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Student: Ostonal, Jeffrey M. Professor: Prof. Nicanor Balbin Date: March 19, 2011
TAKE HOME EXAM IN CURRENT TRENDS AND TECHNIQUES IN EDUCATION
1. Synthesize and give the pros and con of K+12.
K+12 means Kindergarten and the 12 years of elementary and secondary education. Kindergarten refers to the 5-year old cohort that takes a standardized kinder curriculum. Elementary education refers to primary schooling that involves six or seven years of education and secondary education refers to high school. Features of K 6-4-2 (1) Kindergarten and 12 years of quality basic education is a right of every Filipino, therefore they must be and will be provided by government and will be free. (2) Those who go through the 12 years cycle will get an elementary diploma (6 years), a junior high school diploma (4 years), and a senior high school diploma (2 years). (3) A full 12 years of basic education will eventually be required for entry into tertiary level education (entering freshmen by SY 2018-2019 or seven years from now).
An open and consultative process will be adopted in the development and implementation of K+12. Change is two-fold: (a) curriculum enhancement and (b) transition management.
What is Senior High School?
y y y y
2 years of in-depth specialization for students depending on the occupation/career track they wish to pursue Skills and competencies relevant to the job market The 2 years of senior HS intend to provide time for students to consolidate acquired academic skills and competencies. The curriculum will allow specializations in Science and Technology, Music and Arts, Agriculture and Fisheries, Sports, Business and Entrepreneurship.
What is the proposed implementation plan of DepEd? Phases of Implementation: (1) Universal kindergarten will be offered starting SY 2011-2012. (2) DepEd will begin unclogging the basic education curriculum in SY 2012-2013. (3) The enhanced 12-year curriculum will be implemented starting with incoming Grade 1 students of SY 2012-2013.
5%. TESDA and other critical stakeholders. The proposal to expand the basic education dates back to 1925. Why add two more years? y y y y y y y y To decongest and enhance the basic education curriculum To provide better quality education for all The Philippines is the only remaining country in Asia with a 10-year basic education program K+12 is not new. Right now. A better educated society provides a sound foundation for long-term socio-economic development.etc) In implementing the K-6-4-2 proposal. K+12 Education Vision Graduates of Enhanced K+12 Basic Education Program will: y y Acquire mastery of basic competencies. including the high school graduates before 2016. What will society gain from K+12 y y y y K+12 will facilitate an accelerated economic growth. They cannot legally enter into contracts and are not emotionally mature for entrepreneurship / employment. music. High school graduates are younger than 18 years old and lack basic competencies and maturity. parents spend for at least 4 years of college to have an employable child. Studies in the Philippines have shown that an additional year of schooling increases earnings by 7. Electives to be offered in Senior HS (arts. The 12 year curriculum is being delivered in 10 years. . DepEd will take into account the issues and concerns of all stakeholders. In effect. The plan is not Plus 2 years before graduation but Minus 2 years before work To inspire a shift in attitude that completion of high school education is more than just preparation for college but can be sufficient for a gainful employment or career. Minus 2 instead of plus 2 for those families who cannot afford a college education but still wish to have their children find a good paying job. Several studies have shown that the improvements in the quality of education will increase GDP growth by as much as 2%. Studies validate that improvements in the quality of education will increase GDP growth by 2% to 2. Be more emotionally mature. The mechanics and other details of the transition plan will be threshed out with HEIs in coordination with CHED. In our model.2%. K+12 will facilitate mutual recognition of Filipino graduates and professionals in other countries. parents will not pay for 2 years of basic education that will give them an employable child. we are saving parents 2 years of expenses. tech-voch. Other countries view the 10-year education cycle as insufficient.. Studies in the UK. India and US show that Where are we at now? y y y Insufficient mastery of basic competencies is common due to a congested curriculum.(4) Incoming freshmen of SY 2012-2013 will be the first beneficiary of a free Senior High School education that will be made available by DepEd in public schools beginning SY 20162017. This will be done through regional consultations to begin early 2011.
