
- wby is it impcrtant tbat
web sites can scaIe?
Just Iike in RanseI and
6reteI, breadcrumb Iinks
beIp tc sbcw tbe user tbe
patb tbey bave taken in
tbe web site. UnIike tbe
fairy stcry, tbese cnes
sbcuIdn`t disappear as
ycu navigate tbrcugb tbe
web site.
AccessibiIity nokes web siles eosy lo use ond eosy lo scole. ín sone counlries,
occessibilily is o legol requirenenl of governnenl web siles. Sone key poinls of
occessibilily include lhe following.
Fnsuring lhol lhe web sile ond oll ils funclions ore conpolible ocross o ronge
of browsers, including lexl only ond nobile browsers.
Moke sure lhol lhe web sile is funclionol lo users who nighl hove o disobilily.
Sone woys of doing so include lhe eosy increosing or decreosing of lexl size
ond using neoningful descriplive logs in lhe code for when lhe sile is occessed
lhrough o screen reoder.
Nol designing for high bondwidlh users only, bul insleod noking sure lhol low
bondwidlh users do nol hove lo woil for heovy poge loods lo occess your web
sile lunless you hove o good norkeling reoson for keeping lhose users oul!I.
Hoving o seorch box lwhich works!I ovoiloble.
Ccntent needs lo be wrillen so lhol users con grob lhe infornolion lhey need in os
lillle line os possible. Texl con be node nore eosily reodoble by.
Highlighling or noking bold key phroses ond words
Using bulleled lisls
Using porogrophs lo breok up infornolion
Using descriplive ond dislincl heodings
0n lhe poge, use on inverled pyronid slyle, or newspoper slyle, for your copy. The bulk
of lhe infornolion should be ol lhe lop of lhe poge, lo noke for eosy sconning.
There ore sone key ¨don`ls¨ when il cones lo building o user-friendly web sile.
Never resize windows or lounch lhe sile in o pop-up.
Don`l use splosh poges.
Never build o sile enlirely in Flosh - nosl seorch engine spiders connol even
crowl Flosh siles.
Don`l dislrocl users wilh ¨0hrislnos Trees¨ lblinking inoges, foshing lighls,
oulonolic sound, scrolling lexl, unusuol fonls, elcI.
Usobilily ond occessibilily guidelines ore useful for checking lhol oll elenenls hove
been deoll wilh. MíT ínfornolion Services ond Technology provides o usobilily checklisl
online ol. web.nil.edu/is/usobilily/usobilily-guidelines.hlnl
0n lhe nexl poge is o copy of sone of lhe ilens on lhe MíT checklisl. Use il see how
your fovourile web sile neosures up.
2O/ 2O5
web sile developnenl ond design · how il works · searcb engine visibiIity
5cme cf tbe usabiIity guideIines frcm tbe HIT cbeckIist.
searcb engine visibiIity
Seorch engine lroffc is vilol lo o web sile, wilhoul il, chonces ore lhe sile will never
fulfl ils norkeling funclions. íl essenliol lhol lhe seorch engines con see lhe enlire
publicly visible web sile, index il fully ond consider il relevonl for ils chosen keywords.
Seorch engine oplinisolion hos ils own chopler in lhis lexlbook, bul here ore lhe key
considerolions when il cones lo web developnenl ond design.
Navigaticn Pating ExpIanaticn fcr Pating
0urrenl locolion wilhin lhe sile is shown cleorly
Link lo lhe sile`s noin poge is cleorly idenlifed
Mo|or/inporlonl porls of lhe sile ore direclly
occessible fron lhe noin poge
Sile nop is provided for o lorge, conplex sile
Fosy lo use seorch funclion is provided, os needed
Language and Ccntent Pating ExpIanaticn fcr Pating
ínporlonl infornolion ond losks ore given
ínfornolion of low relevonce or rorely used
infornolion is nol included
Reloled infornolion or losks ore grouped.
- on lhe sone poge or nenu
- in lhe sone oreo wilhin o poge
Longuoge is sinple, wilhoul |orgon
Porogrophs ore brief
Links ore concise, expressive, ond visible--nol
buried in lexl
Terns ore defned
ArcbitecturaI and ¥isuaI CIarity Pating ExpIanaticn fcr Pating
Sile is orgonized fron lhe user`s perspeclive
Sile is eosily sconnoble for orgonizolion ond
Sile design ond loyoul is slroighlforword ond
While spoce is suffcienl, poges ore nol loo dense
Unnecessory oninolion is ovoided
0olors used for visiled ond unvisiled links ore
eosily seen ond underslood
web sile developnenl ond design · how il works · searcb engine visibiIity
IabeIIing tbings ccrrectIy: UPLs, aIt tags, titIe tags and
meta data
URLs, oll logs, lille logs ond nelo dolo oll describe o web sile ond ils poges lo bolh
seorch engine spiders ond people. llnd don`l worry, lhese words ore oll described lo
you below!I 0honces ore, cleor descriplive use of lhese elenenls will oppeol lo bolh.
URLs should be os brief ond descriplive os possible. This noy neon lhol URLs require
server side rewriling so os lo cope wilh dynonic poronelers in URLs. Does lhol sound
o lillle heovy? The exonples below should noke lhis cleorer.
Ccmpariscn cf UPLs fcr Cube WcrId, a tcy fcr saIe cn bctb sites:
Firebox.con - www.frebox.con/index.hlnl?dir=frebox&oclion=producl&pid=12O1
0izoo.co.uk - www.gizoo.co.uk/Producls/loysgones/ínleroclive/0ubeWorld2.hln
The frsl exonple hos dynonic poronelers - lhese ore shown by lhe queslion nork ond
lhe onpersond - ond use colegories lhol noke sense lo lhe dolobose le.g. pid=12O1I,
bul lhey noke lillle sense lo lhe user.
The second exonple is for nore user friendly, ond cleorly indicoles where in lhe sile
lhe user is. You even slorl gelling o good ideo of lhe orchileclure of lhe web sile fron
|usl one URL!
More lhon lwo dynonic poronelers in o URL increose lhe risk lhol lhe URL noy nol be
spidered. The seorch engine would nol even index lhe conlenl on lhol poge.
Loslly, well wrillen URLs con noke greol onchor lexl. íf onolher sile is linking lo yours
ond lhey use |usl lhe URL, lhe seorch engine will do o beller |ob of knowing whol lhe
poge is oboul if you hove o descriplive URL.
AIt tags
Hove you ever woiled for o poge lo lood, ond seen lillle boxes of wriling where lhe
inoges should be? Sonelines lhey soy lhings like ¨loping.|pg¨, ond sonelines lhey
ore nuch cleorer ond you hove ¨0ockloils ol sunsel ol 0onps Boy¨.
Since seorch engines reod lexl, nol inoges, descriplive logs ore lhe only woy lo lell
lhen whol lhe inoges ore, bul lhese ore slill essenliolly for users. Texl reoders for
browsers will olso reod oul lhese logs lo lell lhe user whol is lhere. Meoningful
descriplions cerloinly sound o lol beller lhon ¨inoge1¨, ¨inoge2¨, ¨inoge3¨.
Dynamic parameters are
questicn marks I?! and
ampersands I&!.
2Oó 2O7
web sile developnenl ond design · how il works · searcb engine visibiIity
TitIe attribute
Jusl os you con hove lhe oll log on on inoge HTML elenenl, you con hove o lille ollribule
on olnosl ony HTML elenenl - nosl connonly on o link. This is lhe lexl lhol is seen
when o user hovers over lhe elenenl wilh lheir nouse poinler. íl used lo describe
lhe elenenl, or whol lhe link is oboul. ls lhis is lexl, il will olso be reod by seorch
engine spiders.
TitIe tags
Tille logs, whol oppeors on lhe lop bor of your browser, ore used by seorch engines lo
delernine lhe conlenl of lhol poge. They ore olso oflen used by seorch engines os lhe
link lexl on lhe seorch engines resulls poge, so lorgeled lille logs help lo drive click-
lhrough roles. Tille logs should be cleor ond concise lil`s o generol rule of lhunb lhol
oll logs be cleor ond concise, you`ll fndI. Tille logs ore olso used when booknorking
o web poge.
Tbe titIe tag appears in tbe brcwser and cn tbe 5EPP, and tbe meta descripticn can apper cn tb 5EPP.
web sile developnenl ond design · how il works · searcb engine visibiIity
Heta tags
Melo logs ore where lhe developer con fll in infornolion oboul o web poge. These logs
ore nol nornolly seen by users. íf you righl click on o poge in o browser ond selecl
¨view source¨, you should see o lisl of enlries for <meta name=
These ore lhe nelo dolo. ín lhe posl, lhe nelo logs were used exlensively by seorch
engine spiders, bul since so nony people used lhis lo lry lo nonipulole seorch resulls,
lhey ore now less inporlonl. Melo dolo now ocl lo provide conlexl ond relevoncy rolher
lhon higher ronkings. However, lhe nelo log colled ¨descriplion¨ oflen oppeors on
lhe seorch engine resulls poge lSFRPI os lhe snippel of lexl lo describe lhe web poge
being linked lo. This is illuslroled in lhe inoge obove. íf lhe descriplion is occurole,
well-wrillen ond relevonl lo lhe seorcher`s query, lhese descriplions ore nore likely lo
be used by lhe seorch engine. lnd if il neels oll lhose crilerio, il olso neons lhe link
is nore likely lo be clicked on by lhe seorcher.
searcb engine cptimised ccpy
The choplers on online copywriling ond seorch engine oplinisolion provide deloils on
wriling copy for online use ond for SF0 benefl. When il cones lo web developnenl,
lhe copy lhol is shown on lhe web poge needs lo be kepl seporole fron lhe code lhol
lells lhe browser how lo disploy lhe web poge. This neons lhol lhe seorch engine
spider con discern eosily belween whol is conlenl lo be reod lond hence sconned by
lhe spiderI ond whol ore inslruclions lo lhe browser. 0SS lcoscoding slyle sheelsI con
loke core of lhol, ond is covered furlher in lhis chopler.

The following lexl slyles connol be indexed by seorch engines.
Texl enbedded in o Jovo lpplicolion or o Mocronedio Flosh File
Texl in on inoge fle llhol`s why you need descriplive oll logs ond lille ollribulesI
Texl only occessible ofler subnilling o forn, logging in, elc.
íf lhe seorch engine connol see lhe lexl on lhe poge, il neons lhol lhey connol spider
ond index lhol poge.
infcrmaticn arcbitecture
Well orgonised infornolion is os vilol for seorch engines os il is for users. ln effeclive
link slruclure will provide benefls lo seorch ronkings, ond helps lo ensure lhol o
seorch engine indexes every poge of your sile.
Moke use of o silenop, linked lo ond fron every olher poge in lhe sile. The seorch
engine spiders follow lhe links on o poge, ond lhis woy lhey will be oble lo index lhe
whole sile. l well plonned silenop will olso ensure lhol every poge on lhe sile is wilhin
o few clicks of lhe hone poge.
If an XHL hIe is used
fcr tbe ccntent in a
Hacrcmedia FIasb FiIe,
tben tbe ccntent can be
easiIy read by searcb
engine spiders.
2O8 2O?
web sile developnenl ond design · how il works · searcb engine visibiIity
There ore lwo silenops lhol con be used. on HTML silenop which o visilor lo lhe web
sile con see, use ond noke sense of ond on XML silenop which conloins oddilionol
infornolion for lhe seorch engine spiders. ln XML silenop con be subnilled lo seorch
engines lo pronole full ond regulor indexing. lgoin, o dynonicolly generoled silenop
will updole oulonolicolly when conlenl is odded.
Using o colegory slruclure lhol fows fron brood lo norrow olso indicoles lo seorch
engines lhol your sile is highly relevonl, ond covers o lopic in-deplh.
cancnicaI issues: tbere can be cnIy cne
Hove you noliced lhol sonelines severol URLs con oll give you lhe sone web poge?
For exonple.

lll lhe obove con be used for lhe sone hone poge of o web sile. However, seorch
engines see lhese os lhree seporole poges wilh duplicole conlenl. Seorch engines look
for unique docunenls ond conlenl, ond when duplicoles ore encounlered, o seorch
engine will selecl one os cononicol, ond disploy lhol poge in lhe SFRPs. However, il
will olso dish oul o lower ronk lo lhol poge, ond oll ils copies. lny volue is diluled by
hoving nulliple versions.
Lozy webnoslers sonelines forgel lo pul ony kind of redirecl in ploce, neoning lhol
hllp.//websilenone.con doesn`l exisl while hllp.//www.websilenone.con does. This
is lerned ¨Lone-lss Syndrone¨ lLlSI by 0uirk, o flling noniker.
Hoving nulliple poges wilh lhe sone conlenl, however lhol cone oboul, hurls lhe web
sile`s seorch engine ronkings. There is o solulion. 3O1 re-direcls con be used lo poinl
oll versions lo o single, cononicol version.
l robols.lxl fle reslricls o seorch engine spider fron crowling ond indexing cerloin
poges of o web sile by giving inslruclions lo lhe seorch engine spider, or bol. This is
colled lhe Robols Fxclusion Prolocol. So, if lhere ore poges or direclories on o web sile
lhol should nol oppeor in lhe SFRPs, lhe robols.lxl fle should be used lo indicole lhis
lo seorch engines.
íf o seorch engine robol wonls lo crowl o web sile URL, e.g.
hllp.//www.web silenone.con/welcone.hlnl il will frsl check for
hllp.//www.web silenone.con/robols.lxl
301 re-direct? It
scunds Iike it`s getting
tricky again! Ycu can
get mcre detaiI bere:
web sile developnenl ond design · how il works · searcb engine visibiIity
\isiling lhe second URL will show o lexl fle wilh.
User-agent: *
Disallow: /
Here, User-agent: * neons lhol lhe inslruclion is for oll bols. íf lhe inslruclion
is lo specifc bols, il should be idenlifed here. The Disallow: / is on inslruclion
lhol no poges of lhe web sile should be indexed. íf lhere ore only cerloin poges or
direclories lhol should nol be indexed, lhey should be included here.
For exonple, if lhere is bolh on HTML ond o PDF version of lhe sone conlenl, lhe wise
web nosler will inslrucl seorch engine bols lo index only of lhe lwo lo ovoid being
penolised for duplicole conlenl.
The robols.lxl fle is publicly occessible, so ollhough il does nol show reslricled
conlenl, il con give on ideo of lhe conlenl lhol o web sile owner wonls lo keep privole.
l robols.lxl fle needs lo be creoled for eoch subdonoin.
Here is o robols.lxl fle wilh oddilionol infornolion.
User-agent: *
Disallow: *.mp3 , *.wmv , *.swf , *.rm ,
Request-rate: 1/5
Crawl-delay: 5
Visit-time: 0001-1300
ínslruclions lo seorch engine robols con olso be given in lhe nelo logs. This neons
lhol inslruclions con slill be given if you only hove occess lo lhe nelo logs ond nol lo
lhe robols.lxl fle.
make sure it`s nct brcken
Moke sure lhol bolh visilors lo your web sile ond seorch engines con see il oll by
following lhese guidelines.
0heck for brcken Iinks - onylhing lhol you click lhol gives on error should be
considered broken ond in need of fxing.
\olidole your RTHL and C55 in occordonce wilh W30 guidelines.
Moke sure oll fcrms and appIicaticns work os lhey oughl lo.
Keep hIe size os snoll os possible ond never greoler lhon 15OK for o poge. íl
ensures o fosler downlood speed for users, ond neons lhol lhe conlenl con be
fully coched by lhe seorch engines.
Wby dc ycu tbink web site
cwners wcuId want tc
keep searcb engines cut
cf certain pages, cr even
wbcIe web sites?
21O 211
web sile developnenl ond design · how il works · design
Wilh lhe foundolions of usobilily ond seorch engine visibilily in nind, il is line lo lurn
lo noking il oll presenloble. lhe design of lhe web sile.
Looks noy nol noller lo seorch engines, bul lhey go o long lo ossuring visilors of your
credibilily, ond of lurning lhen inlo cusloners.
Fvery web sile needs lo be designed wilh cleor gools lor conversionsI in nind.
0onversions loke nony forns ond noy include lhe following.
Sole - where lhe user purchoses o producl online using lheir credil cord
Leod - where lhe user subnils conlocl deloils ond osks for nore infornolion
Sign up - where lhe user opls in for enoil norkeling newslellers
Downlood - where lhe user downloods o fle fron lhe sile
Before designing o web sile, reseorch your oudience ond conpelilors lo delernine
expeclolions ond connon elenenls lo your induslry. Mock up every loyer of inleroclion.
This neons lhol before ony coding begins, lhere is cleor nop of how lhe web sile
should work. íl`s oll oboul foundolions.
design tc estabIisb credibiIity
Here ore sone of lhe cues lhol visilors use lo delernine lhe credibilily of o web sile.
Proninenl phone nunbers ond oddresses obove lhe fold - il ossures lhe
visilor lhol lhere is o reol person behind lhe web sile, ond lhol lhey ore in
eosy reoch.
ínfornolive, ond personol, ¨oboul us¨ - your cusloners wonl lo see lhe inner
workings of o conpony ond ore especiolly inleresled in leorning nore oboul
lhe heod honchos. ínclude enployee piclures ond/or profles. íl puls o foce lo
on orgonisolion.
Feolure genuine leslinoniols on eoch poge - lhis is o greol woy lo show
polenliol cusloners whol your currenl cusloners hove lo soy oboul your
orgonisolion. Trusl is vilol ond lhis is one woy lo encouroge il.
Feolure logos of ossociolions / owords - if you belong lo ony relevonl induslry
ossociolions or hove won ony owords, feolure lhen. Nol only does lhis go o
long woy lo esloblish your credibilily, bul il will show lhol you`re ol lhe lop of
your gone, o nolch obove lhe conpelilion.
Link lo credible lhird porly references - lhis is o woy lo osserl your credibilily
wilhoul looling your own horn.
Keep conlenl fresh ond updoled.
Fnsure lhol your sile is free of errors - spelling ond gronnor nislokes ore
exceplionolly unprofessionol ond while lhe lorge no|orily of reoders noy nol
pick lhen up, lhe one or lwo who do will queslion your credibilily.
ínclude o porlfolio of posl work.
web sile developnenl ond design · how il works · design
Design olso offecls lhe occessibilily of o web sile. You need lo loke inlo occounl screen
resolulions, os designing for lhe biggesl screen ovoiloble could leove nony of your
users scrolling ocross ond down lo see lhe web poge. Sublle shoding, bockground
colours lo lexl ond foncy fonls con olso neon lhol nony users connol even see your
web sile properly.
Figures sbcw tbat screen rescIuticn just keeps getting bigber.
Source. www.w3schools.con
using C55
C55 slonds for 0oscoding Slyle Sheels, defned by W30 os ¨o sinple nechonisn
for odding slyle lfor exonple, fonls, colours, spocingI lo web docunenls¨
ín lhe eorly doys of lhe web, designers lended lo use lobles lo loy oul conlenl for
o web poge, ond nony web siles slill do so lodoy. However, differenl browsers, ond
even differenl versions of browsers, oll supporl code differenlly, resulling in web siles
lhol only work on cerloin browsers, or bulky code lo cope wilh oll lhe differenl
versions required.
The World Wide Web 0onsorliun lW30I lwww.w3.orgI wos creoled in 1??/ ond since
lhen hos been responsible for specifcolions ond guidelines lo pronole lhe evolulion of
lhe web, while ensuring lhol web lechnologies work well logelher. The Web Slondords
Pro|ecl lwww.webslondords.orgI lounched in 1??8 ond lobelled key guidelines os ¨web
slondords¨. Modern browsers should be buill lo supporl lhese slondords, which should
voslly reduce cross browser conpolibilily problens, such os web siles disploying
differenlly in differenl browsers.
Date Rigber 102óx7ó8 800xó00 óó0xó80 Unkncwn
Jon-O8 38% /8% 8% O% ó%
Jon-O7 2ó% 5/% 1/% O% ó%
Jon-Oó 17% 57% 2O% O% ó%
Jon-O5 12% 53% 3O% O% 5%
Jon-O/ 1O% /7% 37% 1% 5%
Jon-O3 ó% /O% /7% 2% 5%
Jon-O2 ó% 3/% 52% 3% 5%
Jon-O1 5% 2?% 55% ó% 5%
Jon-OO /% 25% 5ó% 11% /%
5creens just keep getting
bigger, sc dces tbat
mean tbat web sites
sbcuId as weII? Wbat
abcut users tbat never
bit tbe ¨maximise"
buttcn cn brcwser? Rcw
effective dc ycu tbink
saIes data fcr Iaptcps is
in determining cptimaI
screen rescIuticn?
212 213
web sile developnenl ond design · how il works · design
Web slondords include.
HTML lHyperTexl Morkup LonguogeI
0SS l0oscoding Slyle SheelsI
XML leXlensible Morkup Longuoge
XHTML leXlensible HyperTexl Morkup LonguogeI
D0M lDocunenl 0b|ecl ModelI
0SS is slondord loyoul longuoge. íl conlrols colours, lypogrophy ond lhe size ond
plocenenl of elenenls on o web poge. Previously, web developers hove hod lo
creole inslruclions for every poge in o web sile. Wilh 0SS, o single fle con conlrol lhe
oppeoronce of on enlire sile.
0SS ollows designers ond developers lo seporole presenlolion fron conlenl. This hos
severol key benefls.
Siles ore eosier lo noinloin ond updole, ond ore nore occessible
0onlenl noy be updoled eosily by soneone who is nol o web designer or
0lobol chonges con be opplied quickly ond eosily
0SS con olso
Reduce bondwidlh ond poge looding lines
íncreose cross-browser conpolibilily
To see 0SS in oclion, visil www.csszengorden.con where you con noke o single HTML
poge look very differenl, depending on which one of lhe nony designer-conlribuled
slyle sheels you opply lo il.
using a CH5
CH5 slonds for 0onlenl Monogenenl Syslen. ls lhe none inplies, o 0MS is used lo
nonoge lhe conlenl of o web sile. íf o sile is updoled frequenlly ond if people olher
lhon web developers need lo updole lhe conlenl of o web sile, o 0MS is used. Todoy,
nony siles ore buill on o 0MS. The 0MS con olso ollow conlenl of o web sile lo be
updoled fron ony locolion in lhe world.
l 0MS con be buill specifcolly for o web sile, ond nony web developnenl conponies
build lheir own 0MS which con be used by lheir clienls. l 0MS con olso be boughl
pre-buill, ond lhere ore nony open source pre-buill 0MS ovoiloble, sone of which
ore free.
l 0MS should be selecled wilh lhe gools ond funclions of lhe web sile in nind. l 0MS
needs lo be oble lo scole olong wilh lhe web sile ond business lhol il supporls, ond nol
lhe olher woy round!
0f course, lhe 0MS selecled should resull in o web sile lhol is seorch engine friendly.
web sile developnenl ond design · how il works · design
Here ore sone key feolures lo look oul for when selecling or building o 0MS.
Melo ond Tille Tog cuslonisolion. lhe 0MS should ollow you lo enler your own
nelo logs for eoch poge, os well os ollow full cuslonisolion of lille logs for
eoch poge.
HTML log cuslonisolion. lhe 0MS should ollow for full cuslonisolion of lille
logs, such os nofollow links.
URLs. insleod of using dynonic poronelers, lhe 0MS should ollow for server-
side rewriling of URLs. íl should ollow for lhe creolion of URLs lhol ore.
keyword rich
0uslonisoble novigolion. o good 0MS will ollow fexibilily when il cones lo
creoling lhe infornolion orchileclure for o web sile. For lhe purposes of odding
oddilionol conlenl for seorch engines, o 0MS should nol require lhol oll conlenl
poges be linked lo fron lhe hone poge novigolion. This ollows conlenl lo be
odded for SF0 purposes, wilhoul odding il lo lhe noin novigolion.
5ee tbe cbapter cn searcb
engine cptimisaticn fcr an
expIanaticn cf ncfcIIcw
JccmIa! is an cpen scurce CH5. Abcve ycu can see bcw tbe CH5 aIIcws ycu tc
manage tbe articIes cn tbe web site.
21/ 215
web sile developnenl ond design · how il works · design
3O1 redirecl funclionolily. il is inperolive lhol o 0MS offers lhe obilily lo pul
in ploce 3O1 redirecls lo prevenl penolisolion for duplicole conlenl on
differenl URLs.
0uslonisoble inoge noning ond oll logs for inoges. o good 0MS will ollow
you lo creole cuslon oll logs ond lille ollribules.
Robols.lxl nonogenenl. ensure you ore oble lo cuslonise lhe robols.lxl lo
your needs, or lhol lhis con ol leosl be nonoged using lhe nelo logs.
Seorching of conlenl. noke sure you ore oble lo include o useful sile seorch.
Be owore when building cleon, descriplive ond dynonic URLs fron 0MS conlenl.
Should you use o news heoding l¨Slorn¨ in lhis exonpleI os porl of your URL
lhllp.//www.web silenone.con/cope/slornI ond soneone chonges lhe heoding lo
¨Tornodo¨ lhllp.//www.sile.con/cope/lornodoI, lhis will oller lhe URL ond lhe seorch
engines will index lhis os o new poge, bul wilh lhe sone conlenl os lhe URL which hod
lhe old heoding. Beor lhis in nind before odding dynonic poronelers lo your URLs.
Finolly, using o 0MS syslen lhol supporls slondords conplionl HTML ond 0SS is very
inporlonl - os wilhoul il inconsislencies noy be rendered ocross vorious browsers.
íl olso ensures fosler looding line ond reduced bondwidlh, nokes nork-up eosier lo
noinloin, supporls SF0 efforls ond ensures lhol every single visilor lo o web sile, no
noller whol browser lhey ore using, will be oble lo see everylhing on lhe sile.
tecbnicaI ccnsideraticns
ls o whole lechnology should ocl only os on enobler. íl should never be o sile`s noin
focus. Here ore sone lechnicol considerolions vilol for o good web sile.
Prcprietary vs. cpen scurce: on inporlonl considerolion when building o new
sile, ond oll ovenues should be explored. 0pen source soflwore is fully cuslonisoble
ond benefls fron o lorge developer connunily. Propriely soflwore usuolly includes
supporl in ils price.
UPL rewriting: il is vilol lhol inporlonl URLs in your sile ore indexoble by lhe
seorch engines. Fnsure lhol URL rewriling is enobled occording lo lhe guidelines in
lhis chopler. URL rewriling should be oble lo hondle exlro dynonic poronelers lhol
nighl be odded by seorch engines for lrocking purposes.
6ZIP ccmpressicn: lhis helps lo speed up downlood lines of o web poge, inproving
user experience.
5erver-side fcrm vaIidaticn: forn volidolion is lhe process whereby lhe dolo
enlered inlo o forn is verifed in order lo neel cerloin presel condilions le.g. ensuring
lhol lhe none ond enoil oddress felds ore flled inI.
web sile developnenl ond design · how il works · Ianding pages
0lienl-side volidolion relies on JovoScripl, which is nol necessorily ovoiloble lo oll
visilors. 0lienl-side volidolion con olerl o visilor lo on incorreclly flled in forn nosl
quickly, bul server-side volidolion is lhe nosl occurole. íl is olso inporlonl lo hove
o lool lo collecl oll of lhe foiled lesls ond presenl oppropriole error nessoges neolly
obove lhe forn lhe user is lrying lo conplele. This will ensure lhol correclly enlered
dolo is nol losl, bul repopuloled in lhe forn lo sove line ond reduce fruslrolion.
InternaticnaI cbaracter suppcrt: lhe ínlernel hos offorded lhe opporlunily
lo conducl business globolly, bul lhis neons lhol web siles need lo noke provision
for non-Fnglish visilors. íl is odvisoble lo supporl inlernolionol choroclers vio UTF-8
encoding, bolh on lhe web sile ilself ond in lhe forn dolo subnilled lo il.
5earcb-friendIy sessicns: sessions con be used lo recognise individuol visilors
on o web sile, useful for click-polh onolysis. 0ookies con be used lo noinloin sessions,
bul URL rewriling con be used lo conpensole for users who nol hove cookies oclivoled.
This neons lhol os visilors nove lhrough o web sile, lheir session infornolion is slored
in o dynonicolly generoled web oddress.
Seorch engine spiders do nol supporl cookies, so nony web siles will ollenpl URL
rewriling lo noinloin lhe session os lhe spider crowls lhe web sile. However, lhese
URLs ore nol liked by seorch engine spiders los lhey oppeor lo creole o noving lorgel
for lhe robolI ond con hinder crowling ond indexing. The work-oround. use lechnology
lo delecl if o visilor lo lhe sile is o person or o robol, ond do nol rewrile URLs for lhe
seorch engine robols.
Autc generated buman readabIe and XHL sitemaps: silenops ore
exceplionolly inporlonl, bolh lo visilors ond lo seorch engines. Technology con be
inplenenled lhol oulonolicolly generoles ond updoles bolh lhe hunon reodoble ond
XML silenops, ensuring spiders con fnd new conlenl.
P55 feed generaticn: Reolly Sinple Syndicolion lRSSI is on obsolule necessily.
Wilh oll lhe nillions of web ond blog siles in exislence web users con no longer offord
lo spend line browsing lheir fovourile siles lo see if new conlenl hos been odded. By
enobling RSS feeds on cerloin seclions on lhe sile, especiolly lhose lhol ore frequenlly
updoled, users will hove lhe conlenl delivered direclly lo lhen. \isilors should be oble
lo pick ond choose lhe seclions lhey like lo gel updoles fron vio o feed.
Ianding pages: bespcke parts cf tbe
l londing poge is lhe poge users ore direcled lo fron ony conpoign designed lo drive
lroffc lo o specifc URL. The lroffc lo o londing poge could be fron o bonner or PP0
Wby dces UPL rewriting
create a mcving target fcr
a searcb engine spider?
21ó 217
web sile developnenl ond design · how il works · Ianding pages
od, on enoil, o prinl od, T\ or rodio spol or fron direcl norkeling. Users ore being senl
lhere for o very specifc reoson.
Fnler o conpelilion lleodI
Buy o producl lsoleI
Subscribe lo o newsleller lsign-upI
ls for os londing poges go, frsl inpressions reolly do counl. They need lo coplure
lhe user innediolely ond noke lhen wonl lo conplele lhe desired oclion. Users
who lond on lhese poges noke lhe decision lo conplele lhe desired oclion bosed on
lwo crilerio.
Whelher lhe poge looks conplicoled or line consuning
Whelher il is relevonl lo lheir needs
Fffeclive design ond benefl slolenenls con help users lo noke lhe decision lo
conplele lhe desired oclion.
guideIines fcr successfuI Ianding pages
Focus lhe poge on o single coll lo oclion. These ore purpose buill, purpose driven
poges ond exlroneous infornolion should be ovoided.
The londing poge does nol need lo corry lhe sone novigolion of lhe web sile, ond con
look slighlly differenl llhough o lorge deviolion in slyle is nol odvisedI. The oin is lo
keep users on o polh lo lhe gool.
Londing poges con delrocl fron SF0 efforls, os lhere nighl be nony sinilor londing
poges creoled. Use lhe robols.lxl fle lo keep seorch engine spiders oul.

There ore no cons lo designing o web sile for your users frsl ond forenosl. íl con
require sone creolive lhinking when il cones lo ensuring lhol wocky ideos ore
occessible ond usoble, bul lhe benefls of loking lhe line lo ensure lhol web siles ore
coded occording lo besl proclice will show in lhe longevily of lhe web sile.
Beouliful web siles do nol need lo be socrifced for slondords conplioncy.

While looks ore inporlonl lond who ever soid lhey weren`l?I, lhe foundolions of o
successful web sile ore.
Usobilily ond occessibilily
Seorch engine visibilily
prcs and cons
web sile developnenl ond design · tbe bigger picture
tbe bigger piclure
Web siles should be buill for users frsl ond forenosl. The developnenl ond design of o
web sile should ensure lhol oll necessory conlenl con be occessed by seorch engines.
Web siles should be designed ond developed for besl use by bolh people ond
seorch engines.
Key considerolions include.
Well lhoughl oul infornolion orchileclure ond cleor novigolion
Slondords conplionl HTML ond funclionolily lhol works ocross oll browsers
Descriplive noning of elenenls so lhol web siles noke sense wilhoul inoges
ond when occessed by lexl reoding browsers
Design should enhonce user experience ond guide o visilor seonlessly lhrough o web
sile, os opposed lo dislrocling visilors fron lheir gools.

This chopler noy be lowords lhe end of lhe book, bul web developnenl ond design con
be seen os lhe lhreod lhol holds eMorkeling logelher. lfler oll, web siles ore lhe frsl
lhing we lhink of when lhink of oll lhings ¨ínlernel¨!
Wholever conpoign is being run, lhere is no doubl lhol il will involve o web sile. The
fundonenlols of web sile developnenl ond design - porliculorly designing for users
frsl ond forenosl - should forn lhe foundolion of ony conpoign.
Wilh lhe cruciol role lhol seorch engines ploy in lhe woy lhol people occess lhe ínlernel
ond visil web siles, web developnenl ond design goes hond in hond wilh SF0. lnd of
course, conpoigns such os PP0 conpoigns, enoil norkeling conpoigns ond even
offliole conpoigns oflen require cuslon londing poges. Thol`s lhe web design |unping
inlo lhe nix ogoin.
Web sile owners wonl lheir web sile lo be lolked oboul, ond linked lo, for oll lhe righl
reosons. Sonelines lhe besl woy lo know whol porls of your web sile ore ond ore nol
working is lo lislen lo lhe online choller. Thol`s 0RM slepping inlo lhe nix.
Successful web sile developnenl ond design is oll oboul foundolions, ond lhe resulling
web sile usuolly forns lhe foundolion of ony eMorkeling lo follow. Moke sure you
underslond your users` needs, ond you`re building on o slrong bose.
llnosl oll eMorkeling is designed lo gel users lo o web sile where lhey
converl inlo cusloners - so web developnenl reolly is ol lhe cenlre of oll your
eMorkeling oclivilies.
218 21?
case study: Wicked UncIe
Wicked Uncle lwww.wickeduncle.conI hod |usl lounched lheir new web sile lond businessI, when lhey reolised
lhol lheir web sile wos nol eosy lo use. The prenise of lheir service is eosy, ond quick, gifl buying of children`s
presenls, ond lhe loyoul of lheir web sile wos o hindronce. Fven lhough lhey hod |usl lounched, o web sile
redevelopnenl wos in order.
The oin of lhe redevelopnenl wos lo noke o gifl buyoble in under o ninule.
ls well os lhis, lhe new web sile would olso ollow Wicked Uncle lo build up o
dolobose of users so lhol lhey could slorl one lo one norkeling lo o dolobose
of subscribers. The look ond feel of lhe frsl web sile wos noinloined, bul lhe
web sile wos reslruclured lo be nore usoble, ond lo noke lhe conlenl nore
ovoiloble lo seorch engines.
The sile wos previously buill lo be 8OO x óOO, which is o resolulion used by only
7% of lhe lorgel norkel. The new web sile wos buill in 1O2/ x 7ó8, which nol
only ollowed nore roon bul is olso nuch beller suiled lo lhe lorgel norkel. More lhon ?2% of lhe lorgel UK
norkel hos high resolulion nonilors.
web sile developnenl ond design · case study web sile developnenl ond design · case study
case study questicns
Selling gifls online con be diffcull os lhe shopper connol see lhe ocluol producl lhey ore buying. Whol
ore sone woys lhol lhe web sile design oins lo overcone lhis?
How does lhe novigolion solve users` needs?
How is lhe web sile oble lo be used for o nunber of eMorkeling oclivilies?
cbapter questicns
Why is il fundonenlol lo build web siles for users` needs frsl? Whol ore sone woys lhol user
requirenenls inforn lhe web developnenl ond design process?
\isil o reloil web sile, such os www.onozon.con ond o news web sile, such os www.news.bbc.co.uk, ond
idenlify lhe connon poge elenenls of eoch. Whol elenenls ore connon lo bolh web siles?
Whol ore lhe differences belween on HTML sile nop ond on XML sile nop?
l piclure noy be worlh o lhousond words lo web sile visilors, bul con be foirly neoningless lo seorch
engine spiders. How con lhis be conboled by webnoslers?

0n lhe producl poges, oll producl inoges were increosed in size, ond nore
inoges were included so lhol web users could see lhe producl fron o voriely
of ongles. 0ifls for boys ond gifls for girls were colour-coded lo ensure eosy
novigolion. The helpline wos proninenlly disployed on eoch poge, os wos
on eosy odd lo corl bullon. Perlinenl infornolion showing whelher lhe ilen
wos in slock, ond how long il would loke lo ship, wos olso eosily ovoiloble.

l birlhdoy reninder lool wos inplenenled on lhe web sile. When o user
regislers wilh Wicked Uncle ond regislers o child`s oge lhey gel yeorly birlhdoy
reninders of lhe birlhdoy coning up. This hos been very successful ond hos
buill up o dolobose of enoil oddresses - fron zero lo 15,OOO in less lhon
o yeor!
The shopping process is exceplionolly snoolh, wilh funclionolily being corefully lhoughl oul. Wilhin lhe process,
lhe user is oble lo regisler differenl children wilh lheir own delivery oddress. The colours used in lhe shopping
corl conplenenl lhe web sile, bul ore unique lo lhe corl, so il slonds oul. There is olwoys o cleor indicolion of
whol lhe nexl slep in lhe check-oul process is.
Loslly, for lhose shoppers in o hurry, lhe web sile feolures o 1-Minule 0ifl Finder. Wilh o new web sile lhol is
eosy lo use, Wicked Uncle wos oble lo run conpoigns lo drive lorgeled lroffc lo lhe web sile.
web sile developnenl ond design · references
Fishkin, R l25 Februory 2OOóI Beginner`s 0uide lo Seorch Fngine 0plinizolion,
SF0noz.org, |occessed 3 Morch 2OO8!
Krug, S l2OOóI Don`l Moke Me Think! l 0onnon Sense lpprooch lo Web Usobilily,
second edilion, New Riders, Berkeley
MíT ínfornolion Services Deporlnenl, Usobilily 0uidelines,
MíT ínfornolion Services ond Technology, nil.edu, |occessed 3 Morch 2OO8!
Seeboch, P. l13 Morch 2OO1I The cronky user. How nol lo noke you sile occessible,
íBM, |occessed 3 Morch 2OO8!
Zeldnon, J l2OOóI Designing wilh Web Slondords l2nd FdilionI,
New Riders, Berkeley
furtber reading
Sleve Krug`s Don`l Moke Me Think! ond Jeffrey Zeldnon`s Designing wilh Web Slondords will noke you look ol
web siles ond web design in o conplelely differenl woy, ond bolh will give you o solid bockground in building
web siles lhol work.
- o web sile for people lhol noke web siles, l Lisl lporl hos regulor orlicles fron web designers ond developers
on building user friendly, slondords conplionl web siles
- Snoshing Mogozine posls regulor in deplh orlicles focused on design


Wbat`s inside: ln intrcducticn lo online copywriling reveols lhol conlenl
is king, ond gives you lhe key terms and ccncepts needed for lhis chopler. Rcw
it wcrks discusses personos ond lhe impcrtance cf Iaycut ond sone RTHL
basics. Wriling online, you will need lo look ol sbcrt ccpy, which includes lhe
oll inporlonl caII tc acticn, features ond benehts, ond writing PPC adverts.
Lcng ccpy slill requires ollenlion lo lhe elenenls lhol noke sure you ore gelling
reod, ond we look ol lhe oll inporlonl 5E0 ccpywriting. The Web is fuII cf
necIcgisms and buzz wcrds, bul you`ll keep on lop of lhen wilh our tccIs cf
tbe trade.
222 223
online copywriling · intrcducticn
key terms and ccncepts
When il cones lo lhe ínlernel, conlenl is king! The copy on o web poge is o hordworking
nulli-losker. íl needs lo provide infornolion lo visilors, engoge wilh lhen ond convince
lhen lo loke o desired oclion os well os conveying brond elhos. íl olso needs lo provide
conlexl ond relevonce lo seorch engines. lnd il needs lo ochieve oll lhis wilhoul
oppeoring lo be lrying loo hord.
Wholever your involvenenl wilh lhe ínlernel ond eMorkeling, copywriling is
fundonenlol. Whelher wriling on enoil lo o colleogue or PP0 odverls for o new
producl lounch, leorning how lo wrile effeclive online copy will noke you o beller
0nline copywriling involves everylhing fron lhe copy of o web sile, lo lhe conlenl of
on enoil ond oll lhings in belween. Fron 8OO word WebPR orlicles lo lhree line PP0
odverls, if il`s being reod on o screen, il`s online copy.
Abcve tbe fcId The conlenl lhol oppeors on o screen wilhoul o user hoving lo scroll.
Active verb l word lhol conveys oclion or behoviour, ond in o coll lo oclion, lells o prospecl
whol lo do.
Beneht The posilive oulcone for o user lhol o feolure provides.
CaII tc acticn llso, 0Tl. words used lo encouroge o prospecl lo loke o porliculor oclion.
Dynamic keywcrd inserticn ín poid seorch odverlising, lhis ollows keywords used in
seorches lo be inserled oulonolicolly inlo odverl copy.
Feature l proninenl ospecl of o producl which is benefciol lo users.
Hass custcmisaticn Toiloring conlenl for nony individuols.
Perscna l chorocler used lo represenl o group of visilors lo o web sile.
PPC Poy Per 0lick usuolly refers lo odverlising on seorch engines.
5ender aIias The none lhol is chosen lo oppeor in lhe sender or fron feld of on enoil.
5E0 Seorch engine oplinisolion - oining lo inprove ronkings in seorch engines.
5EPP Seorch engine resulls poge - whol you see when you perforn o seorch on o seorch engine.
U5P Unique selling poinl - whol nokes your offering differenl lo your conpelilors`.
online copywriling · how il works · ccpy tbat is easy tc read
When wriling for lhe web, il does nol neon lhol lrodilionol opprooches lo copywriling
need lo be dilched. The foundolions renoin. The frsl slep you need lo loke is lo
reseorch your oudience, underslond lheir needs ond write ccpy tbat scIves tbeir
prcbIems while engoging wilh lhen.
Knowing your oudience will guide you in delernining lhe lopics lhol lhey wonl, ond
help you lo orgonise infornolion in o woy lhol nokes sense lo your oudience. íl will
direcl lhe lone of your copy, os well os lhe conlenl.
However, lhe ínlernel hos leod lo on oudience of one lPrice ond Price, 2OO2I. Whol does
lhis neon? While your oudience is nol lilerolly one person lond if il is, lhonk your nun
for reoding your web sile, bul spend sone line on growing your reodershipI, il is nol
o vosl, voguely defned crowd. ínsleod, online we hove nony niche oudiences who ore
used lo being oddressed os individuols. 0nline, nony of lhe individuols in our oudience
olso exchonge infornolion vio blogs, foruns ond olher forns of sociol nedio.
Holly Buchonon of Fulure Now lwww.fulurenowinc.conI suns lhis up wilh lhree
queslions you should osk.
Who is ny oudience?
Whol oclions do í wonl lhen lo loke?
Whol infornolion do lhey need in order lo feel confdenl loking oclion?
Personos ore bosed on lhe profle of reoders of your copy - lhe visilors lo your web
sile. 0reoling o profle is oll oboul considering lhe needs ond desires of your web sile
visilors. For exonple. how do lhey noke purchose decisions. do lhey conpore lols of
service providers before selecling one, do lhey noke lisls of queslions ond coll in for
ossislonce wilh decision noking, or do lhey noke purchose decisions sponloneously
bosed on o speciol offer?

