MES-055

COMAPARATIVE EDUCATION

1)”Ethnographic research has emerged as an important method to study international comparative education scenario”.Discuss. "When used as a method, ethnography typically refers to fieldwork (alternatively, participant-observation) conducted by a single investigator who 'lives with and lives like' those who are studied, usually for a year or more." --John Van Maanen, 1996. "Ethnography literally means 'a portrait of a people.' An ethnography is a written description of a particular culture the customs, beliefs, and behavior - based on information collected through fieldwork." --Marvin Harris and Orna Johnson, 2000. "Ethnography is the art and science of describing a group or culture. The description may be of a small tribal group in an exotic land or a classroom in middle-class suburbia." --David M. Fetterman, 1998. Ethnography is a social science research method. It relies heavily on up-close, personal experience and possible participation, not just observation, by researchers trained in the art of ethnography. These ethnographers often work in multidisciplinary teams. The ethnographic focal point may include intensive language and culture learning, intensive study of a single field or domain, and a blend of historical, observational, and interview methods. Typical ethnographic research employs three kinds of data collection: interviews, observation, and documents. This in turn produces three kinds of data: quotations, descriptions, and excerpts of documents, resulting in one product: narrative description. This narrative often includes charts, diagrams and additional artifacts that help to tell "the story" (Hammersley, 1990). Ethnographic methods can give shape to new constructs or paradigms, and new variables, for further empirical testing in the field or through traditional, quantitative social science methods.

Ethnography has it roots planted in the fields of anthropology and sociology. Present-day practitioners conduct ethnographies in organizations and communities of all kinds. Ethnographers study schooling, public health, rural and urban development, consumers and consumer goods, any human arena. While particularly suited to exploratory research, ethnography draws on a wide range of both qualitative and quantitative methodologies, moving from "learning" to "testing" (Agar, 1996) while research problems, perspectives, and theories emerge and shift. Ethnographic methods are a means of tapping local points of view, households and community "funds of knowledge" (Moll & Greenberg, 1990), a means of identifying significant categories of human experience up close and personal. Ethnography enhances and widens top down views and enriches the inquiry process, taps both bottom-up insights and perspectives of powerful policy-makers "at the top," and generates new analytic insights by engaging in interactive, team exploration of often subtle arenas of human difference and similarity. Through such findings ethnographers may inform others of their findings with an attempt to derive, for example, policy decisions or instructional innovations from such an analysis. 2)Discuss the various impacts of privatization liberalization on school education in India. and

I n many ways, India provides an excellent testing ground for hypotheses about privatization and its impact, except that so far privatization has not been attempted on a scale that researchers would like to see. The country has a large, well- diversified public sector. Unlike many of the transition economies, it also has a long tradition of private enterprise, including big companies in the private sector, although there are certain sectors in which private sector participation is quite new, these sectors having been reserved until recently for the public sector.

Privatization in India generally goes by the name of ‘disinvestment’ or ‘divestment’ of equity. This is because privatization has thus far not meant transfer of control or even of controlling interest from government to anybody else. The government has sold stakes ranging from one per cent to 40% in 40 PSUs, but in no company has its stake fallen below the magic figure of 51% which is seen as conferring controlling interest. The privatization program is itself relatively new to the country. It is part of an ambitious process of economic reforms covering industry, trade, the financial sector and agriculture and also involving a program of macro-economic stabilization focused on the federal budget, which commenced in 1991. Privatization is seen as a necessary concomitant of deregulation of industry, necessary in order to enable firms in the public sector to compete and survive in the new environment. The major element in industrial deregulation has been the Industrial Policy Statement of June 1991 which, among other things, drastically reduced the number of sectors of industry reserved for the public sector from 17 to eight. This list has since been truncated to four: defence, atomic energy, specified minerals and railway transport. Moreover, all the areas earlier reserved for the public sector have also been exempted from the system of industrial licensing under which the private sector was required to obtain a license from the government in order to start a business. This has naturally exposed the hitherto cossetted public sector to competition on a scale to which it has not been accustomed. Disinvestment, while raising revenues for the government, has been perceived as necessary in order to subject PSUs to market discipline and to ensure that they raise their standards of performance. Disinvestment of equity in 40 PSUs has raised about Rs12 billion ($ 2.8 bn) so far. Only profit-making enterprises have been offered for sale. In the first round of disinvestment, the government offered “bundles” of shares of various PSUs (each bundle carrying a notional reserve price) to local institutions. Later, the bidding process was opened to foreign institutional