Parents have to shell out more money (for transportation and food) for the education of their children. Most graduates are too young to enter the labor force. 2. Our graduates are not automatically recognized as professionals abroad. In the 2008 mathematics exam.y y y y y Be socially aware. This quality of education is reflected in the inadequate preparation of high school graduates for the world of work or entrepreneurship or higher education. and intellectually mature. International test results consistently show Filipino students lagging way behind practically everybody else in the world. for example. The current system also reinforces the misperception that basic education is just a preparatory step for higher education. The PROS 1. Since most children start Grade 1 when they are 6 years old. the competence to engage in work and be productive. If ten years were adequate. The best examples are our engineering graduates. especially the professionals. One reason is that students do not get adequate instructional time or time on task. 5. qualified teachers. since it does not even have the money to fully support today s ten years. who are condemned to international jobs not befitting their professional status due to our not having a 12-year basic education cycle. The short basic education program affects the human development of the Filipino children. The congested curriculum partly explains the present state of education. Every graduate of the Enhanced K+12 Basic Education Program is an empowered individual who has learned. and error-free textbooks. 3. they do not reach the legal employable age of 18 when they graduate from high school today. The government does not have the money to pay for two more years of free education. and those who intend to study abroad. why do we require them to get parental consent before they get married? The CONS 1. Be globally competitive. psychologically. the foundations for learning throughout life. Enhancing the quality of basic education in the Philippines is urgent and critical. 4. If we believe that 17-year-old high school graduates are emotionally. Be legally employable with potential for better earnings. . and the capacity to transform others and one s self. at a disadvantage. The poor quality of basic education is reflected in the low achievement scores of Filipino students. we came in dead last. pro-active. the ability to coexist in fruitful harmony with local and global communities. The short duration of the basic education program also puts the millions of overseas Filipino workers (OFWs). 2. Be adequately prepared for the world of work or entrepreneurship or higher education. 7. through a program that is rooted on sound educational principles and geared towards excellence. Twelve years of content are crammed into ten years. 9. the capability to engage in autonomous critical thinking. involved in public and civic affairs. Why prioritize the minority of high school graduates that go to college? 8. furniture and equipment. how come employers do not hire fresh high school graduates? How come most high school graduates flunk the UPCAT? 6. DepEd must first solve the lack of classrooms.
4. A high school diploma will not get anybody anywhere. The problem is the content. The reform proposed: Stop the current practice of subsidizing state universities and colleges to enhance access. 1. which is based on participation rates and units costs. carry out a selective admission policy. DepEd should fix the current subjects instead of adding new ones. 6. giving more focus and priority to the poor. . this is aimed at addressing the mismatch problem. the Philippines still has one of the lowest budget allocations to education among the ASEAN countries. Every family dreams of having a child graduate from college. 2. The drop-out rate will increase because of the two extra years. This may not be the best way to promote equity. As far as the curriculum is concerned. In addition. Mismatch . Present at least three current issues in education and provide a paradigm shift of each. The reform proposed: Get all the leaders in business and industry to become actively involved in higher education. 5.e. because business firms will not hire fresh high school graduates. Filipinos right now are accepted in prestigious graduate schools in the world. maybe more equitable.. The reform proposed: Amend the current system of budgeting for education across regions. And most of the freshmen students at the tertiary level come from relatively well-off families. Budget . not the length. 8. the socioeconomically disadvantaged students have higher dropout rates. we need to have better education.3. Why do we have to follow what the rest of the world is doing? We are better than all of them. 2. This clearly favors the more developed regions.There is a large proportion of "mismatch" between training and actual jobs.There is a big disparity in educational achievements across social groups. There is a need to provide more allocation to lagging regions to narrow the disparity across regions. even with only ten years of basic education.The Philippine Constitution has mandated the government to allocate the highest proportion of its budget to education. 3. i. colleges and universities will have no freshmen for two years. 7. This will spell financial disaster for many private Higher Education Institutions (HEIs). However. of basic education. An expanded scholarship program. We can do in ten years what everyone else in the world takes 12 years to do. For example. While students are stuck in Grades 11 and 12. This is the major problem at the tertiary level and it is also the cause of the existence of a large group of educated unemployed or underemployed. Affordability . As an editorial put it. not more education. especially in the elementary level. installing mechanisms to reduce enrollment in oversubscribed courses and promoting enrollment in undersubscribed ones.