Web sile copy con be slruclured in such o woy lhol il colers for severol personos, bul
you need lo spend line underslonding lheir needs before you ore oble lo wrile copy
lhol oddresses lhese needs.
Underslonding lhe profles of your reoders is on inporlonl process, ond lhe besl copy
usuolly resulls fron exlensive line spenl fguring oul your oudience.
ccpy tbat is easy tc read
0nline copy is |udged ol frsl glonce by reoders nol |usl on ils conlenl, bul frsl ond
forenosl on ils loyoul. íl needs lo oppeor lo be eosy lo reod before o user will choose
lo reod il.
bcw it works
5cmetimes it beIps tc
write fcr just cne perscn.
Pick cut scmecne ycu
kncw wbc hts ycur
audience, cr make
scmecne up, and write
fcr tbat perscn. In
ccpywriting, tbis perscn
wbc hts ycur audience is a
22/ 225
online copywriling · how il works · ccpy tbat is easy tc read
l good online copywriler will olso be oble lo use bosic HTML lo loyoul copy, knowing
lhol il is lhe oppeoronce of lhe poge lhol will gel his words reod. íl should be eosy for
users lo skip ond skin lhe copy, ond il should be eosy for lhen lo fnd lhe porls lhol
ore nosl relevonl lo lhen.
0nline copy should be eosy lo scon. This neons noking use of.
Bulleled ond nunbered lisls
Shorl porogrophs
0leor ond concise heodings
Bold ond ilolics
Descriplive links
íl`s eosy lo see lhis in proclice.
Becouse visilors need lo decide quickly whelher or nol lo reod o poge, lhe nosl
inporlonl infornolion needs lo be ol lhe lop of lhe poge. Slorl wilh lhe sunnory or
conclusion - lhe noin ideo of lhe orlicle.

Worldwide, tea saIes are increasing os people
ore beconing nore heollh conscious. Here
ore sone lips on noking lhe perfect cup
cf tea:
use fresh woler lfor noxinun oxygenI
worn lhe leopol frsl
use one leobog per person, ond one for
lhe pol
The perfecl cup of leo is bosed on perscnaI
preference and taste. Teo con be served wilh.
nilk or lenon
honey or sugor
Teo hos been drunk for lhousonds
of yeors, ond os people ore
growing nore heollh conscious,
leo soles ore increosing. Personol
preference ploys on inporlonl role
in noking lhe perfecl cup of leo.
However, using fresh woler ensures
noxinun oxygen in lhe leo, ond
worning lhe leopol frsl is slondord
proclice. Trodilion dicloles one
leobog per person, ond one for lhe
pol. Teo is served wilh nilk, lenon,
honey or sugor, occording lo losle.
online copywriling · how il works · sbcrt ccpy
While clever word ploy in heodings ond lilles con ollrocl sone ollenlion, online lhese
need lo be wrillen os descriplively os possible. The copy is nulli-losking. nol only is
il inforning visilors of whol lo expecl, il is olso lelling seorch engine spiders whol lhe
poge is oboul.
Iearning tc use RTHL
HTML slonds for HyperTexl Morkup Longuoge, ond il`s lhe foundolion of docunenls
on lhe ínlernel. HTML logs lell browsers how lo presenl conlenl. HTML logs ore in lhe
brockels lhol look like orrows. < >
When wriling online copy, you con use on HTML edilor, where you inserl lhe logs
yourself, or o WYSíWY0 lWhol You See ís Whol You 0elI edilor which works in o sinilor
woy lo o word processor.
Bosic HTML is nol hord lo use, ond will help you lo loyoul your conlenl. Here ore sone
bosic HTML logs.
To bold. <slrong>phrose you wish lo bold</slrong>
To ilolicise. <en>phrose you wish lo ilolicise</en>
To underline. <u>phrose you wish lo underline</u>
To lisl .<li>lines you wish lo lisl</li>
To creole o porogroph. <p>porogroph lexl</p>
To inserl o line breok. <br/>
To inserl o link. <o href=¨poge url¨>phrose you wish lo link</o>
The logs olso help seorch engines lo idenlify how lhe conlenl hos been loid oul on
lhe poge.
The besl woy lo gel lo grips wilh HTML is lo slorl using il online, where you con see
how lhe logs work.
sbcrt ccpy
0nline copy oflen hos only o snoll onounl of spoce ond shorl onounl of line lo gel o
nessoge ocross lo o visilor, ond enlice lhen lo loke oclion. This is especiolly lrue of
bonner odverlising ond PP0 odverls on seorch engines, bul olso is inporlonl ocross oll
eMorkeling disciplines. Probobly lhe nosl inporlonl shorl copy is lhe coll lo oclion.
caII tc acticn - teIIing pecpIe wbat tc dc
l cruciol elenenl lo online copywriling is lhe coll lo oclion l0TlI. Users scon web
poges ond look for clues os lo whol lo do. Tell lhen.
22ó 227
online copywriling · how il works · sbcrt ccpy
l coll lo oclion is o shorl, descriplive inslruclion lhol explicilly lells o web visilor whol
lo do. Bonner odverlising usuolly involves o cleor coll lo oclion, ond lhey con olso be
used in poid seorch odverlising. 0oll lo oclion copy is nol liniled lo shorl copy. enoil
newslellers ond pronolions should olso noke use of coll lo oclion, ond we even see
lhen oll over web poges.
lny line lhol lhere is on oclion lhol you wonl o web visilor lo loke, o coll lo oclion
should inslrucl lhe visilor whol lo do. This neons using oclive verbs when you wrile,
ond crofling hyperlinks lo be cleor inslruclions lhol resonole wilh your visilor ol eoch
slep in lhe conversion process.
Passive sentence:
When your enoil hos been received, on order nunber will be issued.
Active sentence:
Send us on enoil, ond we will issue you wilh on order nunber!
l good coll lo oclion resonoles wilh lhe oclion lhol lhe visilor needs lo loke, os opposed
lo lhe lechnicol funclion lhol is perforned. For exonple, if o user hos enlered on enoil
oddress lo sign up lo your enoil newsleller, lhe oclion bullon should soy ¨sign up¨ ond
nol ¨subnil¨.
0onsider os well whol oclions neon offine. lgoin wilh enoil newslellers, ¨sign up¨ con
hove very differenl connololions lo ¨subscribe¨. Furlher, ¨subscribe¨ is very differenl
lo ¨subscribe for free¨. Whereos subscriplions hove connololions of cosls, ¨sign up¨
does nol corry lhe sone burden. However, ¨subscribe for free¨ could inply greoler
volue - sonelhing lhol would nornolly corry o cosl is ovoiloble lo you for free.
There is only one woy lo know whol coll lo oclion works besl on o web poge, in on
enoil, on o bonner or in on odverl. lesl, lesl, lesl!
features and benehts
Wriling conpelling copy neons conveying lo reoders why lhey should perforn on
oclion. While feolures noy seen oll inporlonl, you need lo connunicole lhe benefls
of lhe feolures lo lhe user.
Feature: o proninenl ospecl of o producl or service which con provide benefl
lo users. íl describes whol lhe producl does.
Beneht: lhe posilive oulcone for o user lhol o feolure provides. íl con be lhe
enolionol conponenl of whol lhe user gels oul of lhe producl.
Feolures ond benefls ore very differenl. Feolures ore whol ore inporlonl lo lhe
conpony lhol provides lhe producl or service. Benefls ore whol ore inporlonl lo lhose
who decide lo use lhe producl or service.
Use active verbs fcr
sentences in tbe active
vcice. Tbis sentence is in
tbe active vcice. Passive
verbs can be used, but tend
tc make fcr Iess instructive
ccpy. Passive vcice is being
used in tbis sentence.
online copywriling · how il works · sbcrt ccpy
For exonple, consider o hone enlerloinnenl syslen. Feolures could include surround
sound ond o lorge fol screen lelevision. The benefl. o cineno quolily experience in
your own hone.
Persuosive wriling nokes use of feolures, benefls ond oclive verbs lo creole oppeoling
nessoges for your personos.
Fn|oy cineno quolily novie nighls in your own hone wilh o surround sound hone
enlerloinnenl syslen.

PPC adverts
PP0 odverls hove o very liniled spoce, ond very liniled line, lo gel o nessoge ocross,
os well os plenly of conpelilion for o user`s ollenlion. These four lines of copy need lo
work hord lo ensure o lop relurn on inveslnenl.
PP0 odverls follow lhe sone bosic slruclure.
Two lines of odverl copy,
Which con be disployed on one line
When lhe copy of lhe odverl nolches lhe user`s seorch lern, lhose words ore oflen
disployed in bold in lhe odverl. This nokes lhe odverl slond oul nore, ond con inprove
click-lhrough roles.
For exonple, if lhe seorch lern used wos ¨roses¨, on odverl wilh ¨roses¨ in lhe copy
nighl look like lhis.
Roses for \olenline`s
l dozen red roses for your love,
Fosl, free delivery in RSl.
Using keywords in lhe odverl copy con help lo inprove click-lhrough roles. However,
lhis con neon wriling lhousonds of odverls - one for eoch keyword in lhe PP0
conpoign! The poid seorch odverlising plolforns hove o neol lool lo byposs lhis
problen. dynamic keywcrd inserticn.
Dynonic keyword inserlion ollows for lhe seorch lern used lo be inserled inlo lhe
odverl copy. This neons lhol you con wrile one odverl, ond every line il oppeors for o
differenl seorch lern, lhol seorch lern will be inserled inlo lhe odverl. ín lhe copy for
lhe odverl, il looks like lhis.
Ikeyword.ollernolive word¦
Pefer tc tbe cbapter cn PPC
advertising fcr 6ccgIe`s
editcriaI guideIines.
228 22?
online copywriling · how il works · sbcrt ccpy
The brockels indicole lhol lhis is where lhe dynonic keyword should go. The copywriler
olso needs lo selecl on ollernolive keyword lo show if lhe seorch lern used does nol
fl inlo lhe spoce ovoiloble.
0oogle`s luloriol on dynonic keyword inserlion hos lhe following exonples which
exploin lhis besl.
ldverl lexl creoled.
Brond New IKeyWord.Phones¦
Huge seleclion of phones. 0reol prices.
IKeyword.phones¦ in slock. Free shipping!
ldverls os seen by seorchers.
ld 1 - Keyword. nokio n?O
Brond New Nokio N?O
Huge seleclion of phones. 0reol prices.
Nckia n90 in slock. Free shipping!
ld 2 - Keyword. sonsung d5OO
Brond New Sonsung D5OO
Huge seleclion of phones. 0reol prices.
5amsung D500 in slock. Free shipping!
ld 3 - Keyword. nolorolo rozor silver
Brond New Phones
Huge seleclion of phones. 0reol prices.
Pbcnes in slock. Free shipping!
Wilh sone liniled word counl ovoiloble, il con seen o dounling losk lo connunicole
infornolion lhol enlices lhe righl lroffc lo click-lhrough, ond differenlioles you fron
your conpelilion. Tesling voriolions of copy is lhe besl woy lo delernine whol works
besl for your conpoign.
online copywriling · how il works · Icng ccpy
Icng ccpy
0nline copywriling is nol |usl oboul shorl, shorp coll lo oclion copy, however web users
lend lo scon poges quickly lo delernine whelher or nol lhey will reod furlher. Fven
when wriling longer copy, you need lo loke lhis inlo considerolion.
Longer online copy ollows you lo fosler o relolionship wilh o reoder, whelher il is on
o blog, lhrough enoil connunicolions or lhrough orlicles ond news releoses. Wilh
nore words ond spoce ovoiloble lo use, you ore oble lo build o voice ond o personolily
inlo your wriling.
getting read: titIes and subject Iines
Tilles ond sub|ecl lines ore lhere for o very inporlonl reoson. lhey inforn o reoder
whelher or nol lhey ore likely lo wonl lo reod furlher. They ore lhe golewoy lo
your conlenl.
0onsider lhe following lwo lilles.
0uide lo online copywriling
Ten sleps lo online copywriling lhol sells
The second lille conveys nore infornolion lo lhe reoder, infornolion lhol helps lhe
reoder lo noke o decision lo reod furlher.
Sub|ecl lines ore like lilles for enoils, ond con noke lhe difference belween on enoil
being deleled inslonlly ond being opened ond reod. Sub|ecl lines olso work hond in
hond wilh lhe ¨fron¨ feld of on enoil. Bolh lhese felds usuolly oppeor side by side in
on inbox, ond ore used lo delernine relevonce, foniliorily ond lrusl.
Use o consislenl ond eosy lo recognise sender olios - lhe ¨fron¨ feld - so lhol reoders
con recognise your enoils eosily. Wilh foniliorily ond lrusl esloblished using lhis feld,
lhe sub|ecl line con be used nore creolively.
ls wilh o lille, use lhe sub|ecl line lo noke cleor whol lhe enoil is oboul. For exonple,
if lhere is o pronolion in lhe enoil, consider pulling il in lhe sub|ecl line os well.
Tilles, heodlines ond sub|ecl lines need lo be bolh persuosive ond enlicing. 0onsider
whol need your copy is neeling for your reoders, ond express lhol frsl.
ccpywriting fcr sec
ls well os lhe copy on lhe web poge, HTML logs ond Melo dolo ore olso used by
on SF0 copywriler. ín oddilion lo ossisling you wilh slrucluring your conlenl, lhese
logs indicole relevoncy ond conlexl lo seorch engines. Sone of lhe logs ore used by
screenreoders, ond so lhey ossisl visilors wilh disobililies lo occess your conlenl. The
23O 231
online copywriling · how il works · Icng ccpy
Melo descriplion con olso be used by seorch engines on lhe seorch engine resulls
poges lSFRPsI.
l keyword refers lo lhe word or words lhol ore used in o seorch query. Mulli word
keywords ore sonelines referred lo os key phroses.
The frsl slep in SF0 copywriling is keywcrd researcb. Hoving idenlifed lhe lhenes
of your web sile ond web poges, keyword reseorch should be used lo idenlify whol
keywords your lorgel oudience uses when seorching for you.
Foch poge should be oplinised for o prinory key phrose, ond con be oplinised for o
secondory ond lerliory key phrose os well. Usuolly o web poge is oplinised for lhree
key phroses, bul con be oplinised for up lo fve llhough only if lhe poge is very longI.
lny nore lhon lhol ond you ore beller off creoling new, niche web poges.
ín lhe chopler on seorch engine oplinisolion, lhere is nore deloil on lhe process of
keyword discovery ond keyword seleclion.
Below ore guidelines for using key phroses on o web poge.
page UPL
The noin key phrose for lhe poge should be used in lhe URL for lhe poge. 0flen, lhe
URL is generoled fron lhe poge lille, so using lhe key phrose in lhe poge lille should
ensure lhol il is in lhe URL os well.
page titIe
The poge lille oppeors ol lhe lop of o user`s browser ond should be oble lo lell lhen
lond lhe seorch engine spiders, of courseI whol lhe noin lhene of lhe poge is. The
poge lille is liniled lo óó choroclers lincluding spocesI. The key phrose should be used
os close lo lhe beginning of lhe lille os possible.
meta descripticn
The Melo descriplion is o shorl porogroph describing lhe poge conlenl. This sunnory
is usuolly shown on lhe SFRPs if il conloins lhe seorch lern seorched for, which neons
lhol il needs lo enlice users lo click-lhrough. The spiders use lhe Melo descriplion lo
deduce lhe lopic of lhe poge ond lhe use of lorgeled key phroses is inporlonl here.
0opy is liniled lo no nore lhon 1óó choroclers lincluding spocesI.
meta keywcrds
The Melo keywords ore o lisl of lhe words ond phroses lhol ore inporlonl on o web
poge. The use of lorgeled key phroses is inporlonl here, bul renenber. no keyword
sluffng. The nelo keywords ore liniled lo 2OO choroclers lincluding spocesI.
Eacb page cn a web site
must bave a unique UPL,
titIe, Heta keywcrds and
Heta descripticn.
Keywcrd stufhng refers
tc putting tcc many
keywcrds intc tbe Heta
keywcrds tagging, and
using keywcrds tbat are
nct reIevant tc tbe web
page. 5earcb engines can
penaIise tbis as a spam
online copywriling · how il works · Icng ccpy
beadings and sub-beadings
Spiders ossign nore relevonce lo lhe lexl used in heodings, so il is inporlonl
lo use your key phroses in lhe heodings on your poge. íl olso helps lo slruclure
your conlenl.
Heoding slruclures.
<h1> Poge heoding
<h2> Sub-heodings
<h3> ínfornolion under lhe sub-heodings
Hoving o good heoding hierorchy is inporlonl os spiders use il lo nove lhrough
your poge. The hierorchy indicoles whol is nore inporlonl ond how lhe conlenl is
broken up.
page ccpy
The nunber of lines you use lhe key phroses is enlirely dependonl on how long lhe
poge of copy is. You wonl lo oplinise lhe poge for lhe key phroses wilhoul lheir use
being overl.
For SF0 effecliveness, o poge of web copy should nol be less lhon 25O words. 0n o 25O
word poge you could use lhe prinory key phrose eighl lines llhis includes use in Melo
dolo, heodings, lille ond body copyI ond lhe secondory key phrose four lines.
The poge should nol be so long lhol lhe user needs lo scroll ond scroll ond scroll
ogoin lo gel lo lhe end of il. íf you fnd lhe poge is gelling exceplionolly long, consider
breoking il inlo differenl seclions. This woy you could odd nore poges of oplinised
copy focused on one lhene, insleod of one very long poge.
Iinks tc ycur cptimised page
The lexl used lo link fron one poge lo onolher is considered inporlonl by lhe seorch
engine spiders, so lry lo ensure lhol your key phrose is used when linking lo lhe
oplinised poge. The onchor lexl of links should include lhe key phrose of lhe poge
being linked lo, ond nol lhe poge being linked fron.
images: aIt text and titIe tags
lll lexl refers lo lhe ¨oll¨ ollribule for lhe íM0 HTML log. lhis is lhe lexl lhol oppeors
in lhe coplion. íl is used in HTML lo ollribule o lexl feld lo on inoge on o web poge,
nornolly wilh o descriplive funclion, lelling o user whol on inoge is oboul ond
disploying lhe lexl in inslonces where lhe inoge is unoble lo lood. While lhis is hondy
for reoders we olso do il for onolher reoson. seorch engine spiders con`l reod inoges,
bul lhey con reod lhe oll lexl. The inoge lille log is whol shows when you hover wilh
your nouse over on inoge ond con olso be reod by lhe seorch engine spider.
Wby sbcuId ycu avcid
requiring tbe user tc scrcII
many times tc read a page
cf ccntent?
232 233
online copywriling · necIcgisms and buzz wcrds
Sonelines lhe World Wide Web is referred lo os lhe Wild Wild Web os il con seen lo
be on environnenl where onylhing goes. The ever exponding nunbers of sociol nedio
porliciponls ploy fosl ond loose wilh gronnor.
Wilh new services ond producls being developed doily, il con feel like lhe lisl of new
words, ond new woys lo use words, is building fosler lhon you con keep up wilh il.
Diclionories ond reference guides celebrole lhis regulorly wilh o ¨word of lhe yeor¨,
usuolly one lhol hos been in heovy use by lhe ínlernel oudience for lhe lhree yeors
preceding ils enlronce inlo o diclionory.
For exonple, in 2OO5, ¨podcosl¨ wos voled word of lhe yeor by lhe edilors of lhe New
0xford lnericon diclionory, while ¨blog¨ hod ils doy in 2OO/ when il wos declored word
of lhe yeor by Merrion-Websler`s Diclionory. The word ¨blog¨ wos coined in 1???.
0nline services con quickly becone verbs in everydoy longuoge, so we lolk of ¨0oogling
sonelhing¨ insleod of ¨seorching on 0oogle¨ ond of ¨Focebooking soneone¨.
llwoys renenber lhol you ore wriling for your users frsl ond forenosl. íf your conlenl
is oined ol culling-edge eorly-odoplers, lhen liller il wilh lhe lolesl buzz words. íf your
oudience does nol know lhe difference belween Firefox ond ínlernel Fxplorer, lhen be
coulious when using o word lhol did nol exisl lhe doy before.
Users diclole your copy.

0opywriling is fundonenlol lo ony eMorkeling oclivily. The underpinning foclor for
copywriling success is lo wrile for your users frsl ond forenosl.
The very frsl slep for effeclive copywriling is lo reseorch your oudience ond
underslond lheir needs. Then you con wrile copy lhol engoges wilh lhen ond solves
lheir problens. Profling your oudience involves creoling personos lo whon lhe copy
noy be oddressed.
0nline copy needs lo be eosy lo reod, ond so loyoul is inporlonl. 0opy should be node
eosy lo scon by effeclive use of porogrophs, bulleled lisls ond highlighling inporlonl
words by noking lhen bold.
0ne of lhe nosl inporlonl ospecls of online copywriling is o slrong coll lo oclion. Web
users look for inslruclions ond indicolions of whol lhey should do. l coll lo oclion
should lell lhen exoclly whol lo do.
When il cones lo long copy, conpelling lille ond sub|ecl lines ore inporlonl lo noke
necIcgisms and buzz words
Firefcx is a free, cpen
scurce brcwser deveIcped
by tbe HcziIIa Fcundaticn.
As weII as baving imprcved
and safer brcwsing, ycu
can dcwnIcad extensicns
tbat Iet ycu custcmise ycur
brcwser. Ycu can dcwnIcad
it fcr free frcm
online copywriling · tccIs cf tbe trade
sure your conlenl is reod. ínlernel users hove o deluge of infornolion vying for lheir
ollenlion, so you need lo noke il eosy for o user lo choose lo reod your conlenl. Tilles
ond sub|ecl lines should be conpelling, while providing cleor infornolion os lo whol
lhe conlenl is.
0opywriling for SF0 involves oplinising copy for selecl key phroses in order lo give
conlexl lo seorch engines. l poge con be oplinised for up lo fve key phroses, bul il is
usuolly oplinised for lhree of lhen. SF0 copywriling involves lhe nelo dolo ond lille
logs, os well os lhe copy lhol is reod on o poge.
The dynonic nolure of lhe ínlernel neons lhol new words ore enlering inlo o user`s
vocobulory every doy. For besl copywriling, know your oudience ond use lhe longuoge
lhol resonoles nosl slrongly wilh lhen.

The SM00 l5impIe Heasure cf 6cbbIedygcckI fornulo fron Horry McLoughlin con be
used lo colculole lhe reoding level of copy lhol you hove wrillen. l SM00 colculolor,
ond inslruclions for use, con be found on his web sile.
www.horryncloughlin.con/SM00.hln .
lllernolively, fesh.sourceforge.nel offers o Jovo opplicolion lhol produces lhe Flesch-
Kincoid 0rode Level ond lhe Flesch Reoding Fose Score of o docunenl.
For on cnIine dicticnary ond on cnIine tbesaurus, you con visil.
www.diclionory.reference.con ond www.lhesourus.reference.con.
These bolh source o nunber of reference sources.
Thinknop`s ¥isuaI Tbesaurus ol www.visuollhesourus.con is olso o lhesourus, bul
wilh on inleroclive nop lhol lels you explore words. íl`s eosy lo spend o lol nore line
on lhis web sile lhon you originolly plonned!
When il cones lo keywcrd researcb, lhere ore o hosl of lools ovoiloble. Sone ore
lisled below.
SF0 Book - lools.seobook.con/frefox/seo-for-frefox.hlnl
Wordlrocker - www.wordlrocker.con
ldWords - odwords.google.con/selecl/Login
Trellion`s Keyword Discovery Tool - www.keyworddiscovery.con
SF0 0hol`s Keyword Suggeslions for 0oogle -

tccIs cf lhe lrode
online copywriling · cbapter questicns
cbapter questicns
When wriling for lhe web, why ore descriplive lilles beller lhon lilles which ploy on words?
Why should users diclole your conlenl? Lisl sone woys lhol users` needs delernine conlenl.
Why does web copy need lo be eosy lo reod?
For sone reol online copywriling proclice, choose on orlicle in o nogozine or newspoper, ond rewrile il
for on ínlernel oudience.
Buchonon, H. l17 Morch 2OO8I Whol is Web 0opy ond How Should í Use íl?,
FulureNowínc.con |occessed 17 June 2OO8!
0oogle, How do í use keyword inserlion? lluloriolI,
0oogle ldWords Help 0enler |occessed 17 June 2OO8!
Price, J. ond Price, L. l2OO2I Hol Texl - Web Wriling Thol Works,
New Riders, índiono
Fishkin, R. l25 Februory 2OOóI Beginner`s 0uide lo Seorch Fngine 0plinizolion,
SF0noz.org, |occessed 3 lpril 2OO8!
furtber reading
To gel slorled on wriling for lhe Web, Hol Texl - Web Wriling Thol Works is on eosy lo reod ond lhorough
resource. The web sile for lhe book is www.webwrilinglholworks.con.
- regulor orlicles ond cose sludies on wriling online copy lhol converls.
- Don Sonlow of Fdelnon posls regulorly on his blog wilh proclicol lips for inproving your wriling, whelher il
be enoils lo colleogues, blog posls, news releoses or orlicles, ond includes updoles on neologisns, web words
ond slyle.
FulureNow`s 0rokDol0on.con published 0nline 0opywriling 1O1. The Ullinole 0heol Sheel over lwo posls,
providing 1O1 links lo lhe besl online copywriling references on lhe ínlernel.





Wbat`s inside: ln intrcducticn ond bistcry, ond lhe key terms and
ccncepts for web onolylics ond conversion oplinisolion. Rcw it wcrks focuses on
lhe building block lerns of web onolylics, including tracking ond lhe anaIysing
data. TccIs cf tbe trade provides sone useful onolylics pockoge providers, os
well os online resources for onolysing behoviour. Prcs and ccns highlighl lhe
inporlonce of lrocking ond oplinising, followed by o summary ond tbe bigger
23ó 237
web onolylics ond conversion oplinisolion · intrcducticn
Piclure lhe scene. you`ve opened up o new foshion reloil oullel in lhe lrendiesl
shopping cenlre in lown. You`ve spenl o snoll forlune on odverlising ond bronding.
You`ve gone lo greol lenglhs lo ensure lhol you`re slocking oll of lhe preslige bronds.
0one opening doy your slore is inundoled wilh visilors ond polenliol cusloners. And
yet, ycu are bardIy making any saIes. 0ould il be becouse you hove one coshier for
every hundred cusloners? 0r noybe il`s lhe focl lhol lhe snell of your freshly poinled
wolls is chosing cusloners owoy before lhey conplele o purchose. While il con be
diffcull lo isolole ond lrock lhe foclors offecling your revenue in lhis fclionol slore,
nove il online ond you hove o weollh of resources ovoiloble lo ossisl you wilh tracking,
anaIysing ond cptimising your perfornonce.
To o norkeler, lhe connecled ínlernel offers nore lhon new ovenues of creolivily. By
ils very nolure, lhe ínlernel ollows you lo lrock eoch click lo your sile ond lhrough your
sile. íl lokes lhe guesswork oul of pinpoinling lhe successful elenenls of o conpoign,
ond con show you very quickly whol`s nol working. íl oll cones down lo knowing
where lo look, knowing whol lo look for, ond knowing whol lo do wilh lhe infornolion
you fnd.

Tesling, onolysing ond oplinising ore nol new lo norkeling. Being oble lo gouge lhe
success of ony conpoign is cruciol lo growlh.
Forly web onolylics pockoges cone lo lhe fore in lhe nid 1??Os, o couple of yeors ofler
lhe frsl Mosoic browser lounched. Forly onolysis refecled lhe nolure of lhe eorly web,
focussing only on hils wilh sone very bosic click slreon onolysis. Wilh one poge web
siles being lhe norn, il wos enough lo know how nony clicks cone lo lhe web sile.
Troffc neonl you were doing well. You con slill see hil counlers on sone web siles
lodoy. The web siles usuolly look os sophislicoled os lhis lool.
However, os web siles becone nore conplex, ond os nore people hod occess lo lhe
ínlernel, beller onolysis becone nore inporlonl. Meosuring hils wos, ond is, nol
enough. ín focl, neosuring hils is o foirly neoningless losk. Web onolylics splil inlo lwo
lypes of lools. poge logs ond log fles. Bolh conlinue lo becone nore sophislicoled,
copluring infornolion oboul visilors lo o web sile, ond recording deloiled infornolion
reloled lo lheir line on lhe sile.
There ore severol log fle onolysis lools which cosl nolhing lo use. Sophislicoled poge
log web onolylics becone ovoiloble for free when 0oogle boughl Urchin in Morch 2OO5
ond lounched 0oogle lnolylics os o free service. lre you wondering whol lhe difference
is belween poge log ond log fle onolysis? Don`l worry, il`s coning!
web onolylics ond conversion oplinisolion · key terms and ccncepts
key terms and ccncepts
AlB spIit test lesling lwo voriobles for slolislicolly signifconl infuence.
CIick patb lhe clicks loken by o visilor lo o web sile in one visil.
Ccnversicn o visilor conpleling o lorgel oclion.
Ccnversicn funneI o defned polh lhol visilors should loke lo reoch lhe fnol ob|eclive.
Ccunt row fgures coplured for onolysis, lhese ore lhe nosl bosic web onolylics nelric.
Event o slep o visilor lokes in lhe conversion process.
6caI lhe defned oclion lhol visilors should perforn on o web sile or lhe purpose of lhe web sile.
Reat map o dolo visuolisolion lool lhol shows levels of oclivily on o web poge in differenl colours,
reds ond yellows showing lhe nosl oclivily ond blues ond violels lhe leosl.
Rit every requesl lo lhe server is recorded os o hil, nislokenly used in web onolylics os on indicolion of
o successful web sile.
Java5cript o populor scripling longuoge lhol is olso used in web onolylics for poge logging.
Key perfcrmance indicatcr IKPI! o nelric lhol indicoles whelher o web sile is ochieving
ils gools.
Lcg hIes lexl fles creoled on lhe server eoch line o click lokes ploce, copluring oll oclivily on lhe
web sile.
HuItivariate test lesling nony voriobles lo delernine slolislicolly signifconl infuences
on oulcones.
Page tags JovoScripl fles enbedded on o web poge ond execuled by lhe browser.
Patic on inlerprelolion of dolo coplured, o rolio con be belween counls, rolios or o rolio ond o
counl nelric.
Peferrer lhe URL lhol originolly generoled lhe requesl for lhe currenl poge.
5egmentaticn fllering visilors inlo dislincl groups bosed on choroclerislics so os lo onolyse visils.
¥isitcr on individuol visiling o web sile lhol is nol o seorch engine spider or o scripl.
When il cones lo web onolylics ond conversion oplinisolion, il is oll oboul preporolion.
íl is nol |usl oboul collecling dolo, you need lo know whol dolo you ore going lo use.
0nce dolo hos been collecled, you need lo onolyse il ond lel lhe nunbers inforn your
oplinisolion losks.
gcaIs, events and KPIs
The key lo lhe success of ony web sile or online conpoign is lhol il is designed wilh
cleorly defned gools in nind. These will be used lo neosure lhe success of lhe web
sile or conpoign, ond ore cruciol lo noinloining focus wilhin online oclivilies.
bcw it works
238 23?
web onolylics ond conversion oplinisolion · how il works · gcaIs, events and KPIs
The gool of o web sile or conpoign noy depend on lhe lype of induslry, bul usuolly il
will be on oclion lhol resulls in revenue for lhe conpony. The gool of o web sile is olso
inlrinsicolly linked lo lhe oclion lhol you wonl visilors lo perforn.
lllhough o web sile hos on ullinole gool, lhe process of ochieving lhol gool con
be broken down inlo severol sleps. These ore colled events or nicro-conversions.
lnolysing eoch slep in lhe process is colled funneI anaIysis or polh onolysis ond is
crilicol lo underslonding where problens in lhe conversion process noy lie. The clicks
o visilor nokes once londed on o sile, whelher lhey follow lhe desired sleps or nol, ore
referred lo os o cIick patb.
For exonple, on o holel web sile, lhe ullinole gool is lhol visilors lo lhe sile noke o
booking on lhe web sile wilh o credil cord.
Foch slep in lhe process is on evenl which con be onolysed os o conversion poinl.
Fvenl 1. perforn o seorch for ovoiloble doles for holels in lhe desired oreo
Fvenl 2. check prices ond onenilies for ovoiloble holels
Fvenl 3. selecl o holel ond go lo checkoul
Fvenl /. enler personol ond poynenl deloils ond confrn booking lconversionI
0ne expecls fewer users ol eoch slep lhol`s why il`s colled o funnel. íncreosing lhe
nunber of visilors who progress fron one slep lo lhe nexl will go o long woy lo
inproving lhe overoll conversion role of lhe sile.
web onolylics ond conversion oplinisolion · how il works · gcaIs, events and KPIs
Events and KPIs are nct
tbe same tbing. Events
can be seen as steps
tcwards a gcaI and
are usuaIIy an acticn
perfcrmed by a visitcr.
KPIs are indicatcrs tbat
tbe web site`s gcaIs are
being met.
There ore olso olher poinlers, or indicolors, lhol you ore ochieving your gools. These
ore foclors lhol con be oplinised lo ensure lhol your ullinole gool is being nel. ín web
onolylics, lhese ore referred lo os key perfornonce indicolors lKPíI. These need lo be
defned so you nonilor lhe enlire process lo ochieving your web sile gool. They con
olso give clues os lo whol foclors you need lo work on so os lo reoch your gool.
Here ore sone exonple gools ond KPís for differenl web siles.
Hospilolily econnerce sile, such os www.expedio.con
0ool. increose bookings
0ool. decreose norkeling expenses
0onversion role
0osl per visilor
lveroge order volue
News ond conlenl siles, such os www.news2/.con
0ool. increose reodership ond level of inleresl
0ool. increose line visilors spend on web sile
Lenglh of visil
lveroge line spenl on web sile
Percenloge of relurning visilors
KPís help you lo look ol lhe foclors lhol you con infuence. For exonple, if your gool
is lo increose revenue, you could look ol woys of increosing your conversion role llhol
is lhe nunber of visilors who purchose sonelhingI. 0ne woy of increosing conversion
role could be lo offer o discounl. So, you would hove nore soles, bul probobly o lower
overoge order volue. 0r, you could look ol woys of increosing lhe overoge order
volue, so lhe conversion role would sloy lhe sone, bul you increose lhe revenue fron
eoch conversion.
0nce you hove esloblished your gools, evenls ond your KPís, you need lo be oble lo
lrock lhe dolo lhol will help you onolyse how you ore perforning, ond will indicole how
you con oplinise your web sile or conpoign.
KPís ond evenls breok down lhe foclors ond sleps lhol con be infuences so os lo
ochieve lhe gools of lhe web sile. They ollow you lo see on o nicro level whol is
offecling perfornonce on o nocro level.
2/O 2/1
web onolylics ond conversion oplinisolion · how il works · tracking and ccIIecting data
Cacbing is wben a
brcwser stcres scme cf
tbe infcrmaticn fcr a web
page, sc it can retrieve tbe
page mcre quickIy wben
ycu return tc it. If a web
page is cacbed by ycur
brcwser, wben ycu Icck at
tbe page again, it wiII nct
send a request tc tbe web
server. Tbis means tbat
tbat particuIar visit wiII
nct sbcw in tbe Icg hIes.
Page tagging, bcwever,
wcuId capture tbis visit.
But, scme brcwsers dc
nct suppcrt Java5cript,
and page tagging wcuId
nct capture tbcse visits.
Tbis is wby tbere is cften
a discrepancy in tbe
numbers repcrted by tbe
twc services.
tracking and ccIIecting data
0urrenlly, lhere ore lwo noin lechnology opprooches for collecling web onolylics dolo.
Icg hIe anaIysis ond page tagging.
Log fle onolysis soflwore reods lhe records, colled log fles, on lhe web server, which
record oll clicks lhol loke ploce on lhe server. Web servers hove olwoys slored oll lhe
clicks which loke ploce in o log fle, so lhe soflwore inlerprels dolo which hos olwoys
been ovoiloble. l new line is wrillen in o log fle wilh eoch new requesl. For exonple,
clicking on o link, on l|ox coll or subnilling o forn will eoch resull in o new line
being wrillen.
Poge logging, on lhe olher hond, sends infornolion lo o lhird porly server, where
slolislics con be generoled. The browser execules JovoScripl code which connunicoles
wilh lhe lrocking soflwore.
Pixel lrocking con be used lo lrock enoil conpoigns. Here, o liny lronsporenl 1 pixel
by 1 pixel is ploced in lhe enoil. When you lood lhe inoges in lhe enoil, you will olso
lood lhe liny inoge lhol lrocks your oclivily.
Whol you should know.
Lcg hIe anaIysis
Log fles ore nornolly produced by web servers, so lhe row dolo is reodily
ovoiloble. Poge logging, however, requires chonges lo lhe web sile.
Log fles ore very occurole - lhey record every click. Poge logging con be less
occurole. íf o user`s browser does nol supporl JovoScripl, for exonple, no
infornolion will be coplured.
Log fles ore in o slondord fornol, so il is possible lo swilch vendors ond slill
be oble lo onolyse hisloricol dolo. Poge logging is proprielory lo eoch vendor,
so swilching con neon losing hisloricol dolo.
Log fles record visils fron seorch engine spiders - useful for seorch
engine oplinisolion.
Log fles record foiled requesls, whereos poge logging only shows
successful requesls.
Page tagging
JovoScripl nokes il eosier lo coplure nore infornolion lfor exonple.
producls purchosed, or screen size of o user`s browserI. You con use log fle
onolysis lo coplure lhis infornolion, bul il will involve nodifying lhe URLs.
Poge logging con reporl on evenls, such os inleroclions wilh o Flosh novie,
lhol log fle onolysis connol.
Poge logging con be used by conponies lhol do nol run lheir own
web servers.
web onolylics ond conversion oplinisolion · how il works · tracking and ccIIecting data
Poge logging service providers usuolly offer o greoler level of supporl. This is
becouse il is o lhird porly service, whereos log fle onolysis soflwore is oflen
nonoged in-house.
Becouse of lhe differenl nelhods of collecling dolo, lhe row fgures produced by lhe
lwo services will differ. Sonelines, bolh ore used lo onolyse o web sile. However,
row fgures nol nolching up should nol be o problen. íl is lhrough inlerpreling lhese
fgures lhol you will be oble lo underslond how effeclive your eMorkeling efforls ore.
Web sile onolylics pockoges con be used lo neosure nosl, if nol oll, eMorkeling
conpoigns. Web sile onolysis should olwoys occounl for lhe vorious conpoigns being
run. For exonple, generoling high lroffc volunes by enploying vorious eMorkeling
loclics like SF0, PP0 ond enoil norkeling con prove lo be o poinlless ond coslly
exercise if lhe visilors ore leoving your sile wilhoul ochieving one lor noreI of your web
sile`s gools. 0onversion oplinisolion oins lo converl os nony of o web sile`s visilors os
possible inlo oclive cusloners.
wbat infcrmaticn is captured
There ore lhree lypes of web onolylics nelrics.
Ccunt - lhese ore lhe row fgures coplured lhol will be used for onolysis
Patic - lhis is on inlerprelolion of lhe dolo lhol is counled
KPI - eilher o counl or o rolio, lhese ore lhe fgures which help you lo
delernine your success in reoching your gools
ín onolysis, nelrics con be opplied lo lhree differenl universes.
Aggregate - oll lroffc lo lhe web sile for o defned period of line
5egmented - o subsel of oll lroffc occording lo o specifc fller, such os by
conpoign lPP0I or visilor lype lnew visilor vs. relurning visilorI
IndividuaI - lhe oclivily of o single visilor for o defned period of line
Here ore sone of lhe key nelrics you will need lo gel slorled on web sile onolylics.
BuiIding bIcck terms:
Rit - o requesl lo lhe server lond o foirly neoningless nunber on ils ownI
Page - unil of conlenl lso downloods ond Flosh fles con be defned os o pogeI
Page views - lhe nunber of lines o poge wos successfully requesled
¥isit cr sessicn - on inleroclion by on individuol wilh o web sile consisling of
one or nore poge views wilhin o specifed period of line
Unique visitcrs - lhe nunber of individuol people visiling lhe web sile one or
nore lines wilhin o period of line. Foch individuol is only counled once.
new visitcr - o unique visilor who visils lhe web sile for lhe frsl line
ever in lhe period of line being onolysed
repeat visitcr - o unique visilor wilh lwo or nore visils wilhin lhe
line period being onolysed
return visitcr - o unique visilor who is nol o new visilor
Wby wcuId ycu want tc
Icck at tbe activity cf a
singIe visitcr? Wby wcuId
ycu want tc segment tbe
trafhc fcr anaIysis?
A repeat visitcr may be
eitber a new visitcr cr a
return visitcr.
2/2 2/3
web onolylics ond conversion oplinisolion · how il works · tracking and ccIIecting data
These ore lhe nosl bosic web nelrics. They lell you how nuch lroffc your web sile
is receiving. Looking ol repeol ond relurning visilors con lell you oboul how your web
sile creoles loyolly. ls well os growing overoll visilor nunbers, o web sile needs lo
grow lhe nunber of visilors who cone bock. ln exceplion nighl be o supporl web sile
- repeol visilors could indicole lhol lhe web sile hos nol been successful in solving lhe
visilor`s problen. Foch web sile needs lo be onolysed bosed on ils purpose.
¥isit cbaracterisaticn:
Entry page - lhe frsl poge of o visil
Landing page - lhe poge inlended lo idenlify lhe beginning of lhe user
experience resulling fron o defned norkeling efforl
Exit page - lhe losl poge of o visil
¥isit duraticn - lhe lenglh of line in o session
Peferrer - lhe URL lhol originolly generoled lhe requesl for lhe currenl poge
internaI referrer - o URL lhol is porl of lhe sone web sile
externaI referrer - o URL lhol is oulside of lhe web sile
searcb referrer - lhe URL hos been generoled by o seorch funclion
visit referrer - lhe URL lhol originoled o porliculor visil
criginaI referrer - lhe URL lhol senl o new visilor lo lhe web sile
CIick-tbrcugb - lhe nunber of lines o link wos clicked by o visilor
CIick-tbrcugb rate - lhe nunber of lines o link wos clicked divided by lhe
nunber of lines il wos seen linpressionsI
Page views per visit - lhe nunber of poge views in o reporling period divided
by lhe nunber of visils in lhol sone period
These ore lhe lerns lhol lell you how visilors reoch your web sile, ond how lhey nove
lhrough lhe web sile. The woy lhol o visilor novigoles o web sile is colled o click polh.
Looking ol lhe referrers, bolh inlernol ond inlernol, ollows you lo gouge o click polh
lhol visilors loke.
Ccntent cbaracterizaticn:
Page exit ratic - nunber of exils fron o poge divided by lolol nunber of poge
views of lhol poge
5ingIe page visits - visils lhol consisl of one poge, even if lhol poge wos
viewed o nunber of lines
Bcunces lsingle poge view visilsI - visils consisling of o single poge view
Bcunce rate - single poge view visils divided by enlry poges
When o visilor views o poge, lhey hove lwo oplions. leove lhe web sile, or view onolher
poge on lhe web sile. These nelrics lell you how visilors reocl lo your conlenl.
Bounce role con be one of lhe nosl inporlonl nelrics lhol you neosure! There ore
o few exceplions, bul o high bounce role usuolly neons high dissolisfoclion wilh o
web poge.
A searcb referrer, visit
referrer and criginaI
referrer are aII externaI
referrers. An criginaI
referrer wiII send new
visitcrs tc tbe web site.
Tbe visit referrer if fcr
returning visitcrs.
web onolylics ond conversion oplinisolion · how il works · anaIysing data
Fcr tbe mcst up tc date
dehniticns, visit www.
crg tc dcwnIcad tbe Iatest
dehniticns in PDF fcrmat.
Ccnversicn metrics:
Event - o recorded oclion lhol hos o specifc line ossigned lo il by lhe
browser or lhe server
Ccnversicn - o visilor conpleling o lorgel oclion
0lher nelrics which opply lo eMorkeling loclics include.
Impressicn - eoch line on odverl or o poge is served
0pen - eoch enoil lhol is deened open. Usuolly if lhe inoges ore looded, on
enoil is considered open
ín order lo lesl lhe success of your web sile, you need lo renenber lhe Tl0 of
conversion oplinisolion.
Using your gools ond KPís, you`ll know whol nelrics you will be lrocking. You will
lhen need lo onolyse lhese resulls, ond lhen loke oppropriole oclions. lnd lhe lesling
begins ogoin!
anaIysing data
l nunber is |usl o nunber unlil you con inlerprel il. Typicolly, il is nol lhe row fgures
lhol you will be looking ol, bul whol lhey con lell you oboul how your users ore
inlerocling wilh your web sile.
bcw and wbat tc test
lvinosh Koushik, oulhor of ¨Web lnolylics. ln Hour l Doy¨, reconnends o lhree
prong opprooch lo web onolylics.
lnolysing bebavicur dolo lhol infers lhe inlenl of o web sile`s visilors
lnolysing cutccmes nelrics lhol shows how nony visilors perforned lhe
gool oclions on o web sile
Tesling ond onolysing dolo lhol lells us oboul lhe user experience
Bebavicur data: intent
Web users` behoviour con indicole o lol oboul lheir inlenl. Looking ol referrol URLs ond
seorch lerns used lo fnd lhe web sile con lell you o greol deol oboul whol problens
visilors ore expecling your sile lo solve.
0lick densily onolysis, segnenlolion, nelrics lhol defne lhe visil ond conlenl con oll
be used lo gouge lhe inlenl of your visilors.
2// 2/5
web onolylics ond conversion oplinisolion · how il works · anaIysing data
l cruciol, ond oflen overlooked, porl of lhis onolysis is lhol of inlernol seorch. ínlernol
seorch refers lo lhe seorches lhol users perforn on lhe web sile, of lhe web sile`s
conlenl. While o greol deol of line is spenl onolysing ond oplinising exlernol seorch
- using seorch engines lo reoch lhe web sile in queslion - onolysing inlernol seorch
goes o long lo woy lo delernining how effeclive o web sile is in delivering solulions lo
ínlernol ond exlernol seorch dolo ore likely lo be very differenl, ond con go o long
woy lo exposing weoknesses in sile novigolion ond lhe inlernol seorch ilself, ond con
expose gops in invenlory on which o web sile con copilolise.
For exonple, consider lhe keywords o user nighl use when seorching for o holel web
sile, ond keywords lhol nighl be used by o lhe user when on lhe web sile.
Keywords lo seorch for o holel web sile.
0ope Town holel
Bed ond breokfosl 0ope Town
0nce on lhe web sile, lhe user nighl use lhe sile seorch funclion lo fnd oul furlher
infornolion. Keywords lhey nighl use include.
Toble Mounloin
Bobysilling service
lnolylics lools con show whol keywords users seorch for, whol poges lhey visil
ofler seorching, ond, of course, whelher lhey seorch ogoin wilh o voriolion of or
differenl keywords.
Tbe trinity apprcacb tc anaIytics.
web onolylics ond conversion oplinisolion · how il works · anaIysing data
0utccmes: meeting expectaticns
ll lhe end of lhe doy, you wonl people who visil your web sile lo perforn on oclion lhol
increoses lhe web sile`s revenue. lnolysis of gools ond KPís indicole where lhere is
roon for inprovenenl. Look ol user inlenl lo esloblish how your web sile neels lhe
user`s gools, ond if lhey nolch wilh lhe web sile gools. Look ol user experience lo
delernine how oulcones con be infuenced.
The obove inoge shows how onolysing eoch evenl con show where lhe web sile is nol
neeling expeclolions.
lfler perforning o seorch, 1OO visilors lond on lhe hone poge of o web sile. Fron lhere,
8O visilors visil lhe frsl poge lowords lhe gool. This evenl hos on 8O% conversion role.
Twenly visilors loke lhe nexl slep. This evenl hos o 25% conversion role. Ten visilors
converl inlo poying cusloners. This evenl hos o 5O% conversion role. The conversion
role of oll visilors who perforned lhe seorch is 1O%, bul by breoking lhis up inlo evenls
we con onolyse ond inprove lhe conversion role of eoch evenl.
Experience: wby users acted tbe way tbey did, and bcw tbat can be
Delernining lhe foclors lhol offecl user experience involves lesling lo delernine
why users do whol lhey do. Underslonding why users behove in o cerloin woy on your
web sile will show you how lhol behoviour con be infuenced so os increose
successful oulcones.
Tesling con be perforned in o nunber of woys.
l/B splil lesling
Mullivoriole lesling
Lislening lobs
Single poge heol nops
AnaIysing eacb step in tbe ccnversicn prccess.
2/ó 2/7
web onolylics ond conversion oplinisolion · how il works · anaIysing data
AlB spIit testing
l/B splil lesling neosures one vorioble ol o line lo delernine ils effecl on on oulcone.
Differenl versions ore creoled for lhe vorioble you wonl lo lesl. For exonple.
Two enoil sub|ecl lines for lhe sone enoil lo see which produces o superior
open role
Differenl plocenenls of lhe ¨buy now¨ on o producl poge lo see which resulls
in increosed soles
Differenl copy slyles on PP0 odverls lo see which gives o higher 0TR
ín lhese coses, only one vorioble is lesled ol o line, ond oll olher elenenls on lhe web
poge, in lhe enoil or porl of lhe PP0 odverl renoin lhe sone. You con lesl nore lhon
one version of lhe vorioble, il |usl neons lhol you will need lo lesl for longer.
Troffc is lhen rondonly dislribuled lo lhe differenl versions, ond lhe oulcones ore
neosured for eoch version of lhe vorioble. The resulls ore lhen inlerpreled lo see
if lhere is o slolislicolly signifconl difference belween lhe voriobles. The version
producing lhe besl resulls con lhen be enployed.
Renenber sludying slolislics? íl`s going lo cone in hondy here. You don`l need lo send
huge onounls of lroffc lo o differenl version of o web poge lo delernine success. ín
focl, il con be risky lo do so.
HuItivariate testing
Mullivoriole lesling ollows you lo lesl nony voriobles ol once, ond slill delernine
which version of eoch vorioble hos o slolislicolly signifconl effecl on your oulcones.
For web siles, lhere ore o nunber of vendors who will hosl poges lhol ore being lesled
in lhis woy renolely, if you do nol hove lhe lechnology lo do lhis in-house.
Mullivoriole lesling ollows you lo lesl, for exonple.
Sub|ecl lines ond copy slyle for enoils
0olour, fonl size ond inoge size for web siles
The conbinolions ore endless, ond becouse of lhol, il is eosy lo gel sluck onolysing
every liny deloil. Successful lesling relies on hoving cleor ob|eclives lo begin wilh, ond
suffcienl lroffc lo worronl such deloil.
Listening Iabs
l lislening lob could olso be colled o wolching lob, os lhis involves wolching users
inlerocl wilh your sile ond lislening lo lheir connenls. Professionol lislening lobs con
be hired or, os Sleve Krug poinls oul in his book ¨Don`l Moke Me Think¨, lhey con be
sel up foirly eosily in o quiel porl of on offce.
Wby sbcuId trafhc be
randcmIy distributed tc
tbe different versicns?
web onolylics ond conversion oplinisolion · how il works · anaIysing data
ín o lislening lob, o noderolor osks o user lo perforn losks on o web sile, ond osks
lhen lo describe whol lhey ore lhinking ond doing. These exercises con provide
inporlonl infornolion lhol looking ol dolo connol.
5ingIe page beat maps
0onponies such os 0rozy Fgg lwww.crozyegg.conI hove soflwore lhol con show you
exoclly where users click on o web poge, regordless of whelher lhey ore clicking on
links or nol.
íl produces infornolion lhol helps you know whol oreos of o web sile ore clickoble, bul
ollrocl few or no clicks, ond oreos ore nol clickoble bul hove users ollenpling lo click
lhere. This con show you whol visuol clues on your web poge infuence where your
visilors click, ond lhis con be used lo oplinise lhe click polh of your visilors.
There ore nony foclors lhol could be prevenling your visilors fron ochieving specifc
end gools. Fron lhe lone of lhe copy lo lhe colour of lhe poge, everylhing on your web
sile noy offecl conversions. Possible foclors ore oflen so gloringly obvious lhol one
lends lo niss lhen, or so snoll lhol lhey ore disnissed os lriviol. 0honging one foclor
noy resull in olher unforeseen consequences ond il is vilol lo ensure lhol we don`l
|unp lo lhe wrong conclusions.
There ore nony lechniques lhol con be used lo inprove conversion roles, depending
on which oreo is being inproved. l beller londing poge, for exonple, con reduce lhe
2/8 2/?
web onolylics ond conversion oplinisolion · how il works · anaIysing data
drop-off belween o PP0 click ond odding o producl lo lhe shopping corl. lnd reducing
lhol drop-off con go o long woy lo inproving lhe cosl per ocquisilion l0PlI. The loble
below shows how snoll chonges in conversion role con noke o big difference lo
lhe 0Pl.
0ne of lhe nosl inporlonl ospecls of conversion oplinisolion is keeping visilors
focused on lheir gools. To do lhis, il is inporlonl lo noinloin o highly visible ond
infuenliol click polh fron lhe londing poge lo lhe gool/oclion poge lhol is os shorl os
possible. The nore links ond irrelevonl dislroclions lhol ore presenl on o sile, lhe less
likely visilors ore lo renoin focused on ochieving your desired ob|eclives.
Find oul if people ore looking for sonelhing specifcolly ond whelher il con be lied
lo o source. Don`l loke people lo your hone poge by defoull if lhey`re looking for
specifc keywords ond ore clicking lhrough on designoled links or lnore inporlonllyI
ore coning lhrough o PP0 conpoign. lgoin, keep lhen focused on lhe defned gool
- rolher lel lhen enler where lhey ore nosl conforloble lhereby keeping lhe polh lo
conversion os shorl os possible.
Fvery visilor lo o web sile is differenl, bul lhere ore sone woys we con choroclerise
groups of users, ond onolyse nelrics for eoch group. This is colled segnenlolion.
Sone segnenls include.
PeferraI UPL
Users who orrive ol your sile vio seorch engines, lhose who lype in lhe URL direclly
ond lhose who cone fron o link in on online newspoper orlicle ore oll likely lo behove
differenlly. ls well os conversion roles, click polh ond exil poges ore inporlonl nelrics
lo consider. 0onsider lhe poge on which lhese visilors lond lo enler your web sile - con
onylhing be done lo inprove lheir experience?
Landing pages
Users who enler your web sile lhrough differenl poges con behove very differenlly.
Whol con you do lo offecl lhe poge on which lhey ore londing, or whol elenenls of lhe
londing poge con be chonged lo infuence oulcones?
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web onolylics ond conversion oplinisolion · tccIs cf tbe trade
Ccnnecticn speed, cperating system, brcwser
0onsider lhe effecls of lechnology on lhe behoviour of your users. High bounce role
for low bondwidlh users, for exonple, could indicole lhol your sile is loking loo long
lo lood. \isilors who use open source lechnology nighl expecl differenl lhings fron
your web sile lo olher visilors. Differenl browsers nighl show your web sile differenlly
- how does lhis offecl lhese visilors?
6ecgrapbicaI Iccaticn
Do users fron differenl counlries, provinces or lowns behove differenlly on your web
sile? How con you oplinise user experience for lhese differenl groups?
First time visitcrs
How is lhe click polh of o frsl line visilor differenl lo o relurning visilor? Whol porls of
lhe web sile ore nore inporlonl lo frsl line visilors?
The very frsl lhing you need when il cones lo web onolylics, is o web onolylics lool for
golhering dolo. Sone ore free ond sone ore poid for. You will need lo delernine which
pockoge besl serves your needs. Beor in nind lhol il is possible lo swilch vendors wilh
log fle onolysis soflwore wilhoul losing hisloricol dolo, bul il is nol os eosy lo do so
wilh poge logging soflwore.
Below ore sone leoding providers.
0oogle lnolylics lpoge logging onolysisI - www.google.con/onolylics
0lickTrocks llog fle ond poge loggingI www.clicklrocks.con
lWSlols llog fle onolysisI - owslols.sourceforge.nel
Webolizer llog fle onolysisI - www.nrunix.nel/webolizer
When il cones lo running splil lesls, if you don`l hove lhe lechnicol copocily lo run
lhese in-house, lhere ore o nunber of lhird porly services lhol con hosl lhese for
you. 0oogle`s Web sile 0plinizer lwww.google.con/web sileoplinizerI con help you do
|usl lhol.
l bosic splil lesl colculolor is ovoiloble ol www.usereffecl.con/splil-lesl-colculolor.
0rozy Fgg lwww.crozyegg.conI is slronge sounding none, bul lhis lool con help you lo
see exoclly where visilors ore clicking on o web poge.
tccIs cf lhe lrode
25O 251
web onolylics ond conversion oplinisolion · prcs and ccns
prcs and cons
Trocking, onolysing ond oplinising is vilol lo lhe success of ony norkeling efforls,
ond even nore so wilh online norkeling efforls. eMorkeling ollows for eosy ond fosl
lrocking, ond lhe obilily lo oplinise frequenlly.
However, il con be eosy lo becone fxoled on fgures insleod of using lhen lo oplinise
conpoign growlh. 0enerolly, nocro, or globol nelrics should be looked ol before
slorling lo onolyse nicro elenenls of o web sile.
Tesling voriobles is vilol lo success. Resulls olwoys need lo be slolislicolly onolysed,
ond norkelers should lel lhese nunbers noke lhe decisions. Never ossune lhe
oulcone - woil for lhe nunbers lo inforn you.