the process was guided by recommendations made by a Committee on Disinvestment set up in 1993. disinvestment has been merely a revenue-raising affair for the government. the mode of disinvestment. One is that valuations processes were unsound and that the government gave away its stakes too cheaply. as bidders do not believe the firms’ performance would improve significantly with small government stakes being offloaded. The Disinvestment Commission has formulated a broad approach to disinvestment and also made specific recommendations in respect of 19 out of 50 PSUs referred to it by the Core Group.investors and the public at large. it is contended that the government’s reluctance to disinvest more than 51% and relinquish control over PSUs has meant that the government has been unable to attract suitably priced bids. The Commission has broadly distinguished between a “core” group and “non-core “ group of industries. with little thought being given to the requirements of the firms concerned. the Disinvestment Commission (note the reluctance to use the dreaded P-word). the government constituted in 1996 an independent body. selection of financial advisors to facilitate the process etc. The method of disinvestment was widened in 1996-97 when disinvestment was effected through both the GDR (Global depository receipts) route and public issue in the domestic market. petroleum etc that are capital-intensive and where the market structure could be an oligopoply.9 bn) has been through the auction route. There have been several criticisms of the disinvestment process. In the “core” group are industries such as telecommunications. realizing the sensitivity in political terms of the whole process. After the initial round of disinvestment in 1991-92. to draw up a comprehensive programme of disinvestment over a 5-10 year period for public sector undertakings (PSUs) referred to the Commission by a Core Group of government secretaries. The overwhelming chunk of funds raised through disinvestment (Rs9. The Commission was asked to advise on such matters as the extent of disinvestment. thirdly. Later. power. The “core” group also includes basic industries in . two.

which PSUs have a considerable market presence and in which private sector presence is still limited. there are signs that political parties are willing to give a major push to privatization in the coming years. In the “non-core” group. which would include reduction in the government’s stake in some PSUs to below 51%.There are also unanswered questions about how control over managers would be exercised in instances where no dominant private owner emerges. Although the value of disinvestment in the last two or three years has tended to flag and realizations have fallen short of targets proposed in the annual budgets. Government-owned financial institutions and banks . another is the equally bold move to sell of 76% equity in the loss. offer of shares to the public. MNCs and family-managed Indian businesses. the Commission advocates sale of upto 74% of government equity. that is. For the “core” group. As for the 19 PSUs for which the Commission has made specific recommendations. However. there has been no attempt so far to assess the impact on PSUs of different degrees of disinvestment and to arrive at a judgement on the relative merits of full and partial privatization. a third is the government’s recent announcement that it is willing to sell 51% of its stake in Indian Airlines. The Indian corporate sector falls into three broad categories: state firms. The question of governance has considerable relevance in the Indian context. These are all moves announced by the current ruling coalition. the government would retain 51% of equity. whose most important constitutent had been implacable opposed to reforms while in the opposition.making Modern Foods India Limited to a private party. the Commission advocates selling government equity upto 49%. One sign is the recent offer of 26% of equity in Indian Petrochemicals Ltd (IPCL) through an advertisement placed in the London Economist. even as privatization gathers steam. these include strategic sale of a large chunk of equity to a private party (domestic or foreign). outright sale and deferment of disinvestment.

One of the interesting findings of Frydman et al (1997). 3)What are the basic distinctions between India and Japanese education system. once the government’s stake falls below 51 per cent.Which features of Japanese education system can be adopted and developed by Indian Education System to enchance the quality of education. the findings of our proposed study would be timely and could conceivably make a valuable contribution to the formulation of policy on future privatization. Where ownership is diffuse. and 4 years of university. This question has not been widely addressed in the literature. an individual owner or the state itself . This aspect needs to be addressed in planning for future privatization. All in all. 3 years of middle or junior high school. The schooling years in the Japanese education system are segmented along the lines of 6-3-3-4: 6 years of primary or elementary school. is that the privatization effect is best manifested when there is one dominant owner after privatization. 3 years of high school. cited earlier. private institutional player that are crucial to governance in the industrial economies are absent in the Indian context. as when ownership is distributed among workers.hold equity in companies. . given that large. a privatization fund. but they have thus far played a passive role in companies except in extreme instances of mismanagement. presumably because in the developed countries a certain acceptable level of governance can be presumed. We expect that our research will address this crucial aspect based on the experience so far in the Indian context and also in other contexts. the privatization impact is much weaker. whether it is a foreign owner. Questions have been raised in the context of privatization about the accountability of professional managers at state firms.