then lessons. the only directive is that curriculum content should be focused on big ideas. What is UBD? Give its advantages in the teaching-learning process. making eligible to pursue college. first year high school dropoup and now a very renowned boxing champion. Essentially. and units should be logically inferred. the practice of looking at the outcomes in order to design curriculum units.is organized and governed in order to provide choices for learning not just as a remedy for school failure but as an addition even to good schools. teachers and curriculum writers are forced away from planning around content. If the youth passes the test. By using UBD practices. the best designs for lessons are derived backwards from the learning goals desired. or UBD . from which appropriate teaching will be born. school-equivalent credentials through learning processes within as well as outside schools. He was then named as the DepEd's Ambassador for the ALS and People s Champ for Education. He was presented a high school diploma. I think it goes something like. if you are to take the test at least 12 years old. He took and passed the (AET) under the ALS program.out-of-school youth can take the Alternative Learning System where in there is like training for 10 months or so. is to design (or redesign) any curriculum to make student understanding more likely. Curriculum content is not dictated. In other words. Advantages in the teaching-learning process. transfer the control of technical training to industry groups which are more attuned to the needs of business and industry. youth and adults who are determined to learn and are able to gain functional literacy skills outside of formal schooling. then it s elementary diploma. courses. by working backwards with the results planned first. By focusing on the results desired. and classroom instruction. performance assessments. Jesli Lapus. the youth can take the Accreditation & Equivalency Test. "Manny is an excellent model for all out-of-school children. The emphasis of UBD is on "backward design". if so desired. coupled with performance tasks that relate back to that big idea. A very good example of this is our very own.is an increasingly popular tool for educational planning focused on "teaching for understanding". According to Education Secretary. in order to reach and achieve the initially identified preferred results. UbD's goal. This gives an opportunity for less fortunate individuals who were not able to attend formal education to obtain school-equivalent competencies and." . 3.Develop a rationalized apprenticeship program with heavy inputs from the private sector. Offers a conceptual framework for educators to follow and use at their own disgression. Manny Paqcuiao. then. How can alternative learning system (ALS) support the present educational system? Alternative Learning System (ALS) . then the youth gets something which is equivalent to an elementary or high school diploma. . This supports the present educational system by meeting the Philippines Education for All (EFA) Agenda. but if you're at least 15 or 16 years old then it s high school diploma. - 4. and into focusing on the desired learning outcome. the curriculum can be developed and unfolded accordingly. Furthermore. then. then the next year. Rather. Understanding by Design.
Describe the trifocalization of the Philippine educational system. The CHED coordinates the programs of higher education institutions and implements the policies and standards. as it is evident that teaching quantity is decreasing in a hasty manner. This trifocalization of education aimed to give proper attention to basic. A . it has committed itself to achieving universal primary education and has moved to provide free access to basic public education for all children. especially at the elementary and secondary levels. a department-level agency. the management. an agency attached to the Department of Labor. TESDA. the results of standard tests conducted among elementary and high school students. 6. Turnover and attrition rate of teaching workforce is also higher. Hence. so the education quality is also declining. thus there is very little incentive for most of them to take up advanced trainings thus. quality of teaching workforce has declined in the recent years. training and vocational.5. Teaching quantity and education quality are correlated with each other in a direct manner. management of the education sector has been given to three different agencies since 1994. On the other hand. For example. Teachers have been underpaid. books. is the one which oversees the post-secondary technical and vocational education including skills orientation. other factors should also be given considerations such as the lack of classrooms and equipments. Corruption is the root of all of these problems and therefore needs to be stop. The Philippines is a country that places so much value for education. most of the teachers do not have full qualification required by the education system for quality education. As a result of the trifocalization of education. the DepEd now concentrates only in the administration. who are not well experienced and do not have enthusiasm & spark required for a quality education. Present a comprehensive plan on how to improve the declining quality of education? Quality of School Teaching Yes. As a result there is a decline in the quality of the Philippine education. each with its own area of focus. supervision and regulation of basic education (elementary and secondary education). and higher education. affecting the quality of students learning which will definitely has an effect on their employability in the future. the system of governance and policy guidance over public and private basic education institutions is now under the Department of Education (DepEd). As quality of teaching workforce plays a potent role in the aspiration of any nation's education system. According to the survey. This can be address by strengthening the teacher s competencies through upgrading of their salary scale. There should be responsible and reliable leaders who are loyal and trustworthy so that there would be an assurance that the budget allocations will be spent according to its respective purpose. the system governance and policy guidance over public and private higher education institutions as well as degree-granting programs in all postsecondary educational institutions rest on CHED. independent from and co-equal with DECS. and a lot more problems that can be solved if the budget will be increased for education. which is a major concern for the education system. as well as in the National College of Entrance Examination for college students. In fact. However. training and development of out-of-school youth and unemployed community adults. today. Schools and colleges are hiring those people for teaching. Technical Education and Skills Development Authority (TESDA) is in charge of technical and vocational education while higher education is entrusted to the Commission on Higher Education (CHED). were way below the target mean score. which creates shortage of the teaching workforce in schools. so it is customary for the schools to recruit only most qualified and competent workforce for the purpose of teaching. Moreover.
monitoring body should also function and take effectively so that the assurance of transparency will be properly dealt with. functional readers. possessing the ability to work in complex system and with interpersonal and leadership skills will not be difficult to realize and can surely be a great help in uplifting the declining quality of education to a more qualitative educational system. critical thinkers. competent technical and vocational skills. . In this stand point of addressing the problems the vision of producing graduates who are numerically literate. fluent communicators.
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