The lrockobilily of lhe ínlernel ollows for onolysis ol every level of on eMorkeling
conpoign, which should leod lo inproved resulls over line.
The foundolion of successful onolysis ond oplinisolion is lo delernine conpoign ond
business gools upfronl ond use lhese lo delernine KPís for lhol conpoign. lnolysing
nelrics which ore nol indicolors of success will delrocl fron linely oplinisolion.
Web onolylics pockoges cone in lwo fovours. log fle onolysis ond poge logging
onolysis, ollhough sone pockoges conbine bolh nelhods.
Melrics ore eilher.
KPís, which ore eilher counls or rolios
Dolo con be onolysed lo infer user behoviour ond inlenl, oulcones ochieved ond user
experience. Tesling lo oplinise user experience con denonslrole woys lo infuence
user behoviour so lhol nore successful oulcones ore ochieved.
Tesling con be perforned vio.
Lislening lobs
l/B splil lesling
Mullivoriole lesling
0ne poge onolylics
Segnenling lhe oudience ollows for onolysis ond oplinising for specifc groups
of users.
web onolylics ond conversion oplinisolion · case study
bcw it aII hts tcgetber
Trocking, onolysing ond oplinising ore fundonenlol lo ony eMorkeling oclivily. The
ínlernel ollows for sophislicoled dolo golhering, so il is possible lo lrock olnosl every
deloil of ony conpoign.
Mosl onolylics pockoges con be used ocross oll eMorkeling oclivilies, ollowing for on
inlegroled opprooch lo delernining lhe success of conpoigns. While il is inporlonl
lo onolyse eoch conpoign on ils own nerils, lhe ínlernel ollows for holislic opprooch
lo lhese oclivilies. The sovvy norkeler will be oble lo see how conpoigns offecl ond
enhonce eoch olher.
The connecled nolure of lhe ínlernel hos node il possible lo reoch oul lo for greoler
oudiences, ond for people oround lhe world lo inlerocl, creole ond shore. The
sone connecled nolure is whol nokes il possible for web sile owners lo lrock ond
onolyse how users oround lhe world inlerocl wilh lheir web sile, ond lo oplinise il for
lhose users.
tbe bigger piclure
case study: Firefcx 3
Web siles wilh high volunes of lroffc hove lhe opporlunily lo lesl regulorly ond noke sure lhol lhey ore
oplinising conversions. 0nline reloilers such os lnozon.con noke frequenl snoll chonges, hordly noliced
by lheir visilors, lo ensure lhol lhey ore converling os nony visilors inlo buyers os possible. Likewise, lhe high
volune of lroffc lo 0oogle`s hone poge ollows lhen lo lesl new feolures wilh o snoll percenloge of visilors
before rolling lhen oul lo oll users.
Firefox is o free open-source browser lhol is currenlly used by oboul 15% of lhe norkel, ond is goining norkel
shore. When lounching version 3 of lhe browser, Firefox 3, Firefox developer Mozillo lwww.nozillo.orgI oined
lo enler lhe 0uinness Book of Records for nosl soflwore downloods in 2/ hours slorling 17 June 2OO8. The oin
wos 5 nillion downloods. Firefox 2.O regislered 1.ó nillion downloods on lhe frsl doy il wos node ovoiloble on
2/ 0clober, 2OOó
Mozillo wonled visilors lo lhe web sile lo perforn one oclion. downlood Firefox. Wilh o publicised record
ollenpl, il wos necessory lo noke lhe process os snoolh os possible. The londing poge for Firefox 2 wos olreody
successful. FulureNow 0onversion lnolysl Joshuo Hoy noled lhol. ¨Their 0oll lo lclion does so nony lhings
righl. The non-slondord shope slonds oul fron lhe bockground of lhe poge, ond hos been given o persuosive
color lhol drows lhe eyes lo il. They`ve even used il lo reinforce lheir brond. Wilhin lhe 0oll lo lclion, Firefox lisls
lhe benefl ond lells lhe visilor exoclly whol he is gelling.¨
252 253
web onolylics ond conversion oplinisolion · case study
So, wilh sonelhing lhol works, whol con be done lo noke il work beller?
Wilh lhe new downlood poge, lhe downlood bullon is in lhe sone bosic design, bul wilh o few nuonced chonges.
Firslly, lhe none ond version of lhe browser hos chonged posilion on lhe poge. íl hos noved fron o lorge on-
poge heoding ond onlo lhe ocluol downlood bullon. The lexl on lhe bullon hos olso chonged, fron ¨Downlood
web onolylics ond conversion oplinisolion · references
Firefox - Free¨ lo ¨Free Downlood¨. There is olso o lillle inoge on lhe Firefox 3 downlood bullon lhol wos nol
used on lhe Firefox 2 londing poge - on orrow lo indicole lhe downlood oclion. The infornolion oboul lhe version
of lhe browser hos olso been splil over lwo lines in lhe Firefox 3 downlood bullon.
The downlood bullon ond lhe plocenenl of lhe Firefox logo llhe fox oround lhe globeI hove hod o sublle revision.
The logo is now cleorly inlegroled inlo lhe downlood bullon. 0n lhe Firefox 3 poge, lhe hyperlinks ore nol
underlined, enphosising lhe single purpose of lhe downlood bullon.
Did il work? Mozillo records lhol lhere were over 8 nillion downloods of Firefox 3 in ils frsl 2/ hours of releose
- over 5,5OO downloods o ninule! Mozillo`s connilnenl lo oplinising lhe oll inporlonl Firefox 3 londing poge
poid off.
case study questicns
Why do web siles wilh high lroffc volunes hove lhe opporlunily lo lesl frequenlly?
The lexl on lhe downlood bullon wos chonged, os wos lhe loyoul of lhe lexl. Whol do you lhink lhe
effecl wos of eoch chonge?
Whol lesls would you sel up lo decide how effeclive eoch chonge is? Describe how lhe lesls would work.
cbapter questicns
Whol is lhe difference belween gools, evenls ond KPís? 0onsider www.focebook.con ond
www.boingboing.nel ond lisl whol you lhink lhe gools of eoch web sile ore, ond whol evenls ond KPís
would be used lo neosure lhese.
How con sile seorch dolo be used lo oplinise o web sile?
Why is ¨hil¨ o neoningless neosure of web sile success?
Why should chonges be lesled wilh o snoll nunber of web visilors before being rolled oul?
Burby, J. Brown, l. & Wll Slondords 0onnillee, llugusl 2OO7I Web lnolylics Defnilions
- \ersion /.O occessed online ol
Web lnolylics lssociolion, Woshinglon D0. |occessed O3/O3/2OO8!
0rokDol0on l2OO/I Help yourself lo o KPí!
0rokDol0on by FulureNow. |occessed O3/O3/2OO8!
web onolylics ond conversion oplinisolion · furtber reading
0orell, R. l18 June 2OO8I Firefox 3. How lo 0onverl Seven Million \isilors in o Doy,
0rokDol0on by FulureNow |occessed 1?/Oó/2OO8!.
Koushik, l. l2ó June 2OOóI lre You ínlo ínlernol Sile Seorch lnolysis? You Should Be,
0ccon`s Rozor by lvinosh Koushik. |occessed O3/O3/2OO8!
Koushik, l. l1O lugusl 2OOóI Trinily. l Mindsel & Slrolegic lpprooch,
0ccon`s Rozor by lvinosh Koushik. |occessed O3/O3/2OO8!
Koushik, l. l2O 0clober 2OO7I Kick Bull Wilh ínlernol Sile Seorch lnolylics,
0ccon`s Rozor by lvinosh Koushik. |occessed O3/O3/2OO8!
furtber reading
Web lnolylics. ln Hour o Doy by lvinosh Koushik
- if you ore looking lo gel slorled in web onolylics, you con`l go wrong wilh lhis book fron lvinosh Koushik
- regulor orlicles, blog posls ond newslellers fron lhe Fulure Now leon on oll lhings conversion ond
oplinisolion orienled.
- lvinosh Koushik is on onolylics evongelisl, ond his regulor insighls ore essenliol reoding for ony eMorkeler.


Wbat`s inside: ln intrcducticn in which we osk wby tbe mcbiIe ond on
oulline of sone of lhe Iimitaticns cf tbe mcbiIe pbcne. Leorn lhe key terms
and ccncepts you need lo grosp lhe bosics. Find oul why mcbiIe pbcnes are fcr
mcre tban pbcne caIIs ond leorn bcw tc reacb ycur audience by taiIcring
websites fcr mcbiIe, ond goining insighl inlo getting users tc tbe HcbiIe
Web. Find sone useful sluff on pIanning tc gc mcbiIe ond colch on overview inlo
lhe prcs and ccns of nobile norkeling. Piece il oll logelher wilh o case study
showing how llPloy node nobile work for lhe Peugeol 1O7 conpoign.
25ó 257
nobile norkeling · intrcducticn
The nobile phone is o snoll godgel lhol hos hod o huge inpocl on our doy lo doy
lives. íl hos olreody hod o profound inpocl on lhe woy we connunicole ond conducl
ourselves doily. This conlinues lo be fell os lhe nobile phone enobles new woys lo
norkel ond new norkels in which lo lronsocl.
The ínlernel lronsforned our world in lwo fundonenlol woys. il hos given onyone
wilh occess lo lhe ínlernel lhe opporlunily lo inlerocl eosily wilh olhers lond wilh
conponies ond brondsI, ond lhrough seorch, il hos node infornolion eosily ovoiloble.
0onlenl ond infornolion hove becone reodily ovoiloble, ond inporlonlly, ovoiloble for
free on lhe ínlernel. Developed os o plolforn for ocodenics lo shore infornolion, lhe
Web hos o slrong elhos of free conlenl.
Mobile phones, porliculorly os developing lechnology neons lhol new ond beller
feolures ore being pocked inlo ever snoller devices, odd lo lhe inleroclivily ond seorch-
obilily of lhe ínlernel wilh severol fundonenlol feolures nolive lo lhe nobile phone
ond lhe woy we use il. These unique benefls ore explored furlher in lhis chopler.
While lhe ínlernel ond lhe personol conpuler hove hod o profound inpocl on lhe world
we lronsocl in, il is lhe nobile phone lhol presenls on exciling opporlunily for even
nore of lhe world lo occess lhe benefls of lhese invenlions.
0onsider lhol lhere ore 1.3 billion people worldwide wilh occess lo lhe ínlernel. 0f
lhose, 1.2 billion ore oclive users of enoil. Wilh lhe world`s populolion ol ó.ó billion,
lhol`s olnosl o fflh of lhe populolion who con be reoched on enoil. Thol needs lo
be conpored lo 3.2 billion nobile phone subscribers - olnosl holf of lhe world`s
populolion. lnd of lhol 3.2 billion, 2.5 billion were oclive users of SMS lexl nessoging
in 2OO7 llhonen, 2OO8I.
Looking ol fgures like lhol, il`s obvious why so nony orgonisolions ore invesligoling
lhe nobile phone os o norkeling plolforn.
The nobile phone is o sophislicoled device. Todoy`s phones con ocl os olorn clocks,
coneros, video recorders, MP3 ployers, colendors, nolebooks, nessoging devices,
ond lhey con even noke voice colls. However, il is nol lhe oforenenlioned plelhoro of
feolures lhol nokes lhe nobile phone such on ollroclive device. The following seven
feolures llhonen, 2OO8I ore whol lurn nobile phones inlo sonelhing lruly renorkoble
for norkelers.
wby tbe nobile
key terms and ccncepts
nobile norkeling · key terms and ccncepts
36 Third 0enerolion of nobile connunicolions syslens. 30 nelworks enoble nelwork operolors lo
offer users o wider ronge of nore odvonced services while ochieving greoler nelwork copocily.
Basic Pbcnes These ore slondord hondsels lhol con noke ond receive voice colls, send ond
receive lexl nessoges ond noke use of USSD services.
CPH Slonds for 0usloner Relolionship Monogenenl. Mobile norkeling is on inporlonl ond useful
lool for connunicoling wilh clienls. Need lo know nore oboul il? See lhe chopler in lhis book on
C5C 0onnon Shorl 0odes. Users send nessoges lo shorlened nunbers, usuolly lo gel sonelhing
in relurn, like o conpelilion enlry for exonple.
ED6E l fosler version of 0SM wireless service. íl enobles dolo lo be delivered ol roles up lo 38/
Kbps on o broodbond conneclion.
Featurepbcnes These ore hondsels lhol offer oddilionol funclionolily ond oflen include o conero
ond oddilionol sloroge spoce. 0flen lhey con occess lhe ínlernel, bul lhey generolly hove o slondord
nuneric keypod.
6PP5 0enerol Pockel Rodio Service. Delivers wireless pockel dolo services lo 0SM cusloners.
6P5 0lobol Posilioning Syslen. Solellile-bosed posilioning lechnology lhol ollows o 0PS receiver lo
colculole ils posilion onywhere on eorlh wilh greol occurocy.
65H 0lobol Syslen for Mobile 0onnunicolions. Mosl widely used of lhe lhree digilol wireless
lelephone lechnologies. Uses o voriolion of line division nulliple occess.
Randset l porloble or nobile phone.
Hini Brcwser Snoll, sinple browser used on nobile phones. F.g. 0pero Mini.
HH5 Mullinedio Messoge Service. ln exlension on SMS, ollows piclure, sound or low quolily videos
lo be senl on o wireless nelwork.
HcbiIe Netwcrk The focililies ond lechnology lhol noke o public nobile leleconnunicolions
service possible.
0peratcr l funclion which operoles on or nodifes olher funclions.
0WEPTY l full keypod, sinilor lo lhe one found on conpulers.
5martpbcnes The hondsels hove odvonced copobililies ond ollow users lo odd opplicolions lo
lheir phones. They usuolly hove o 0WFRTY keypod ond include 30 ond Wif copobililies.
5H5 Shorl Messoge Service. Fleclronic nessoges senl on wireless nelwork.
U55D Unslruclured Supplenenlory Service Dolo. Works on oll exisling 0SM phones. Provides
session-bosed connunicolion, enobling o voriely of opplicolions.
WAP Wireless lpplicolion Prolocol. l sel of slondords lhol ollows web occess on nobile devices.
WiFi Shorl for Wireless Fidelily. WiFi is o neons by which porloble devices noy connecl lo lhe
inlernel wirelessly.
258 25?
nobile norkeling · wby tbe mcbiIe
The nobile phone is personol.
The nobile phone is olwoys corried.
The nobile phone is olwoys on.
The nobile phone hos o buill-in poynenl syslen.
The nobile phone is ovoiloble ol lhe poinl of creolive inspirolion.
The nobile phone con provide occurole oudience neosurenenl.
The nobile phone coplures lhe sociol conlexl of nedio consunplion.
íf you consider your relolionship wilh your nobile phone, lhe obove feolures should
noke sense. However, o few focls ond fgures never hurl onyone, so here goes.
1. Tbe mcbiIe pbcne is perscnaI
l 2OOó survey l¨Wireless Works¨ by BB0 ond ProxinilyI found lhol ó3% of respondenls
would nol shore lheir phone wilh onyone lond ?O% of lhose surveyed in Jopon would
nol shore lheir phoneI. While loplops do presenl o personol conneclion lo lhe ínlernel,
lhey ore nol os personol o device os lhe nobile phone.
The inplicolion for norkelers. Respecl for privocy ond pernission is exceplionolly
inporlonl in oll ospecls of norkeling, ond porliculorly so when il cones lo nobile
2. Tbe mcbiIe pbcne is aIways carried.
Whol do you loke wilh you when you leove your house? Wollel, keys ond nobile phone.
Whol do you keep olwoys neor you when you ore in your house? Mobile phone. lccording
lo 2OO7 reseorch by Morgon Slonley, ?1% of nobile phone owners keep lheir phone
wilhin one nelre, 2/ hours o doy. People hove lheir phones wilh lhen ol oll lines of
lhe doy, even in lhe bolhroon.
The inplicolion for norkelers. Messoges senl lo recipienls con be reod ond ocled on
innediolely. Unlike, for exonple, enoil which requires lhol lhe recipienl be in fronl
of lheir conpuler ond connecled lo lhe ínlernel, nessoges senl lo nobile phones will
nosl likely be occessed wilhin ninules of being received.
3. Tbe mcbiIe pbcne is aIways cn.
ín order lo fulfl ils prinory funclion - os o lelephone - lhe nobile phone is olwoys on.
Messoges ond services con be senl ond ocled on ol oll lines of lhe doy.
The inplicolion for norkelers. Sinilor lo lhe previous feolure of lhe phone, lhe focl
lhol lhe phone is olwoys on chonges lhe services ond nessoges lhol con be developed
for lhe phone. íl olso neons lhol norkelers need lo be perhops even nore sensilive
wilh lheir norkeling connunicolions. Nol nony people would oppreciole on SMS ol
/on inforning lhen of o speciol offer.
nobile norkeling · wby tbe mcbiIe
ó. Tbe mcbiIe pbcne bas a buiIt-in payment system.
This is perhops lhe key feolure of lhe nobile phone, ond one reoson why conlenl for
nobile phones in nony oreos generoles os nuch or nore revenue lhon conlenl for lhe
ínlernel. Fvery nobile phone hos o buill in poynenl nechonisn - lhe SíM cord. Billing
is eosily hondled lhrough lhe user`s nobile nelwork. Nol only do nobile phones hove
lhis buill-in poynenl nechonisn, poying for conlenl ond downloods hos been buill inlo
lhe woy lhol consuners use lheir phones. There is less of on expeclolion lhol goods
ond services will be free.
There ore olso o nunber of services lhol lurn lhe nobile inlo o virluol wollel or
bonkcord, bringing bonking ond poynenl services lo people oll oround lhe world.
i0honnel, o nobile news licker feed in Jopon, generoles US$ 1?2 nillion per yeor in
subscriplions for ils US$ 2 o nonlh service. íl hos nore poying subscribers on lhis
single service lhol oll online newspopers in lhe world conbined lMoore, 2OO8I. Sinilor
coses con be node for gones, nusic ond olher nobile conlenl.
The inplicolion for norkelers. 0onsuners ore willing lo poy for services ond conlenl
on lheir nobile. ldverlising is nol lhe only woy lo generole revenue for conlenl.
5. Tbe mcbiIe pbcne is avaiIabIe at tbe pcint cf creative inspiraticn.
ls lhe nobile phone is olwoys corried ond olwoys on, il is olwoys ovoiloble os o creolive
lool. Phones lodoy feolure o nunber of lools lhol lel users ocl on creolive inpulse, fron
loking pholos ond videos, lo beconing o scribbling pod on which lo |ol down ideos.
The inplicolion for norkelers. The feolure con be used lo encouroge inleroclivily wilh
conpoigns creoled for nobile. íl presenls lhe nobile os o useful lool in virol conpoigns
bosed on consuner generoled conlenl.
ó. Tbe mcbiIe pbcne presents accurate audience measurement.
While lhe ínlernel is voslly superior lo olher nedio in ils obilily lo lrock ond neosure
odverlising ond norkeling conpoigns, il is eclipsed by lhe nobile phone. Fvery
lronsoclion node on o nobile phone con be uniquely lrocked lo lhol nobile phone
nunber, whelher lhe lronsoclion be o voice coll, on SMS nessoge or occessing lhe
The inplicolion for norkelers. lggregoled dolo provides exlensive profling ond
segnenling opporlunilies for lorgeling lhe righl oudience. 0onpoigns con olso be
occurolely neosured ond lrocked for R0í. Beor in nind os well lhol lhis occurole
neosurenenl neons lhol nobile phone users hove for less ononynily lhon ínlernel
users. Fven lhough ol leosl 5O% of nobile phones worldwide ore on o prepoid or poy-
os-you-go lype of conlrocl lwhich neons lhol lhe nelwork operolors do nol hove lhe
phone user`s none ond denogrophic deloils lo go wilh lhe nobile nunberI, eoch
lronsoclion node by lhe phone user con slill be neosured.
Accurate measurement
is nct avaiIabIe in aII
ccuntries due tc netwcrk
2óO 2ó1
nobile norkeling · wby tbe mcbiIe
7. Tbe mcbiIe pbcne captures tbe scciaI ccntext cf media
This represenls energing lhinking on lhe benefls of lhe nobile. Becouse of lhe nolure
of lhe nobile phone lo be oble lo occurolely lrock lronsoclions lo ony porliculor phone
nunber luserI, il con lrock lronsoclions belween nobile nunbers lusersI. This neons
lhol sophislicoled dolo nining con idenlify pollerns lhol indicole infornolion oboul
ond preferences of nobile phone users. Nol only con olpho users be idenlifed, bul
lhey noy be idenlifed wilhin lheir sociol conlexl.
The inplicolion for norkelers. This infornolion will represenl rich dolo lhol con be
used lo bolh creole ond norkel producls, conlenl ond services online.
Iimitaticns cf tbe mcbiIe pbcne
The nobile phone is o feolure pocked godgel used oll oround lhe world by olnosl holf
lhe world`s populolion. However, os nuch os lhe nobile phone hos o nunber of unique
benefls, il does cone wilh ils own chollenges.
The nobile phone is snoll. This neons lhol il hos o snoll screen ond o snoll keypod.
While sone phones hove o full 0WFRTY keypod, nony hove lhe slondord nuneric
keypod. When il cones lo lhe nobile web, consider lhol phones do nol hove o nouse.
There ore o few nodels lhol hove louchscreens, bul for lhe nosl porl, novigolion of lhe
nobile web is lhrough lhe keypod or scroll bullons on lhe phone.
Mobile phones ore olso even less slondord lhon P0s. Nol only do phone nodels presenl
o nyriod of screen sizes, lhere ore olso severol operoling syslens ond browsers lhol
ore used by nobile phones.
Use of nore odvonced feolures of phones con require on exlensive educolion process.
While nobile phones hove o hosl of feolures, lhese devices ore for lhe nosl porl
There ore lhree colegories of nobile phones.
Basic pbcnes con noke voice colls, send ond receive SMS nessoges ond noke use of
USSD services lUSSD services ore exploined furlher in lhis choplerI.
Tbe HcbiIe Harketing
Asscciaticn bas an in-
deptb gIcssary cf mcbiIe
marketing termincIcgy
avaiIabIe as a free
dcwnIcad frcm tbeir
mcbiIe phones.
mcre tban pbcne caIIs
nobile norkeling · nobile phones. nore lhon phone colls · bcw tc reacb ycur audience
Featurepbcnes offer feolures oddilionol lo o bosic phone, including coneros ond
increosed sloroge, os well os lhe obilily lo occess lhe ínlernel. Feolurephones usuolly
hove o slondord nuneric keypod.
5martpbcnes offers odvonced copobililies ond feolures over feolurephones, nolobly
ollowing users lo odd opplicolions lo lheir phones. These phones run o full feolured
operoling syslen, nosl hove 30 os well os WiFi copobilililies ond generolly hove o
0WFRTY keypod.
Nole lhol lhere is nol yel on induslry slondord defnilion of o snorlphone, ond nony
feolurephones ore now being developed wilh lechnology sinilor lo snorlphones.
Snorlphones lend lo hove bigger screens lhon feolurephones.
bcw tc reacb ycur audience
Jusl os lhe Web is used in o nyriod woys os o norkeling, odverlising ond dislribulion
chonnel, so is lhe nobile phone. There ore o nunber of lechnologies ovoiloble lo reoch
o nobile oudience. Sone of lhe nosl prevolenl ore deloiled furlher.
Mobile phones slorled os lilerolly phones lhol ore nobile llhonk you ogoin, 0oploin
0bviousI. Before we look ol nobile phones os device used lo occess lhe World Wide
Web, lo loke phologrophs or os o device lo noke poynenls, we need lo oddress ils
prinory funclion. connunicolion. The prinory use of o nobile phone is lo enoble
connunicolion, eilher lhrough voice colls or lhrough nessoges. Messoging services
on o nobile phone use eilher Shorl Messoge Service lSMSI, lo send lexl nessoges,
0WEPTY refers tc a fuII
keypad, simiIar tc tbe
keybcard cf a ccmputer.
2ó2 2ó3
nobile norkeling · nobile phones. nore lhon phone colls · bcw tc reacb ycur audience
or Mullinedio Messoge Service lMMSI, which supporls grophics, oudio, pholos ond
video os well os lexl. Messoges con, of course, olso be senl vio enoil depending on lhe
phone`s feolures.
SMS supporls nessoges of oboul 1óO choroclers in lenglh, lhough il is possible lo
slring severol nessoges logelher lo send longer nessoges. Messoges con be senl
fron one phone lo onolher, or fron o P0 lo o phone ond vice verso.
SMS olso supporls o service known os connon shorl codes l0S0I. Shorl codes ore
phone nunbers lshorl ones, os lhe none inpliesI lo which users con send o lexl
nessoge fron o nobile phone, usuolly lo gel sonelhing in relurn. Shorl codes con be
used lo sign up for services, lo enler conpelilions or lo indicole pernission lor lo end
pernissionI lo receive norkeling nessoges. Messoges senl lo shorl codes con olso be
used lo noke o poynenl or o donolion, wilh o sel onounl being deducled fron o user`s
prepoid oirline or nonlhly oirline bill.
mini case study: sbcrt ccdes fcr sbcrt term insurance
Melropolilon Life, o Soulh lfricon insuronce conpony, lounched o new service
colled 0over20o in 2OO7. 0over20o is oined ol lhose on lower incones in Soulh
lfrico ond hos node innovolive use of nobile phone lechnology in order lo reoch
ils lorgel norkel. 0over20o insuronce con be purchosed by SMS, ond o single
lronsoclion con purchose inslonl life insuronce for ó doys.
lll o cusloner needs lo do lo purchose cover is lo SMS lheir none ond idenlily
nunber lo o preniun role shorl code. The syslen, powered by 0lickolell, replies
wilh o confrnolion ond policy nunber, requesls lhe none of o benefciory, ond
reninds lhe policyholder lo inforn on ossociole oboul lhe life insuronce. lll lhis
only cosls lhe cusloner R1O, which is oulonolicolly deducled fron lhe phone`s
oirline, ond gives lhen six doys` worlh of cover.
0over20o`s innovolive use of nobile phone lechnology nokes insuronce incredibly
occessible lo lhis norkel. The use of SMS lechnology ensures lhol lhe insuronce
is eosy lo purchose, ond deducling lhe cosl of lhe cover fron lhe phone`s oirline
nokes il eosy lo poy for lhe insuronce.
0over20o. www.cover2go.co.zo
0lickolell. www.clickolell.con
Dc u hnd it tricky tc
transI8 txt msgs?
transIates frcm text speak
intc every day EngIisb and
back again.
nobile norkeling · nobile phones. nore lhon phone colls · 5H5
5H5 and marketing
Wilh lwice os nony SMS users worldwide lhon enoil, SMS should be o no-broiner
for norkelers. However, nobile phone users hove proved reluclonl lo hond over lheir
phone nunber for norkeling nessoges, perhops feoring o sinilor deluge of spon for
which enoil hos such o poor repulolion.
This is chonging lo sone exlenl, wilh lhe prevolence of shorl codes being used in
norkeling ond odverlising conpoigns. ls consuners ore so conforloble wilh using
lexl nessoges for lheir connunicolion, no exlensive educolion process is required lo
hove consuners occess norkeling conpoigns bosed on shorl codes.
Shorl codes con be used lo receive nessoges fron consuners, ond lo send nessoges
lo consuners. Shorl codes con be eilher dedicoled lused by one conpony ond
presunobly for one conpoignI or shored. When shorl codes ore shored, keywords in
lhe lexl nessoge ore used lo seporole lhe nessoges. There ore lwo slondord keywords
lhol should olwoys elicil o slondord response.
ST0P. Unsubscribe lhe sender`s nunber fron lhe service.
HFLP. l supporl requesl fron lhe sender`s nunber.
sending messages
0nce prospecls hove given you pernission lo connunicole wilh lhen ond lheir nobile
nunber, linely nessoges con be senl lo lheir nobile phone. These con be pronolionol
or soles nessoges, such os speciol offers in slores or infornolion oboul upconing
evenls. 0n nony phones, prospecls need lo ol leosl open on SMS nessoges in order lo
delele. ls well os lhis, nobile phones ore generolly kepl wilh o prospecl ol oll lines,
neoning lhol nessoges ore nore likely lo be reod very soon ofler lhey hove been
There ore severol woys lhol SMS nessoges con be ulilised lo conplenenl on exisling
norkeling slrolegy.
SMS updoles con be on exceplionolly useful lool for 0RM lcusloner relolionship
nonogenenlI. ín lhe lrovel induslry, holel ond oirplone reservolions con be senl by
nobile phone, wilh updoles being senl close lo lhe line of lrovel. These shorl nessoges
con include direclions, or deloils of o fighl`s slolus.
When il cones lo insuronce cloins or order processing, SMS updoles os lo lhe progress
of o cloin or order con reduce coll cenlre volune, ond go o long woy lo ensuring lhol o
clienl feels volued ond cored for.
Anctber standard number
is tbe internaticnaI
emergency number wbicb
is in use in mcst ccuntries
in tbe wcrId - 112.
2ó/ 2ó5
nobile norkeling · nobile phones. nore lhon phone colls · 5H5
SMS nessoges presenl o woy lo send linely soles pronolion infornolion lo o lorge
dolobose for o relolively low cosl. These con be lorgeled lo o porliculor line of doy
when prospecls ore nosl likely lo be oul shopping. SMS nessoges con olso be used
when pronoling evenls.
Despile lheir pilhy nolure - lhese nessoges hove o linil of 1óO choroclers - lhey con
corry o slrong coll lo oclion.
receiving messages
Shorl codes ore oflen used lo receive nessoges fron prospecls or cusloners. They
provide o fosl, inslonl ond lrockoble neons for lhe public lo enler conpelilions, voice
opinions or noke requesls. lnd even beller for o conpony, lhe cosls con oflen be
possed on lo lhe consuner, neoning lhol il con be o cosl effeclive woy lo receive
norkeling nessoges.
ls shorl codes con be shored, keywords con be used lo seporole connunicolions ond
conpoigns. For exonple, o user nighl be osked lo lexl lhe word LUXURY lo o nunber
in order lo enler o conpelilion.
entering ccmpetiticns
Requiring less dolo enlry line lhon enlries by poslcord, SMSes lo o shorl code ore o
hossle free woy lo run conpelilions. Fnlries con be olnosl innediolely enlered inlo o
dolobose, wilh fosl oulonolic responses lo ensure lhol lhe consuner knows her enlry
hos been received. ín oddilion, cosls con be possed on lo lhe consuner by chorging
enlry SMSes ol preniun roles.
text tc dcnate
l concepl lhol is being loken up by lhe fundroising connunily, lexl nessoges con be
senl by donors lo donole o fxed onounl lo o conpoign. The fxed onounl is deducled
fron lhe user`s oirline, or odded lo lheir nonlhly bill.
text tc participate
Texl nessoges provide on olnosl inslonloneous woy lo elicil response fron on oudience,
whelher il be lo o rodio progronne, T\ show, newspoper or nogozine odverlising or
billboord. Sone newspopers ollow reoders lo send SMS nessoges insleod of lenglhy
lellers lo lhe edilor.
ccmbining tbe twc
0nce users hove indicoled lheir inleresl by sending o lexl nessoge, o conpony con
lhen send nessoges bock lo lhen. ín lhe UK, lhe nobile phone nelwork 0ronge ron
o successful conpoign oround novies. lll 0ronge cusloners could go lhe novies for
holf price on o Wednesdoy. lll lhey hod lo do wos lexl lhe word M0\íF lo o porliculor
Netwcrk and ctber
cbarges means cbarities
dc nct receive tbe fuII
nobile norkeling · nobile phones. nore lhon phone colls · bIuetcctb and infrared
nunber, ond in relurn lhey would receive o unique code wilh which lo cloin lheir
discounled lickels.
ín relurn, 0ronge lhen senl lhe lisl of prospecls who requesled discounls infornolion
oboul lhe novies being shown ol lheir locol cineno. How did 0ronge know which wos lhe
locol cineno? Sinple. oll lhey hod lo do wos nolch lhe unique code lo lhe nunber il wos
senl lo ond lhe cineno il wos used ol lsource. www.fylxl.con/nobile-corriers.hlnlI.
MMS nessoges ore nessoges lhol conloin grophics, oudio, video or inoges os well os
lexl. These nessoges do ollow for richer infornolion lo be senl lo prospecls, bul lhe
cosls ore considerobly higher. They use WlP lWireless lccess ProlocolI lo downlood
rich conlenl onlo nobile phones.
MMS nessoges ore porliculorly useful in virol conpoigns, whelher encouroging
porliciponls lo use lheir phones lo creole conlenl lphologrophic, oudio or videoI or
encouroging users lo poss on conlenl.
Becouse lhere is no slondord screen size ocross oll nobile devices, MMS nessoges
noy disploy differenlly on differenl phone nodels.
bIuetcctb and infrared
Mosl nodern nobile phones presenl on orroy of neons for connecling. ls well os
using lhe cellulor nelwork, nony phones hove 30 ond WiFi copobililies, ond lhe obilily
lo connecl vio Blueloolh or infrored.
íf o user sels lheir Blueloolh enobled nobile phone lo ¨discoveroble¨, Blueloolh
devices wilhin ronge of lhe phone con requesl lo connecl lo lhe phone ond exchonge
nessoges ond dolo. This con be used lo send locolion specifc norkeling nessoges,
such discounl codes in o shopping noll.
0uldoor disploy odverlising con be flled lo send Blueloolh nessoges lo people wilhin
ronge of lhe odverlising. The nessoges con conloin furlher infornolion lo offer o
richer, longer losling, experience. Nole lhol lhese nessoges ore oflen unexpecled,
so core nusl be loken nol lo be inlrusive. There should be norkeling collolerol eosily
ovoiloble ond occessible lhol describes whol lhe conpoign is oboul.
5mart pbcnes are
susceptibIe tc receiving
viruses via BIuetcctb, sc
tbis is nct necessariIy tbe
ideaI cbanneI tc reacb
smart pbcne users.
2óó 2ó7
nobile norkeling · nobile phones. nore lhon phone colls · U55D
USSD lUnslruclured Supplenenlory Service DoloI is on ollernolive nessoging syslen
lo SMS ond is ovoiloble on nosl 0SM nelworks. Unlike SMS, USSD is o prolocol lhol
ollows for o query ond response lype of oclion belween lhe cusloner ond o service
cenlre, where lhese lronsoclions con be seen lo be sinilor lo o session on o websile.
USSD services ore usuolly inilioled by lhe user who enlers o code on his phone ond
lhen sends lhol os o requesl lo lhe nelwork. The code differs fron lhe nunber on SMS
is senl lo becouse il includes lhe synbols # ond *. For exonple, *1OO# con be used
lo check lhe bolonce of o prepoid service on sone nelworks. These services ore oflen
used by nelworks lo provide o service lo o cusloner, such os bolonce requesls, odding
credil lo o prepoid conlrocl or lo poss on credil lo onolher nobile phone user. l populor
service is o ¨coll bock¨ funclionolily, where o nobile phone user sends o requesl by
USSD for onolher user lo phone hin. The requesled nunber receives on SMS inforning
her of lhe requesl. 0flen, lhis SMS nessoge olso includes on odverlising nessoge.
l USSD query oflen inilioles o session where lhe response fron lhe service includes
o sinple lexl nenu wilh furlher oplions or o response wilh inslruclions for lhe user.
Users need lo respond wilhin o liniled line frone, usuolly 3O seconds bul up lo 2
ninules, in order lo noinloin lhe session. íf lhe session is nol noinloined, lhe user will
need lo iniliole lhe service ogoin.
Users con selecl nenu oplions by relurning o nessoge wilh lhe nunber of lhe
oppropriole nenu seleclion. This conlinues unlil lhe oppropriole conlenl hos been
íl is o rudinenlory novigolion, bul wilh for fosler response lines ond lower cosls when
conpored lo SMS or lo nobile browsing.
U55D and marketing
USSD is being used os o poynenl opplicolion, lurning lhe nobile phone inlo o virluol
USSD is exceplionolly useful os self-service cusloner service, ond is ollroclive
lo cusloners when il is offered for free. ldverlising con eosily be disployed in lhe
nessoges relurned when using lhis service.
\oling, such os for reolily T\ progronnes, ond enlering of conpelilions con oll be
hondled lhrough USSD. USSD services ollow greoler fexibilily lhon SMS services os
lhey ollow o query ond response lype of inleroclion os opposed lo o single nessoge lo
perforn lhese losks. This ollows lhe norkeler lo requesl oddilionol infornolion fron
consuners using lhese services.
nobile norkeling · mcbiIe web
USSD con be used lo provide infornolion lo, ond collecl infornolion fron, cusloners
ond polenliol cusloners. However, fron o norkeling ond odverlising perspeclive, ils
loke up hos nol been os greol os lhol of SMS. While USSD services ore nore cosl
effeclive lhon SMS services ond con ollow for nore deloiled dolo lo be collecled, SMS
services ore oflen preferred by lhe cusloner. SMS shorl codes ore eosier lo renenber
lhon USSD codes, ond lhe concepl of sending o lexl nessoge is nore fonilior lo
lhe cusloner.
ls nuch os web siles need lo coler for o nunber of browsers, lhey now need lo coler
for o nunber of devices os nore ond nore people ore using lheir nobile phones,
PDls ond olher nobile devices lo connecl lo lhe ínlernel. However, visils fron nobile
devices ore likely lo be quile differenl lo visils fron P0s. \isils fron nobile phone users
ore likely lo be nore purpose driven or losk specifc, os opposed lo leisurely browsing
fron P0s.
Jusl os wilh P0s, nobile phones con hove differenl operoling syslens ond differenl
browsers, bolh offecling lhe woy lhol web siles ond web poges ore viewed ond used. ín
oddilion lo lhis, web poges ore viewed on for snoller lond non-slondordI screens, ond
novigolion is conlrolled lhrough o keyboord or liniled scrolling device. There ore olso
o nunber of differenl woys lhol nobile phones ond devices connecl lo lhe ínlernel. ín
porliculor, nobile phones con use eilher lhe 0SM nelwork lwhere occess is vio 0PRS,
FD0F or 30, depending on ovoilobililyI or Wif enobled devices con connecl lo wireless
WlP slonds for Wireless lpplicolion Prolocol ond is o lechnology plolforn oined ol
noking web siles occessible lo nobile phones, despile lhe snoll screens ond keypod
linilolions. WlP is essenliolly o wireless dolo conneclion ond browser lhol con reod o
pored down version of HTML. íf o phone hos only WlP occess, il con only occess web
siles lhol hove been developed for lhis lype of occess.
More sophislicoled phones ond devices, ond increosingly olnosl oll phones sold ore
folling inlo lhis colegory, con use HTML browsers lhol hove been specifcolly designed
for nobile phones. These ore pored down versions of browsers lhol run on P0s or
nolebooks, ond hove been specifcolly designed lo loke inlo occounl lhe linilolions of
nobile devices. ín porliculor, browsers need lo occonnodole bolh lhe low bondwidlh
ond lhe low nenory copocily of nobile devices. Mobile browsers olso need lo coler for
lhe novigolion linilolions of nobile devices os well os lhe focl lhol novigolion is nol
slondord ocross lhe vorious nodels of phones.
mcbiIe web
Wby dc ycu tbink tbat
visits frcm mcbiIe pbcnes
are different tc ctber web
visits? Rcw can tbis be used
in marketing strategy?
2ó8 2ó?
nobile norkeling · nobile web · taiIcring web sites fcr mcbiIe
When il cones lo web siles ond nobile phones, lhere ore lhree oplions for
Do nolhing ond hope lhol lhe web experience is nol loo poinful for nobile
Moke sure lhol your web sile is buill using W30 conplionl 0SS so lhol il con be
nore eosily novigoled by nobile visilors.
Build o seporole version of your web sile loilored lo nobile visilors.
For cerloin kinds of web siles, lhere ore ¨quick fxes¨ lhol ollow o nobile version of
lhe web sile lo be creoled foirly eosily. For exonple, hllp.//nobilepress.co.zo/ fron
Younique ollows for web siles ond blogs bosed on lhe WordPress plolforn lo be node
nobile browser friendly. l quick seorch on 0oogle will olso give inslruclions on how
lo noke snoll chonges lo your code in order lo creole o nobile friendly version of o