i. based on Europeanmodels. the government has just announced (October 2005. Some-Statistics Japan has 23. Specialised schools may offer a five year programme comprising high school and two years of junior college. owes its origin to the American model 6-3-3 plus 4 years of university. A break from the past. 11. There are two options for tertiary education: junior college (two years) and university (four years). This system. An elementary school (from 6 years) and junior high school (3 years) education. 525 junior colleges. 5. however.However.633 elementary schools. Compulsory education covers elementary school and junior high school. and 14. offer a six year programme incorporating both junior high school and high school. modern public schools in Japan today are mostly co-ed(more than 99% of elementary schools).450 senior high schools.e.134 junior high schools. Many other features of the Japanese educational system. are however. A school year has three terms: summer. implemented by the School Education Law enacted in March 1947 after WWII. Daily Yomiuri) that it is intending to make changes in the Education Law to allow schools to merge the 6-3 division between elementary and middle schools. Many private schools. The school year begins in April and ends in March of-the-following-year.174 kindergartens (May . nine years of schooling are considered compulsory (see pages on legality of homeschooling). which are each followed by a vacation period. 995 schools for the handicapped. The key purpose for this change is to allow elementary and middle schools to pool or share their resources. 702 universities. winter and spring. with special regard to making available specialist teachers of-middle-schools-to-elementary-schools.

Suburban schools tend to be large with student populations ranging from around 700 to over 1. 23. The average class size in suburban schools is between 35-40 students.6% of elementary school students attend juku (mostly cozy family-run juku). The most common reason for sending their children to a private junior high school was that they wanted their children to achieve a higher level of academic achievement. while remote rural schools (19% of schools) can be single-class-schools.4 pupils per class in 1995.000 pupils.7 million students (May 2003 figures) were enrolled in educational institutions in Japan from the kindergarten to university levels.98%. children proceed to middle schools. Japanese children enter primary school from age 6. 2005 results of a survey-questionnaire sent to schools of 6th grade parents in 2 Tokyo wards showed:  Parents who select a private junior high school for their child tend to be parents with time and economic influence (homemakers or self-employed with one child) base their decisions and place top priority on academic achievement.2003 figures). The main reasons why parents choose such schools are high priority on academic achievement or because they wish to take their children out of the high school selection rat-race since such schools allow their students direct entry into their affiliated high schools (and often into the affiliated-universities). About 20. though the national average had dropped to 28. . about 5. From age 12. School attendance rate for the nine years of compulsory education is 99. 70% of teachers teach all subjects as specialist teachers are rare in elementary schools. At this point.7% of students attend private schools.

There are 710 universities (not counting junior colleges). and those whose children attended cram school four or more days a week accounted for 65. Other students are enrolled in the one or other of the 93 correspondence high schools or the 342 high schools that support correspondence courses. and personal guidance. Special education institutions exist: 70 schools for the deaf (rougakko). The most important criteria for these parents in selection were distance to school. Parents who select public junior high schools make their choice on the basis of location. Almost three-fourths of university students are enrolled at private universities. This number is considered to be inadequate. a small number of which are elite academic high schools.8% of the parents send their children to a juku or cram school. 107 for the blind (mougakko). 45% reported that a particularly important criterion was little incidence of bullying and truancy. indicating that bullying was a crucial consideration. A large percentage of parents (65.2%. Among parents who selected a public school outside the school district. The rate of students who advance on to senior high schools was 97. The rate of students who went on to universities and junior colleges was 44. A high-school diploma is a considered the minimum for the most basic jobs in Japanese societies. about three-fourths are enrolled in academic courses. Over 97% of high-school students attend day high schools.  90. environment and whether good friends also attended the school.8 %. incidence of bullying.1%) tend to select the school based on hearsay.0% in 2002. 98% of 15 year-old middle-school graduates go on to high schools or private specialist institutions. . One-fourth of students attend private high schools. 790 for those with disabilities (yougogakko).