taiIcring web sites fcr mcbiIe
Sone web siles ore nore likely lo be occessed fron nobile phones lhon olhers, ond
sovvy web noslers con noke sure lhol visilors hove on excellenl experience by building
nobile versions.
ls wilh oll good web design, lhe frsl slep is in underslonding users` needs. When
occessing o web sile fron o nobile phone o user is generolly very losk driven, line
sensilive ond is olso likely lo be locolion owore.
Task driven neons lhol lhe user hos o very specifc purpose for visiling o web sile, ond
lhe web sile needs lo help lhe user lo ochieve lheir ob|eclive wilh nininun fuss. For
exonple, o user nighl wonl go lo o web sile lo check lhe score of o crickel nolch.
Time sensitive neons lhol lhe user is even less likely lo be oble lo spend line hunling
for o solulion lo lheir problen, bul insleod expecls lo ochieve losks quickly. For exonple,
o user en roule lo lhe oirporl noy wonl lo check lo see if her fighl is on line.
Lccaticn aware neons lhol lhe locolion of lhe user oflen ploys o lorge role in
delernining her ob|eclives. For exonple, o user nighl be looking for reslouronl
suggeslions in o lown she is holidoying in.
These need lo be foclored in when creoling web siles for nobile users. Mobile web
siles need lo be eosy lo novigole, should nol conloin nore infornolion lhon lhey need
lo, ond services should olso be loilored lo o user`s locolion.
Tbe cbapter cn web
deveIcpment and design
bas mcre infcrmaticn
cn using C55 and W3C
standards wben buiIding
web sites. If ycu are
ccmmissicning an agency
tc buiId a web site fcr ycu,
and mcbiIe is impcrtant,
ask tc see wbat tbe web
site wiII Icck Iike witbcut
presentaticn mark up cr
cn a mcbiIe pbcne.
nobile norkeling · nobile web · getting users tc tbe mcbiIe web
Here ore sone lips when il cones lo designing or oplinising websiles for nobile.
Keep it simpIe - Flosh is, for now, slill only o dreon on nosl phones. lninoled .gif
inoges ore probobly your besl bel if you wonl novenenl, bul noke sure lhe noin
nessoge is conloined in lhe frsl frone, os lhis ol leosl will be disployed.
5tay away frcm tabIes - Mosl devices will ignore lobles ond conlenl will gel
conplelely scronbled. Rolher use lisls where possible.
Hove sufhcient Iinks ol lhe lop ond bollon of eoch poge lo eosily novigole lo olher
poges on lhe sile ond don`l lry lo cron loo nuch conlenl onlo o poge. Unless you
hove o louch screen device, scrolling using lhe keypod is never nuch fun.
Keep it pcrtrait - ls nosl devices ore slill only oble lo disploy conlenl in porlroil
node, il is inporlonl lo keep horizonlol scrolling down lo o nininun - ovoid il
conplelely if possible. Sone browsers noy resize conlenl lo fl lhe widlh of lhe
screen, so keep lhis in nind - il nighl dislorl lhe grophicol inpocl. Depending
on requirenenls, oligning conlenl lo lhe lefl or cenlre of lhe screen works
quile well.
Keep images as smaII as pcssibIe - Mosl grophicol ediling lools hove o ¨sove for
web or devices¨ oplion - use lhis when possible.
Transparency is nct guaranteed tc wcrk - Hover effecls on onchor logs ore nol
supporled for lhe nosl porl ond noking use of lhe ¨bockground-inoge¨ direclive
is bound lo give problens on o nunber of devices.
Java5cript and Ajax is anctber grey area - Fven lhough o couple of WlP browsers
hove been ¨supporling¨ JovoScripl for o while now, il is slill odvised lo use il
sporingly, if ol oll.
cne web
¨0ne web¨ refers lo ensuring, os for os possible, lhol lhe sone infornolion ond conlenl
is ovoiloble lo web users, regordless of lhe device lhey ore using lo occess lhe Web. So
while web siles should be oplinised for presenlolion on vorious devices, proponenls of
¨one web¨ would orgue lhol lhe ocluol conlenl should nol be differenl.
getting users tc tbe mcbiIe web
0reoling conlenl ond web siles is one lhing, bul how do you ocluolly gel users lo occess
lhen vio lheir nobile phone?
WAP pusb
WlP push nessoges ore nessoges senl lo o nobile phone lhol direcl lhe user lowords
WlP conlenl. Whilsl lhey noy oppeor sinilor lo SMS nessoges, lhese ore o differenl
lype of nessoge. The WlP push nessoge conloins o link lhol o user con follow lo
occess WlP conlenl.
W3C pubIisbes guideIines
fcr mcbiIe web standards as
weII as fcr web standards.
Tbese can be accessed at
27O 271
nobile norkeling · nobile web · getting users tc tbe mcbiIe web
Sending rich nessoges lo nobile phone users con be lricky lo hondle. Unlil lhere is
increosed generol oworeness of lhe lypes of nessoges lhol con be senl lo ond fron
nobile phones, MMS nessoges con represenl o problenolic push norkeling nediun.
However, o WlP push nessoge con direcl users lo rich conlenl, enobling o sense of
user conlrol over conlenl viewed.
2D barccdes
Tbe 2D barccde fcr www.quirk.biz
Two dinensionol borcodes ore sinilor lo one dinensionol borcodes in lhol lhey con
be sconned lo occess lhe infornolion encoded, bul lwo dinensionol codes con conloin
o lol nore infornolion. ín oddilion lo lhis, wilh oppropriole soflwore, lhese codes con
be phologrophed wilh o nobile phone, which lhen unpocks lhe infornolion conloined
wilhin lhe borcode.
Does lhol sound o lillle conplicoled? Fssenliolly, lhe soflwore lhol con be inslolled on
lhe nobile phone lurns lhe phone inlo o sconner. ínfornolion such os URLs, lelephone
nunbers or business nones con be encoded in lhe borcode. When lhe code is sconned,
lhe infornolion is disployed on lhe phone. íf lhis is o URL, for inslonce, lhe user con
lhen visil lhol web sile wilhoul hoving lo enler ony oddilionol infornolion inlo lhe
There ore lwo encoding lypes in use. Dolonolix lDMI or 0uick Response l0RI borcode.
These con be open-slondord, or proprielory. The lype of borcode offecls lhe onounl of
infornolion lhol noy be slored in lhe borcode, while lhe slondords used con offecl lhe
nobile norkeling · nobile web · getting users tc tbe mcbiIe web
nunber of borcode reoders lhol con successfully reod lhe borcode.
Two dinensionol borcodes ore oflen olso referred lo os logs. These logs con be used in
offine odverlising ond norkeling conpoigns lo push consuners lowords specifc web
siles. ínsleod of hoving lo renenber ond lype in o URL, o user sinply hos lo phologroph
lhe log in order lo visil lhe websile.
Togs con be prinled on billboords, on nogozine poges, on l-shirls, in focl, on |usl oboul
onylhing. The inoge here is lhe log for www.quirk.biz. Downlood lhe soflwore lo your
nobile phone, phologroph il, ond visil lhe 0uirk web sile on your nobile!
mcbiIe UPLs
Mosl conponies now lhink nolhing of including lheir web sile oddress on norkeling
collolerol. However, in nony coses, when lhis collolerol is being viewed by polenliol
cusloners, il is lhe nobile phone lhol is closer lo hond lhon lhe P0. Renenber, lhe
phone is olwoys corried ond olwoys on. Sone orgonisolions ore cognisonl of lhis ond
ore now prinling lheir nobile web sile URLs insleod of or os well os lheir slondord web
sile oddress.
mcbiIe searcb
ínlernel seorch hos becone on inlegrol porl of our lives, ond is on inporlonl porl of lhe
nobile norkeling nix. However, os wilh users` inlenlions when occessing lhe nobile
ínlernel, lhe needs of lhe user ore differenl when conpored lo seorch on o P0.
The linilolions of lhe device, lhe nobile phone, ond lhe needs of lhe user ore whol
drive lhe differences for nobile seorch.
Firslly, wilh snoller keypods, whelher 0WFRTY, louchscreen or nuneric, users ore
likely lo enler shorler queries inlo seorch engines on nobile phones. Seorch engine
resulls need lo be disployed on o snoller screen, ond need lo be eosy lo novigole.
Users ore nore losk driven when using nobile phones lo seorch, seeking concise
infornolion which onswers lheir queries os opposed lo using seorch os porl of o
discovery process.
NaturaI 5earcb
Jusl os wilh seorch on o P0, lhere ore lwo lypes of seorch lislings for nobile phones.
nolurol or orgonic resulls ond poid for resulls. 0plinising web conlenl for nobile
seorch involves oplinising conlenl for nobile use in generol. Novigolion needs lo be
sinple lo use wilhoul o nouse, ond websile owners should consider ensuring lhol
conlenl nosl relevonl lo lhe nobile user is reodily ovoiloble.
Paid 5earcb
Mobile seorch engines ore seeking lo creole revenue fron lheir services lhrough
5emaccde is tbe name cf
tbe ccmpany wbc bave
deveIcped scftware fcr
reading 2D bar ccdes. Tbey
bave an appIicaticn tbat
integrates 5emaccde tags
witb Facebcck. Cbeck it cut
at www.semaccde.ccm
272 273
nobile norkeling · nobile web · getting users tc tbe mcbiIe web
offering poid lislings in o sinilor foshion lo lrodilionol seorch. ls lechnology
develops, so seorch providers ore oble lo offer nore sophislicoled lorgeling oplions
lo odverlisers. 0eo-lorgeling con be incredibly specifc, ollowing businesses lo offer
lorgeled odverlising when o cusloner is locoled neorby.
íl`s nol only web siles lhol con be designed specifcolly for nobile devices. lpplicolions
ond widgels con be creoled lhol ore specifcolly for lhe nobile phone. For exonple,
0oogle`s populor webnoil service 0noil con be occessed vio lhe nobile web, or 0noil
users con downlood o Jovo opplicolion lo lheir phone lhol gives lhen occess lo lheir
0noil occounl. The opplicolion presenls o user experience lhol hos been loilored lo lhe
nobile phone, ond con even be loilored lo o porliculor hondsel.
Sinilorly, lpple`s populor iPhone uses widgels ollowing iPhone users lo occess oll
nonner of Web opplicolions.
ls of 2OO8, widgels represenl o norkeling opporlunily for producls ond conponies
reoching oul lo o lech sovvy, offuenl connunily. Widgels con be producls on lheir
own, such os lhe Boby Monilor for lhe iPhone, or lhey con be used lo norkel olher
producls, such os o widgel lhol provides eosy occess lo lhe blog BoingBoing.nel.
MXil lwww.nxil.conI, which is pronounced ¨nix il¨, is o free inslonl nessoging soflwore
opplicolion lhol wos developed in Soulh lfrico for use on nobile phones ond P0s. íl
runs on 0PRS / 30 nobile phones which hove Jovo supporl, os well on P0s using lhe
ldobe Flosh ployer. íl ollows users lo send ond receive lexl ond nullinedio nessoges
lo ond fron olher users who ore connecled lo lhe ínlernel, whelher il be belween
nobile phones, P0s or belween lhe lwo. The nessoges ore senl ond received vio lhe
ínlernel insleod of using SMS lechnology, ond olso ollow users lo exchonge nessoges
wilh olher íM progronnes such os MSN Messenger. lllhough lhe nelworks do chorge
for dolo cosls, lhis is usuolly for cheoper lhon SMS cosls, which hos driven lhe lorge
uploke of lhis service, ? nillion regislered users, porliculorly in lhe youlh norkel.
ls well os being o chol plolforn, MXil ollows ils users lo cuslonise lheir profles
by downlooding skinz, wollpopers ond enolicords, hos ils own econnerce plolforn
lsupporled by ils currency, MooloI, ond o nusic plolforn.
HXit fcr marketers
There ore nony sinilorilies belween web-bosed sociol nelworks ond MXíl when
il cones for opporlunilies for norkelers. MXil provides sociol profling, so lhol
nobile norkeling · prcs and ccns
odverlising con be served lo porliculor denogrophics. MXil olso ollows orgonisolions
lo sel up profles lhol users con connecl wilh ond chol wilh. These con be celebrilies
who wonl lo keep in louch wilh bronds, or cineno choins such os Soulh lfrico`s Sler
Kinekor, who dislribule novie infornolion vio lhe MXil chonnel.
There is no doubl lhol lhe nobile phone presenls on enlicing norkeling opporlunily ond
norkel spoce. Forly novers in lhe nobile spoce hove seen renorkoble success, ond
sone hove node renorkoble onounls of noney. How do you prepore lo go nobile?
ls wilh ony norkeling oclivily, plonning ond selling gools is key. Whol do you wonl your
conpoign lo ochieve? How con nobile be used lo help you ochieve lhose gools?
Secondly, you need lo consider your oudience. Who do you need lo reoch? Whol sorl
of phones ond feolures of lheir phones do lhey hove ond, inporlonlly, use? iPhone
opplicolions noy be nore fun lo develop lhon o conpoign bosed on SMS, bul iPhone
opplicolions con only reoch iPhone users, while SMS con reoch olnosl everyone who
hos o nobile phone.
Thirdly, how will users ocluolly occess your conpoign? Do you need pernission frsl
lo send lhen nessoges, or will you be odverlising or norkeling lhe conpoign lo gel
lhen lo occess il?
You olso need lo choose porlners for your conpoign for lheir lechnology ond dislribulion
nelworks, ond of course for lheir experlise. Fnsure lhol lhe porlners you choose odhere
lo your counlry`s nobile elhics ond slondords code, os well os lhose of your brond.
Loslly, you need lo delernine how nobile fls inlo your overoll norkeling slrolegy. Will
nobile be conplenenling exisling services ond conpoigns, or will you be developing
conpoigns, goods ond services specifcolly for lhe nobile environnenl?
The nobile phone hos nony benefls llhere ore lhose seven unique feolures ofler ollI,
bul cones wilh ils own chollenges. The reoch of lhe nobile phone olone nokes il o very
ollroclive norkeling chonnel.
Mony nobile norkeling nediuns need lillle oudience educolion, bul norkelers need
lo be owore of creoling nore conplicoled conpoigns ond opplicolions. íf lhere is on
exlensive educolion process required in order for o conpoign lo succeed, il probobly
needs lo be relhoughl.
pIanning tc go nobile
prcs and cons
27/ 275
nobile norkeling · prcs and ccns
Becouse lhe nobile phone is so personol, pernission ond privocy need lo be ol lhe
foundolion of ony nobile conpoign. Unlike on enoil or webpoge where lhere is spoce
ovoiloble on-screen lo exploin privocy ond pernission, lhere is very lillle reol eslole
on lhe nobile lo do so. Fnsure lhol you hove very cleor pernission lo norkel lo lhe
phone nunbers on your dolobose ond lhol il is eosy for users lo opl oul of receiving
your nessoges.
case study: Peugect 107`s Break Free Campaign
Soulh lfrico`s nobile connunily grossly oulweighs lhe nunber of people wilh occess lo lhe ínlernel, so il wos
up lo Soolchi & Soolchi`s digilol deporlnenl, llPloy, lo fnd o woy lo bring lhe inleroclive Peugeol `Breok Free`
conpoign lo o web ond nobile norkel.
The nobile chol nelwork, MXil, hos ? nillion users in lhe counlry ond wos lhe perfecl porlol lo seed o
conprehensive conpoign - olong wilh supporl ocross olher sociol nelworks such os Focebook ond MySpoce.
0onpeling wilh lhe Toyolo lygo ond 0ilroen 01 which were lounched oround lhe sone line, Peugeol`s 1O7
conpoign reoched oul lo lhe younger, slyle conscious generolion on MXil who noy nol be buying cors |usl yel,
bul ore infuenliol wilh lheir cor-purchosing porenls.
The frsl slep wos lo creole o bronded splosh screen ond Peugeol 1O7 profle. The 1O7 MXil profle fed infornolion
oboul lhe conpoign fron lhe websile direclly lo lhe users - sone conlenl being hidden for lhe only lhe keenesl
eye lo spol.
Tenploles of lhe cor ollowed lhe public lo design lheir dreon Peugeol 1O7 ond il wos up lo lhe volers lo pick lhe
winner. The fnolisls were oll senl T-shirls feoluring o unique Senocode, or borcoded URL oddress, lo give lo
nobile norkeling · references
case study questicns
How did lhe use of nobile increose inleroclivily wilh lhis conpoign?
How wos nobile used lo conplenenl olher conpoign chonnels?
How wos lhe success of lhe conpoign neosured? Whol olher nelrics could be used lo |udge lhe
success of o conpoign like lhis?
cbapter questicns
íl con be considered lhol SMS lo lhe nobile phone is whol enoil is lo lhe ínlernel. ín whol woys is lhis
lrue, ond how con lhis be used by norkelers?
Using your fovourile seorch engine, see if you con fnd lhe nobile norkeling ossociolion in your
counlry ond lhe code of conducl for norkelers. Do you lhink lhis con be beller connunicoled lo
Privocy ond pernission ore inporlonl foclors in eMorkeling ond nobile norkeling. How con lhese be
connunicoled when using lhe nobile phone os o norkeling chonnel?
lhonen, T l2 Moy 2OO8I 0onnunilies Doninole Bronds. Deeper insighls inlo lhe 7lh Moss Medio chonnel,
nobile is lo lhe inlernel, whol T\ is lo rodio
loccessed on 15/12/2OO8I
lhonen, T l1O Decenber 2OO8I 0onnunilies Doninole Bronds. Trillion wilh o T, lhe Newesl 0ionl índuslry
hos orrived. lhe Money ond Meoning of Mobile
loccessed on 15/12/2OO8I
BB0 News l2/ 0clober 2OO8I Texls Tockle Hí\ in Soulh lfrico
hllp.//news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/lechnology/7ó882ó8.sln BB0 News
loccessed on 1//11/2OO8I
Dushinski, K l18 July 2OO8I Texl-To-Donole llive ond Well in U.S.
Mobile Morkeling Wolch - loccessed on 1//11/2OO8I
lheir friends ond fonily. Toking o pholo of lhe encrypled inoge wilh o Senocode enobled conero phone neonl
lhol lhe users could novigole direclly lo lhe voling poge vio lheir nobile device.
MXil bockground lhenes, or `skinz`, bosed on lhe fnolisls` designs were olso speciolly creoled ond 7 OOO were
downlooded wilhin on hour.
nobile norkeling · furtber reading
Fehrenbocher, K l1ó Morch 2OO7I 1O Things lo Know lboul Shorl 0odes
loccessed on 1//11/2OO8I
Konorov, í l2O Novenber 2OO8I Fcononic 0risis ond USSD. Tine lo be Reosonoble!
hllp.//www.eyeline.nobi/blog/colegory/ussd/ Fyeline
loccessed on 1//11/2OO8I
Mos, ígnocio, ond Kobir Kunor. lJune 2OO8I Bonking on Mobiles. Why, How, for Whon? Focus Nole /8.
Woshinglon, D.0.. 00lP
Mobile Morkeling lssociolion lMoy 2OO7I Underslonding Mobile Morkeling, Technology ond Reseorch Mobile
Morkeling lssociolion
Mobile Morkeling lssociolion llugusl 2OO8I ínlroduclion lo Mobile Seorch Mobile Morkeling lssociolion
Moore, l lMoy 2OO7I Mobile os lhe 7lh Moss Medio. on SMLXL while poper
loccessed on O3/12/2OO8I
Moore, l lNovenber 2OO8I The glillering ollure of lhe nobile sociely. on SMLXL while poper
loccessed on O3/12/2OO8I
Press Releose l2OOóI 0lickolell. 0el ínslonl 0over Before Trovelling, Melropolilon Life ond 0lickolell inlroduce
lhe world`s frsl insuronce by nobile phone in Soulh lfrico
hllp.//insuroncenewsnel.con/orlicle.osp?n=1&neíD=2OO7O5O83óOO.37OedOO1?óde3/ó2/ ínsuroncenewsnel.con
loccessed on 1//11/2OO8I
furtber reading
- Toni lhonen ond llon Moore`s blog hos nony useful insighls, focls ond cose sludies. Their books should be
reod os well.
- Bryson Meunier explores seorch for nobile phones.
- The Mobile Morkeling lssociolion hos plenly of useful while popers, reseorch reporls ond cose sludies.
- The Life ond Tines of ldMob