homescience. Approximately 60% of their graduates enter full-time employment. But in recent times. Evening High School which used to offer classes to poor but ambitious students who worked while trying to remedy their educational deficiencies. Correspondence High Schools offers a flexible form of schooling for 1. technical subjects. such schools tend to be attended by little-motivated members of the lowest two percentiles in terms of academic achievement. 100 % of all students complete . Vocational High Schools that offer courses in commerce. These schools constitute mainstream high schooling.6% of high school students usually those who missed out on high schooling for various reasons. nursing and fishery. languages and computer programming. agriculture. but in reality send a large number of their students to private specialist schools (senshuugakko). which teach subjects such as book-keeping. political hot potato that is the history textbook controversy. Reform & Other Current Issues      Educational More than 90% of all students graduate from high school and 40% from university or junior college.High schools may be classed into one of the following types:  Elite academic high schools collect the creme de la creme of the student population and send the majority of its graduates to top national universities. Non-elite academic high schools ostensibly prepare students for less prestigious universities or junior colleges.

although entry into top ranks of the universities remains hugely competitive. there has been nothing done to ameliorate the entrance war for entry into these most notoriously difficult to enter institutions that are at the nucleus of an examination based on numerous subjects. than on simply possessing a university education. The emerging and foreseeable trend is that many universities will have to try to attract large numbers of foreigners or diversify or face closure. The Japanese educational system has been highly regarded by many countries and has been studied closely for the secrets to the success of its system. but that the quality of that higher education is now in question despite the many educational reforms that have been set in motion. However. in a society that places more importance on 'credentialization' or labelization or branding (gakkooreki) of the name of the school from which one graduates. . Higher-Education Japan has already begun to experience a population decline. In his book Challenges to Higher Education: University in Crisis Professor Ikuo Amano noted that the critical public is far from being satisfied with these series of reforms. no matter how much the selection process of the university applicants is reformed. especially in the years before the economic bubble burst.elementary school and Japan is repeatedly said to have achieved 100% literacy and to have the highest literacy rate in the world since the Edo period. It is also now said that a university education in Japan is within easier reach of students today. That is. The reason is that the selection process of old for entry to the so-called 'firsttier universities' remains fundamentally unchanged. with the result that many universities are already having difficulty maintaining their student populations. Furthermore. following the bursting of the bubble and the ensuing decade of recession. a number of issues have come under scrutiny both at home and abroad.

students will continue to strive to enter a small number of 'toptier' or 'brand-name' universities (gakureki) and the severe examination war will not disappear. Basic general degrees are four-year degrees. Japan has about three million students enrolled in 1. Postgraduate educational offerings are weak and the number of universities offering postgraduate programmes or a wide variety of programmes. Public universities are generally more prestigious than their private ones with only 25 percent of all university-bound students being admitted to public universities. Undergraduate students receive instruction via the lecture and seminar group method. of these. The 710 odd universities in Japan can be separated into 3 categories: highly competitive. with most public funds on higher education being spent on the national and . is small. the university entrance reform is a permanent issue for Japanese universities. The general degree may be followed by two-year Master's degrees (generally a combination of lectures and guided research) and then a three year Doctorate (largely based on research) where these are offered. a feature adapted from the American system. Each academic year begins in April and comprises of two semesters. over 70 percent are enrolled in private colleges and universities. Graduate education in Japan is underdeveloped compared to European countries and the United States with only slightly more than 7 percent of Japanese undergraduates going on to graduate school as compared to 13 percent of American undergraduates. Japan also has one of the largest systems of private higher education in the world. mildly competitive and noncompetitive (the schools that are first-tier being the infamously difficult to enter ones). compared to that in other industrialized western countries.200 universities and junior colleges and consequently the second largest higher educational system in the developed world. More than 65 percent of high school graduates continue their studies. Only about 10 percent of private institutions receive their financial resources from public funding. In this sense.

declining standards in education and the high school student's lack of interest in studying have lately been under spotlight. Despite the famed exam rigors and competitiveness. Brian McVeigh in his book Japanese Higher Education as Myth indicts the local university system as a de facto system of employment agencies or at best a waiting room before students hit the assembly line working world. attributed the economic success of Japan to the well-educated and highly literate population of Japan. While many western writers have.local public universities. as many critics have recently pointed. the key problems remain unresolved: the pyramidal-structure of the university system and entrance exam wars. Despite the institutional change and sweeping national reforms underway in response to these criticisms. . recent writings and studies tend to be far more critical. and. a reward for the hard work and having made it there. Some attribute this disinterestedness to the fact that academic effort no longer assured automatic rewards with the disintegration in the formerly stable and guaranteed lifetime employment system. time and time again. professors demand relatively little from their students. Japanese universities are considered to be the weakest link in the country's educational system. Japanese students are also widely known to traditionally consider their university days to be a social playground. Despite the impressive statistics. the centrally-controlled curriculum and lack of individuality and creativity of students as well as the lack of competitiveness in educational suppliers. lamenting the deplorable state and quality of higher education in Japan today.

Goodnow. It is designed to help students learn concepts for organizing information and to help them become more effective at learning concepts. It includes an efficient method for presenting organized information from a wide range of areas of study to students of every stage of development. ADVANCE ORGANIZERS . This model. built around the studies of thinking conducted by Bruner. and Austin (1967).MESE-056 TECHNOLOGY EDUCATIONAL 1)DRAW A LINE OF DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE CONCEPT ATTAINMENT MODEL AND ADVANCE ORGANIZER MODEL ALONG THEIR BASIC POSTULATES.WHICH MODEL IN YOUR OPINION IS MORE EFFECTIVE FOR TEACHING AT SECONDARY LEVEL.JUSTIFY YOUR ANSWER.

this model utilizes both the examples and non. and other media. concept has four elements: . (2)Examples. (3)Attributes(essential&nonessential). It is designed to provide students with a cognitive structure for comprehending material presented through lectures. However. formulated by David Ausubel (1963). It has been employed with almost every conceivable content and with students of every age. THE CONCEPT ATTAINMENT MODEL This model is closely linked to the Inductive Model.examples to illustrate the concepts. The Concept Attainment Model also suggests that learners construct their own comprehension of the lesson. therefore. it is useful in the sciences. if Inductive Model solely rely on the positive examples that represent the concept. Since hypothesis testing is particularly common to describe scientific method. This model is designed to help students reinforce their understanding of concepts and practice hypothesis testing. readings. has become one of the most researched in the information-processing family. when presentations are mixed with inductive activity. It can be easily combined with other models-for example. This model is designed to lead students to a concept by asking them to compare and contrast ELEMENTS OF CONCEPTS A (1name.During the last twenty years this model.

(4)Attribute-values. Thename is the term given to a category. The third and fourth elements of a concept areattributes and attribute value. Often we teach ideas that students already know intuitively without knowing the name itself. Although in the supermarket we often see a sign with the price . they can easily learn the name for it. If students know a concept. and their verbal expressions will be more articulate. dog. young children often put pictures of fruit together for the reason that they are "all things you can eat. however. The positive exemplars have something in common in the work they do in the sentence.ex amples. or processes. Fruit. Although the items commonly grouped together in a single category may differ from one another in certain respects (dogs. Exemplars contain nonessential attributes as well. refers to instances of the concept. vary greatly). government. For instance. the common features cause them to be referred to by the same general term. The negative exemplars do different work. for example. The second element. configurations. objects. ghetto are all names given to a class of experiences. Understanding a concept means knowing all of its elements. Essential attributes are the common features or characteristics that cause us to place examples in the same category. Part of knowing a concept is recognizing positive instances of it and also distinguishing closely related but negative examples." They are using one characteristic to describe the concept instead of the name or label.

) In phase two. The data may be events. 2. The units are presented in pairs. THE MODEL OF TEACHING SYNTAX Phase one involves presenting data to the learner. After this the teacher (and students) confirm or disconfirm their original hypotheses.per pound beside each type of fruit. . frequently have tassels). part of knowing a concept is distinguishing its essential attributes from its nonessential ones. Most concepts have attributes that are often associated with them. but are not essential to them (women's tennis socks." Learners are asked to compare and justify the attributes of the different examples. stories. for example. (Their hypotheses are not confirmed until the next phase. The learners are informed that there is one idea that all the positive examples have in common. Again. revising their choice of concepts or attributes as necessary.) Finally. objects. (The teacher or students may want to maintain a record of the attributes. or any other discriminable units. students may not know the names of some concepts but the names can be provided hen the concepts are confirmed. first by correctly identifying additional unlabeled examples of the concept and then by generating their own examples. Each unit of data is a separate example or non example of the concept. We can refer to cost as a nonessential attribute of fruit as it appears in the market. the students test their attainment of the concept. The instances are presented in a prearranged order and are labeled "yes" or "no. their task is to develop a hypothesis about the nature of the concept. people. pictures. they are asked to name their concepts and state the rules or definitions of the concepts according to their essential attributes. we know that this sign does not play a role in distinguishing fruit from other foods or objects.