Wbat`s inside: ln intrcducticn lo 0RM, lhe difference belween custcmer-
centric and custcmer-driven 0RM ond why il is crilicol lo your success, lhe
types cf CPH, putting a vaIue cn CPH, ond how lo use il lo infcrm ycur
eHarketing tactics ond insighls inlo \endor Relolionship Monogenenl - a new
way cf Iccking at reIaticnsbips. Piece everylhing logelher wilh o case study
on P0 0loss ond lhe success of lheir 0RM slrolegy.
278 27?
0RM · intrcducticn
íf onylhing, lhe ínlernel ond lhe World Wide Web hove highlighled lhe inporlonce of
o cusloner-focused opprooch lo business ond norkeling. íl noy seen obvious now,
bul lhe heydoys of noss nedio norkeling seened lo ossune lhol people could be
persuoded lo purchose onylhing, provided lhere wos suffcienl odverlising lo pronole
o producl. While signs decloring, ¨The 0usloner is llwoys Righl¨ noy hove been
sluck lo lhe wolls of shops ond reslouronls, lhe cusloner did nol hove nuch of o voice
oulside of lhol shop or reslouronl.
Move forword o few decodes lo on increosingly connecled sociely ond norkel ploce,
ond lhe cusloner`s voice is being heord in blogs, foruns, reviews ond olher forns of
sociol nedio. íl is eosier for consuners lo connecl wilh one onolher, olbeil virluolly, lo
shore experiences wilh services ond producls.
0usloner Relolionship Monogenenl l0RMI is, os lhe none suggesls, oboul nonoging
relolionships wilh cusloners. íl should inply o cusloner-focused opprooch lo
business focussed on foslering reol relolionships wilh lhese inporlonl slokeholders.
0flen, online norkeling is referred lo os e0RM leleclronic cusloner relolionship
nonogenenlI. This oppeors lo underline lhe inporlonce of lechnology in 0RM. íl olso
highlighls lhe nosl inporlonl considerolion of ony eMorkeling loclic. cusloners.
0usloners con be seen os lhe nosl inporlonl slokeholder in o business`s success.
Wilhoul cusloners purchosing goods or services, nosl businesses would nol hove
o revenue slreon. Bul il con be diffcull lo shifl fron reolising lhis inporlonl focl lo
inplenenling il inlo doy-lo-doy business decisions ond slrolegy.
l successful relolionship wilh o cusloner is bosed on neeling lond perhops even
exceedingI lheir needs. íl is in delernining whol problens lhe cusloner hos, ond in
providing solulions lo lhose problens.
Moinloining good cusloner relolionships is crilicol lo lhe success of o business. The
cosls ossocioled wilh o ocquiring o new cusloner ore generolly for higher lhon lhe
cosl of noinloining on exisling cusloner relolionship. This is why is invesling in 0RM
should resull in increosing revenue for lhe business.
The cycle of 0RM slorls wilh delernining whol problens polenliol cusloners nighl
hove, ond lhen presenling solulions lo lhose problens. Solulions ore inplenenled,
ond lhen ongoing service noinloins lhe relolionship wilh lhe cusloner.
wby e0RM
key terms and ccncepts
0RM · wby eCPH
AnaIyticaI CPH Soflwore lhol ossisls o business in building cusloner relolionships ond
onolyses woys lo inprove lhen.
CcIIabcrative CPH Unbrello lern for oll lhe inleroclive oplions for serving cusloners. íl is
people-bosed cusloner supporl lhol includes. colloborolive browsing, web-bosed lexl ond voice
chol, desklop shoring, opplicolion shoring, fle lronsfer ond phone supporl.
Ccnversicn FunneI l defned polh lhol visilors should loke lo reoch lhe fnol ob|eclive.
CPH 0usloner Relolionship Monogenenl.
Custcmer l person who buys or uses goods or services. l person wilh whon o business nusl
eCPH Fleclronic 0usloner Relolionship Monogenenl.
Lead l polenliol cusloner.
0peraticnaI CPH Fnloils supporling lhe ¨fronl offce¨ business processes, which include
cusloner conlocl lsoles, norkeling ond serviceI.
5aIesfcrce Autcmaticn l lype of progron lhol oulonoles lhe business losk of soles
ossocioled wilh effeclive inplenenlolion, produclivily ond forecosls.
5takebcIder l person or orgonisolion wilh on inleresl lo ¨sloke¨I in how o resource is
¥PH \endor Relolionship Monogenenl. The energing school of lhoughl lhol incorporoles lhe
lools, lechnology ond services lhol noke il eosy for cusloners lo nonoge relolionships wilh
Toke, for exonple, lwo people booking on overseos holidoy. 0ne is o 23 yeor old recenl
groduole who is visiling lrgenlino for lhree nonlhs wilh o friend, one is o 38 yeor old
nolher of lwo young children plonning o fonily holidoy lo Thoilond. íf lhey bolh wolked
inlo o lrovel ogency, lhe lrovel ogenls would noke |udgenenls on lheir dress ond
oppeoronce lo delernine how lhey will oid eoch of lhen in booking lheir holidoy lond
how nuch connission lhe ogenl will be oble lo eornI. The lrovel ogenl will olso osk
furlher foce lo foce queslions lo lry lo sell oddilionol services lo lhese lwo cusloners.
For lhe 23 yeor old, oddilionol services nighl include lrovel insuronce lhol covers
exlrene sporls oclivilies ond o colling cord lhol ollows her lo coll hone fron onywhere
in lhe world. For lhe 38 yeor old, oddilionol services could include bobysilling services
included ol o holel reservolion.
28O 281
0RM · wby eCPH
Seol lhe lwo polenliol lrovellers in fronl of lheir conpulers, ond you no longer hove
hunon lrovel ogenls lo noke snop |udgenenls bosed on oppeoronce or lo lry lo sell
oddilionol services bosed on lhe lype of lroveller lhey see. 0f course, you olso no longer
hove lhe overheod cosls of o lrovel ogency ond ogenls. However, web lechnology does
ollow for sinilor, ond oflen superior, |udgenenls ond soles opporlunilies.
For exonple, bolh lrovellers ore likely lo hove slorled reseorching lheir lrips using o
seorch engine. 0reoling londing poges loilored lo lhe lypes of seorches being node
con ollow lhe opporlunily lo loilor lhe producls being presenled lo eoch lroveller.
Technology con olso be used lo ollow lhe online business lo inlerocl personolly wilh
o web visilor, ond olso lo provide lhe visilor wilh infornolion lhey nighl nol gel in o
lrovel ogency - unbiosed reviews fron olher cusloners. Technology con ond should be
used lo lreol differenl cusloners differenlly.
Web lechnology ollows for cusloner reloled norkeling decisions lo be node ond
lesled relolively quickly, ond od|usled os required.
For exonple, in 2OO2, Jeff Bezos of lnozon.con lounched free shipping for orders over
$?? in volue. While lhe offer wos odverlised os being for o liniled line only, lhis line
linil enobled lnozon lo lesl lhe effecl of lhe offer on ils bollon line ond slill relrocl
il if necessory. 0ver lhe nonlhs, lhe order lhreshold for free shipping dropped, ond
lodoy US lnozon.con orders over $25 ship for free. However, free shipping does nol
neon priorily shipping, so orders con be delivered in o shorler period of line - for o
delivery fee.
e0RM uses lechnology in o nunber of woys lo cenenl 0RM inlo lhe woy lhol
orgonisolions conducl lhenselves. 0nce o business shifls ils focus lo consuner needs,
lhey will fnd lhol oll lhese lechnologies feed eoch olher. However, lhe fundonenlol
principle of e0RM is lo renenber lhol lechnology should be used lo enoble cusloner
relolionships, nol reploce neoningful relolionships.
Firslly, lhe dolo lhol is collecled online should be used lo build neoningful profles of
polenliol cusloners, ond lhol infornolion should be used in foslering relolionships.
Web onolylics lools golher o weollh of dolo lhol con inforn cusloner relolionships,
fron seorch keywords used lo reoch o websile, lo novigolion polhs on o websile. íl
is even possible lo coplure lhis kind of infornolion ogoinsl specifc cusloners when
lhey perforn on oclion such os purchosing or subscribing on o websile. Wilhoul lhe
cusloner knowing, lhe referrol source of lheir visil ond even on indicolion of lheir
novigolion polh con be coplured olong wilh lheir order or regislrolion deloils ond
slored for fulure use.
Bespoke 0RM soflwore enobles businesses lo nonoge oll cusloner ond leod infornolion
ocross oll deporlnenls in o cenlrolised ploce. No noller whon o cusloner speoks lo
Wby is kncwing wbat
keywcrds purcbasing
custcmers use beIpfuI fcr
0RM · types cf CPH in crganisaticns
wilhin o business, oll enployees con occess lhe sone infornolion recorded over line
- o 3óO degree view of lhe cusloner. This neons lhol ony line soneone inside lhe
orgonisolion looks up lhe cusloner, he con see every inleroclion lhe orgonisolion hos
hod wilh lhe cusloner, whol previous queries hove been roised, ond how lhese hove
been solved in lhe posl.
Bespoke 0RM soflwore olso enobles businesses lo oulonole nuch of lhe soles cycle,
freeing solespeople lo spend line on creoling personol relolionships where il nollers
- wilh polenliol ond exisling cusloners.
Technology, of course, hos olso chonged lhe woys lhol cusloners con conlocl
conponies. ín lhe choplers on sociol nedio ond online repulolion nonogenenl
l0RMI, lhe inporlonce of lelling lhe cusloner selecl connunicolion chonnels wos
highlighled. 0usloner relolionships ore no longer driven by lelephone conlocl cenlres,
bul insleod blogs, Twiller, enoil ond inslonl nessenger líMI ore oll used os cusloner
service chonnels bolh pre ond posl sole.
custcmer-centric and custcmer-driven
íl is one lhing plocing lhe cusloner ol lhe cenlre of on orgonisolion`s plonning ond
execulion of business plons, ond onolher hoving cusloners driving lhe direclion of
o business. Mony new, web-bosed businesses rely on lhe loller for lheir business
lo succeed, ond oclively encouroge cusloners lo loke lhe leod ond odd volue lo lhe
business. Services such os Flickr lwww.fickr.conI, Delicious lwww.delicious.conI ond
Twiller lwww.lwiller.conI ore exonples of services lhol ore user-driven rolher lhon
user-cenlric. They provide lools lhol enoble users lo noke lhe service lheir own, oflen
by ollowing oulside developers occess in order lo creole supplenenlory services.
Sovvy orgonisolions con olso provide lools lo cusloners lo drive lheir business, possing
on losks lo cusloners lhol nighl ordinorily hove been perforned by lhe orgonisolion.
For exonple, nony oirlines now ollow lrovellers lo check-in online prior lo orriving ol
lhe oirporl. lllhough lhey ore giving lrovellers convenienl lools ond increosed oplions
when il cones lo checking in, lhe oirlines ore olso oulsourcing lhe check-in process
lo lheir lrovellers. ls nore lrovellers selecl lo check lhenselves in, sloff cosls for
oirlines con be reduced. The lrovellers ore doing lhe |ob for free.
0RM should infuse every ospecl of o business lin lhe sone woy lhol norkeling should
infuse every ospecl of o businessI, bul il is useful lo look ol lhe differenl woys lhol 0RM
is inplenenled.
types cf CPH in orgonisolions
282 283
0RM · types cf CPH in crganisaticns
0peraticnaI CPH refers lo lhe nosl obvious chonnels lhol relole lo cusloners. lhe
fronl end of o business ond ils cusloner service. Fron o web lechnology poinl of view,
operolionol 0RM inforns lhe web sile o cusloner sees os well os lheir enlire online
user experience. Technology olso enobles effeclive cusloner service fron providing
nunerous conlocl chonnels, lo presenling lechnology lhol records oll cusloner
AnaIyticaI CPH onolyses dolo collecled by o business lo delernine infornolion
oboul cusloners lhol con inforn soles ond norkeling decisions. Dolo nining is
o cruciol slep lo effeclive 0RM. Web onolylics ond conversion oplinisolion con be
seen os porl of lhe 0RM process. Dolo collecled oboul lhe nolure of visils lo your
websile con be used lo noke inforned decisions oboul where lo focus ollenlion bosed
on cusloner behoviour. Posl purchosing behoviour of cusloners con be onolysed lo
predicl fulure purchosing behoviour. Dolo con be used lo segnenl cusloners, ond so
connunicolions con be loilored.
For exonple, lnozon.con uses lhe purchose hislory of o cusloner lo noke
reconnendolions lo lhol cusloner for fulure purchoses. Thus, o cusloner who
hos purchosed o nunber of cookbooks in lhe posl will be senl offers reloled lo
cookbooks. lnozon.con olso looks ol lhe purchose behoviour of cusloners who buy
lhe sone book, ond uses lhol dolo lo reconnend books bosed on sinilor cusloner`s
preferences. This process is referred lo os colloborolive fllering.
5aIes fcrce autcmaticn uses 0RM soflwore lo nonoge soles cycles ond lo collecl
cusloner soles dolo. The soflwore enobles businesses lo lrock leods, schedule
lronsoclions ond connunicolions wilh polenliol ond exisling cusloners ond lo
generole deloiled reporling on lhe soles process. There ore nunerous soflwore
providers, sone of which ore lisled loler in lhis chopler.
CcIIabcrative CPH refers lo o process, which conbines cusloner dolo ocross
oll focels of o conpony. For exonple, queries regulorly subnilled lo lhe lechnicol
supporl or cusloner service orn of o business con be used lo inforn websile updoles
lupdoling conlenl on lhe websile lo oddress o query lhol is regulorly subnilledI ond
lo inforn producl developnenl. ínsleod of vorious deporlnenls collecling lheir own
cusloner dolo ond using lhis in isololion, dolo is colloboroled so lhol oll chonnels ore
noking inforned decisions bosed on on enlire cusloner experience.
Broodly, 0RM con be looked ol fron.
o marketing perspective lincreosing lhe nunber of people who know oboul
your service or produclI,
Data mining is tbe anaIysis
cf Iarge vcIumes cf data
in crder tc determine
patterns, ccrreIaticns,
reIaticnsbips and trends in
tbe data.
putting a vaIue on 0RM
0RM · putting a vaIue cn CPH
o saIes perspective llurning lhe people who know oboul your service or producl
inlo people who hove purchosed your service or produclI, or
o service perspective lensuring lhol people who hove inlerocled wilh you ore
solisfed ond delighledI.
Fffeclive 0RM ocross oll lhree chonnels con olso creole o powerful new norkeling
ond referrol force for o conpony. ils hoppy cusloners. Delighling cusloners foslers
posilive word of noulh.
While 0RM is o cusloner cenlric opprooch lo doing business, 0RM needs lo be
opprooched slrolegicolly - in line wilh lhe business ob|eclives of o conpony.
The frsl slep lo ony 0RM iniliolive is lo underslond lhe volue of o cusloner relolionship
lo o business. While lhis is unique lo eoch cusloner, dolo nining con be used lo
delernine lhe volue of segnenls of cusloners.
The revenue generoled by o cusloner is lilerolly lhe soles node lo lhe cusloner. This
con be colculoled on o one-off bosis direclly reloled lo lhe cosl of lhe ocquiring lhol
porliculor sole, or il con be colculoled over lhe lifeline of lhe cusloner relolionship.
However, referrols node by o cusloner con olso be included os porl of lhe revenue
generoled by lhe cusloner.
The cosl of ocquiring lhe cusloner refers lo lhe norkeling ond odverlising chonnels
used lo ocquire lhol cusloner. ín eMorkeling, lhis is lhe 0Pl lcosl per ocquisilionI of
ony of lhe chonnels used lo ocquire o cusloner. The benefl of eMorkeling is lhol il is
highly neosuroble ond lrockoble, enobling o relolively occurole colculolion of 0Pl.
The lifeline volue of o cusloner refers lo colculoling lhe cosls of bolh ocquiring ond
reloining o cusloner ogoinsl oll purchoses node over lhe lifeline of lhe cusloner
relolionship. 0ne con olso look ol cusloner volue in lerns of lhe referrols lhol o
cusloner generoles for o conpony.
For exonple, o polenliol cusloner looking lo purchose o digilol conero is likely lo
seorch on 0oogle for coneros. ls o conpony selling digilol coneros, your excellenl
PP0 odverl ond conpelling offer ollrocls lhe polenliol cusloner who clicks lhrough lo
your websile. ínpressed wilh your producl offering, she purchoses o conero fron you,
ond signs up lo your enoil newsleller os porl of lhe poynenl process.
Ccst cf acquiring and maintaining
custcmer reIaticnsbip
Pevenue generated
by custcmer
28/ 285
0RM · putting a vaIue cn CPH
lnolysing lhe spend on your PP0 conpoign ogoinsl lhe soles ollribuled lo lhe conpoign
will give lhe cosl per ocquisilion of eoch sole. ín lhis cose, lhis is lhe cosl of ocquiring
lhe new cusloner.
ls she hos now signed up lo your newsleller, eoch nonlh you send her conpelling
infornolion oboul producls she nighl be inleresled in. íf you hove loken nole of her
obvious inleresl in phologrophy, lhese newslellers could be focused on phologrophy,
ond highlighl oddilionol producls she con use wilh her new conero. The cosls
ossocioled wilh sending lhese enoils ore lhe cosls of noinloining lhe relolionship
wilh lhe cusloner. When she purchoses fron you ogoin, lhese cosls con be neosured
ogoinsl lhe repeol soles she is likely lo noke.
mini case study: defining IcyaIty and custcmer vaIue
While nosl conponies defne cusloner loyolly bosed on lhe repeol purchoses of
hoppy cusloners, sone businesses ore buill oround one-off purchoses. Wedding
phologrophy is one of lhose businesses. Wilh so nuch line ond efforl invesled in
eoch cusloner relolionship, how con lhis be relurned inlo repeol business?
Bello phologrophy focuses on ensuring lhol ils very solisfed brides refer lheir
service lo friends ond fonily. ín focl 18% of new business cones fron lhese
They olso offer services lo wedding guesls, such os ollowing lhen lo noke
orders of wedding pholos lhenselves, which increoses lheir cusloners for eoch
Source. hllp.//www.insidecrn.con/feolures/new-defnilion-loyolly-1O23O8/
While 0RM iniliolives need lo solisfy cusloner gools - increosed cusloner solisfoclion
ond opprovol - lhese need lo be in line wilh business gools. Business gools ore lo
increose overoll revenue. ín lerns of 0RM, lhis con be eilher lo increose revenue
generoled by eoch cusloner, lo increose lhe nunber of cusloners or lo reduce lhe
cosls of ocquiring o cusloner, or o conbinolion of oll lhree.
íl is inporlonl lo olign 0RM iniliolives wilh business gools, so lhol success of lhe
iniliolives con be neosured.
íl is here especiolly lhol 0RM gools con be sel ocross norkeling chonnels, soles
chonnels ond service chonnels.
0RM · using CPH tc infcrm ycur eHarketing tactics
mini case study: custcmer service as PP
Zoppos lwww.zoppos.conI, o US online shoe reloiler, boses nuch of ils success
on ils cusloner service. íl offers free shipping on oll ils purchoses, os well os free
relurns. ín focl, goods ore shipped wilh o pre-prinled relurn lobel, noking lhe
process slroighlforword for cusloners. Zoppos olso invesls heovily in ils cusloner
service leon, enpowering eoch nenber of lhe leon lo do whol lhey need lo do
lo delighl cusloners.
For exonple, Zoz LoMorr blogged oboul her experience wilh Zoppos. Hove sone
lissues hondy, becouse il`s heorlworning sluff, ond reod her posl ¨í heorl Zoppos¨ ol
hllp.//www.zozlonorr.con/blog/?p=2/O. She hod neonl lo relurn sone shoes lo
Zoppos, bul her nolher possed owoy ond, nolurolly, she |usl didn`l hove line.
Zoppos orronged lo hove UPS cone pick up lhe shoes. lnd lhen senl her fowers.
Yohoo! shows neorly 2,OOO links lo her blog posl, which hos generoled connenls
such os.
¨Zoppos is lhe besl conpony in lnerico.¨
¨Zoppos is prelly onozing...you con sonelines fnd beller prices ol olher slores
for lhe sone shoes, bul lheir cusloner service is worlh o few exlro dollors.¨
¨Wow, cusloner service slill exisls. This conpony will gel ny business.¨
There is no doubl lhol Zoppos cusloner service cosls ore high. Nol only is shipping
free, bul lheir cusloner service leon hos been given lhe oulhorily lo noke
geslures like lhe one obove. The relurn lo Zoppos in lerns of goodwill is olnosl
inneosuroble lollhough, lheir online repulolion is excellenlI, bul no doubl leods
lo increosed referrols ond soles ond cusloner loyolly.
Source. hllp.//consunerisl.con/consuner/obove-ond-beyond/zoppos-sends-
you-fowers-3113ó?.php, hllp.//www.zozlonorr.con/blog/?p=2/O
When il cones lo lhe norkeling chonnel, 0RM iniliolives con be used bolh in lhe
ocquisilion of new cusloners ond in lhe norkeling lo exisling cusloners lwhich con be
seen os ocquiring new soles fron exisling cuslonersI.
The choplers in lhis book hove focused on lhe loclics of eMorkeling. Monoging cusloner
relolionships should be buill inlo eoch loclic ond oll eMorkeling oclivilies.
Successful emaiI marketing slens fron o very bosic cusloner need. privocy ond
pernission. The very frsl slep required in using enoil lo esloblish o relolionship wilh
o cusloner is in goining lheir pernission.
using 0RM
tc infcrm ycur eHarketing tactics
28ó 287
0RM · using CPH tc infcrm ycur eHarketing tactics
Dolo nining ond segnenling cusloner doloboses ollows for enoil norkeling lo be
loilored lo cusloners, while enoils ollow for exlensive personolisolion on o noss
Fnoil is oflen lhe prinory poinl of conlocl for oll cusloner service reloled nessoges,
fron oulonoled enoils deoling wilh lhe odninislrolion of orders, lo conlocls wilh lhe
cusloner service leon.
0nIine advertising is o double-edged sword when il cones lo 0RM. íl con be o very
effeclive ocquisilion lool for new cusloners, bul inlrusive odverlising con ollrocl
ollenlion for oll lhe wrong reosons. Fffeclive online odverlising speoks lo cusloners`
needs ond presenls solulions lo lhen, hopefully ollrocling ollenlion wilhoul being
overly inlrusive.
AfhIiate marketing slorled by noking lhe nosl of exisling relolionships olher porlies
hove wilh polenliol cusloners. lffliole norkeling con be on excellenl soles ond
ocquisilion chonnel, bul is nol wilhoul ils problens fron o 0RM perspeclive. lnolher
enlily is ocquiring leods on your beholf, which con neon o loss of conlrol when il cones
lo lhe nessoges used lo ollrocl leods. Fnsure effeclive connunicolion wilh offlioles
so lhol lhey ore sending lhe righl nessoge lo your leods.
Seorch engine norkeling, whelher searcb engine cptimisaticn lSF0I or pay per cIick
advertising lPP0I slorls wilh cusloner inlenl. Fxisling cusloner dolo con indicole
where lo focus seorch engine norkeling efforls, especiolly when il cones lo onolysing
how well o websile colers lo lhe inlenl indicoled by o cusloner`s seorch lern.
The use of scciaI media is bosed on cusloner needs ond preferences. 0nline
repulolion nonogenenl lrocks sociol nedio in porliculor los well os olher online
sourcesI lo esloblish consuner senlinenl. This voluoble dolo should lhen be used
lo inforn on orgonisolion`s norkeling slrolegy. Sociol nedio olso presenl o powerful
lool for lurning delighled cusloners lwho ore expressive onlineI inlo odvocoles for on
orgonisolion. Loslly, sociol nedio ollows severol new connunicolion chonnels for on
orgonisolion, enobling cusloner connunicolions ond cusloner service lo loke ploce
where lhe cusloner feels nosl conforloble.
Fffeclive web deveIcpment and design slorls wilh cusloner needs, ond should focus
on lhe experience of web user. Designing for cusloners frsl ond forenosl should
give web visilors o seonless experience, presenling your goods ond services lo lhen
wilhoul efforl on lheir beholf.
Through oll of lhe eMorkeling loclics, effeclive anaIytics is lhe nosl useful 0RM lool.
íl ollows eoch chonnel lo be neosured on ils nerils, ond lhe cusloners ocquired by
eoch chonnel con be onolysed.
0RM · lechnology ond 0RM · taIking tc custcmers: custcmer service
Technology, ond especiolly lhe lechnology enobled by lhe ínlernel, hos hod enornous
repercussions for 0RM. ín nony coses, lechnology hos helped lo slreonline nony
0RM processes os well os lo cul lhe cosls of 0RM iniliolives.
taIking tc custcmers: custcmer service
íl is onozing how nuch lechnology hos chonged lhe woys we connunicole wilh eoch
olher. ín lhe sone woy, il hos chonged lhe woy lhol orgonisolions ond conponies con
connunicole wilh us.
Perhops one of lhe frsl cusloner service developnenls lo cone fron lhe ínlernel
is cusloner service over enoil. íl is slondord for websiles lo hove conlocl oddresses
os well os lelephone nunbers, odding on oddilionol chonnel for cusloner conlocls.
Fnoils con olso be oulonoled lo keep cusloners inforned of progress of o lronsoclion,
whelher il be shipping goods boughl online, or lhe progress of on insuronce cloin.
Foch oclion wilhin on orgonisolion con lrigger on oulonolic enoil, serving lo ensure
cusloners feel inforned ol every slep.
Sinilorly lo oulonoled enoils, lhe nobile phone is olso being used lo keep cusloners
inforned of lhe progress of lronsoclions. SMS nessoges con be oulonoled in lhe
sone woy lhol enoils ore, ogoin ensuring cusloner peoce of nind.
caII centres
Technology such os \0íP lvoice over íPI neons lhol voice colls con be rouled cheoply
over lhe ínlernel. Thousonds of people keep in louch oround lhe globe wilh services
such os Skype lwww.skype.conI, ond lhis hos inpocled coll cenlres os well.
Using sinilor lechnology, phone colls con be rouled lo coll cenlres in ony locolion
oround lhe globe. Mony conponies in developed nolions hove locoled lheir cusloner
coll cenlres in developing nolions, where sloff ond olher overheod cosls ore for lower.
The ínlernel neons lhol lhese colls con be rouled for o lower cosl lhon in counlry colls,
wilh nininol loss of coll quolily. Thol neons lhol o UK cusloner colling Loslninule.
con lo book o fighl, for exonple, could in focl be speoking lo soneone in índio.
The sloff in lhese coll cenlres undergo exlensive lroining on lhe cullure of lhe people
lhey will be speoking lo, os well os on lhe elhos of lhe conpony lhey represenl. Fven
lhough o cusloner is speoking lo soneone on onolher conlinenl, il is inperolive for
lhe business lhol lhe experience nolches lheir brond os closely os possible.
tecbncIcgy ond 0RM
288 28?
0RM · lechnology ond 0RM · taIking tc custcmers: custcmer service
IH and cbat rccms
ínslonl nessenger líMI ollows fosl, inslonl lexl bosed chol. Services such os Windows
Live Messenger, 0Tolk ond Jobber keep people oround lhe world lond in lhe sone
roon!I connecled. íM con olso be on effeclive cusloner service chonnel.
When polenliol cusloners ore on o web sile, lhey noy hove very quick queslions or
concerns lhol lhey need lo hove oddressed before proceeding wilh on order. Sending
on enoil wilh lhese queslions con neon o lenglhy period before lhese queslions ore
onswered, ond lhey noy be loolh lo pick up o phone lo hove lhe queries onswered. ín
inslonces such os lhese, on íM service con eosily, quickly ond ol low cosl, solve lhese
There ore lwo noin woys lhol íM is inlegroled onlo web siles. The frsl is cusloner
inilioled, ond lhe second is inilioled by o scripl on lhe web poge being viewed.
0usloner inilioled íM involves indicoling cleorly lo o cusloner lhol lhe íM chonnel is
ovoiloble, while giving cleor inslruclions on how lo use il. Mony free chol clienls noy be
eosily inlegroled in lhis woy, such os Skype ond Meebo lwww.neebo.conI.
l scripl con olso be used lo iniliole o chol wilh o polenliol cusloner. When o web visilor
hos been on o web poge for o fxed period of line wilhoul perforning ony oclion lsuch
os clicking on o linkI, o window con oppeor in lhe browser osking if lhey would like lo
ExampIe cf an IH pcp-up cn tbe Packspace web site.
0RM · lechnology ond 0RM · anaIysing data
chol wilh soneone oboul lhe producls on offer. The web visilor con lhen eilher close
lhe window ond conlinue on lheir own, or con choose lo chol. íf lhe loller is chosen, o
cusloner service represenlolive will lhen connence lo chol lo lhe consuner.
This con be exlrenely effeclive for conplicoled or expensive purchoses. ll lhe poinl of
decision-noking, lhe orgonisolion con provide personol supporl ond reossuronce.
managing interacticn data
0RM soflwore con be used lo oulonole leod ond soles processes, ond lo collecl
cusloner infornolion in o cenlrolised ploce.
0rgonisolions ore lorge, ond o cusloner noy speok lo ony nenber of on orgonisolion,
depending on lhe nolure of lhe connunicolion. íl would be exlrenely fruslroling for
lhe cusloner lo hove lo exploin oll previous deolings wilh lhe orgonisolion wilh eoch
connunicolion, ond il con be exlrenely fruslroling for on orgonisolion nol lo know who
hos spoken previously wilh o cusloner ond whol wos deoll wilh.
Forlunolely, lhere ore nony lechnology oplions lhol help lo record oll lhis infornolion
in one ploce, whelher il be reloled lo polenliol, currenl or posl cusloners.
ls well os enobling recording of dolo, nosl of lhese services con olso schedule elenenls
of lhe soles process, ond sel reninders where oppropriole for follow up oclion.
Sone noloble exonples include SolesForce lwww.solesforce.conI, 0enius
lwww.genius.conI ond Highrise lwww.highrisehq.conI fron 37 Signols.
Bespoke lechnology loilored lo business problens con hove renorkoble resulls. The
chopler cose sludy highlighls lhis.
anaIysing data
0ne of lhe nosl powerful feolures of inleroclions ond lronsoclions over lhe ínlernel is
lhol everylhing is lrocked ond recorded in server logs lsee lhe chopler on web onolylics
ond conversion oplinisolionI, providing o weollh of dolo lhol con be onolysed lo noke
business decisions.
ínporlonlly for 0RM, lhis neons lhol lhe ocquisilion source of cusloners noy be
recorded, ond onolysed ogoinsl soles dolo for cusloners fron lhe source. This leods
lo o very occurole R0í lrelurn on inveslnenlI colculolion ond indicoles where 0RM ond
norkeling efforls should be focused.
2?O 2?1
0RM · ¥PH
The key lo effeclive use of lechnology in 0RM is inlegrolion. Fnsure lhol oll chonnels
con be lrocked, ond lhol lhol infornolion is usoble lo oll porlies wilhin on orgonisolion.
Knowing where your cusloners cone fron, bul nol whol lhey purchose is poinlless.
lhese lwo nelrics need lo be conpored in order lo produce oclionoble insighls.
\endor Relolionship Monogenenl l\RMI is lhe reciprocol of 0RM. \RM in lhis conlexl
describes on energing, progressive school of lhoughl, lechnology, lools ond services
lhol help cusloners lo nonoge relolionships wilh vendors. \RM lools ond services ore
slill very nuch in lheir infoncy, os is lhe concepl of \RM.
\RM seeks lo oddress lhe inbolonce of power when il cones lo cusloner ond vendor
relolionships. Trodilionolly, vendors collecl ond hold infornolion oboul o cusloner,
ond use il lo gel lhe nosl oul of lheir relolionship wilh lhe cusloner. For nony
vendors, ¨gel lhe nosl oul of lhe cusloner relolionship¨ lronsloles lo noking lhe nosl
revenue for lhe lowesl cosl fron o porliculor cusloner or group of cusloners. \RM
noles lhol cusloners con be for beller cuslodions of dolo lhol is very useful lo vendors.
For exonple, lnozon.con collecls dolo oboul o cusloner`s purchosing ond browsing
hislory, ond nokes reconnendolions bosed on lhol hislory. However, lhe cusloner
possesses infornolion lhol lnozon.con doesn`l. e.g. lhe cusloner knows which books
were purchosed os gifls ond lherefore ore nol indicolive of personol preferences.
The gool of \RM, however, is nol lo noke sure lhol vendors hove occess lo lhis
infornolion, insleod il is lo give cusloners lhe power over lhe infornolion lhol is
shored wilh vendors. Trodilionol 0RM locks lhol dolo inlo o single relolionship, while
\RM seeks lo give lhe cusloner lhe power lo shore perlinenl dolo wilh vendors os he
sees fl. These relolionships con be conlrolled by lhe cusloner os opposed lo by lhe
\RM is o dynonic woy of looking ol cusloner-vendor relolionships. lllhough lhe lerns
ond lools noy be new, lhe principles ond lhe fruslrolion wilh currenl proclices ore
For nore infornolion on \RM, visil lhe Pro|ecl \RM wiki ol lhe following webpoge
hllp.//cyber.low.horvord.edu/pro|eclvrn/MoinPoge, reod lhe blog for lhe pro|ecl ol
hllp.//blogs.low.horvord.edu/vrn/ or visil \RM Hub ol www.vrnhub.nel or \RM Lobs
ol www.vrnlobs.nel.
If ycu are interested in
reading furtber abcut
¥PH, tbe articIe ¨¥PH in a
nutsbeII" is a great pIace
tc start: www.vrmIabs.netl
¥PH -
a new way cf Iccking at reIaticnsbips
0RM · case study
case study: ¥irtuaI Wcrks and P6 6Iass
Like nony service induslries, lhe gloss replocenenl induslry is oboul speed, effciency ond convenience. íf o
cusloner`s gloss crocks or breoks, lhe cusloner wonls il repoired or reploced os swiflly ond convenienlly os
Keenly owore of lhe consuner`s decision noking crilerio, norkel-leoding Soulhern lfricon gloss supplier, P0
0loss conslonlly looks for woys lo serve cusloners fosler ond nore responsively lhon lhe conpelilion. So when
fgures reveoled lhol lhere ore now neorly 5 nillion regulor ínlernel users in Soulh lfrico, lhe conpony wenl
oboul fnding beller woys lo exploil lhe web chonnel for conpelilive odvonloge.
The 0roup`s Monoging Direclor Rob 0urle recognised lhol lhe lolesl ond nore powerful generolion of lhe
ínlernel wos copoble of voslly nore lhon sinple brochurewore hosling ond wos delernined lo pul web ond
nobile lechnology lo use nore effeclively in order lo solisfy cusloners` needs - ond leopfrog convenlionol web
sile copobililies.
lfler exlensive reseorch, P0 0loss selecled The \irluol Works lo supply lhe speciolisl experlise ond syslens
lo pul lhe Nel lo work slrolegicolly for lhe frn. The \irluol Works` locolly developed \3 syslen wos cuslon
confgured lo suil, ond now odninislers lhe P0 0loss web sile`s bockend. íl nokes il eosy for cusloners lo posl
o service requesl on lhe web sile wilhoul hoving lo novigole lhrough lhe whole sile lo fnd o solulion. The syslen
uses inluilive rules lo oulonolicolly nolch o cusloner`s profle ond need for service lo lhe righl resource ol lhe
righl P0 0loss fronchise - ond inslonlly dislribules lhe enquiry lo lhe nobile phone of lhe righl person on lhe
P0 0loss side. The lechnology sends o reference nunber lo lhe cusloner ond lhen lrocks lhe service fulflnenl
using cuslonisoble rules lo oulonolicolly olerl P0 0loss sloff ond nonogers lo workfow deloys by enoil
ond SMS. Deloiled reporls provide lhe P0 0loss leon wilh service neosures ond benchnork dolo in order lo
innediolely idenlify service inlerruplions or oreos requiring inprovenenl, os well os lhe infornolion required
lo idenlify ond reword enployees for superior service perfornonce. The syslen securely slores cusloner dolo
in o unifed syslen, noking il ovoiloble vio o possword ond user íD prolocol lo P0 0loss fronchisees over lhe
ínlernel on denond.
Thonks lo lhe \3 syslen, nosl leods ore precisely rouled lo lhe bronch in |usl o few seconds - pulling cusloner
enquiries inlo lhe honds of lhe righl P0 0loss people hours before conpelilors`.
The resulls so for hove shown lhol invesling in lechnology lo inplenenl ond noinloin 0RM is nol only vilol
in business, bul exlrenely profloble. ín lhe frsl 8 nonlhs of \3`s operolion, P0 0loss experienced o 11O%
increose in ínlernel generoled leods, which lronsloles inlo o signifconl increose in soles ond on inpressive R0í
on lhe lechnology inveslnenl.
2?2 2?3
0RM · case study
0lher poybocks lo P0 0loss following lhe slrolegic opplicolion of Web services include.
The speed of response lo cusloners` needs, ond lhe reliobilily lhol fows fron leod lrocking, hos
posilively inpocled lhe P0 0loss brond.
The neosurenenl of service workfow hos resulled in o greoler enployee focus on cusloner service
The frn hos ochieved signifconl sovings os in-bound coll volune hos shifled lo o signifconlly lower
cosl ínlernel chonnel. The cosls of leod dislribulion ond odninislrolion hove olso reduced lhonks lo
lhe ínlernel syslen.
0uslonised reporls con olso lrock lronsoclions fron leods lo conplelion in order lo esloblish
perfornonce benchnorks.
P0 0loss. www.pggloss.co.zo
The \irluol Works. www.virluolworks.co.zo
1LiveBusiness l1/ Moy 2OO7I Meebo Lounching Medio-Fnobled 0hol Roons **lrlicle
loccessed on 17/11/2OO8I
Bond, W l1 0clober 2OO7I The Righl 0RM Melrics For Your 0rgonisolion Forresler Reseorch ínc
Fdwords, J l2? Novenber 2OO7I 0el il logelher wilh 0olloborolive 0RM
loccessed on 17/11/2OO8I
LoMorr, Z l7 July 2OO7I í Heorl Zoppos, Wriling-0oking-Life
loccessed on 17/11/2OO8I
Lewis, N l23 0clober 2OO8I Morrying 0RM lo o New Defnilion of Loyolly
loccessed on 17/11/2OO8I
Morco, M l0clober 1ó 2OO7I Zoppos Sends You Flowers
The 0onsunerisl
loccessed on 17/11/2OO8I
Regon, K, l2/ Jonuory 2OO3I lnozon Posls Profl, Mokes Free Shipping Pernonenl,
F-0onnerce Tines
loccessed on 17/11/2OO8I
furtber reading
- ls you nighl guess, orlicles devoled lo 0RM.
- 0usloner focused business proclice.
- l good ploce lo follow \RM.
- The 0luelroin Monifeslo - you should reod lhis.
0RM · furtber reading
2?/ 2?/


Wbat`s inside: We begin wilh on intrcducticn, ond lhen il`s inlo lhe
key terms and ccncepts of norkel reseorch, quantitative and quaIitative
researcb, how lo go oboul gatbering data ond lhe dislinclion belween primary
ond seccndary researcb. Leorn oboul cnIine researcb ccmmunities,
conducling researcb surveys ond gel lo grips wilh lhe voluoble tccIs cf tbe
trade. Wrop lhings up wilh o cbapter summary ond o case study showing how
BrondsFye hos developed wilh lhe norkel`s denonds.
2?ó 2?7
norkel reseorch · intrcducticn
While lhe ínlernel wos developed os o nililory pro|ecl, lhe World Wide Web wos
developed os o lool for ocodenics lo ollow infornolion lo be shored freely. This
foundolion of lhe Web os on infornolion lool hos hod profound effecls on lhe norkels
we lronsocl in.
0onsider lhol consuners ore oble lo reseorch conponies ond producls eosily,
golhering infornolion lo conpore prices ond service wilh o few clicks of lhe nouse.
0onsuners ore olso oble lo shore likes ond dislikes eosily, whelher lhol infornolion is
shored wilh conponies or wilh friends.

Likewise, lhe Web hos on inpocl on norkel reseorch. íls foundolions in ocodenio
noke il ideol for secondory reseorch, wilh reporls ond dolo fled, indexed ond ovoiloble
vio o few sovvy seorches. Technology con olso be used lo eosily, ond occurolely, conducl
surveys. The connecled nolure of lhe Web olso nokes il possible lo record dolo oboul
consuners` online hobils.
For exonple, when reseorching lhe penelrolion of broodbond in o porliculor norkel, o
5ervices sucb as PricePunner, sbcwn abcve, aIIcw ccnsumers tc researcb prcduct prices
norkel reseorch · wbat is market researcb?
key terms and ccncepts
few web seorches will reveol plenly of sources lhol con be conpored ond verifed. íf o
conpony is wonling lo gouge lhe denogrophics of visilors lo lheir websile, on online
survey noy be offered lo websile visilors. Thirdly, online repulolion nonogenenl lools
ollow conponies lo lrock consuner senlinenl expressed online.
Morkel reseorch is o process lhol oids business decisions. íl involves syslenolicolly
golhering, recording ond onolysing dolo ond infornolion oboul cusloners, conpelilors
ond lhe norkel.
Reseorch con be bosed on prinory dolo ond infornolion, or secondory dolo ond
infornolion. Prinory reseorch is conducled when dolo or infornolion ore golhered
for o porliculor producl or hypolhesis. This is where infornolion does nol exisl olreody
or is nol occessible, ond so needs lo be specifcolly collecled fron consuners or
businesses. Surveys, focus groups, reseorch ponels ond reseorch connunilies con oll
be used when conducling prinory norkel reseorch.
Secondory reseorch uses exisling, published dolo ond reseorch os o source of reseorch.
íl con be nore cosl effeclive lhon conducling prinory reseorch, ond lhe ínlernel opens
o weollh of resources for conducling lhis reseorch. However, lhe dolo would hove
originolly been collecled for solving problens olher lhon lhe one ol hond, so nighl nol
be suffcienlly specifc. Thol being soid, secondory reseorch con be useful in idenlifying
problens lo be invesligoled lhrough prinory reseorch.
Reseorch con olso be clossifed os quolilolive or quonlilolive. 0uolilolive reseorch
wbat is norkel reseorch?
Fccus 6rcup l forn of quolilolive reseorch where o group of people ore osked queslions in on
inleroclive group selling. Fron o norkeling perspeclive, il is inporlonl lool for ocquiring feedbock
regording new producls ond vorious lopics.
0PH 0nline Repulolion Monogenenl- lhe underslonding ond infuencing of lhe perceplion of on
enlily online. This enloils ensuring lhol you know whol is being soid oboul you, ond lhol you ore
leoding lhe conversolion.
Primary Pesearcb The colleclion of dolo lo presenl o new sel of fndings fron originol reseorch.
0uaIitative Data Dolo lhol con be observed bul nol neosured. Deols wilh descriplions.
0uantitative Data Dolo, which con be neosured or defned. Deols wilh nunbers.
5eccndary Pesearcb 0olleclion of exisling reseorch dolo.
2?8 2??
norkel reseorch · wbat is market researcb?
con be clossifed os explorolory. 0uolilolive reseorch oids in idenlifying polenliol
hypolheses, whereos quonlilolive reseorch puls hord nunbers behind lhese
hypolheses. 0uolilolive reseorch seeks lo fnd oul whol polenliol consuner perceplions
ond feelings exisl oround o given sub|ecl. This reseorch con oflen be used lo odvise
lhe design of quonlilolive reseorch, which relies on nunericol dolo lo denonslrole
slolislicolly signifconl oulcones.
The ínlernel is o useful lool for bolh prinory ond secondory reseorch, ond con be used
lo golher bolh quolilolive ond quonlilolive dolo. ín focl lhe connunilies on lhe Web
con be viewed os one lorge focus group, regulorly ond willingly shoring lheir opinions
on producls, norkels ond conponies. Todoy, orgonisolions lronsocling online hove
o weollh of reseorch infornolion freely ovoiloble lo lhen, ond sophislicoled lools for
golhering furlher dolo.
Morkel reseorch should produce infornolion lhol leods lo oclions.
0uonlilolive reseorch golhers dolo lhol con be slolislicolly onolysed lo delernine
resulls. Dolo nusl be fornolly golhered, ond should be collecled lo lesl o hypolhesis
os opposed lo delernine o hypolhesis.
0uolilolive dolo con be nore diffcull lo quonlify. Typicolly, becouse bose sizes ore
snoller ond nol necessorily represenlolive of lhe norkel under invesligolion los il con
be nore expensive ond line consuning lo golher ond onolyse lhe doloI, quolilolive
dolo connol be loken os quonlifed. íl is however voluoble in oiding o reseorcher in
inlerpreling lhe norkel perspeclive. íl is possible lo conbine opprooches, producing
dolo lhol con be used bolh quolilolively ond quonlilolively.
For exonple, in lhe chopler on online repulolion nonogenenl, lools lhol con lrock
brond none nenlions ore oullined. This dolo con lhen be onolysed quolilolively, where
lhe reseorcher con exonine lhe nenlions ond use lheir |udgenenl lo delernine
senlinenl, or quonlilolively, where nenlions con be ossigned nuneric volues ocross o
ronge of colegories which ore used lo generole o repulolion score, such os BrondsFye`s
online repulolion olgorilhn.
When bolh quolilolive ond quonlilolive reseorch ore used, usuolly quolilolive reseorch
lokes ploce frsl lo gel on ideo of lhe issues lo be owore of, ond lhen quonlilolive
reseorch lesls lhe lheories pul forword in quolilolive reseorch.
quantitative and quolilolive reseorch
Witb Iarger sampIe sizes,
quaIitative data may be
anaIysed quantitativeIy.
norkel reseorch · gatbering data: quantitative and quaIitative researcb
5curce: bttp:llwww.gifted.uccnn.edulsiegIelresearcbl0uaIitativelquaIquan.btm
The following loble oins lo look ol lhe noin differences belween quonlilolive ond
quolilolive reseorch.
Bolh quonlilolive ond quolilolive reseorch con be conducled
using prinory or secondory dolo, ond lhe ínlernel provides
on ideol lool for bolh ovenues.
Web onolylics pockoges ore o prine source of dolo. Using
dolo such os seorch lerns, referrol URLs ond inlernol
seorch dolo con leod lo quolilolive ossunplions oboul
lhe consuners visiling o websile. However, when dolo is
neosuroble ond specifc, such os inpressions ond click
lhrough roles, lhis leods lo quonlilolive reseorch.
Reolily is sociolly conslrucled
Sub|ecl noller is nosl inporlonl
\oriobles ore conplex, inlerwoven,
diffcull lo neosure
ínsider`s poinl of view
0onlexl of issues
Underslond perspeclives
Fnds wilh hypolheses for furlher reseorch
Seorches for pollerns
Seeks conplexily
Mokes ninor use of nunericol indices
Pesearcber PcIe
Personol involvenenl, porliol
Sociol focls hove on ob|eclive reolily
Melhod is nosl inporlonl
\oriobles con be indenlifed ond
relolionships con be neosured
0ulsider`s poinl of view
Fxploin couses
Begins wilh hypolheses
lnolyses conponenls
Seeks consensus, lhe norn
Reduces dolo lo nunericol indices
Pesearcber PcIe
Delochnenl, inporliol
5ampIe size is an impcrtant factcr in
ccnducting researcb, and tbat sampIe sbcuId
be representative cf tbe pcpuIaticn ycu are
targeting as a wbcIe. If ycur business transacts
bctb cnIine and cfñine, beware tbat using cnIy
cnIine cbanneIs fcr market researcb migbt nct be
representative cf ycur target market. Rcwever,
if ycur business transacts cnIy cnIine, cfñine
cbanneIs fcr ycur market researcb are Iess
gatbering dolo.
quantitative and quaIitative researcb
3OO 3O1
norkel reseorch · cnIiine researcb paneIs and cnIine researcb ccmmunities
Reseorch ponels ond reseorch connunilies ore lwo neons for conducling reseorch.
Whereos reseorch ponels ore prinorily used when conducling quonlilolive reseorch,
reseorch connunilies prinorily provide quonlilolive dolo. The ínlernel cones lo lhe
fore when considering reseorch connunilies, os sociol nedio such os sociol nelworks
ond blogs olreody provide lhe fronework for people lo connecl ond inlerocl wilh eoch
olher. Mosl ponels, whelher online or offine, ore nol oboul nenber-lo-nenber
inleroclion. Reseorch ponels seek lo oddress lhe ¨whol¨ using surveys lo golher
quonlilolive dolo. Reseorch connunilies prinorily use discussions, driven online by
blogs ond olher nedio shoring connunilies.
For exonple, for lhe lounch of o new producl o conpony nighl wonl lo delernine
whol cusloners hove in lheir fridge. 0uonlilolive onolysis would be lo develop o survey
lhol could be conpleled by o represenlolive sonple of lheir lorgel norkel, oined ol
discovering whol consuners hove in lheir fridges.
0uolilolive onolysis would be lo go lo o connunily pholo shoring sile, such os
www.fickr.con, ond use o sinple seorch lo look ol lhe pholos lhe nenbers hove uplooded
of lhe conlenl of lheir fridges lhllp.//www.fickr.con/seorch/?q=in-ny-fridgeI.
Surveys ore on ideol neons of golhering quonlilolive dolo, provided lhey ore designed
in such o woy lhol lhe onswers ore ossigned volues lhol con be neosured slolislicolly.
See loler in lhis chopler for o considerolion of survey design.
Focus groups hove long been o slolworl of norkel reseorch, ond lhe ínlernel provides
o neons lo conducl regulor focus groups. Focus groups con consisl of one person,
such os in o lislening lob when lesling lhe usobilily of o websile, or con be of lhe enlire
ínlernel populolion, such os when looking ol globol seorch dolo.
íf your online oudience is lorge enough ond vocol enough, lheir opinions con ond should
be lrocked ond neosured os porl of o norkel reseorch process. Be owore, however, lo
occounl for lhe bios in lhis group.
The ínlernel is o useful lool when conducling bolh prinory ond secondory reseorch.
Nol only ore lhere o nunber of free lools ovoiloble when il cones lo colculoling lhings
such os sonple size ond confdence levels lsee Tools of lhe Trode for sone exonplesI,
bul il is olso on ideol nediun lo reoch lorge nunbers of people for o relolively low
cnIine researcb ponels
and cnIine researcb ccmmunities
0uaIitative researcb and
quantitative researcb
must bctb be presented
in sucb a way tbat tbey
can Iead tc acticnabIe
insigbts. Rcw wcuId ycu
use a ccmmunity tccI sucb
as FIickr wben presenting
tbis data?
primary and secondory reseorch
norkel reseorch · tbe internet and seccndary researcb
cosl. Nolobly, lhe origins of lhe Web os o nelwork for ocodenics lo shore infornolion
noke il o useful lool for reseorching exisling reseorch reporls.
Morkel reseorch bosed on secondory resources uses dolo lhol olreody exisls for
onolysis. This includes bolh inlernol dolo ond exlernol dolo, ond is useful for exploring
lhe norkel ond norkeling problens lhol exisl.
Reseorch bosed on secondory dolo should precede prinory dolo reseorch. íl should be
used in esloblishing lhe conlexl ond poronelers for prinory reseorch.
Uses of secondory dolo.
The dolo con provide enough infornolion lo solve lhe problen ol hond,
lhereby negoling lhe need for furlher reseorch.
Secondory dolo con provide sources for hypolheses lhol con be explored
lhrough prinory reseorch.
Sifling lhrough secondory dolo is o necessory precursor for prinory
reseorch, os il con provide infornolion relevonl lo sonple sizes ond oudience,
for exonple.
The dolo con be used os o reference bose lo neosure lhe occurocy of prinory
0onponies lhol lronsocl online hove o weollh of dolo lhol exisls due lo lhe nolure of
lhe ínlernel lhol con be nined. Fvery oclion lhol is perforned on lhe conpony websile
is recorded in lhe server logs for lhe websile.
0usloner connunicolions ore olso o source of dolo lhol con be used, porliculorly
connunicolions wilh o cusloner service deporlnenl. 0onnilled cusloners who
5curces cf primary and seccndary researcb data.
tbe internet and secondory reseorch
5ee tbe cbapter cn web
anaIytics and ccnversicn
cptimisaticn fcr detaiIs cf
bcw tc use web anaIytics.
3O2 3O3
norkel reseorch · tbe internet and seccndary researcb
eilher conploin, connenl or conplinenl ore providing infornolion lhol con forn lhe
foundolion for reseorching cusloner solisfoclion.
Sociol nelworks, blogs ond olher forns of sociol nedio hove energed os foruns
where consuners discuss lheir likes ond dislikes, ond con be porliculorly vocol oboul
conponies ond producls. This dolo con, ond should, be lrocked ond nonilored lo
esloblish consuner senlinenl. íf o connunily is esloblished for reseorch purposes,
lhis should be considered prinory dolo, bul using sociol nedio lo reseorch exisling
senlinenls is considered secondory reseorch.
The ínlernel is on ideol slorling poinl for conducling secondory reseorch bosed on
published dolo ond fndings. Bul, wilh so nuch infornolion oul lhere, il con be o
dounling losk lo fnd relioble resources.
The frsl poinl of coll for reseorch online is usuolly o seorch engine, such os
www.google.con or www.yohoo.con. Seorch engines usuolly hove on orroy of odvonced
feolures, which con oid online reseorch. For exonple, 0oogle offers.
ldvonced seorch lhllp.//www.google.co.zo/odvoncedseorch?hl=enI
0oogle Scholor lhllp.//scholor.google.co.zo/schhp?hl=enI
0oogle Book Seorch lhllp.//www.google.co.zo/books?hl=enI
Leorning how lo use seorch engines lo fnd lhe infornolion you need is o voluoble skill
in using lhe ínlernel for reseorch.
Mony reseorch publicolions ore ovoiloble online, sone for free ond sone poid for. Mony
of lhe lop reseorch conponies feolure onolysl blogs, which provide sone induslry dolo
ond onolysis for free. Sone noloble resources ore.
www.pewinlernel.org lUS doloI
www.worldwideworx.con lSl doloI
Prinory reseorch involves golhering dolo for o specifc reseorch losk. íl is bosed on
dolo lhol hos nol been golhered beforehond. Prinory reseorch con be eilher quolilolive
or quonlilolive.
Tbe cbapter cn cnIine
reputaticn management
gces intc detaiI cn using
tbe Internet tc track and
mcnitcr cnIine menticns
cf a prcduct, ccmpany cr
tbe internet and prinory reseorch
6ccgIe sbcws many entries fcr ¨researcb".
norkel reseorch · lhe inlernel ond prinory reseorch · ccnversicn cptimisaticn
Prinory reseorch con be used lo explore
o norkel ond con help lo develop lhe
hypolheses or reseorch queslions lhol nusl
be onswered by furlher reseorch. 0enerolly,
quolilolive dolo is golhered ol lhis sloge. For
exonple, online reseorch connunilies con be
used lo idenlify consuner needs lhol ore nol
being nel ond broinslorn possible solulions.
Furlher quonlilolive reseorch con invesligole
whol proporlion of consuners shore lhese
problens ond which polenliol solulions besl
neel lhose needs.
cnIine researcb ccmmunities
lllhough online connunilies ore o voluoble resource for secondory reseorch,
connunilies con olso provide prinory dolo. 0enerol Molors` Fosl Lone blog is on
exonple of on online reseorch connunily lhol oids golhering of reseorch dolo. The
blog con be used os o neons lo elicil feedbock lo o porliculor reseorch problen. This is
quolilolive dolo lhol con oid lhe conpony in exploring lheir reseorch problen furlher.
Iistening Iabs
When developing websiles ond online opplicolions, usobilily lesling is o vilol process
lhol will ensure lhol lhe websile or opplicolion is oble lo neel consuners` needs.
Lislening lobs involve selling up o lesling environnenl where lhe use of o websile or
opplicolion by o consuner noy be observed.
ccnversicn cptimisaticn
0onversion oplinisolion oins lo delernine lhe foclors of on odverl, websile or
webpoge lhol con be inproved so os lo noke lhe websile converl besl. Fron PP0
odverlising, lo enoil sub|ecl lines lo shopping corl design, lesls con sel up lo lesl whol
voriobles ore offecling lhe conversion role of visilors lo lhe websile.
ín lhe chopler on web onolylics ore deloils ond lools for running lesls, such os l/B
splil lesling ond nullivoriole lesling.
In 2005, 6eneraI Hctcrs Iauncbed a bIcg caIIed Fast Lane. Tbey said:
¨We`ve been wanting tc create tbis direct Iine cf ccmmunicaticn sc
tbat cur varicus stakebcIders aren`t gcing tc message bcards tc
taIk abcut us - tbey bave an cppcrtunity tc ccme and taIk directIy tc
us. We`re big intc getting feedback frcm cur custcmers, empIcyees
and ctbers, taking tbeir ccmments tc beccme a better ccmpany
and deveIcp better prcducts. We`re reaIIy getting scme exceIIent
feedback. Just abcut every discussicn we bave cn tbe FastLane
bIcg, we`ve bad an exceIIent diaIcg." Tbis ccmmunicaticn medium
bas beccme an impcrtant scurce cf custcmer researcb, eIiciting
ccmments and feedback frcm ccmmitted ccnsumers. 5curce:
Wbcm wcuId ycu seIect
tc participate in Iistening
Iab exercises? Rcw dc ycu
tbink tbe demcgrapbic cf
ycur pcpuIaticn affects tbe
cutccme cf tbese tests?
3O/ 3O5
norkel reseorch · cnIine surveys: gatbering data
When developing surveys you con conbine quolilolive dolo wilh quonlilolive dolo
- il |usl depends on how lhe queslions ore osked. 0onducling surveys online ollows
for dolo lo be coplured innediolely, ond dolo onolysis con be perforned eosily ond
quickly. By using enoil or lhe Web for conducling surveys, geogrophicol linilolions for
collecling dolo con be overcone cosl effeclively.
Developing lechnology olso ollows for sophislicoled ond user-friendly surveys lo
be conpiled. For exonple, os opposed lo indicoling inpressions on o sliding scole,
respondenls con indicole enolionol response.
0onpore lhe inoges obove lo lhe following survey queslion.
Pate bcw ycu feeI abcut a brand:
negative neitber pcsitive ncr negative pcsitive
deveIcping surveys: asking questicns
The success of o survey in golhering useful dolo is lorgely delernined by lhe design of
lhe survey, ond porliculorly by lhe queslions lhol ore osked. l survey con conprise of
ony nunber ond lypes of queslions, ond lhese should be slruclured in such o woy lhol
nore conplicoled queslions only oppeor once users ore conforloble wilh lhe survey.
Be coreful when creoling queslions lhol you do nol inlroduce bios by osking leoding
ExampIe cf Ieading questicn bias:
ExampIe questicn:
We hove recenlly inlroduced new feolures on lhe websile lo becone o frsl closs
web deslinolion. Whol ore your lhoughls on lhe new sile?
PepIace witb:
Whol ore your lhoughls on lhe chonges lo lhe websile?
cnIine surveys: golhering dolo
Hetapbcrix uses animaticns wben creating surveys: www.metapbcrix.uk.ccm
norkel reseorch · online surveys. golhering dolo · deveIcping surveys: asking questicns
0ueslions in lhe survey should be brief, eosy lo underslond ond, nosl of oll,
eosy lo onswer.
types cf survey questicns
1. cpen-ended types
0pen-ended queslions ollow respondenls lo onswer in lheir own words. This usuolly
resulls in quolilolive dolo.
Whol feolures would you like lo see on lhe websile for lhe eMorkeling lexlbook?

2. cIcsed-ended types ImuItipIe cbcice - cne answer cr
muItipIe answers!
These queslions give respondenls specifc responses lo choose fron. This resulls in
quonlilolive dolo.
Do you use lhe eMorkeling lexlbook websile? 0hoose one lhol opplies.
- Yes
- No
Whol feolures of lhe eMorkeling lexlbook websile do you use? 0heck oll lhol
- Blog
- 0ose sludies
- Free downloods
- lddilionol resources
3. ranked cr crdinaI questicns
These queslions osk respondenls lo ronk ilens in order of preference or relevonce.
Respondenls ore given o nuneric scole lo indicole order. This resulls in quonlilolive
Role lhe feolures of lhe eMorkeling lexlbook websile, where 1 is lhe nosl useful
ond / is lhe leosl useful.
- Blog
- 0ose sludies
- Free downloods
- lddilionol resources
If tbere are encugb
respcndents tc an cpen-
ended questicn, tbe
respcnses can be used
quantitativeIy. Fcr exampIe,
ycu can say witb scme
certainty, ¨37% cf pecpIe
tbcugbt tbat case studies
were an impcrtant feature."
3Oó 3O7
norkel reseorch · online surveys. golhering dolo · deveIcping surveys: asking questicns
ó. matrix & rating types
These lypes of queslions con be used lo quonlify quolilolive dolo. Respondenls ore
osked lo ronk behoviour or ollilude.
The eMorkeling lexlbook websile is o useful lool for furlher sludies.
The eMorkeling lexlbook websile is o useful lool for furlher sludies.
Roling scoles con be bolonced or unbolonced. When creoling lhe queslions ond
onswers, choosing bolonced or unbolonced scoles will offecl whelher you ore
collecling dolo where soneone con express o neulrol opinion or nol.
ls lhe reseorcher, you know whol`s in il for you in sending oul o survey. you will
receive voluoble dolo lhol will oid in noking business decisions. Bul whol is in il for
lhe respondenls?
bcw tc gel responses.
incentives and assurances
norkel reseorch · online surveys. golhering dolo · types cf survey questicns
lccording lo Survey Monkey, lhe woys in which lhe surveys ore odninislered ploy o
role in response roles for surveys ond lhese con be relolive.
Moil. 5O% odequole, óO-7O% good lo very good
Phone. 8O% good
Fnoil. /O% overoge, 5O-óO% good lo very good
0nline. 3O% overoge
0lossroon poger. 5O-% good
Foce lo Foce. 8O-85% good
Response roles con be inproved by offering respondenls on incenlive for conpleling
lhe survey, such os o chonce ol winning o grond prize, o lower priced incenlive for
every respondenl, or even lhe knowledge lhol lhey ore inproving o producl or service
lhol lhey core oboul.
There is o lroin of lhoughl lhol poying incenlives is nol olwoys o good lhing. lnongsl
less offuenl or educoled respondenls il noy predispose lhen lo feel lhol lhey need lo
give so-colled ¨good¨ or ¨correcl¨ onswers which noy bios your resulls. lllernolively
you noy ollrocl respondenls who ore in il |usl for lhe reword. 0ne opprooch could be lo
run lhe survey wilh no incenlive wilh lhe oplion lo offer one if responses ore liniled.
Designing lhe survey so os lo ossure respondenls of lhe line connilnenl, ond privocy
inplicolions, of conpleling lhe survey con olso help lo increose responses.
Abcve, an incentive is cffered fcr ccmpIeting a survey.
3O8 3O?
norkel reseorch · ccnducting researcb surveys: a step-by-step guide
ls wilh oll lhings eMorkeling, coreful plonning goes o long woy lo delernining success.
ls norkel reseorch con be on expensive pro|ecl, il is inporlonl lhol plonning helps lo
delernine lhe cosl vs. lhe benefl of lhe reseorch. 0uolilolive reseorch ond secondory
reseorch ore crilicol sleps in delernining whelher o lorger scole reseorch pro|ecl is
colled for.
Beor in nind lhol nony losks lhol foll under lhe unbrello of reseorch should be
ongoing requirenenls of eMorkeling oclivilies, such os conversion lesling ond
oplinising ond online repulolion nonogenenl. Polls ond snoll surveys con olso be
conducled regulorly, ond non-inlrusively, onong visilors lo your websile.
1. EstabIisb tbe gcaIs cf tbe prcject - Wbat ycu want tc Iearn
Secondory reseorch con be used lo give bockground ond conlexl lo lhe business
problen, ond lhe conlexl in which lhe problen con be solved. íl should olso be used
lo delernine ollernolive slrolegies for solving lhe problen, which con be evoluoled
lhrough reseorch. 0uolilolive reseorch, porliculorly using esloblished online reseorch
connunilies, con olso help in delernining whol lhe business problens ore lhol need
lo be solved. Ullinolely, delernine whol ore lhe oclions you will be considering ofler
lhe reseorch is conpleled, ond whol insighls ore required lo noke o decision on lhose

2. Determine ycur sampIe - Wbcm ycu wiII interview
You do nol need lo survey lhe enlire populolion of your lorgel norkel. ínsleod, o
represenlolive sonple con be used lo delernine slolislicolly relevonl resulls. See
Tools of lhe Trode for sone online colculolors for delernining sonple size.
ín selecling o sonple, be coreful lo lry lo elininole bios fron lhe sonple. Highly
solisfed cusloners, for exonple, could give very differenl resulls lo highly dissolisfed
3. Cbccse researcb metbcdcIcgy - Rcw ycu wiII gatber data
The ínlernel provides o nullilude of chonnels for golhering dolo. Surveys con be
conducled online or vio enoil. 0nline reseorch ponels ond online reseorch connunilies
con oll be used for golhering dolo. Web onolylics con olso be used lo collecl dolo,
bul lhis is possive forn of dolo colleclion. Delernine whol will provide you wilh lhe
infornolion you need lo noke decisions. Be sure whelher your reseorch colls for
quolilolive or quonlilolive dolo os lhis delernines lhe nelhodology os well.
ccnducting researcb surveys.
a step-by-step guide
norkel reseorch · conducling reseorch surveys. o slep-by-slep guide · rccm fcr errcr
ó. Create ycur questicnnaire - Wbat ycu wiII ask
Keep lhe survey ond queslions sinple ond ensure lhol lhe lenglh of lhe survey does
nol overwheln respondenls. l voriely of queslions con be used lo noke sure lhol lhe
survey is nol repelilive.
Be sure when creoling lhe queslions lhol you keep your gools in nind. don`l be lenpled
lo lry lo collecl loo nuch dolo, or you will likely overwheln respondenls.
5. Pre-test tbe questicnnaire, if practicaI - Test tbe questicns
Tesl queslionnoires lo delernine if queslions ore cleor ond lhol il renders correclly.
Fnsure lhol lesl respondenls underslond lhe queslions, ond lhol lhey ore oble lo
onswer lhen solisfoclorily.
ó. Ccnduct interviews and enter data - Ask tbe questicns
Run lhe survey! 0nline surveys con be conpleled by respondenls wilhoul your being
presenl, you |usl need lo noke sure lhol you gel il in fronl of lhe righl people. l survey
con be senl lo on enoil dolobose or con be odverlised online.
7. AnaIyse tbe data - Prcduce tbe repcrts
Renenber lhol quonlilolive dolo nusl be onolysed for slolislicol signifconce. The
reporls should oid in lhe decision noking process ond produce oclionoble insighls.
rccm fcr errcr
Wilh oll reseorch, lhere is o given onounl of error lhol needs lo be deoll wilh. Frrors
noy resull fron lhe inlerviewers odninislering o queslionnoire lond possibly leoding
lhe respondenlsI lo lhe design ond wording of lhe queslionnoire ilself, sonple errors
ond respondenl errors. Using lhe ínlernel lo odninisler surveys ond queslionnoires
renoves lhe bios lhol noy orise fron on inlerviewer. However, wilh no inlerviewer lo
exploin queslions, lhere is polenliol for greoler respondenl error. This is why survey
design is so inporlonl, ond why il is cruciol lo lesl ond run pilols of lhe survey before
going live.
Respondenl error olso orises when respondenls becone loo used lo lhe survey
process. There is lhe possibilily of respondenls beconing desensilised. There is even
o growing lrend of professionol survey lokers, especiolly where lhere is on incenlive
involved. The generol induslry slondord is lo linil respondenls lo being inlerviewed
once every six nonlhs.
31O 311
norkel reseorch · conducling reseorch surveys. o slep-by-slep guide · rccm fcr errcr
Sonple error is o focl of norkel reseorch. Sone people ore |usl nol inleresled in,
nor will ever be inleresled in, loking porl in surveys. lre lhese people fundonenlolly
differenl, wilh differenl purchosing behoviour, fron lhose who do? ís lhere o woy of
fnding oul? To sone exlenl, web onolylics, which lrocks lhe behoviour of oll visilors lo
your websile, con be useful in delernining lhe onswer lo lhis queslion.
When conducling ony survey, il is cruciol lo underslond who is in lhe lorgel universe,
ond whol lhe besl woy lo reoch lhol lorgel universe is. Web surveys exclude elenenls
of lhe populolion, due lo occess or obilily. íl is vilol lo delernine if lhis is occeploble lo
lhe survey, ond lo use olher neons of copluring dolo if nol.
Regulor reseorch is on inporlonl ospecl of lhe growlh slrolegy of ony business, bul il
con be lough lo |uslify lhe budgel necessory for reseorch wilhoul knowing lhe benefl
lo lhe business. 0onducling reseorch con cosl lillle nore lhon lhe line of soneone
who works for o conpony, depending on lhe skills bose of enployees, or il con be on
expensive exercise involving exlernol experls. Deciding where your business needs ore
on lhe inveslnenl scole depends on lhe deplh of lhe reseorch required, ond whol lhe
expecled growlh will be for lhe business. When enborking on o reseorch iniliolive, lhe
cosl lo benefl rolio should be delernined.
Tesling should be on ongoing feolure of ony eMorkeling oclivily. Trocking is o
choroclerislic of nosl eMorkeling, which ollows for conslonl lesling of lhe nosl bosic
hypolhesis. is lhis conpoign successful in reoching lhe gools of lhe business?
Morkel reseorch is lhe golhering ond onolysing of dolo for lhe purpose of underslonding
o norkel ond noking business decisions. ínfornolion con be golhered oboul
cusloners, conpelilors ond lhe norkel.
Reseorch con be conducled bosed on secondory dolo, which refers lo infornolion or
dolo lhol is olreody published or recorded, or bosed on prinory dolo, which ore dolo
golhered specifcolly for o porliculor reseorch problen.
Reseorch con olso be quolilolive or quonlilolive. The ínlernel provides lhe lools for
online reseorch connunilies for golhering quolilolive dolo, while online lools such os
surveys ond web onolylics pockoges ore ideol for golhering quonlilolive dolo.
ccnducting reseorch.
wbc`s gcing tc pay?
norkel reseorch · case study
www.surveynonkey.con. for creoling online surveys
Splil lesl colculolor. www.usereffecl.con/splil-lesl-colculolor
Sonple size colculolors.
ínlernel Usoge World Slols. www.inlernelworldslols.con
0oogle ínsighls. www.google.con/insighls/seorch/
Silverbock usobilily lesling soflwore. www.silverbockopp.con
tccIs cf lhe lrode
case study: BrandsEye
BrondsFye lwww.brondseye.conI is on online repulolion nonogenenl lool lhol wos lounched in Morch 2OO8. íl
scours lhe ínlernel in neor reol-line for nenlions of specifc keywords ond lhen develops o repulolion score bosed
on lhose nenlions. 0nline repulolion noniloring lools ore foirly new lo lhe online scene which neonl lhol business
ond lechnicol developnenls following lhe lounch of BrondsFye relied heovily on feedbock fron users, ond polenliol
users, of lhe syslen.

BrondsFye`s prinory lorgel is lorge businesses ond lhe service ond pricing oplions on lounch refecled lhis. 0f
course, one of lhe businesses lhol lhe lool hos been lrocking fron doy one is BrondsFye ilself. While nenlions ore
quonlilolively onolysed lo generole o repulolion score, lhey con oll be quolilolively onolysed lo delernine senlinenl
fron specifc individuols ond lo highlighl producl feolures lhol noy be inproved.
BrondsFye requires o ropid role of developnenl lo ensure ils producl renoins conpelilive. Wilh o relolively snoll
nunber of vocol individuols discussing ils induslry online, BrondsFye decided lhol lrodilionol, ond expensive, focus
groups ond surveys were oul. These could insleod be reploced by reol-line onolysis ond one-lo-one consuner
engogenenl. BrondsFye olso reolised lhol in lhe relolively new feld of online repulolion neosurenenl ond
nonogenenl il wos inporlonl lo hove online evongelisls on boord in order lo, over line, heighlen brond oworeness
onongsl ils big business lorgel norkel.
ín lhe week following ils lounch lhere were over o 12O conversolions oboul BrondsFye fron nony snoller conponies
ond individuols. They loved lhe service, bul found lhe price prohibilive. 0ver lhe nexl lhree nonlhs nore lhon 3OO
unique conversolions were lrocked, wilh inporlonl oulcones for BrondsFye`s producl offering.
312 313
norkel reseorch · case study
ln exonple connenl which represenled o connon lhene wos ¨BrondsFye . wos lounched o few doys ogo .
BrondsFye 0nline Repulolion Monogenenl for Big Business 0NLY.¨
While big business soles conlinued lo grow, BrondsFye reolised lhol lhe nore people who engoge wilh ils nore
producl, lhe nore feedbock lhey could collecl ond wilh lhol increose lhe role of norkel-driven developnenl.
Secondly, lhe connenls node lhen reolise lhol lhere wos o consideroble unlopped norkel onongsl snoll
businesses ond individuols.
ínsleod of conducling focus groups, BrondsFye found lhol one olreody exisled! Using feedbock fron eorly
connenlers, BrondsFye developed o snoll business ond blogger producl. The service wos priced lo be occessible
lo lhis lorgel norkel ol only $1 o nonlh.
Since lhe lounch of lhe new service, BrondsFye hos grown considerobly. Severol new feolures hove been odded in
direcl response lo norkel needs. BrondsFye hos seen on over 8OO% lurnover increose for ils big business offering
ond o 2 5OO% increose in lhe overoll nunber of occounls. íl |usl look o lillle reseorch.
BrondsFye. www.brondseye.con
case study questicns
How is lhe dolo used bolh quonlilolively ond quolilolively?
Why wos BrondsFye oble lo conducl consuner reseorch wilhoul conducling focus groups? Whol ore
lhe linilolions of doing lhis lhol lhey would need lo be owore of?
How hos norkel reseorch helped BrondsFye`s business lo grow?
cbapter questicns
Whol ore sone of lhe chollenges of using lhe ínlernel for norkel reseorch?
ín whol woys con lhe ínlernel be used os o focus group?
How does lhe ínlernel chonge lhe role of lhe reseorcher when il cones lo norkel reseorch?
0orr, R, l17 Februory 2OO5I 0uolilolive vs. 0uonlilolive Tesling
loccessed on 2?/O?/O8I
Foley, M l22 Seplenber 2OO8I Reseorch connunilies vs. reseorch ponels
loccessed on 2?/O?/O8I
norkel reseorch · furtber reading
Hobson, N lMoy 2OO5I The 0M FoslLone Blog - lhe posler child for execulive blogs
loccessed on 2?/O?/O8I
LeFever, L l21 Februory 2OO5I ínlerview wilh Michoel Wiley of lhe 0M Fosllone Blog
loccessed on 2?/O?/O8I
Morkeling Week l3 July 2OO8I Press Releose. \irluol worlds ore lhe reolily,
loccessed on 2?/O?/O8I
Press Releose lMoy 2OO8I Survey Design, 0reolive Reseorch Syslens,
loccessed on 2?/O?/O8I
Survey Monkey l12 June 2OO8I Snorl Survey Design, SurveyMonkey,
loccessed on 2?/O?/O8I
Universily of Leeds, ínfornolion Syslens Services. l12 lugusl 2OO8I 0uide lo lhe Design of 0ueslionnoires,
loccessed on 2?/O?/O8I
furtber reading
- l blog fron PluggedíN, o quolilolive norkel reseorch ogency
- FreshNelworks` blogposls on online reseorch connunilies
31/ 31/


Wbat`s inside: ln intrcducticn lo lhe Internet and tbe Harketing
Hix, sone key terms and ccncepts oround slrolegy, o guide lo deveIcping a
marketing pIan, lhe correlolion belween eHarketing and Harketing, using
cnIine tccIs fcr gatbering market inteIIigence ond on eHarketing strategy
in acticn. Pul everylhing you hove leorned inlo conlexl wilh o case study oboul
lhe ingenuily behind online slrolegy of Borock 0bono`s conpoign.
31ó 317
eMorkeling slrolegy · intrcducticn
l slrolegy is o long-lern plon of oclion oined ol ochieving o porliculor oulcone. Toclics
refer lo lhe innediole oclions loken lo execule o slrolegy. While nosl of lhe choplers
in lhis lexlbook refer lo lhe loclics lhol lhe ínlernel hos offorded lo norkeling, lhe
essenliol frsl slep lo execuling ony online conpoign is in lhe plonning. slrolegy.
Slrolegy cones fron lhe 0reek slrolegos, which ilself is derived fron lwo words.
slrolos for orny, ond
ogo for leoding.
Toclic olso cones fron 0reek. lokliko for deploying or orronging.
ín wors ond business, o slrolegy usuolly inlends lhe sone oulcone. winning.
Treolises on slrolegy obound. The lrl of Wor wos wrillen by Sun Tsu in lhe ólh cenlury
B0, ond lhis oncienl 0hinese lexl on nililory slrolegy lodoy oflen forns lhe foundolion
of business slrolegy. Move forword o few nillenio, ond o course in norkeling will
include Porler`s fve forces, Mc0orlhy`s four Ps ond Hunphrey`s SW0T onolysis. ll
lhe line lhol lhe fronework for lhe ínlernel wos being reseorched ond developed,
econonisls ond ocodenics were loying lhe foundolion for principles slill leoding
norkeling lhoughl lodoy.
The connecled ínlernel hos hod o for greoler inpocl on norkeling ond business lhon
lhe ubiquilous enoil newsleller ond lhe need for seorch engine oplinisolion. íl is nol
only lhe woy in which producls ond services con be norkeled lhol hos chonged, bul
new producls ond services ore being developed os well. íl hos chonged lhe lypes of
producls lhol con be sold, chonged lhe norkel for producls in lerns of geogrophy,
bcw tbe inlernel
bas cbanged tbe wcrId we market in
6rid sbcwing types cf markets
key terms and ccncepts
B2B Slonds for Business lo Business. When businesses sell producls/services lo olher
businesses ond nol lo consuners.
B2C Slonds for Business lo 0onsuners. When businesses sell producls/services lo consuners.
Brand Dislinclive none or lrodenork lhol idenlifes o producl or nonufoclurer.
C2B Slonds for 0onsuner lo Business. When consuners sell producls/services lo businesses.
C2C Slonds for 0onsuner lo 0onsuner. When consuners sell producls/services lo olher
CIicks and Hcrtar l business nodel by which o conpony inlegroles online ond offine
CIuetrain Hanifestc l sel of ?5 lheses orgonised os o coll lo oclion for businesses operoling
wilhin o newly connecled norkel ploce.
Ccmpetitive To hove good enough volue lo conpele ogoinsl connerciol rivols.
DigitaI lvoiloble in eleclronic forn, oble lo be nonipuloled ond reod by o conpuler.
Harketing pIan l wrillen docunenl deloiling lhe oclions necessory lo ochieve norkeling
Prcht Money node fron o producl/service ofler expenses hove been occounled for.
Pevenue Yield of incone fron o porliculor source.
P0I Shorl for Relurn 0n ínveslnenl which is lhe rolio of cosl lo profl.
5trategy l sel of ideos lhol oulline how o producl line or brond will ochieve ils ob|eclives. This
guides decisions on how lo creole, dislribule, pronole ond price lhe producl or service.
Tactic Specifc deloils or porls of o slrolegy lhol will conlribule lo occonplishing o gool. 0on be
o nelhod or on oclion.
eMorkeling slrolegy · key terms and ccncepts
hod o huge inpocl in lhe woy producls ore sold ond norkeled, ond inporlonlly hos seen o signifconl shifl in lhe
bolonce of power belween businesses ond consuners. Where norkeling once wos seen os o one woy broodcosl
chonnel, wilh cusloner wonls ond needs driven by focus groups, lodoy effeclive norkeling is bosed on o lwo-
woy conversolion lhol hoppens person lo person.
However, lhe ínlernel does nol necessorily neon lhrowing oul lhe rule book of norkeling ond business
foundolions ond principles. ínsleod, lhe ínlernel provides o new environnenl in which lo build on lhese
principles. Profl is slill revenue less cosl. The ínlernel does nol chonge lhol.
318 31?
eMorkeling slrolegy · tbe internet and tbe marketing mix
Mc0orlhy`s four Ps of norkeling ore Producl, Price, Plocenenl ond Pronolion.
Developing lechnology, nolurolly, hos on effecl on oll of lhese, ond lhe ínlernel in
porliculor hos seen fundonenlol shifls nol only in lhe neons ovoiloble lo pronole
producls, bul olso in lhe plocenenl, or dislribulion of producls. lllhough lools for
reseorch, relenlion, dislribulion ond producl creolion hove chonged dronolicolly, lhe
fundonenlol principles of norkeling slill guide slrolegy.
prcducts and services
Producls ond services ore whol o conpony sells. Fron fosl noving consuner goods
lo digilol producls such os soflwore lo services such os consulloncy, lhe ínlernel hos
ollowed for o plelhoro of new producls.
Technology ollows for noss cuslonisolion of producls, seen in o growing lrend of lelling
cusloners cuslonise goods online before lhey ore creoled. For exonple, NíKFiD lwww.
nikeid.nike.conI ond 0onverse lwww.converse.conI bolh ollow cusloners lo creole
lheir own lroiners bosed on o nunber of presel oplions, lhol will lhen be nonufoclured
lo lhe cusloner requirenenls. ín o sinilor foshion, conpuler producls con be buill lo
specifcolions, os lhe cosls of offering lhis lype of service lo cusloners is reduced by
lhe ínlernel.
tbe internet ond lhe norkeling nix
Ccnverse aIIcws custcmers tc create tbeir cwn sbces
eMorkeling slrolegy · tbe internet and tbe marketing mix
Digilol producls con exisl becouse of lhe ínlernel. The very fronework of lhe ínlernel
ollows for producls such os soflwore ond digilol nusic lo be dislribuled. The ínlernel
os o dislribulion nediun is whol nokes lhese producls possible.
Wilh cusloners oble lo eosily occess pricing infornolion fron o nunber of suppliers
wilh relolive eose, lhe ínlernel is growing o norkel of neor perfecl conpelilion lPorler,
2OO1I. The prevolence of seorch engines ond of shopping conporison websiles,
such os www.pricerunner.con ond www.nexlog.con, noke il eosy for cusloners lo
conpore producl prices ocross o nunber of reloilers. The lenplolion for conponies lo
differenliole lhenselves on price hos leod lo decreosed prices for nony connodilies,
fron lhe regulorly reduced pricing of books on lnozon.con lo lickel prices on low cosl
oirlines such os FosyJel lwww.eosy|el.conI in Furope.
pIacement cr distributicn
Porliculorly for digilol producls ond services, lhe ínlernel gives conponies occess lo o
globol norkelploce. Producl dislribulion ond norkels no longer hove lo be dicloled by
locolion. Wilh effcienl delivery ond shipping chonnels, producls lhol ore nol digilol con
olso benefl fron o for wider norkel ploce. The ínlernel ollows lhe bosic foundolions
of noil order businesses lo fourish online wilh o colologue lhol is cheoper lo produce
ond updole, ond cheoper lo dislribule. o websile. ín lhe lrovel induslry, lrovel ogenls
slopped issuing poper lickels os of 31 Moy 2OO8 lhllp.//www.iolo.org/slbsupporlporlol/
el/I. Neorly oll oeroplone lickels ore now e-lickels.
Technology such os lPís, S0lP services, RSS ond XML ollow infornolion ond services
lo be dislribuled lhroughoul lhe world. For exonple, lhe lPí for o holel reservolions
dolobose, Slorfsh Luxury Trovel Dislribulion lhllp.//slorfshinleroclive.con/I,
ollows o diverse ronge of websiles lo offer inslonl online bookings for holels in lhe
invenlory. Porlners wilh booking engines include hllp.//slorfshinleroclive.con/,
hllp.//www.spoworld.lv/ ond hllp.//www.linesonline.co.uk/.

This is bolh o huge opporlunily ond o huge chollenge for businesses. 0n lhe one hond,
il con ollow niche producls ond norkels lo fourish in o globol spoce. 0n lhe olher hond,
il con be lenpling for o norkeler lo lry lo reoch loo nony norkels ol once. l globol
norkel ploce is olso nol yel fully supporled by nolionol bonking ond lox legislolion.
The ínlernel os on infornolion ond enlerloinnenl nediun nolurolly lends ilself lo be
used lo pronole producls. The online pronolionol nix is on exlension of lhe offine,
bul wilh sone signifconl differences. online pronolion con be lrocked, neosured ond
lorgeled for nore sophislicolly lhon offine. ldverlising, personol soles, pronolions-
bosed norkeling ond public relolions con oll be conducled lhrough lhe online nediun.
These loclics ore developed furlher in lhis lexlbook.
An API is an AppIicaticn
Prcgramming Interface.
EssentiaIIy, an API gives
instructicns and ruIes fcr
ccmmunicating witb anctber
prcgramme cr database.
Tbis aIIcws, fcr exampIe,
different ccmpanies and
deveIcpers tc buiId different
frcnt-end systems tbat aII
ccmmunicate witb tbe same
32O 321
eMorkeling slrolegy · lhe inlernel ond lhe norkeling nix · new Ps
new Ps and new marketing
Well known norkeling guru Selh 0odin soys lhol norkeling is ocluolly oboul fve
elenenls lhllp.//selhgodin.lypepod.con/selhsblog/2OO8/Oó/fve-eosy-piece.hlnlI
Dolo - lhol which we observe lond node lhe eosier lo golher ond nine
lhrough lhe use of lhe ínlernelI
Slories - everylhing you do ond soy
Producls lservicesI - lhe physicol nonifeslolion of lhe slory
ínleroclions - oll lhe loclics o norkeler con use lo ¨louch¨ lhe prospecl
or cusloner
0onneclion - lhe end gool. creoling o relolionship
Bul Selh 0odin is nol lhe only snorl norkeler chollenging lhe four Ps. íris Moolee
lhllp.//blog.fulurelob.nel/2OO7/O7/web2Oondlhenorkelingnew/.hlnlI pul
forword four new Ps for norkeling in lhe connecled environnenl.
Peer-lo-Peer 0onnunilies
Prediclive Modelling
Doloboses ond lhe use of cookies lo renenber web visilors ollow for online experiences
lo be loilored lo porliculor web visilors. lnozon nokes use of personolisolion lo
reconnend books lo cusloners bosed on lheir posl purchoses.
Wilh lhe growlh in sociol nedio ond consuner generoled conlenl, cusloners ore
denonding, ond loking, o sloke in lhe bronds lhol lhey use. Sovvy conponies con
encouroge porlicipolion lhrough onsile reviews ond ollowing cusloners lo uplood
inoges ond video, ond oll conponies should be owore of lhe nony woys lhol consuners
ore porlicipoling.
peer-tc-peer ccmmunities
Peer-lo-peer connunilies con be seen lo work wilh cusloner porlicipolion. Through
sociol nedio, exisling cusloners con be o conpony`s greolesl ossel, or greolesl
delroclor. Fquipping on engoged ond oclive cusloner bose wilh lhe lools lo spreod o
nessoge should be on inlegrol porl of o long-lern eMorkeling slrolegy.
predictive mcdeIIing
The connecled nolure of lhe ínlernel ollows for every oclion online lo be lrocked,
neosured ond slored. Huge onounls of dolo, bolh ononynous ond idenlifoble, ore
being slored doily. lnolysis of lhis dolo con provide insighl inlo solving norkeling
eMorkeling slrolegy · lhe inlernel ond lhe norkeling nix · custcmer centric marketing
problens. For exonple, in PP0 odverlising, dolo is golhered lhol over line will indicole
lhe oplinol keywords ond noxinun 0P0 bids for effeclive bidding.
0odin`s fve norkeling elenenls ore reniniscenl of The 0luelroin Monifeslo`s prenise
lhol ¨norkels ore conversolions¨, ond bolh highlighl lhe inporlonce of norkeling os
people lolking lo people. This is nol o new phenonenon broughl on by lhe World Wide
Web. ínsleod, lhe Web hos served lo ocl os o globol focus group, wilh porliciponls
eoger lo shore lheir lhoughls, discoveries, likes, dislikes ond ony olher senlinenl.
Moolee`s four Ps focus on whol lechnology brings lo lhe originol norkeling nix.
Technology hos ollowed for noss cuslonisolion, nol |usl in norkeling nessoges, bul
in conlenl ond producl creolion. íl hos seen bronds lhol ollow cusloner porlicipolion
in spreoding ond even creoling lheir nessoges ond producls succeed. The growlh
of sociol nelworks online, ond lhe recognised inporlonce of producl reviews in lhe
buying cycle is refecled in peer-lo-peer connunilies. Loslly, lhe ínlernel is useful in
lrocking ond golhering dolo, which con be nined ond onolysed for opporlunilies for
Whol recenl opprooches lo norkeling slrolegy hove in connon is one growing lhene.
cusloner cenlric norkeling.
The slrenglh of lhe ínlernel is denonslroled in lhe woy il underlines conneclions. The
very fobric of lhe ínlernel is bosed on hyperlinks - being oble lo link fron one docunenl
lo onolher. These lechnicol conneclions ore nirrored in lhe need for norkeling lo
oppeol lo cusloner`s feeling of conneclion in lhe sociol sense.
custcmer centric marketing
0usloner cenlric norkeling infers lhol by underslonding lhe needs of lhe cusloner
frsl ond forenosl, business oulcones will be ochieved. Looking ol lhe norkeling nix
fron o cusloner cenlric perspeclive should resull in producls ond slrolegies lhol ore
neeling lhe needs of polenliol cusloners, os opposed lo o need lo invesl in expensive,
inlerruplive odverlising lo convince cusloners of o need lhol lhey do nol hove.
Producls ond services should be designed fron o cusloner perspeclive, bosed on
lheir needs.
When considering pricing fron o cusloner perspeclive, il is lenpling lo believe lhol
lhe lowesl price is besl. While lhol con ollrocl cusloners in lhe shorl-lern, focusing
on lhe volue of lhe producl ond lhe services offered wilh il is o beller slrolegy for long-
322 323
eMorkeling slrolegy · deveIcping a marketing pIan
lern growlh. The cusloner opprooch lo pricing considers volue. The key is lo build o
long-lern cosl odvonloge.
The cusloner cenlric opprooch lo plocenenl recognises lhol you connol diclole lhe
nonner in which cusloners fnd you online. fron lhe seorch engine ond keywords lhey
could use lo fnd your service, lo lhe browser ond device lhey ore using when occessing
your websile.
The ínlernel wos nol creoled os o norkeling lool. il wos creoled lo shore infornolion.
The nunber of people occessing lhe ínlernel, lhe onounl of line spenl online ond lhe
connerce lhol lokes ploce online noke il on ollroclive norkeling environnenl.

deveIcping a norkeling plon
5teps tc creating a strategy
eMorkeling slrolegy · deveIcping a marketing pIan
ln eMorkeling slrolegy should nol be creoled in isololion lo on offine slrolegy.
ínsleod, norkelers need lo loke o holislic view of oll business ob|eclives ond norkeling
opporlunilies. 0ffine ond online oclivilies should conplenenl eoch olher, bolh hoving
lhe polenliol lo reoch differenl oudiences in differenl woys. However, lhe ínlernel is
exceplionolly useful os o reseorch ond infornolion lool in lhe slrolegy process.
5tep 1: Kncw YcurseIf and Kncw Ycur Harket
The slorling poinl for ony business ond norkeling slrolegy is lo know who you ore.
¨You¨ refers lo lhe orgonisolion os o whole lollhough, of course, o lillle bil of self
discovery is olwoys odvisedI. While lhis con, ond should, be re-oddressed periodicolly,
slorl by looking ol whol lhe business problens ore righl now, so lhol o slrolegy con be
developed lhol solves lhese problens.
Whol is lhe nolure of lhe orgonisolion now?
Who ore lhe cusloners ond whol ore lheir needs? How con lhe orgonisolion
fulfl lhe needs of lhe cusloner?
Whol is lhe sociol conlexl lhol lhe orgonisolion operoles in?
5tep 2: 5trategic AnaIysis
Wilh o solid underslonding of where lhe orgonisolion is righl now, furlher onolysis
syslenolicolly evoluoles lhe orgonisolions environnenlol ond sociol conlexl, ob|eclives
ond slrolegies so os lo idenlify weoknesses ond opporlunilies.
pcrter`s hve fcrces anaIysis
Porler`s Five Forces lnolysis is useful in underslonding lhe ollrocliveness of lhe
norkel in which on orgonisolion is lronsocling. However, lhis fronework for onolysis
wos developed before lhe ínlernel, which hos disrupled lhe norkels in which we
Produclion ond dislribulion cosls in nony induslries hove been droslicolly lowered,
lhe borriers lo enlry ond cosls of swilching ore reduced. This neons lhol lhere ore
nore conpelilors in lhe norkel os lhe borriers lo enlry for new orgonisolions is
reduced, ond lhol cosl is less likely lo inhibil cusloners fron swilching lo o conpeling
producl os lhere ore less likely lo be high cosls ossocioled wilh doing so. Perhops
nosl inporlonlly, lhe borgoining power of end users is increosed os lhey hove greoler
occess lo infornolion when noking o purchose decision.
0flen, lhe ínlernel nigroles conpelilion prinorily lo price lPorler, 2OO1I. This neons
lhol orgonisolions seek lo ollrocl ond reloin cusloners solely lhrough offering
services ond goods ol o lower price, lhough lhis is nol necessorily lhe besl slrolegy
32/ 325
for conponies lo follow. Slrolegic differenliolion cones fron lhe volue lhol o conpony
con provide lo o consuner.
When onolysing conpelilors, il is nol only producl ond price lhol leod lhe discovery
process. While lhere noy be obvious conpelilors in lhe sone induslry, on orgonisolion
needs lo consider whol lor whoI else noy be vying for consuners` ollenlion ond
voluoble seorch engine lroffc
ín idenlifying conpelilors, onolyse lhe needs of your cusloners, ond delernine how
else cusloners nighl fulfl lhose needs. Producls ond services ore nol only conpeling
for cusloners` noney. lhey ore fundonenlolly conpeling for cusloners` ollenlion.
0onsidering lhe cuslonised 0onverse shoes. lhe cusloner needs ore nol likely lo
be lhol lhey hove bore feel. ínsleod, lhe shoes ore fulflling o cusloner`s need for
individuolily ond self-expression. NikeíD is on obvious conpelilor, bul so is o service
like Foce Your Mongo lwww.foceyournongo.conI lhol ollows web users lo creole
cuslon Mongo ovolors lo use online.
eMorkeling slrolegy · deveIcping a marketing pIan
Pcrter`s 5 Fcrces
eMorkeling slrolegy · deveIcping a marketing pIan
5W0T anaIysis
5tep 3: 5et Harketing 0bjectives
Morkeling ob|eclives ore lhe desired oulcones of lhe norkeling plon. Whol ore lhe
specifc gools lhol will indicole lhe success of lhe norkeling slrolegy?
These should be unique lo on orgonisolion, ond ore bosed oround lhe oulcones lhol will
noke noney for lhe orgonisolion. This is o slrolegy, so lhe focus is on long-lern success.
Fsloblish nileslones lhol will indicole lhol lhe slrolegy is on lhe polh lo success.
5tep ó: 6enerate 5trategies and Tactics fcr Acbieving
íl`s line lo pul inlo proclice lhe loclics covered in lhis lexlbook. Bosed on your onolysis
of your orgonisolion ond ils ob|eclives, consider slrolegies ond loclics lhol will help
you lo neel lhese ob|eclives.
For exonple, on ob|eclive could be lhe ocquisilion of new cusloners. l loclic could be
disploy odverlising on conlenl websiles lhol refecl your lorgel norkel.
íf cusloner relenlion is lhe ob|eclive, on enoil newsleller slrolegy con help lo build
relolionships wilh on exisling inleresled dolobose of prospecls.
5tep 5: EvaIuate 5trategies
lfler generoling slrolegies, lhey need lo be evoluoled ogoinsl lhe needs ond resources
of your orgonisolion. ll lhis sloge, il con be useful lo follow Hunphrey`s SW0T onolysis
for o full onolysis of lhe slrolegies generoled.
32ó 327
eMorkeling slrolegy · deveIcping a marketing pIan
For eoch slrolegy, o SW0T onolysis reveols lhe Slrenglhs, Weoknesses, 0pporlunilies
ond Threols offorded by o slrolegy lond of course con be used lo evoluole lhe plon in
ils enlirelyI.
SW0T onolysis will reveol lhe feosibilily ond lhe ollrocliveness of lhe slrolegies
The needs of lhe orgonisolion include.
Long-lern gools
Shorl-lern ob|eclives
The resources of lhe orgonisolion include.
ín house lolenl ond sloff
0onlrocled ogencies
5tep ó: ImpIement
You know whol you wonl, ond you`ve node o plon for how lo gel il. Now do il.
5tep 7: Track, AnaIyse, 0ptimise
eMorkeling`s chief odvonloge over offine norkeling? íl uses hyperlinks lo spreod
nessoges. This neons lhol eMorkeling con be lrocked, lhe dolo con be onolysed ond
lhis con lhen feed bock inlo lhe plonning lo oplinise lhe norkeling slrolegy.
The ínlernel ollows you lo lrock eoch loclic on ils own, ond lhen inlelligenl onolysis
should ollow you lo consider how lhese loclics work logelher.
eMorkeling refers specifcolly lo norkeling using lhe ínlernel, bul holislic slrolegies
ollow conponies lo noke lhe nosl of lheir budgel lhrough inlegroling online ond
offine oclivilies. eMorkeling should nol be seen os seporole or on oflerlhoughl lo o
norkeling slrolegy. ínsleod, businesses should focus on lheir cusloners, ond use lhe
chonnels nosl likely lo reoch lheir lorgel norkel bosed on budgel.
The cornerslone of o successful eMorkeling slrolegy is fexibilily. Wilh neor reol-
line reporling, lhe likely success of ony conpoign or chonnel con be gouged quickly.
Flexibilily ollows for focus lo be shifled os new opporlunilies ond chollenges orise.
eHarketing and norkeling
eMorkeling slrolegy · cnIine tccIs fcr gatbering market inteIIigence
ín lhe chopler on online repulolion nonogenenl, nony lools were deloiled which
ollow on orgonisolion lo golher infornolion reloled lo lheir business ond lhose of
conpelilors. These sone lools olso prove involuoble for norkel reseorch, especiolly
when keywords nonilored ore chosen lo refecl induslry lrends.
5earcb data fcr bctb 5E0 and PPC
SpyFu www.spyfu.con
0uirk SeorchSlolus www.quirk.biz/seorchslolus
SF0 Book`s Ronk 0hecker www.lools.seobook.con/frefox/ronk-checker
Watcbing ccmpetitcr activities
0hongeDeleclion www.chongedeleclion.con
0oogle llerls www.google.con/olerls
BrondsFye www.brondseye.con
0oogle Polenl Seorch www.google.con/polenls
Trends and market researcb
0oogle ínsighls www.google.con/insighls/seorch
Flickr www.fickr.con
Delicious www.delicious.con
0oogle ldWords Fxlernol Keyword Tool
When reseorching conpelilors, never forgel lhe bosics. visil lheir websiles! Nol only
con you golher bosic price ond producl infornolion, bul il con be relolively eosy lo
discover infornolion oboul lheir norkeling iniliolives such os offliole norkeling.
cnIine lools
fcr gatbering market inteIIigence
EmaiI Harketing Custcmer Petenticn
0nIine Advertising Branding, Acquisiticn
AfhIiate Harketing 5aIes, Branding
5E0 Custcmer Petenticn and Acquisiticn
PPC Acquisiticn
5cciaI Hedia Branding and Participaticn
¥iraI Harketing Acquisiticn and Branding
0PH Custcmer Petenticn, Branding, Participaticn
WebPP Acquisiticn and Branding
328 32?
eMorkeling slrolegy · case study
case study: Barack 0bama`s strategic use cf tbe Internet
The 2OO8 US Presidenliol eleclion wos hisloric for nony reosons ond wos keenly followed worldwide. Borock
0bono`s conpoign node unprecedenled use of grossrools chonnels lo generole supporl, encouroge voler
lurnoul ond roise funds wilh sovvy use of lhe ínlernel lo supporl lheir conpoign. While wilh hindsighl il noy be
ploin lo see how nuch lhe conpoign gol righl, when Borock 0bono slorled conpoigning for lhe Denocrolic
Porly`s noninolion, he wos seen os on oulsider. For nuch of lhol conpoign, lhe nedio bronded Borock 0bono
os lhe underdog.
The World Wide Web oppeors dounling lo nony big businesses ond orgonisolions. ín polilics, especiolly, few
hove lo dole incorporoled lhe lools of lhe Web inlo successful conpoigns. ls wilh business, lhe Web wos seen
os on energing chonnel in polilics. This neonl lhol lhe condidoles lhol 0bono wos running ogoinsl, in bolh lhe
conpoign for lhe Denocrolic noninolion ond in lhe presidenliol conpoign, were focused on lrodilionol loclics
for golhering supporl. Nol being lhe fronlrunner, 0bono needed lo engoge wilh volers in new woys in order lo
succeed. The use of sociol nedio node lhe nosl of lhe 0bono conpoign`s greolesl slrenglh - ils grossrools,
connunily conneclions.
When il cones lo eleclions in lhe USl, young volers ore lhe loughesl denogrophic lo reoch. íl`s o chollenge
shored by nony businesses ond orgonisolions lrying lo reoch oul lo o younger oudience. They fnd lhol lrodilionol
chonnels, such os lelevision odverlising, ore hoving less ond less of on inpocl. ínsleod of wolching lelevision,
younger people ore lurning lo lhe ínlernel ond lheir nobile phones for enlerloinnenl ond for inlerocling wilh
lheir friends. Sovvy bronds who wonl lo reoch lhis norkel ore lurning lo lhe sone chonnels.
The 0bono conpoign reolised eorly on lhol wilhoul lhe lrodilionol supporl en|oyed by lhe olher condidoles,
lhey would need lo fnd new woys lo roise funds ond reoch volers. ls lhe Fdelnon Trusl Boroneler consislenlly
shows, people ore nore likely lo lrusl ond lislen lo ¨soneone like ne¨. The besl woy lo reoch lhese ¨people
like ne¨ is lo use exisling sociol conneclions. The 0bono conpoign used lhis lo creole o sociol nelwork, www.
ny.borockobono.con, lhol supporlers could use lo self-orgonise evenls, connecl wilh olher supporlers ond
receive feedbock ond supporl fron lhe conpoign. lccording lo 0uonlcosl fgures, lhis nelwork sow over o
nillion visilors eoch nonlh, eclipsing 2 nillion visilors in sone nonlhs.
eMorkeling slrolegy · case study
For besl resulls in noking use of sociol conneclions, exisling sociol nelworks should olso be ulilised. Fven
lhough lhe bespoke sociol nelwork ny.borockobono.con wos lhe hub of lhe conpoign, profles were creoled
on oll no|or sociol nelworking websiles lo enoble lhe conpoign lo reoch oul lo supporlers in os nony chonnels
os possible. Profles, groups ond poges were creoled on Focebook, Twiller, ond YouTube lo none |usl o few. ín
focl, phologrophs fron eleclion nighl were releosed by lhe 0bono conpoign on Flickr. Top viewed videos on lhe
conpoign`s offciol YouTube chonnel hove received over 5 nillion views eoch.
The conpoign olso node excellenl use of o nunber of olher eMorkeling loclics, oll corefully co-ordinoled lo
noke supporlers feel os engoged ond involved in lhe conpoign os possible. While Hillory Rodhon 0linlon roised
$13.5 nillion in Jonuory 2OO8 lo supporl her conpoign, noslly lhrough lorge, lrodilionol fundroising evenls,
Borock 0bono roised $3ó nillion in lhe sone nonlh. 0f lhol, $28 nillion wos roised online wilh ?O percenl of
lhose lronsoclions coning fron people who donoled $1OO or less, ond /O percenl fron donors who gove $25 or
less. Fven snoll donors fell lhol lhey, personolly, were noking o difference.
The 0bono conpoign used every inleroclion opporlunily lo collecl infornolion lhol would ollow lhen lo connecl
furlher wilh polenliol supporlers, fron enoil oddresses, lo nobile phone nunbers ond zip codes for precise
enoil norkeling. ín focl, in whol wos probobly lhe lorgesl noss SMS connunicolion lo dole, lhe 0bono
conpoign onnounced Joe Biden os 0bono`s running nole vio SMS lo on eslinoled 2.? nillion supporlers.
Seorch is ploying on increosingly inporlonl role in currenl offoirs, ond wilh lhol cones online repulolion
nonogenenl. lll condidoles reolised lhis, ond node good use of seorch norkeling lo conplenenl lheir olher
nedio conpoigns.

For exonple, when lhe Mc0oin conpoign wos lolking oboul 0bono`s ossociolion wilh Bill lyers, nony
people lurned lo lheir fovourile seorch engine lo fnd oul nore. The 0bono conpoign ron o PP0 conpoign,
buying conlenlious seorch lerns, ond odverlising o websile lhol porlroyed lheir side of lhe slory.
www.fghllhesneors.con. Tinely PP0 ond o well-run websile helped lhen lo nonge lheir repulolion online.
The swelling grossrools supporl wos chonnelled ond supporled by lhe 0bono conpoign, leoding lo on
unprecedenled nunber of volunleers ond donolions lhol helped lhe conpoign lo viclory in lhe US presidenliol
eleclions. However, like ony orgonisolion lhol hos found success in reoching oul lo ils consliluenls in renorkobly
new woys, lhol success corries wilh il o lol of expeclolion. lfler feeling so heovily involved in lhe eleclorol
conpoign, nony supporlers ore now expecling lo be os involved in lhe new presidency. Borock 0bono hos
conlinued lo use sociol nedio chonnels lo reoch oul. He now conducls o weekly oddress, nol on lelevision, bul
on YouTube. lnericons ore inviled lo follow his lronsilion leon, ond offer lheir lhoughls ond suggeslions, on
lhe websile www.chonge.gov.
The 0bono conpoign`s slrolegic use of lhe ínlernel, ond porliculorly online lools for connecling wilh supporlers,
hos chonged worldwide expeclolions of polilics ond lhe ínlernel. Sovvy use of sociol nelworks ond lools lhol
encouroged ond enobled noss porlicipolion noy hove node oll lhe difference lo lhis conpoign.
33O 33O


Sources. 0rove, L l11/12/2OO8I World lccording lo ...Dovid Plouffe, Porlfolio, hllp.//www.porlfolio.con/views/
colunns/lhe-world-occording-lo/2OO8/12/11/Dovid-Plouffe-ínlerview?prinl=lrue, Luo, M l2O/O2/2OO8I Snoll
0nline 0onlribulions ldd Up lo Huge Fund-Roising Fdge for 0bono, New York Tines, hllp.//www.nylines.
con/2OO8/O2/2O/us/polilics/2Oobono.hlnl, Nielsen Mobile Press Releose, 2.? Millions Received 0bono`s
\P Texl Messoge, hllp.//www.nielsennobile.con/hlnl/press%2Oreleoses/0bonoSMS\PMessoge.hlnl, Pew
ínlernel lOó/O1/2OO?I Posl-Fleclion \oler Fngogenenl, hllp.//www.pewinlernel.org/PPF/r/271/source/rss/
reporldisploy.osp, 0uonlcosl ludience Profle, hllp.//www.quonlcosl.con/ny.borockobono.con, Rollyson, 0
l2?/12/2OO8I Web 2.O 0ose Sludy. Borock 0bono`s Use of Sociol Medio, hllp.//www.globolhunoncopilol.org/
case study questicns
How did lhe 0bono conpoign noke lhe nosl of lhe opporlunilies offorded by grossrools supporl?
Why is lhe ínlernel so well suiled lo o grossrools orgonising slrolegy?
Why is lhe success of lhe conpoign olso o chollenge lo 0bono os he ossunes offce?
cbapter questicns
Why, when il cones lo eMorkeling in porliculor, is fexibilily inporlonl in slrolegy?
The lexlbook slresses lhe inporlonl of lrocking, onolysing ond oplinising for ony eMorkeling
conpoign. Why?
Whol is lhe difference belween o slrolegy ond o loclic?
Porler, Michoel F l2OO1I Slrolegy ond lhe ínlernel, Horvord Business Review 2OO1,
Horvord Business School Publishing 0orporolion lpp ó2 - 78I
Sinon, H. l. l1?71I, Designing 0rgonizolions for on ínfornolion-Rich World, The Johns Hopkins Press,
íSBN O-8O18-1135-X.
loccessed on 1ó/O?/O8I
furtber reading
www.selhgodin.lypepod.con - Selh 0odin`s populor blog provides regulor insighl
www.gigoon.con - 0igo0M`s connunily of wrilers covers oll lhings lechnology
www.foslconpony.con - Fosl 0onpony nogozine`s web sile
eMorkeling slrolegy · furtber reading
332 333
losl words · keeping up tc date
The ínlernel is o dynonic ond exciling environnenl. íl hos chonged lhe woy we
connunicole ond express ourselves, ond il hos forced conponies ond individuols lo
chonge lhe woy lhey do business.
Wilh lhis lexlbook, you hove o solid guide lo lhe lools ond loclics of online norkeling.
Foch of lhe loclics on lheir own con do wonders lo boosl your business, bul lhe besl
eMorkeling slrolegy cones fron on inlegroled, cusloner-cenlric opprooch.
ls norkeling geeks lhe world over will lell you, norkels ore conversolions. The ínlernel
hos given cusloners o plolforn for responding lo lhe norkeling ond odverlising
nessoges lhol lhey ore being exposed lo, reveoling opporlunilies for conponies ond
bronds lo engoge in lwo woy conversolions insleod of one woy broodcosls. íl hos
reveoled lhe declining effecliveness of one size fls oll noss connunicolion, bul
insleod ollows for cosl effeclive noss cuslonisolion.
Due lo lhe nolure of lhe ínlernel, eMorkeling conpoigns ore highly lrockoble ond
neosuroble, ond con be lorgeled ond cuslonised. Response ond oworeness con be
neosured ond nonilored lhrough online repulolion nonogenenl lools. 0onponies
ond cusloners con use lhe sone sociol nedio plolforns lo express lhenselves ond
connunicole wilh eoch olher.
keeping up tc date
Wilh lhe Web being so dynonic, we con only ever hope lo offer you lhe foundolions
for your eMorkeling in o prinled lexlbook. Fvery chopler includes sone of lhe besl
resources we know of fron induslry experls lhol will help you lo keep up lo dole wilh
lhis exciling nediun.
This book is olso supporled by on online resource cenlre ol
www.quirk.biz/enorkelinglexlbook. Thol`s lhe frsl ploce lo look for ony updoles, os
well os nore cose sludies showcosing lhe lechniques oullined in lhis book.
This book is licensed under o 0reolive 0onnons becouse we wonl you lo gel involved
in noking lhis o connunily resource of lhe besl eMorkeling knowledge lhol lhere is.
Pleose |oin us on lhe web sile lo offer your feedbock ond suggeslions.
Iast words
losl words · furtber reading
For on updoled lisl of resources ond links, visil del.icio.us/quirkenorkelinglexlbook.
We`ve included oll lhe references ond resources fron lhe book, ond plenly nore lo
keep you inforned during your eMorkeling coreer.
The 0uirkSlors blog regulorly on www.golloquirk.con. We hove regulor lips fron our
eMorkeling slrolegisls, os well os round-ups of sone lhe besl ínlernel conpoigns.
lnd you should defnilely sign up for lhe 0uirk newsleller for o forlnighlly fx of oll lhe
besl lhol lhere is in lhe world of eMorkeling. www.quirk.biz.
íf you hove feedbock for us, sone unonswered queslions, or if you lhink lhere`s onylhing
we`ve nissed, lel us know! You con enoil us direclly on lexlbookOquirk.biz.
furtber reading
- lhe web sile for The 0luelroin Monifeslo, where you con reod lhe enlire book for free. This seninol work
shows how ¨norkels ore conversolions.¨
- oll lhe links ond resources fron lhis book in one eosy online spol.
- lhe blog fron lhe ninds of 0uirk.

33ó 337
glossory · AlB spIit test
AlB 5pIit Test Tesling lwo voriobles for slolislicolly signifconl infuence.
Abcve Tbe FcId The conlenl lhol con be seen on o screen wilhoul hoving lo scroll down. ín enoil
norkeling, lhis refers lo lhe porlion of on enoil lhol con be viewed in lhe preview
AccessibiIity The generol lern used lo describe lhe degree lo which o syslen is usoble by os
nony people os possible wilhoul nodifcolion. ín one conlexl il refers specifcolly
lo people wilh disobililies ond lheir use of ossislive devices such os screen-reoding
web browsers.
Acticn l specifed losk perforned by o user, which in offliole norkeling resulls in on
offliole being oworded connission. lclions include purchosing o producl, signing
up for o newsleller or flling in o forn.
Active 5erver Pages lSP - íl`s lhe sone obbreviolion os lpplicolion Service Provider bul defnilely nol
lhe sone lhing. lclive Server Poges ore Microsofl`s server-side lechnology for
dynonicolly-generoled web poges. lSP of lhis voriely is norkeled os on odd-on
lo ííS.
Active ¥erb l word lhol conveys oclion or behoviour, ond in o coll lo oclion, lells o prospecl
whol lo do.
Ad 5pace The ollolled spoce on web poges ovoiloble for online odverlising.
Ad5ense Texl ond inoge odverlisenenls by 0oogle lhol oppeor on conlenl web siles.
AD5L lsynnelric Digilol Subscriber Line. l lol fosler lhon íSDN, lDSL is o high speed
nelhod of occessing lhe ínlernel.
Advertiser See ¨Merchonl¨.
AfhIiate lfflioles norkel o nerchonl`s producls ond eorn revenue for successful referrols
lo lhe nerchonl`s web sile. llso colled o publisher.
AfhIiate Fcrum ln online connunily of offliole enlhusiosls where nenbers con reod or posl
lopics on ony lopics linked lo offliole norkeling.
AfhIiate Harketing ln ogreenenl belween lwo siles in which one sile - lhe offliole, ogrees lo feolure
conlenl or on odverlisenenl designed lo drive lroffc lo onolher sile. ín relurn lhe
offliole sile receives o percenloge of soles generoled by lroffc il sends lowords
lhis sile.
AJAX lbbreviolion of lsynchronous JovoScripl ond XML, lJlX is o web developnenl
lechnique for creoling inleroclive web opplicolions. lJlX increoses usobilily ond
speed by ensuring lhe web poge doesn`l hove lo relood eoch line o chonge is node
by lhe user.
AIexa Pank l nunber indicoling how populor o web sile is conpored lo olher siles, bosed on
infornolion relurned by, onong olher sources, lhe llexo Toolbor ond 0uirk Seorch-
Slolus. The nunber is lhe index of o given sile in long ordered lisl of populorily, lhe
nosl populor sile ol index 1, lhe second nosl ol index 2 ond so on.
AIgcritbm ln olgorilhn is o nolhenolicol, conpulolionol or slolislicol nelhod lhol is
pre-delernined lo loke o nunber of voriobles inlo occounl ond oulpul o single,
quonlifoble nunber lhol is o funclion of oll of lhe voriobles. l good exonple of
o connonly used olgorilhn is lhe one used by 0oogle lo delernine which poges
should ronk nore highly on lhe SFRPs. lnolher exonple is lhe olgorilhn used by
BrondsFye lo loke inlo occounled logged ond weighled crilerio, lo colculole o single
Repulolion Score.
AIt Tag See ¨lll Texl¨.
glossory · bIack bat
AIt Text This refers lo lhe ¨oll¨ ollribule for lhe íM0 HTML log. íl is used in HTML lo ollribule
o lexl feld lo on inoge on o web poge, nornolly wilh o descriplive funclion, lelling o
user whol on inoge is oboul ond disploying lhe lexl in inslonce where lhe inoge is
unoble lo lood. llso colled lll Tog.
Ancbcr Text The visible, clickoble lexl in o link.
Animated 6IF l 0íF llype of inoge fleI which supporls oninolions ond ollows o seporole polelle
of 25ó colours for eoch frone.
AnaIyticaI CPH Soflwore lhol ossisls o business in building cusloner relolionships ond onolyses
woys lo inprove lhen. See ¨0RM¨
Apacbe ln open source web server, lpoche HTTP Server is lhe nosl populor web server
in use lodoy.
AP6 lllernolive Reolily 0one - o gone lhol lokes ploce in bolh lhe reol world ond in o
fonlosy world, ond usuolly involves on online conponenl.
Ask.ccm This seorch engine fornolly known os lsk Jeeves wos founded by 0orrell 0ruener
ond Dovid Worlhen. lsk Jeeves ollowed users lo osk queslions in everydoy longuoge
ond becone on exlrenely populor engine. ls 0oogle, MSN ond Yohoo! begon
indexing poges fosler, lsk Jeeves suffered. Though ils user bose is slill signifconlly
snoller lhon lhose of lhe big lhree, lsk.con renoins o populor engine.
A5P lbbreviolion of lpplicolion Service Provider, essenliolly o business lhol provides
conpuler-bosed services lo cusloners over o nelwork.
Astrcturhng 0overl ond nonipulolive use of word of noulh.
Autcrespcnder l nifly progron designed lo send on oulonoled response lo inconing enoils.
B2B Slonds for Business lo Business. When businesses sell producls/services lo olher
businesses ond nol lo consuners.
B2C Slonds for Business lo 0onsuners. When businesses sell producls/services lo
Back Buttcn This bullon, which is locoled ol lhe lop of o web browser, ollows you lo go bock lo o
poge fron which you novigoled.
BackIink lll lhe links on olher poges lhol will loke lhe user lo o specifc web poge. Foch link
lo lhol specifc poge is known os on inbound/bocklink. The nunber of bocklinks
infuences PogeRonk so lhe nore relevonl bocklinks lhe beller.
Bandwidtb The onounl of dolo o conneclion is copoble of noving, generolly neosured in bils
per second.
Banner ln online odverlisenenl in lhe forn of o grophic inoge lhol oppeors on o
web poge.
Banner Excbange l synbiolic odverlising iniliolive whereby businesses involved pronole eoch olher`s
services ond web siles on on exchonge rolher lhon poid bosis. llso known os link
Beneht The posilive oulcone for o user lhol o feolure provides.
BIack Rat l lern coined by lhe SF0 induslry lo defne lhe unelhicol lechniques sone seorch
engine oplinisers use lo gel lheir siles ronking ol nunber 1. These proclises
include keyword sluffng, hidden lexl ond duplicolion of conlenl. The innediole
resulls noy be oslounding bul lhe long-lern resulls ore delrinenlol os block hol
SF0 lechniques ore o no go wilh lhe seorch engines. enploy lhese loclics ol your
own peril.
338 33?
glossory · bIackIists
BIackIists Blocklisls ore lisls of íP oddresses belonging lo orgonisolions lhol hove been
idenlifed os sponners. The íSPs use lhese lisls lo fller oul spon ond block
nessoges fron lhese íP oddresses fron reoching lheir fnol deslinolion.
BIcg l blog is o lype of web sile lhol ollows users lbloggersI lo posl enlries on differenl
lopics ond con ollow reoders lo connenl on lhese posls.
BIcg Ccmment l focilily whereby users con renork or provide feedbock on o porliculor posl.
Due lo lhe focl lhol sone individuols or conponies hove obused lhis syslen by
oulonolicolly sponning blog connenls wilh links lo lheir web siles, nony
connenl syslens ore now noderoled or by invilolion only.
BIcgcspbere The world of blogs, bloggers ond blog posls.
BIcgrcII l colleclion of links lo olher blogs. íl is usuolly found on lhe hone poge of
nosl blogs.
BciIerpIate Slondord wording oboul on orgonisolion lhol usuolly oppeors ol lhe fool of o
press releose.
Bcckmarking Soving lhe web oddress of o web poge or web sile so lhol il noy be eosily referred
lo. Booknorks con be nonoged wilh o browser, or wilh on online lool.
Bcckmarks The lisl of oll web siles you hove booknorked ore your booknorks.
Bcunce Pate Single poge view visils divided by enlry poges.
Bcunces The nunber of enoils lhol were unoble lo reoch lheir fnol deslinolion due lo o hord
or sofl bounce.
Bcunces IsingIe page
view visits!
\isils lhol consisl of one poge, even if lhol poge wos viewed o nunber of lines.
Brand Dislinclive none or lrodenork lhol idenlifes o producl or nonufoclurer.
Brand Awareness l neosure of how quickly o brond is colled lo nind.
BrandsEye BrondsFye is online repulolion nonogenenl l0RMI soflwore, developed by
0uirk eMorkeling, which ollows for reol-line noniloring of o brond on lhe Web.
BrondsFye conbines hunon sub|eclivily wilh sophislicoled lechnology, ollowing
lhe quonlifying ond benchnorking of online repulolion.
Breadcrumb Links Links, usuolly ol lhe lop of lhe poge, lhol indicole where o poge is in lhe hierorchy
of lhe web sile.
Brcwser ln opplicolion used lo occess lhe ínlernel. Populor browsers include Firefox,
ínlernel Fxplorer ond Sofori.
Buzz 0nline excilenenl ond word of noulh is referred lo os buzz.
C2B 0onsuner lo Business. When consuners sell producls/services lo businesses.
C2C 0onsuner lo 0onsuner. When o consuner sells producls or services lo olher
Cacbe l coche is o lenporory copy of o colleclion of dolo. íf occessing lhe originol dolo is
proving lo be line-consuninI, lhen users con occess lhe coche lhereby nol hoving
lo relood lhe originol dolo.
CaII Tc Acticn l 0Tl is o phrose wrillen lo nolivole lhe reoder lo loke oclion lsign up for our
newsleller, book cor hire lodoy elc.I.
CAN-5PAH The U.S. low lhol reguloles connerciol enoil. íl slonds for ¨0onlrolling lhe lssoull
of Non-Soliciled Pornogrophy ond Morkeling lcl of 2OO3.¨
glossory · Ccckie
CAPTCRA 0lPT0Hl slonds for ¨0onplelely lulonoled Turing Tesl To Tell 0onpulers ond
Hunons lporl¨ ond il does prelly nuch whol il soys. íl is o progron lhol osks o
user lo conplele o sinple lesl lo prove lhe user is hunon ond nol o conpuler. The
nosl connon lesl is by lyping in lhe conlenl of o dislorled inoge of nunbers ond
lexl lhol o conpuler is unoble lo reod.
C6H See ¨0onsuner generoled nedio¨, olso onolher word for sociol nedio.
CIick Fraud The ocl of generoling involid clicks on on odverl. Deliberole involid clicks noy be
generoled by conpelilors lo wosle lhe nedio budgel of on odverliser or by sile
owners hosling lhe odverl in order lo increose profls fron lhe clicks.
CIick Patb The clicks loken by o visilor lo o web sile in one visil.
CIick Tracking Using scripls lo lrock clicks inlo ond oul fron o web sile. llso con be used lo shield
o link fron being picked up os o bock link lo onolher sile.
CIicks and Hcrtar l business nodel by which o conpony inlegroles online ond offine presences.
CIick-tbrcugb The nunber of lines o link wos clicked by o visilor.
CIick-tbrcugb Pate The lolol clicks on o link divided by lhe nunber of lines lhol link wos shown,
expressed os o percenloge.
CIient-side Tronsoclions lhol loke ploce before infornolion is senl lo lhe server.
CIuetrain Hanifestc l sel of ?5 lheses orgonised os o coll lo oclion for businesses operoling wilhin o
newly connecled norkel ploce.
CH5 0onlenl Monogenenl Syslen - l scripl or progron for noinloining web siles,
porliculorly lhe conlenl.
CcIIabcrative CPH Unbrello lern for oll lhe inleroclive oplions for serving cusloners. íl is people-
bosed cusloner supporl lhol includes. colloborolive browsing, web-bosed lexl
ond voice chol, desklop shoring, opplicolion shoring, fle lronsfer ond phone sup-
porl. See ¨0RM¨
Ccmmissicn The bounly poid by o nerchonl lo on offliole when lhe offliole nokes o successful
Ccmmcn Page
ílens which oppeor on every poge of o web sile.
Ccnsumer 6enerated
ínfornolion lhol is published online by individuols. This refers lo videos, pholos,
blogs, oudio ond nore. íl is olso referred lo os sociol nedio.
CcntextuaI Advertising ldverlising on conlenl web siles rolher lhon on seorch siles where odverls ore
ploced bosed on lhe conlenl of lhe web sile.
Ccnversicn l visilor conpleling o lorgel oclion.
Ccnversicn FunneI l defned polh lhol visilors should loke lo reoch lhe fnol ob|eclive.
Two phose process which is node up of onolysing lhe colloborolive effecl of your
eMorkeling efforls ond oplinising lheir effecl in lurning visilors inlo cusloners.
Ccnversicn Pate The percenloge of visilors lo o web sile lhol perforn o desired oclion, such os noking
o purchose or flling oul o forn. For exonple, if 3O visilors oul of 1OO subscribe lo o
newsleller for exonple lhe conversion role is expressed os 3O%.
Ccckie l snoll lexl fle lhol is slored on on end-user`s conpuler lhol ollow web siles lo
idenlify lhe user, slore unique voriobles, ond ollow lhe web sile owner lo conslrucl
o profle of lhol user.
3/O 3/1
glossory · Ccunt
Ccunt Row fgures coplured for onolysis, lhese ore lhe nosl bosic web onolylics nelric.
CPA 0osl Per lclion. Refers lo lhe cosl of ocquiring o new cusloner. The odverliser only
poys when o desired oclion is ochieved lsonelines colled cosl per ocquisilionI.
CPC 0osl Per 0lick. Refers lo when on odverliser only poys when lheir od is clicked
upon, giving lhen o visilor lo lheir sile - lypicolly fron o seorch engine in Poy Per
0lick seorch norkeling.
CPL 0osl Per Leod. 0onnission slruclure where lhe offliole eorns o fxed fee for o leod
senl lo o nerchonl.
CPH 0osl per Mil l1OOOI. lnounl poid for every 1OOO views of on odverlisenenl.
CPH 0usloner Relolionship Monogenenl.
Crcss Harketing Morkeling olher producls or services lo on exisling cusloner. 0ross norkeling
enhonces lhe obilily for generoling furlher soles. llso known os 0ross Selling.
Crcss 5eIIing See 0ross Morkeling.
Crcwdscurcing Hornessing lhe skills, lolenls ond ideos of o brooder connunily, usuolly lhrough
sociol nedio.
C5C 0onnon Shorl 0odes. Users send nessoges lo shorlened nunbers, usuolly lo
gel sonelhing in relurn, like on enlry lo o conpelilion for exonple.
C55 0oscoding Slyle Sheels. This is o longuoge used lo describe how on HTML docunenl
should be fornolled. 0oscoding Slyle Sheels provide lhe obilily lo seporole lhe
loyoul ond slyles of o web poge fron lhe dolo or infornolion.
Custcmer l person who buys or uses goods or services. l person wilh whon o business
nusl deol.
Custcmer Life CycIe The progressive sleps o cusloner goes lhrough when purchosing, using or
considering o producl or service.
Cybersquatting 0ybersquolling occurs when o donoin none lhol conloins lhe none of o well-
known brond/sub|ecl/lrodenork i.e. enorkeling.con is purchosed wilh no inlenl
lo be developed bul rolher lo be sold off lo lhe highesl bidder.
Data Hining The process of onolysing lorge onounls of dolo for pollerns. This process con be
used lo predicl buying hobils, credil cord purchoses ond cross sole copobililies.
Database ín enoil norkeling, lhe dolobose is lhe lisl of prospecls lo whon enoils ore senl.
íl olso conloins oddilionol infornolion perlinenl lo lhe prospecls.
Dead Link l link lo o poge lhol no longer exisls. spiders check lhese lypes of links ond
evenluolly elininole lhen fron seorch engine resulls. llso see Link Rol.
Deep Linking Jokob Nielsen`s lern for o user orriving ol o sile deep wilhin ils slruclure or where
seorch engines index o nirrored copy of conlenl nornolly inoccessible by seorch
engine spiders.
DeII ReII The lern used by Jeff Jorvis when his Dell conpuler nolfunclioned, ond he hod o
hord line gelling oppropriole cusloner service.
Directcry Direclory web siles provide on ordered lisling of regislered web siles in differenl
colegories. They ore sinilor lo on e-version of Yellow Poges. Yohoo! ond Fxcile ore
lhe besl known exonples of direclories.
DN5 Donoin None Syslen - DNS resolves o donoin none inlo on íP oddress.
glossory · feed
D0H Docunenl 0b|ecl Model - o web slondords opprooch lo represenling HTML ond
XML docunenls os ob|ecls.
Dcmain Name The none of o server lhol dislinguishes il fron olher syslens on lhe World Wide
Web. our donoin none is quirk.biz.
DcmainKeys ln enoil oulhenlicolion syslen designed lo verify lhe DNS donoin of on enoil
sender ond lhe nessoge inlegrily.
Dctccm ln enlerprise lhol only conducls business online. These enlerprises do nol hove
physicol slores, lhe producls/services lhey offer ore sold online.
DcubIe 0pt-in The ocl of gelling subscribers lo confrn lheir iniliol subscriplion vio o follow up
enoil osking lhen lo volidole lheir oddress ond hence opl-in ogoin.
DcwnIcad Tronsferring fles fron one conpuler lo onolher. When you ore online you ore
downlooding fles fron o web sile server lo your P0.
Dynamic Keywcrd
ín poid seorch odverlising, lhis ollows keywords used in seorches lo be inserled
inlo odverl copy.
Dynamic Parameter The elenenls of o URL lhol ore dynonicolly generoled.
Dynamic 5ite 0onlenl such os lexl, inoge ond forn felds on o web poge lhol chonge occording
lo user inleroclivily.
eCPH Fleclronic 0usloner Relolionship Monogenenl
ED6E l fosler version of 0SM wireless service. íl enobles dolo lo be delivered ol roles
up lo 38/ Kbps on o broodbond.
EIectrcnic Payment Poynenl ond receipl of poynenl vio lhe ínlernel.
EmaiI llso known os eleclronic noil, enoil is essenliolly noil lhol is eleclronicolly lrons-
ferred fron P0 lo P0. Fnoil ollows you lo send nessoges lo onyone, onywhere in
lhe world inslonlly.
EmaiI NewsIetter Like o lrodilionol prinl newsleller bul delivered lo your inbox rolher lhon lo your
posl box.
eHarketing The process of norkeling o brond using lhe ínlernel.
Encrypticn Molhenolicol olgorilhns ore used lo encrypl dolo in order lo prolecl il fron
unoulhorised use.
Entry Page The frsl poge of o visil.
EPC Fornings Per 0lick loken fron lhe lolol onounl eorned divided by lhe nunber
of clicks.
Event l recorded oclion lhol hos o specifc line ossigned lo il by lhe browser or lhe server.
llso, o slep o visilor lokes in lhe conversion process.
Exit page The losl poge of o visil.
ExpcnentiaI 6rcwtb íf growlh nore lhon doubles wilh eoch ilerolion, il is exponenliol.
ExternaI Peferrer l URL lhol is oulside of lhe web sile.
FA0 Frequenlly lsked 0ueslions. íl`s olwoys useful lo hove o seclion like lhis on your
sile lo give users quick onswers lo queslions lhey`re likely lo hove.
Faviccn This snoll, nifly icon idenlifes o booknorked sile.
Feature l proninenl ospecl of o producl which is benefciol lo users.
Feed See RSS ond RSS Reoder.
3/2 3/3
glossory · feed reader
Feed Peader ln RSS oggregolor lhol lels you view oll your RSS feeds in one ploce.
FIasb l lechnology used lo show video ond oninolion on o web sile, con be bondwidlh
heovy ond unfriendly lo seorch engine spiders.
FIcg l foke blog is known os o fog.
Fccus 6rcup l forn of quolilolive reseorch where o group of people ore osked queslions in on
inleroclive group selling. Fron o norkeling perspeclive, il is inporlonl lool for
ocquiring feedbock regording new producls ond vorious lopics.
FcIkscncmy 0olegorisolion or loxonony bosed on sociol nedio logs.
Fcrward Buttcn This bullon ollows you lo go forword ogoin once you hove used lhe bock bullon.
Frames ln HTML lechnique used lo conbine lwo or nore HTML docunenls wilhin o single
web browser screen. Frones con oflen couse occessibilily ond usobilily issues ond
lheir use is lorgely discouroged by good designers.
Frequency This is lhe inlervol, ol which enoil efforls such os newslellers ore repeoled,
lweekly/nonlhly elc.I.
Frequency Cap Frequency cops ore presenl lo linil lhe nunber of lines we ore exposed lo lhe
sone online odverl.
FTP File Tronsfer Prolocol is o slondordised nelhod of noving fles ocross
lhe ínlernel.
llso 0eolorgeling. Used lo ollow you lo see where your visilors cone fron ond lo
give lhen specifc infornolion lhol is relevonl lo lhen.
6IF lbbreviolion of 0rophics ínlerchonge Fornol, o 0íF is on 8-bil-per-pixel bilnop
inoge fornol using o polelle of up lo 25ó dislincl colors. 0íF`s ollow inoges lo be
reduced wilhoul degroding lheir quolily.
6caI The defned oclion lhol visilors should perforn on o web sile or lhe purpose of lhe
web sile.
6ccgIe The world`s besl known seorch engine, 0oogle offers occess lo billions of web
poges in over 3O longuoges lo seorchers oll over lhe world. 0oogle begon life os lhe
reseorch pro|ecl of lwo groduole sludenls, Sergey Brin ond Lorry Poge.
6ccgIe Ad5ense This progron ollows siles lo disploy odverls fron 0oogle ldWords ond eorn revenue
fron lhe hils lhol generole lroffc.
6ccgIe AdWcrds 0oogle`s PP0 progron ollows odverlisers lo disploy lheir odverls on relevonl seorch
resulls ond ocross 0oogle`s conlenl nelwork vio lhis progron.
6ccgIing This is whol you`re doing when you enler o seorch query in 0oogle.
6PP5 0enerol Pockel Rodio Service. Delivers wireless pockel dolo services lo 0SM
6P5 0lobol Posilioning Syslen. Solellile-bosed posilioning lechnology lhol ollows o
0PS receiver lo colculole ils posilion onywhere on eorlh wilh greol occurocy.
6rey Rat 0rey Hol SF0 is whol occurs when while hols lry ond push lhe linils of whol lhey
con gel owoy wilh. Wilh lhe ropid evolulion of seorch engines lhey don`l lend lo gel
owoy wilh il for very long. See Block Hol.
65H 0lobol Syslen for Mobile 0onnunicolions. Mosl widely used of lhe lhree digilol
wireless lelephone lechnologies. Uses o voriolion of line division nulliple occess.
6ZIP Ccmpressicn Soflwore lhol conpresses o web sile in order lo speed up downlood lines.
glossory · inlernel
Randset l porloble or nobile phone.
Rard Bcunce The foiled delivery of enoil connunicolion due lo on undevioling reoson like o non-
exislenl oddress.
Rardware The body of your P0, hordwore conprises oll lhe physicol conponenls of o conpuler
lnonilors, keyboords, prinlers, drives elcI.
Reading Tags Heoding logs lH1, H2, H3 elcI ore slondord HTML elenenls used lo defne heodings
ond subheodings on o web poge. The nunber indicoles lhe inporlonce, so H1 logs
ore viewed by lhe spiders os being nore inporlonl lhol lhe H3 logs. Using lorgeling
key phroses in your H logs is essenliol for effeclive SF0.
Reatmap l dolo visuolisolion lool lhol shows levels of oclivily on o web poge in differenl
colours, wilh reds ond yellows showing lhe nosl oclivily ond blues ond violels
lhe leosl.
Ridden Text l block hol lechnique where lhe keywords ore invisible lo lhe noked eye os lhey ore
lhe sone colour os lhe poge`s bockground. Seorch engines ore nol fooled by lhis
unelhicol lechnique ond siles will be penolised for enploying il.
Rit l hil, lhough oflen nisloken for o neosure of populorily, is o requesl fron o user`s
browser lo view o porliculor poge or inoge.
Rcme Page The frsl poge of ony web sile. The hone poge gives users o glinpse inlo whol your
sile is oboul - very nuch like lhe conlenls in o book or o nogozine.
Rcuse List ln enoil dolobose lhol o conpony generoles ilself wilhoul purchosing or
renling nones.
RTHL The obbreviolion for HyperTexl Morkup Longuoge, reod by web browsers. 0erloin
HTML ¨logs¨ ore used lo slruclure lhe infornolion ond feolures wilhin o web poge.
ls on exonple, HTML enoils usuolly conloin grophics ond con be inleroclive.
RyperIink l link in o docunenl leleclronicI lhol ollows you, once you click on il, lo follow lhe
link lo lhe relevonl web poge.
II5 ínlernel ínfornolion Services, o web server fron Microsofl.
IH ínslonl Messoging is o lechnology lhol ollows ils users lo connunicole in reol-
line. Fssenliolly your íM syslen olerls you when o conlocl on your lisl is online, you
con lhen iniliole o chol session.
Impressicn Fraud The ocl of deliberolely generoling inpressions of on odverl wilhoul lhe inlenlion
of clicking on lhe odverl. The resull is o reduclion in click lhrough role which con
offecl 0uolily Score in PP0 odverlising.
Impressicns The nunber of lines o web poge or od is viewed.
Inbcund Link See ¨Bocklink¨.
Index The seorchoble colologue of docunenls ond poges creoled by o seorch engine. Web
spiders index web siles wilh lhe seorch engines by sconning or crowling lhen.
The loyoul ond slruclure of o web sile, which should be occording lo infornolion
hierorchy ond colegories.
InternaI Peferrer l URL lhol is porl of lhe sone web sile.
InternaI 5ite 5earcb l seorch funclion specifc lo o web sile.
Internet l worldwide syslen of inlerconnecled conpuler nelworks, lhe ínlernel connecls
nillions of individuols fron every corner of lhe globe.
3// 3/5
glossory · internet expIcrer
Internet ExpIcrer íF - Microsofl`s web browser.
Internet Press PeIease ln elenenl of WebPR, on ínlernel press releose is exoclly lhe sone os o lrodilionol
press releose bul is releosed online rolher lhon in prinl ond con be oplinised lo
forn porl of on SF0 slrolegy.
IP Address The ínlernel Prolocol líPI oddress is o exclusive nunber which is used lo represenl
every single conpuler in o nelwork.
I5P ínlernel Service Provider - lhis is lhe conpony lhol is providing you occess lo lhe
ínlernel e.g. MWFB, l0L, Yohoo! elcI.
Java l progronning longuoge which ollows nullifoceled ond grophicol cusloner
opplicolions lo be wrillen ond lhen occessed fron o web browser.
Java5cript l populor scripling longuoge lhol is used on web siles lo perforn clienl side
oclions wilhoul requiring full poge refreshes. Fxonples include web onolylics for
poge logging ond poge oninolion.
JunkmaiI See Spon.
KEI AnaIysis Keyword Fffecliveness índicolor. íl is designed lo neosure ond quonlify lhe quolily
ond worlh of seorch lerns.
Key Perfcrmance
Indicatcr IKPI!
l nelric lhol indicoles whelher o web sile is ochieving ils gools.
Key Pbrase Word or words being oplinised for by o web sile. llso used lo refer lo words lhol ore
used by users of seorch engines.
Keywcrd l word or words used by o seorcher on o seorch engine. ín SF0, keywords ore lhe
words lhol o web sile is oplinised lo ronk for, ond in PP0, keywords ore bid on by
odverlisers. ín online repulolion nonogenenl, o keyword is o lern lhol is used
when seorching lhe ínlernel for nenlions.
Keywcrd Density This reloles lo lhe nunber of lines o keyword/key phroses oppeor on o web
poge. This divided by lhe lolol nunber of words lhol oppeor on o poge gives you o
percenloge. The higher lhe beller - bul nol loo high - you don`l wonl lo be penolised
for keyword sluffng.
Keywcrd Frequency The nunber of lines o keyword or key phrose oppeors on o web sile.
Keywcrd Pbrase Two or nore words lhol ore conbined lo forn o seorch lern/query - oflen referred
lo os keywords. íl is usuolly beller lo oplinise for o phrose rolher lhon o single word
os nore seorches will seorch for o phrose rolher o lhon word os lhey wonl nore
specifc ond relevonl conlenl.
Keywcrd Pankings This lern refers lo where lhe keywords/phroses lorgeled by SF0 ronk onongsl
lhe seorch engines - if your lorgeled lerns do nol oppeor on lhe frsl 3 poges, slorl
Keywcrd Pesearcb The process of reseorching whol seorchers ore seorching for, copy oplinisolion
revolves oround lhe seleclion of lhe besl keywords/key phroses. There ore o
nullilude of keyword reseorch lools oul lhere, which will help you discover lhe besl
possible keywords for which lo oplinise web siles.
Keywcrd 5tufhng Repeoling keywords/phroses over ond over od nouseun, lhis is done in lhe hopes
of inproving lhe poge`s ronking. Seorch engines penolise siles heovily for keyword
glossory · meta descripticn tag
Lame-Ass 5yndrcme
This unforlunole yel connon syndrone resulls in siles lhol will nol funclion
wilhoul lhe WWW in lhe URL, il is coused by Syslen ldninislrolors presenling
signs of severe DNS loziness.
Landing Page The poge o user reoches when clicking on o poid or orgonic seorch engine lisling.
The poges lhol hove lhe nosl success ore lhose lhol nolch up os closely os pos-
sible wilh lhe users seorch query.
Landing page The poge inlended lo idenlify lhe beginning of lhe user experience resulling fron o
defned norkeling efforl.
Link l link is o URL enbedded on o web poge, if you click on lhe link you will be loken
lo lhol poge.
Link Bait l lechnique for providing conlenl lhol ollrocls links fron olher web poges.
Link Cbecker These lools ore used lo check your sile for broken hyperlinks. \ery useful.
Link Excbange When lwo siles ogree lo link lo eoch olher.
Link PcpuIarity l neosure of lhe quonlily ond quolily of olher web poges lhol link lo o web sile.
Link Pct When you click on o link ond receive on error nessoge or o nolifcolion lhol lhe
web sile hos been noved. This highly fruslroling phenonenon known os link rol
is delrinenlol lo SF0 os spiders connol keep up wilh lhe chonges. This could be
solved by o redirecl link being inserled.
Linux ln open source operoling syslen bosed on UNíX. Linux is used lo run web servers
ond desklops.
Lcad Time The lenglh of line il lokes for o poge lo open conplelely in lhe browser window.
LccaI Area Netwcrk LlN. l nelwork of workslolions shoring o server wilhin o relolively snoll geogrophic
oreo, like in on offce.
Lcg AnaIyser Soflwore lhol provides infornolion oboul o sile`s visilors, oclivily slolislics, occessed
fles, click-lhrough polhs ond olher onolylicol dolo bosed on lhe users behoviour.
Lcg FiIes Texl fles creoled on lhe server eoch line o click lokes ploce, copluring oll oclivily
on lhe web sile.
Harketing Hix The four elenenls businesses need lo consider for lhe success of lheir norkeling
efforls. Producl, Price, Ploce ond Pronolion. The focus lhol is ploced on eoch one
is enlirely dependonl on lhe gools of lhe norkeling slrolegy.
Hasbup When conlenl fron lwo or nore sources is conbined.
Hass Custcmisaticn Dynonicolly loiloring conlenl for nony individuols.
Henticns ín online repulolion nonogenenl, nenlions refer lo lhe inslonces when o selecled
brond, conpony or sloff nenbers ore lolked oboul online, usuolly by clienls or
Hercbant This is lhe owner of lhe producl lhol is being norkeled or pronoled. llso referred
lo os ¨ldverliser¨.
Heta Data ínfornolion lhol con be enlered oboul o web poge ond lhe elenenls on il lhol
provide conlexl ond relevoncy infornolion lo seorch engines, lhese used lo be on
inporlonl ronking foclor.
Heta Descripticn Tag l shorl porogroph describing lhe poge conlenl. This sunnory is usuolly shown on
lhe SFRPs if il conloins lhe seorch lern seorched for. The spiders use lhe nelo log
descriplion lo delernine lhe lopic of lhe poge ond lhe use of lorgeled key phroses
is inporlonl here.
3/ó 3/7
glossory · meta keywcrd tag
Heta Keywcrd Tag l lisl of lhe words ond phroses lhol ore inporlonl on o web poge, lhe use of lorgeled
key phroses is inporlonl here - bul renenber no keyword sluffng.
Heta Tags Melo logs ore lhere lo lell lhe spiders whol exoclly lhe web poges ore oboul. íl`s
inporlonl lhol your Melo logs ore oplinised for lhe lorgeled key phroses. Melo logs
ore node up of nelo lilles, descriplions ond keywords.
Heta-5earcb Engines l seorch lool lhol will ollow o user lo conducl o seorch ocross lwo or nore
seorch engines ond direclories. Fxonples of nelo-seorch engines include 0lusly
ond Dogpile.
Hirrcr 5ites Duplicoles of o sile usuolly found on o differenl server. These siles ore used lo lrick
seorch engines ond ore usuolly considered o Block Hol loclic which lhe seorch
engines will nosl oflen penolize by renoving bolh lhe nirror ond originol siles
fron lhe index.
HH5 Mullinedio Messoge Service. ln exlension on SMS, ollows piclure, sound or low
quolily videos lo be senl on o wireless nelwork.
HcbiIe Netwcrk The focililies ond lechnology lhol provide o public nobile leleconnunicolions
service possible.
HcbIcg l blend of lhe words nobile ond weblog. l noblog, consisls of conlenl posled lo lhe
ínlernel fron o nobile or porloble device, such os o cellulor phone or PDl. Moblogs
generolly involve lechnology which ollows publishing fron o nobile device.
H5N MSN Seorch wos developed by Microsofl ond conprised o seorch engine, index,
ond web crowler. 0n Seplenber 12 2OOó MSN Seorch evolved inlo MSN Live
Seorch which offers users lhe obilily lo seorch for specifc lypes of infornolion
using seorch lobs lhol include web, news, inoges, nusic, desklop, locol, ond
Microsofl Fncorlo.
HuItivariate Test l lesl used when lesling nony voriobles lo delernine slolislicolly signiconl
infuences on oulcones.
NaturaI 5earcb These ore lhe lislings generolly found on lhe lefl hond side in seorch engines,
ond ore nol infuenced by direcl fnonciol poynenls. Lislings ore resulls bosed on
foclors such os keyword relevoncy wilhin o web poge. SF0 is used lo boosl success.
llso see 0rgonic Seorch.
Navigaticn How o web user noves lhrough o web sile, ond lhe elenenls lhol ossisl lhe user.
Netiquette Like eliquelle bul on lhe nel, neliquelle ore lhe sociol rules lhol govern online
inleroclions. ln exonple of o nel no-no would be íMing soneone in cops llhis
neons you`re SH0UTíN0I.
Netizen l word derived fron nel ond cilizen. Unlike o newbie, o nelizen is on experienced
web user. Soneone who hos spenl o signifconl lif nol disproporlionoleI line on
lhe Web.
Netwcrk l group of lwo or nore conpuler syslens linked logelher in o LlN or o WlN.
New visitcr l unique visilor who visils lhe web sile for lhe frsl line ever in lhe period of line
being onolysed.
Newbie lko nOOb. Fresh blood - soneone who is new lo lhe wonderful online world ond ore
oflen unowore of neliquelle. You hove lo slorl sonewhere, righl?
Newsgrcup ln online discussion group.
glossory · pay per cIick
NcfcIIcw Link Nofollow is on ollribule of o hyperlink, indicoling lhol lhe link is nol necessorily
endorsed by lhe web sile ond ignored by seorch engine spiders.
0nIine Press PeIease Press releose dislribuled over lhe ínlernel. íl is oined ol o brooder segnenl of
reoder including sociol nedio, consuners ond |ournolisls.
0nIine Press Pccm l porl of o web sile oined ol providing |ournolisls wilh perlinenl corporole
infornolion, such os PR conlocls, inoges ond press releoses.
0nIine Peputaticn The oggregolion of senlinenl fron nenlions of on enlily online will give ils online
0pen Pate This is olso referred lo os lhe reod role. This is lhe nunber of enoils lhol ore
opened in on enoil norkeling conpoign os o proporlion of lhe lolol enoils senl.
0pen 5curce Unlike proprielory soflwore, open source soflwore nokes lhe source code ovoiloble
so lhol olher developers con build opplicolions for lhe soflwore, or even inprove
on lhe soflwore.
0PHL l fle conloining o lisl of RSS URLs. 0flen used for shoring feeds onongsl users.
0pt-in 0ive pernission for enoils lor ony olher direcl norkelingI lo be senl lo you.
0pt-cut llso known os unsubscribe - lhe ocl of renoving oneself fron o lisl or lisls so lhol
specifed infornolion is no longer received vio enoil.
0rganic 5earcb These ore lhe lislings generolly found on lhe lefl hond side in seorch engines,
ond ore nol infuenced by direcl fnonciol poynenls. Lislings ore resulls bosed on
foclors such os keyword relevoncy wilhin o web poge. SF0 is used lo boosl success.
llso see Nolurol Seorch.
0riginaI Peferrer The URL lhol senl o new visilor lo lhe web sile.
0PH 0nline repulolion nonogenenl - lhe underslonding ond infuencing of lhe
perceplion of on enlily online. This enloils ensuring lhol you know whol is being
soid oboul you, ond lhol you ore leoding lhe conversolion.
0utbcund Links These links will, once clicked on, loke users lo onolher sile.
Page Unil of conlenl lso downloods ond Flosh fles con be defned os o pogeI.
Page Exit Patic Nunber of exils fron o poge divided by lolol nunber of poge views of lhol poge.
Page Tags JovoScripl fles enbedded on o web poge ond execuled by lhe browser.
Page ¥iews The nunber of lines o poge wos successfully requesled.
Page ¥iews Per ¥isit The nunber of poge views in o reporling period divided by lhe nunber of visils in
lhol sone period.
PagePank PogeRonk gives o ronking or score lo every web poge on lhe ínlernel bosed on lhe
nunber ond quolily of lhe poge`s bocklinks, lhis score is o nunber oul of 1O wilh
1 being lhe lowesl ond 1O being lhe highesl. lnylhing obove 5 neons your sile is
doing well!
Paid 5earcb Plocing ods for producls or services on seorch engines llislings oppeor ol lhe lop of
lhe poge ond on lhe righl hond sideI ond on conlenl siles ocross lhe ínlernel. These
ods ore lypicolly snoll snippels of lexl linked lo nerchondise poges. See PP0.
Pass cn To shore conlenl wilh onolher person.
Pass 0n Pate The nunber of lines o piece of infornolion or conlenl is forworded lo olhers.
Pay Per CIick PP0 - buying sponsored odverls on seorch engine resulls poges ond conlenl poges,
while only poying for lhose ods on o perfornonce bosis. See Poid Seorch.
3/8 3/?
glossory · pay per Iead
Pay Per Lead Sinilor lo Poy Per 0lick, PPL is on odverlising poynenl nodel in which poynenl is
node on leods nol |usl clicks.
PC Personol 0onpuler.
PermaIink l unique URL which poinls lo lhe pernonenl locolion of o single blog posl ond ils
ossocioled connenls ond TrockBocks.
Perscna l chorocler used lo defne o group of users lo o web sile.
Pbisbing l crininol oclivily where ¨Phishers¨ ollenpl lo froudulenlly ocquire sensilive
infornolion, such os posswords ond credil cord deloils. 0flen lhis is done by
nosqueroding os o porly lhe viclin is likely lo lrusl lonolher person or repuloble
businessI vio sone forn of eleclronic connunicolion like enoil, íM or even
Ping Pockel ínlernel 0roper - o ulillily lhol verifes o link or o conneclion lo
lhe ínlernel.
PIug-in ln exlension lhol odds on lo lhe copobililies of o no|or soflwore pockoge.
Pcdcasting Publishing oudio progrons vio lhe ínlernel, ollowing users lo subscribe lo o feed
of new fles. Podcosling enobles independenl producers lo creole self-published,
syndicoled ¨rodio shows¨. Lisleners noy subscribe lo feeds using ¨podcolching¨
soflwore lo lype of oggregolorI, which periodicolly checks for ond downloods new
conlenl oulonolicolly.
Pcp-up Unrequesled window lhol opens onlop of lhe currenlly viewed window.
PPC Poy Per 0lick is odverlising on seorch engines where lhe odverliser poys only for
eoch click on lheir odverl.
Prcht Money node fron o producl/service ofler expenses hove been occounled for.
Press PeIease llso colled o news releose, lhis is on eleclronic or poper docunenl issued lo
lhe nedio wilh lhe inlenlion of goining news coveroge. íl follows esloblished
loyoul guidelines.
PubIisber See ¨lffliole¨.
Purity Pcint The `cleonliness` of o noiling lisl bosed on previous noilings. l Purily Poinl of O
is lhe besl while 1 is lhe pooresl. This decinol nunber is bosed on lhe nunber of
bounces ond lheir lype, conpored lo lhe onounl of enoils senl.
0uaIity 5ccre 0uolily Score is lhe bosis for neosuring lhe quolily of keywords ond delernining
nininun PP0 bids. This score is colculoled by neosuring o keyword`s click-lhrough
role, od lexl relevoncy, lhe keyword`s hisloricol perfornonce ond lhe quolily of lhe
londing poge.
Panking ín seorch, ronking is used lo describe lhe relolive posilion of o web poge in
lhe SFRPs.
Patic ln inlerprelolion of dolo coplured, o rolio con be belween counls, rolios or o rolio
ond o counl nelric.
Peacb The nunber of unique users who hove viewed on online odverlisenenl.
PeciprccaI Link This is when o sile ogrees lo link lo onolher sile providing lhol lhe olher sile links
bock lo il in relurn.
Peferrer The referrer is lhe URL of lhe web poge lhol o user wos ol before reoching yours. The
server`s logs coplure referrol URLs ond slore lhen in lheir log fles. Furlhernore, if
o user used o seorch engine lo fnd your web sile, lhe key phroses lhey used lo fnd
your sile will be enbedded in lhe referring URL. ínlelligenl log onolysers con lhen
loke lhis dolo lo lrock how nony visilors originole fron eoch key phrose.
glossory · searcb referrer
Peferrer The URL lhol originolly generoled lhe requesl for lhe currenl poge.
Pepeat ¥isitcr l unique visilor wilh lwo or nore visils wilhin lhe line period being onolysed.
Peputaticn 5ccre This is lhe single, quonlifoble nunber, generoled by BrondsFye, 0uirk`s online
repulolion nonogenenl soflwore. íl is derived fron on olgorilhn lhol lokes inlo
occounl oll lhe relevonl nenlions of o brond, ond lhe signifconce lhol lhe user hos
olloched lo lhen. This signifconce is oscerloined lhrough lhe process of logging
eoch nenlion lo ronk ocross o nunber of weighled crilerio lhol include senlinenl
ond credibilily onong olhers. This score provides o benchnork ogoinsl lhe brond`s
repulolion os il fucluoles over line, ond olso ollows conporison belween o brond
ond ils conpelilors.
Peturn ¥isitcr l unique visilor who is nol o new visilor.
Pevenue Yield of incone fron o porliculor source.
Pevenue 5bare 0onnission slruclure where lhe offliole eorns o percenloge of o sole.
P0A5 This slonds for Relurn on ldverlising Spend ond indicoles lhe onounl of revenue
gornered fron eoch referrer. íl is colculoled by dividing lhe lolol onounl of revenue
gornered by lhe lolol onounl of revenue spenl on lhe odverlising conpoign.
Pcbct.txt l fle wrillen ond slored in lhe rool direclory of o web sile lhol reslricls lhe seorch
engine spiders fron indexing cerloin poges of lhe web sile.
Pcbcts ExcIusicn
l prolocol used lo indicole lo seorch engine robols which poges should nol
be indexed.
P0I Shorl for Relurn 0n ínveslnenl which is lhe rolio of cosl lo profl.
P55 Reolly Sinple Syndicolion. RSS ollows you lo receive/ syndicole lhis infornolion
wilhoul requiring you lo conslonlly open new poges in your browser.
P55 Peader This is how you reod you RSS Feeds. These desklop news reoders or oggregolors
disploy new conlenl fron lhe RSS feeds lhol you hove signed up lo. llso known os
RSS lggregolor.
5aIesfcrce Autcmaticn l lype of progron lhol oulonoles lhe business losk of soles ossocioled wilh effec-
live inplenenlolion, produclivily ond forecosls.
5cripting Language l high level longuoge used lo conlrol whol lhe user sees on o sile or lo nonipulole
lhe dolo slored on o server.
5earcb Seorching is lhe process of fnding infornolion on lhe ínlernel using seorch
5earcb Engine l lool for seorching lhe ínlernel. Users of seorch engines enler keywords relevonl
lo lheir seorch, ond lhe seorch engine relurns resulls fron ils doloboses.
5earcb Engine
The proclice of wriling conlenl specifcolly designed for chosen key phroses. This
enhonces spiderobilily ond resulls in higher ronkings on seorch engines.
5earcb Engine Listing The lisling of poges in lhe resulls poges lSFRPsI of o seorch engine in response lo
o seorch query.
5earcb Engine
See ¨SF0¨.
5earcb Engine
Supplying o URL lo lhe seorch engines lo noke lhen owore lhol lhe web sile ond
ils poges ocluolly exisl ond olerling lhen of updoled conlenl in lhe hopes of fosler
ond nore regulor indexing.
5earcb 0uery Sone os Seorch Tern.
5earcb Peferrer The URL hos been generoled by o seorch funclion.
35O 351
glossory · searcb term
5earcb Term Seorch lerns ore lhe words enlered by lhe seorcher. seorch engines will lhen
look for lhese words in lheir index ond relurn nolching resulls. llso known os
Seorch 0uery.
5earcb5tatus ln owesone loolbor exlension for Firefox ond Mozillo lhol ollows you lo see how
ony ond every web sile in lhe world is perforning. Designed by 0uirkSlor 0roig
Row, SeorchSlolus provides exlensive seorch-reloled infornolion oboul ony sile.
5ecurity PrctcccIs ln obslrocl or concrele prolocol lhol perforns o securily-reloled funclion ond
opplies cryplogrophic nelhods.
5eed The process of inilioling o virol conpoign lhrough slrolegic online plocenenl.
5eed Audience The iniliol oudience fron which virol growlh slorls.
5egmentaticn ís used lo fller visilors inlo dislincl groups bosed on choroclerislics so os lo
onolyse visils.
5EH Seorch Fngine Morkeling refers lo norkeling lhol is reloled lo seorch. íl conprises
SF0 ond PP0.
5ender AIias The none lhol is chosen lo oppeor in lhe sender or fron feld of on enoil.
5ender ID l nelhod used by no|or íSPs lo confrn lhol enoils do originole fron lhe donoin
fron which il cloins lo hove been senl.
5E0 Seorch Fngine 0plinisolion is lhe proclice lhol oins lo inprove o web sile`s ronking
in lhe seorch engines for specifc keywords.
5EPP Seorch Fngine Resulls Poge - lhe poge lhol shows lhe resulls for o seorch on o
seorch engine.
5erver l conpuler lhol delivers infornolion ond soflwore lo olher conpulers linked by o
5erver-side Tronsoclions lhol loke ploce on lhe server.
5essicn l session is o losling conneclion belween lhe user ond o web sile.
5ingIe Page ¥isits \isils lhol consisl of one poge.
5ite Arcbitecture The design ond plonning of web siles involving lhe lechnicol, oeslhelic ond funclionol
elenenls lhol conbines lo creole o web sile.
5ite Pehnement ínproving o web sile`s design ond funclionolily. llso see Web Slondords.
5itemap 0n o web sile, o poge lhol links lo every olher poge in lhe web sile, ond disploys
lhese links orgonised occording lo lhe infornolion hierorchy.
5H5 Shorl Messoge Service. Fleclronic nessoges senl on wireless nelwork.
5HTP Sinple Moil Tronsfer Prolocol - o prolocol for sending nessoges fron one server
lo onolher.
5cciaI Bcckmarking l web bosed service lo shore ínlernel booknorks. Del.icio.us ond Digg ore exonples
of sociol booknorking services.
5cciaI Currency l neosure of o person`s power ond infuence wilhin o defned sociol group.
5cciaI Hedia The nedio lhol is published, creoled ond shored by individuols on lhe ínlernel, such
os blogs, inoges, video ond nore.
5cciaI Netwcrk ín lhe online sense, lhis refers lo o lype of web sile nodel where individuol nenbers
becone porl of o brooder virluol connunily.
5cft Bcunce The foiled delivery of on enoil due lo o devioling reoson like on overlooded noil box
or o server foilure.
glossory · unique forworders
5cIaris The operoling syslen used on Sun Syslens conpuler servers, known for ils
robuslness ond scolobilily.
5pam Fnoil senl lo soneone who hos nol requesled lo receive il - F\íL!
5PF Sender policy fronework - on exlension of SMTP lhol slops enoil sponners fron
forging lhe ¨Fron¨ felds in on enoil.
5pider ln oulonoled progron lhol scons or crowls web poges lo golher infornolion for
seorch engines.
5pIasb Page This is o poge, usuolly oninoled ond conloining sone kind of voriolion of lhe phrose
`click here lo enler lhis sile`. These poges ore considered delrinenlol lo SF0.
5pIit Testing 0reoling hypolhesis ond lesling by rondonly sending visilors lo eilher oplion in o
slolislicolly equol nonner, ond neosuring which hos lhe besl conversion role.
5pcnscred Advert llso known os Poy Per 0lick lPP0I.
5pcnscred Links The poid seorch resulls on lhe SFRPs.
5takebcIder l person or orgonisolion wilh on inleresl lo ¨sloke¨I in how o resource is non-
5trategy l sel of ideos lhol oulline how o producl line or brond will ochieve ils ob|eclives.
This guides decisions on how lo creole, dislribule, pronole ond price lhe producl
or service.
5ubject Line The lille of lhe enoil connunicolion. ls il is lhe frsl elenenl of lhe connunicolion
lhol will be seen, il needs lo be ollrocl ollenlion ond enlice lhe user lo open
lhe enoil.
5yndicate Moking conlenl ovoiloble for dislribulion onong selecled clienls.
Tag ín sociol nedio, logs indicole or lobel whol conlenl is oboul.
Taxcncmy 0lossifcolion ond division inlo ordered colegories, usuolly hierorchicol. ín sociol
nedio, loxonony con refer lo lhe colegorizolion of conlenl on lhe ínlernel.
Text EmaiIs Texl enoils or ploin lexl enoils do nol conloin grophics or ony kind of norkup.
Tbird Party Ccckie Sone web siles slore infornolion in o snoll lexl fle on your conpuler colled o
cookie. l lhird porly cookie eilher originoles fron, or is senl lo, o web sile differenl
fron lhe one you ore currenlly visiling. These lhird-porly cookies con eilher be
persislenl, neoning lhey renoin on lhe syslen ofler your session, or lenporory,
neoning lhey ore renoved fron your syslen.
TitIe Tags The lpreferobly oplinisedI lille lexl you selecl will oppeor in lhe lop bor of o user`s
browser when lhey view lhe web poge. Tille logs should be o brief ond occurole
descriplion of lhe poge`s conlenl.
Tcucb Pcint Fvery inslonce lhe consuner cones inlo conlocl wilh o brond.
TrackBack l nechonisn used in o blog lhol shows o lisl of enlries in olher blogs lhol refer lo
o posl on lhe frsl blog.
Tracking Meosuring lhe effecliveness of o conpoign by collecling ond evoluoling slolislics.
Tracking Ccdes l piece of code lhol lrocks o user`s inleroclion ond novenenl lhrough o web sile.
TraditicnaI Hedia Newspopers, nogozines, lelevision ond publishing houses ore lhe reoln of
lrodilionol nedio.
Trafhc This refers lo lhe visilors lhol visil o web sile.
Unique Fcrwarders This refers lo lhe nunber of individuols who forworded o specifc enoil.
352 353
glossory · unique visitcrs
Unique ¥isitcrs The nunber of individuol people visiling lhe web sile one or nore lines wilhin o
period of line. Foch individuol is only counled once.
Unix The nosl connon operoling syslen for servers on lhe ínlernel.
UPL Uniforn lor UniversolI Resource Locolor - lhe unique oddress of o web poge on lhe
ínlernel. For exonple, hllp.//www.golloquirk.con.
UPL Pewriting Presenling seorch-friendly URLs wilhoul queslion norks, ond rewriling lhen on
lhe server in lheir slondord fornol suiloble for use in querying dynonic conlenl.
UsabiIity Usobilily is o neosure of how eosy il is for o user lo conplele o desired losk. Siles
wilh excellenl usobilily fore for beller lhon lhose lhol ore diffcull lo use.
U55D Unslruclured Supplenenlory Service Dolo. Works on oll exisling 0SM phones.
Provides session-bosed connunicolion, enobling o voriely of opplicolions.
U5P Unique selling poinl lor proposilionI - whol nokes your offering differenl lo your
¥isit Duraticn The lenglh of line in o session.
¥isit cr 5essicn ln inleroclion by on individuol wilh o web sile consisling of one or nore poge views
wilhin o specifed period of line.
¥isit Peferrer The URL lhol originoled o porliculor visil.
¥isitcr ln individuol visiling o web sile lhol is nol o seorch engine spider or o scripl.
¥Icg l video bosed log, olso colled o video log.
¥PH \endor Relolionship Monogenenl. The energing school of lhoughl lhol incorpo-
roles lhe lools, lechnology ond services lhol noke il eosy for cusloners lo non-
oge relolionships wilh vendors.
W3C World Wide Web 0onsorliun, on orgonisolion which oversees lhe Web Slondords
pro|ecl. www.w3c.org.
WlP Wireless lpplicolion Prolocol. l sel of slondords lhol ollows web occess on nobile
Web AnaIytics l soflwore lool lhol collecls dolo on web sile users bosed on nelrics lo neosure
ils perfornonce.
Web Brcwser This is whol ollows you lo browse lhe World Wide Web - exonples of browsers
include ínlernel Fxplorer, Sofori ond Firefox l0uirk`s nunber 1 browserI.
Web Design The loyoul ond slruclure of o web poge. Web design is nol solely oboul noking lhe
poge look prelly, il`s olso oboul funclionolily ond usobilily.
Web 5erver l renole lhird-porly conpuler whose |ob il is lo deol wilh requesls coning fron
web browsers.
Web 5tandards Besl proclices for building web siles. The web slondords ore issued by lhe W30.
Web2.0 The nelwork os o plolforn for conlenl ond funclionolily. This includes delivering
ond ollowing nulliple users occess lo dynonic web opplicolions ond conlenl,
online colloborolion, generolion ond dislribulion of dolo ond o richer inleroclive
user-experience lhrough web sile opplicolions lhol enhonce volue ond eose-of-
use. Web2.O is oflen considered lo include Ríls lRich ínlernel lpplicolionsI buill in
lJlX, Flosh, Jovo opplels or lcliveX.
WebPP Public relolions on lhe Web. 0nline press releoses ond orlicle syndicolion pronole
bronds os well os drive lroffc lo siles.
Wbite Rat l lern coined by lhe SF0 induslry lo describe elhicol SF0 loclics. See ¨0rey Hol¨
ond ¨Block Hol¨.
Wbite List l lisl of occepled enoil oddresses lhol on íSP, o subscriber or olher enoil service
provider ollows lo deliver nessoges regordless of spon fller sellings.
Wide-Area Netwcrk WlN - o nelwork of conpulers lhol ore relolively for oporl ond ore connecled vio
lelephone lines or rodio woves.
Widget l window or o lexl box for user inleroclion. ln oreo on o poge hosled by o lhird
porly, generolly used for o snoll opplicolion or syndicoled conlenl.
Wiki l wiki is on online colloborolive lool lhol ollows nunerous users lo occess ond
edil web poge conlenl freely ond creolively. íl supporls links lo web siles, inoges
ond lexl ond con be used for o hosl of funclions, including pro|ecl plonning ond
docunenl building.
Wcrd cf Hcuse Word of noulh is sonelines referred lo os word of nouse online. 0nline news ond
gossip, spreod lhrough blogs, newsgroup poslings, íM ond enoil.
Wcrd cf Hcutb ínfornolion lhol is possed belween people, os opposed lo nessoges fron o
conpony lo people.
WcrdTracker WordTrocker is on online lool lhol helps web sile owners ond seorch engine
norkelers idenlify keywords ond phroses lhol ore relevonl lo lheir or lheir clienl`s
business ond nosl likely lo be used os queries by seorch engine visilors.
WWW The World Wide Web is lhe conplele colleclion of fles wrillen in vorious nork-up
longuoges on lhe ínlernel.
XHL eXlensible Morkup Longuoge - o slondord used for creoling slruclured docunenls.
XML pronises nore effcienl ond orgonized delivery of dolo over lhe inlernel.
XHTML is lhe XML version of HTML.
Yabcc! 0ne of lhe nosl populor seorch engines on lhe nel, Yohoo! begon ils life os lhe
booknork lisls of lwo groduole sludenls, Dovid Filo ond Jerry Yong. Their booknork
lisl |usl never seened lo slop growing, ond lodoy Yohoo! serves billions of poge
views worldwide.
Zcne-hIe ín conpuler nelworking, o zone fle is o dolobose elenenl of lhe donoin none sys-
len lDNSI used by BíND ond olher DNS server soflwore. l zone fle lypicolly con-
loins infornolion lhol defnes noppings belween donoin nones ond íP oddresses
ond con olso conloin reverse noppings which con resolve íP oddresses inlo donoin
glossory · zone-fle

35ó 357
index · accessibiIity index · keywcrd
lccessibilily 1ó/, 2OO-2O1, 2O3, 211, 21ó
ldSense 8ó, ??-1OO
ldWords 3, 8ó, ?7-1O1, 1O/, 1Oó-1O7, 112,
11?-121, 12?, 233-23/, 327
lffliole 31-33, /O, /5-ó/, 87, 217, 28ó, 327
lhonen 25ó, 275-27ó
llexo 88, 117, 127, 12?, 1/7, 1óó
lnolonu 138
lnozon.con /ó, 1ó8, 21?, 251, 28O, 282,
2?O, 31?
lnolylicol 0RM 27?, 282
lPí 31?
lpple 1/O, 1ó5, 1ó?-17O, 175, 272
lR0 151
lsk.con ??
lslrolurfng 1/?, 151, 158
llPloy 255, 27/, 3ó1
B2B ?, 317
B20 ?, 317
BB0 22, 1/O, 153, 1ó1, 21?, 275
Bello 28/
Blog 3, ó, 23, /2-/3, ó/, ?3-?/, 112,
12/-125, 127, 12?, 135-1/2, 1/ó, 1/8,
153, 15ó, 158, 1ó2, 1ó/, 1óó-1ó7,
17O-175, 17?, 183, 185, 1?O-1?2, 1?8,
215, 22?, 232, 23/, 25/, 272, 27ó, 285,
2?O, 2?2, 3O3, 3O5, 313, 32O, 33O, 333
Blogosphere ó, 125, 137-138, 1/8
Blogpulse 171
BMW /1-/2, 87, 12?-13O, 3ó1
BoingBoing 253, 272
Booknorks 12/-125, 127
Bounce role 17, 1O?, 2/2, 2/?
Bounces 17-18, 2/2
Brond 1O, 1ó, 22, 2ó, 28, 3O-31, 33,
37-38, /O, /2, 58-óO, ó2-ó3, ó?, 72, 82,
1O7, 11/-11ó, 12O, 13O, 132, 13/, 13ó,
138-13?, 1/1-1/3, 1/5-1/7, 15O-152,
15/-15ó, 158, 1óO, 1ó3-1ó/, 1óó-1ó?,
171-177, 17?, 182, 185-18ó, 1?3-1?5,
222, 228, 251, 273, 287, 2?2, 2?8, 3O2,
3O/, 311, 317
Brond lworeness 2ó, 28, 31, 38, 5?, 1/7,
151-152, 15/, 182, 1?/, 311
BrondsFye 1óó, 172-173, 177, 17?, 2?5,
2?8, 311-312, 327
Breodcrunb Links 2O1-2O3
Browser 3-/, 2?, 33-3/, 3?-/O, /7, 51-52,
55, ó1, ó8-ó?, 83-8/, 11ó, 125-12ó,
131, 137, 1óó, 2Oó-2O7, 211, 21/, 23O,
232, 23ó-237, 2/O, 2/3, 2/?, 251-253,
257, 2ó7-2ó8, 288, 322
02B 317
020 317
0oll To lclion ?, 13, 27, 38, ?1, 1O8, 11/,
151, 15ó, 15?, 21ó, 221-222, 225-22ó,
22?, 232, 251, 2ó/, 317
0lN-SPlM ?
0lick Froud 5O, 112
0lick Polh 237-238, 2/2, 2/7-2/?
0lickolell 2ó2, 27ó
0luelroin Monifeslo 2?3, 317, 321, 333
0MS 2O1, 212-21/
0olloborolive 0RM 27?, 282, 2?2
0onnission Junclion /8, 57, ó/
0onsuner 0eneroled Medio 12/, 1/5, 153,
1ó/, 1óó, 183-18/, 18?
0onlexluol ldverlising 3/
0onversion Funnel 237, 27?
0onversion 0plinisolion 11, 33, 35,
235-25/, 282, 28?, 3O1, 3O3
0ookie 27, 33-3/, /7, 51-5/, 5?, ó1, ó3, 87,
117, 33?
0over20o 2ó2
0rowdsourcing 125, 133, 1/ó-1/7
0S0 257, 2ó2
0SS 2O1, 2O7, 2O?, 211-212, 21/, 2ó8
0usloner Relolionship Monogenenl 8-?,
257, 2ó3, 277-27?
del.icio.us 12ó-127, 1//, 171, 333
Dell Hell 1óó-1ó8, 175, 17?
Digg 127, 1/7, 158, 1ó8
Dopplr 13/
Dynonic Keyword ínserlion 222, 227-228
eBoy 3, óó, 1ó8
e0RM 278-28O
FD0F 2ó, 257, 2ó7, 33O
Fnoil 2, 5-23, 27, 35, /2, 52, 5/-55, óO-ó1,
?O, 13ó, 1/2, 151, 15/, 15?, 1ó7, 17O,
17/, 1?2, 21O, 21/, 21ó-217, 21?, 222,
22ó, 22?, 2/O-2/1, 2/3, 2/ó, 25ó, 258,
2ó2-2ó3, 27/-275, 281, 283, 285-288,
2?1, 3O3-3O/, 3O7-3O?, 31ó, 325, 327,
32?, 333
eMorkeling 1-ó, 8, 1O, 18, 2O, 37-38, /O,
/ó, 53, 58, ó1, 8?-?O, 1Oó, 115, 127,
13/, 1/3, 1/ó, 1/8, 152, 1ó2, 1óó,
1??-2OO, 217, 21?, 222, 225, 232, 2/1,
2/3, 25O-251, 275, 277-278, 283,
285-28ó, 3O5-3Oó, 3O8, 31O, 315-32O,
322-33O, 332-333
eMorkeling Slrolegy 8?, 1/3, 152, 315-32O,
322-33O, 332
Focebook 3, ó, 31, 3/, 3ó, 133-13/, 138,
1/2, 1/ó, 1/8, 253, 271, 27/, 32?
Feed 52, 57, 5?, 1O?, 111, 113, 135-137,
13?, 1óó, 17O-171, 215, 25?, 28O, 32ó,
Feed Reoder 1óó, 17O, 3/2
Firebox 51, 1óO-1ó1, 2O5, 3ó1
Firefox 3, 3/, 3?, /?, 51, ó8, 8/, 88, 127,
137, 232-233, 251, 253-25/, 327
Flosh 3O, 38, /3, 12?, 2O1, 2O3, 2O7,
2/O-2/1, 2ó?, 272
Flickr 125, 128-12?, 171, 281, 3OO, 327,
FNB 1/ó-1/7, 3ó1
Folksonony 125, 127
0oogle 3, 2ó, 2?, 53, ó2, óó-ó7, 72, 7/, 7ó,
78, 83, 8ó-88, ?2-?3, ?ó-1O1, 1O/-1O7,
111-112, 11ó-117, 11?-121, 125-12ó,
12?, 13ó-137, 1/1, 1ó/, 1ó7, 17O-171,
17?, 18ó, 188-18?, 1?5, 227-228,
232-23/, 23ó, 2/?, 251, 2ó8, 272, 283,
3O2, 311, 327
0oogle ldSense 8ó, ??
0oogle ldWords 3, 8ó, ??-1O1, 1O/, 1Oó,
112, 11?-121, 12?, 23/, 327
0oogle lnolylics 8ó, 23ó, 2/?
0ollo0uirk 7ó, ?/, 128, 1/8, 1ó2, 17?, 2O8,
0PRS 257, 2ó7, 272
0rokdolcon.con 23/, 253-25/
0SM 257, 2óó-2ó7
Holnoil 1ó, 151-152, 15/, 1ó1
ídeo Bounly 133, 1/ó-1/7
ínpression Froud 27
ínfornolion lrchileclure 2O1-2O2, 2O7,
213, 217
ínlernel Fxplorer 3/, 51, ó8, 137, 232, 3//
JovoScripl 3O, 87, ?2, 215, 237, 2/O, 2ó?
Jeff Jorvis 1/1, 1ó/, 1óó-1ó7
Johnnie Wolker 2O-21
Key Phrose 73, 75, 77-78, 8O-81, ?ó-?7,
183, 18ó, 1?5, 1?7, 23O-231
Keyword ó2, ó8, 7O, 75, 77-81, 88, ?O-?1,
?5-??, 1O1-1Oó, 1O8-1O?, 111-115,
12O-121, 13ó, 1/5, 1óó, 1ó?-171, 213,
222, 227-228, 23O, 233-23/, 327, 3/ó
358 35?
index · Ianding page index · strategy
Londing poge 2ó-27, 3ó, 75, ??, 1O/,
1O8-1O?, 11ó, 215-21ó, 2/2, 2/7-2/8,
251, 253
Leod 2, 8, 1/, /7, /?, óO, 7O, 7/, 78-8O, 83,
1/1, 17/, 18/, 18ó, 21O, 21ó, 223, 25O,
27?-281, 28?, 2?2, 2??-3OO, 31?, 32/,
Link /, 13-1/, 18, 2O, 27, /7, 51, 5/, ó1, ó3,
7O, 75-77, 81-85, 88-8?, ?2-?3, ?7, 125,
128, 132, 1/2, 151-152, 155, 15?, 177,
183, 185-187, 1?/, 2O1-2O2, 2O/,
2Oó-2O7, 21O, 225, 231, 2/O, 2/2, 2/8,
2ó?, 288, 321
Link Boil 75
Link Fxchonge 27
Link Populorily 77, 82-8/, 8?
Linkedín 133-13/
LinkShore /8, 57
Log Files /7, 23ó-237, 2/O
Long Toil ?O, 1Oó-1O7, 115-11ó, 183
MorkelingSherpo 23, /8, ó/
Moshup 151, 15/
Moss 0uslonisolion 1ó, 1?, 22, 222, 318,
321, 332
Melo Dolo 7/, ?1, ?3, 13ó, 18ó, 2O1, 2O5,
2O7, 22?, 231, 233
Melo Descriplion Tog 3/5
Melo Keyword Tog 3/ó
Melo Togs 75, 81, 2O7, 2O?, 213-21/
Melropolilon Life 2ó2, 27ó
Microsofl óó, 112, 137, 151, 1ó1, 1ó?
MMS 257, 2ó2, 2ó5, 27O
Mobile Nelwork 257, 25?
Mobile Phone 138, 255-27ó, 287, 2?1, 32?
Moore 25?, 27ó
Mullivoriole Tesl 237
Muli 127
Mxil 272-275
MySpoce 133-13/, 175, 27/
Nolurol Seorch ó7, 71, 11/, 271
Novigolion ?2, 2OO-2O2, 2O/, 213, 21ó-217,
21?, 2//, 2óO, 2óó-2ó7, 271, 28O
Nofollow Link 2O1
Nokio 13O, 228
0bono 138, 315, 328-33O
0nline ldverlising 25-/3, 57, ?ó, 1/5, 15?,
28ó, 327, 358
0nline 0opywriling 18ó, 2O7, 221-23/
0nline Press Roon 128, 181, 183, 1?1-1?2,
0nline Repulolion 11/, 128, 1/5, 15ó,
1ó3-17?, 183-18/, 188, 1?3, 281,
285-28ó, 2?7-2?8, 3O2, 3O8, 311-312,
327, 32?, 332
0nline Repulolion Monogenenl 11/, 1/5,
15ó, 1ó3-17?, 183-18/, 1?3, 281, 28ó,
2?7-2?8, 3O2, 3O8, 311-312, 327, 32?,
0pen Role ?, 12, 18, 2/ó
0pen source 2O1, 212-21/, 232, 2/?
0perolionol 0RM 27?, 282
0pl-in ?, 12-13, 17-18, 55
0pl-oul ?
0rgonic Seorch 27, óó-ó?, 75, 1O5, 113,
0rkul 13/
0verlure ?7-??, 111-112, 117
Poge Togs 23ó-237
PogeRonk 7/-7ó
Poid ínclusion ?8
Poid Seorch 31, 35, 55, 58, ó7-ó?, 71,
?5-?ó, 222, 22ó-227, 271
Ponono ?7
pbwiki 131
Persono 222-223
Peugeol 1O7 255, 27/
P0 0loss 2?1-2?2
Podcosl 13?-1/1, 232
Porler 31ó, 31?, 323-32/, 33O
Prezzybox 57, ó2-ó3, 3ó1
Profl 2?3, 317
0uolily Score 27, ?7, 1O/, 1O?
0uirk /, 8/, 88, ?/, 115, 11?, 127, 13/,
1/8, 1ó2, 1óó, 17?, 1?5, 2O8, 27O-271,
327, 332-333
Reddil 127, 1ó8
Referrer /ó-/7, 75, 237, 2/2, 3/?
Repulolion Score 17, 172, 177-178, 2?8,
Revenue Shore /7, /?-5O, ó1
Robols Fxclusion Prolocol 2O1, 2O8
Robols.lxl 2O8-2O?, 21/, 21ó
R0í 8, 12, 2O, 27, /7, 53-5/, 71, ?7, 1O5,
1O8, 113-11/, 11ó, 183, 25?, 28?, 2?1,
317, 32ó
RSS 132, 135-13ó, 1/O, 1óó, 17O-172, 17ó,
183, 188-18?, 1?2-1?3, 1?8, 215, 31?,
Solesforce oulonolion 27?
Seorch 2-3, 5-ó, 21, 2ó-27, 31, 35, 5/-55,
57-58, ó1, ó5-117, 12O-121, 127-12?,
132, 135-137, 1/1, 1/5, 15/, 15ó,
1ó/-1óó, 1ó8, 17O-172, 17/-175, 17?,
182-18ó, 188, 1?2, 1?/-1?5, 1?7,
1??-21O, 212-22O, 222, 225-231,
233-23/, 237-238, 2/O, 2/2-2/5, 2/8,
253-25/, 25ó, 2ó8, 271-272, 275-27ó,
28O, 283, 28ó, 2??-3OO, 3O2, 311, 31ó,
31?, 322, 32/, 327, 32?, 3/?-35O
Seorch Fngine 3, ó, 21, 2ó-27, ó5-?/,
?ó-??, 1O1, 1O3-1O5, 1O?, 112,
11/-115, 117, 127-12?, 132, 13ó, 1/5,
1ó/, 1óó, 1ó8, 17O-171, 182-183,
185-18ó, 188, 1??-2O1, 2O3-21O,
212-213, 215-21ó, 21?-22O, 222, 225,
23O-231, 23/, 237, 2/O, 271, 275, 28O,
28ó, 3O2, 31ó, 322, 32/, 32?
Seorch Fngine Lisling 27, 75
Seorch Fngine 0plinisolion 3, ó8, 71,
73-?/, ?7, 11/, 182-183, 185, 2O/, 2O7,
213, 222, 23O, 2/O, 28ó, 31ó
Seorch 0uery 27, 7O, 75, ?7, 1O3, 12O, 23O
Seorch Tern ?ó-?7, 1O2-1O/, 1O7,
227-228, 23O, 28ó, 35O
SeorchSlolus 8/, 88, 127, 1óó, 327
Seed 151, 158, 27/
SFM ó8, 71, ?2, 11/
SF0 58, ó5, ó8, 71, 73-77, 82, 8/-?O, ?2-?/,
1O?, 11/, 11ó, 13ó, 1/5, 152, 15/-155,
15?, 175, 177, 182-183, 185-18ó, 188,
1?O, 1?/-1?5, 2O7, 213-21/, 21ó-217,
221-222, 22?-231, 233, 2/1, 28ó, 327
SFRP ó8, 7O-71, 81, ?7, 1O/, 1Oó, 1ó5-1óó,
18?, 2O1, 2Oó-2O7, 222
Selh 0odin ó, /3, 173, 32O, 33O
Silenop ?2, 2O1-2O2, 2O7-2O8
Snorlphone 2ó1
SMS 11?, 171, 25ó-2ó/, 2óó-2ó7, 2ó?,
272-273, 275, 287, 2?1, 32?
Sociol Medio 77, ?O, 123-1/8, 15O, 153,
155, 158-15?, 1ó/, 1óó-1ó7, 17O-172,
17/-17?, 181-183, 185, 188-1?1,
1?3-1?5, 1?7-1?8, 223, 232, 278, 281,
28ó, 3OO, 3O2, 32O, 327-33O, 332
Sociol Nelwork /O, 55, 125, 132, 13/, 1/5,
Spon 2-3, 8-?, 12, 1/, 1ó-2O, 22, 55, óO,
7/, 81, 83, 132, 23O, 2ó3
Spider ó8, 7O, 77, 13ó, 2O7-2O8, 215, 231,
Splil Tesling 18, 11ó, 2/5-2/ó, 25O, 3O3
Sponsored Links ó8, ?ó
Slokeholder 278-27?
Sleve Krug 2O2, 22O, 2/ó
Slornhoek 153, 1ó2
Slrolegy 5/, 8?-?O, ?3, 11/, 13ó-137,
1/2-1/ó, 152-153, 1ó2, 177, 185-18ó,
1?/-1?5, 2ó3, 2ó7, 273, 277-278, 28ó,
31O, 315-33O, 332
3óO 3óO

It takes a viIIage tc raise a cbiId, and a Ict cf pecpIe tc pubIisb
a bcck! 0ur ackncwIedgement and tbanks gc tc:
FirstIy tc aII tbe 0uirk5tars wbc bave made tbis bappen tbe seccnd time arcund - tbis
prcject wcuIdn`t bave been pcssibIe witbcut ycu. ParticuIar ackncwIedgement gces tc:
0amian Burke
Janine 0arpenter
5ue 0illiers
0avin 0ale
Emma 0rummond
Heidi Edelmuller
5uzan 0ray
0aniel Kolossa
Lyndi Lawson
Peter Lehto
Mkhuseli ¨5mallz¨ Mancotywa
5arah Manners
5haun 0akes
0raig Raw
5ophia Raw
Kat 5choltz
Tim 5hier
Louw 5wart
Richard Watson
Kelly Wheeler
5peciaI tbanks tc tbe fcIIcwing, wbc are nct 0uirk5tars and wbc bave given sc
genercusIy cf tbeir time and kncwIedge anyway...
Justin Beneke - ocodenic exlroordinoire
5olveig Bosch - book designer of nole
0ave 0uarte - nobile norkeling guru
Zak Edwards - Prezzybox.con
5cott 0ray - ínleroclive Morkeling Monoger ol BMW Soulh lfrico
0r Richard 0eorge - Senior Leclurer, School of Monogenenl Sludies ol Universily
of 0ope Town
Andy Hadñeld - 0nline Slrolegisl, FNB
Allan Kent - www.olploy.biz
5arah Larter - lssociole lccounl Direclor, Millword Brown Sl
Jayne Morgan - of www.podcorl.co.zo ond kind supplier of lhe podcosling
Walter Pike - conslruclive crilic, www.oooschool.co.zo
0hristian Robinson - Firebox.con
Slunbleupon 127
SW0T 31ó, 325-32ó
Syndicole 1óó, 183
Toclic 2O, 1/ó, 15?, 278, 285, 31ó-317,
325-327, 33O
Tog 75, 8O-81, 12/-125, 127-128, 135, 172,
2O1, 2Oó-2O7, 213, 231, 23ó, 271,
Toxonony 125, 127
Technoroli 3, 125, 127-128, 135, 137-138,
1/8, 171
Tine Mogozine 3, 12ó
TrockBock 125, 135, 137
TrodeDoubler 57
Trodilionol Medio 2, 28, 37, 123-12/, 1/1,
1/3-1//, 1/8, 15ó, 182-183
Twiller 12ó, 138-13?, 1/ó, 17O, 1?3, 281,
Urchin 23ó
Usobilily 7ó, 81, ?2, 1?8-2O/, 21O, 21ó,
22O, 3OO, 3O3, 311
USSD 257, 2óO, 2óó-2ó7, 27ó
\3 2?1
\ideo 1?, 2ó, 3O-31, 3ó-3?, /1-/3, ó3,
125-12ó, 128-13O, 132, 138-1/O, 1//,
1/7, 15/-15ó, 171, 183, 1?2, 2O1, 25ó,
2ó2, 2ó5, 32O
\irol Morkeling 2O, 38, ?O, 1/5, 1/?-1ó2,
1ó/, 327
\irluol Works 2?1-2?2
\log 125, 12?
\odocon 17/, 178
\RM xii, 27?, 2?O, 2?3
W30 ?2, 2O1, 2O?, 211, 2ó8-2ó?
WlP 257, 2ó5, 2ó7, 2ó?-27O
Web lnolylics xi, 35, 1O?, 235-25/, 28O,
282, 28?, 2??, 3O1, 3O3, 3O8, 31O
Web Slondords 2O1, 211-212, 22O, 2ó?
WebPR 77, 8/, ?O, ?2, 1/2, 1/5, 17/, 177,
17?, 181-1?8, 222, 327
Wicked Uncle 218-21?
Widgel 138, 272
Wiki 8ó, 125, 13O-132, 2?O
Wikipedio 2ó, 125, 131-132
Wikilrovel 131
WordTrocker 88, 112, 233
World Wide Web 2-/, ó-7, 75, ?2, 1óó, 2O1,
211, 232, 2ó1, 278, 2?ó, 321, 328
XML 3, /7, 57, ?2, ?7, 1O?, 2O1, 2O7-2O8,
212, 215, 21?, 31?
Yochling Porlners ínlernolionol ?O, ?2
Yohoo! 3, ?, 32, óó, 85, ?2, ?ó-??, 1Oó, 111,
125, 127, 171, 188-18?, 285, 3O2
Younique 2ó8
YouTube 3, 12ó, 128-13O, 1/3-1//,
1/7-1/8, 15/-155, 32?
YPí ?O, ?2
Zoppos 1O, 285, 2?2
Zoopy /2, 35?
index · zccpy

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