whether they did so one at a time or several at once. SUPPORT SYSTEM Well-organized material is the critical support requirement of this model. This model provides guidelines for building (or reorganizing) instructional materials. and on the teacher's presentation and organization of the material. . and what happened when their hypotheses were not confirmed. on their critical faculties. and helping to promote a critical approach to knowledge. students will initiate their own questions in response to their own drives for meaning.In phase three. The effectiveness of the advance organizer depends on an integral and appropriate relationship between the conceptual organizer and the content. Ideally. some learners initially try broad constructs and gradually narrow the field. others begin with more discrete constructs. students begin to analyze the strategies by which they attain concepts.will depend on the learners' desire to integrate it with prior knowledge. The learners can describe their patterns: whether they focused on attributes or concepts. PRINCIPLES OF REACTION The teacher's solicited or unsolicited responses to the learners' reactions will be guided by the purpose of clarifying the meaning of the new learning material differentiating it from and reconciling it with existing knowledge making it personally relevant to the students. As we have indicated.

values. Prompt awareness of learner's relevant knowledge and experience. and problem-solving strategies. students explore human-relations problems by enacting problem situations and then discussing the enactments. . students can explore feelings. Phase Three: Strengthening Cognitive Organization Use principles of Promote active Elicit critical approach Clarify ROLE PLAYING MODEL In role playing. Together. Make logical order of learning material explicit. examples. to subject matter. Phase Two: Presentation of Learning Task or Material Present-material. Present organizer: Identify defining attributes. Provide-context. Several individuals have experimented with role playing. Repeat.SummaryChart: Advance Organizer Model SYNTAX Phase One: Presentation of Advance Organizer Clarify aims of the lesson. Make-organization-explicit. Maintain-attention. reception learning. and their treatments of the integrative reconciliation. attitudes.

Role playing is placed in the social family of models because the social group plays such an indispensable part in human development and because of the unique opportunity that role playing offers for resolving interpersonal and social dilemmas. Some students are role players. and whether there were other ways this situation could have been approached. As empathy. role playing. and discussed. even the observers are involved enough to want to know why each person reached his or her decision. anger. what the sources of resistance were. and affection are all generated during the interaction. and in developing decent and democratic ways of coping with these situations. others observe. if done well. acted out. This emotional content. Role playing as a model of teaching has roots in both the personal and social dimensions of education. When the acting out is finished. . sympathy. especially interpersonal problems. This version was formulated by Fannie and George Shaftel (1967). A person puts himself or herself in the position of another person and then tries to interact with others who are also playing roles. as well as the words and the actions. a problem is delineated. becomes a part of life. role playing is dealing with problems through action. It attempts to help individual’s find personal meaning within their social worlds and to resolve personal dilemmas with the work together in analyzing social situations.strategy are remarkably similar. become part of the later analysis. On its simplest level. The essence of role playing is the involvement of participants and observers in a real problem situation and the desire for resolution and understanding that this involvement engenders.

scribd. In the late 1990s. They are also looking to Canadians to share the benefits of their experience to help them to harness the new media effectively. This chapter will . however. Canada’s advantages are no longer as distinctive in this respect as they once were.The role playing process provides a live sample of human behavior that serves as a vehicle for students to: (1) Explore their feelings. values. are concerned that students recognize and understand their feelings and see how their feelings influence their behavior. Canada has played a prominent role in its development. The nation’s geographical vastness has caused it to attach particular importance to the educational development of its communities. (2) Gain insights into their attitudes. and perceptions. The Shaftel’s version of role playing emphasizes the intellectual content as much as the emotional content. We. as educators. Educational organizations in the developing world are rapidly becoming as well endowed with technology as Canada and are looking with cautious optimism on the educational opportunities of the Internet and multimedia. (3) Develop their problem-solving skills and attitudes. analysis and discussion of the enactment are as important as the role playing itself. With the emergence of each major communication technology.com/doc/14554184/Models-ofTeaching-Methods 2)DISCUSS WITH THE HELP OF SUITABLE EXAMPLES THE COMPLEMENTARY ROLE OF INTERACTIVE MULTIMEDIA(IMM) IN ENHANCING THE QUALITY OF TEACHING-LEARNING IN OPEN AND DISTANCE EDUCATION SYSTEM. Canada has been blessed with the funds to explore the uses of information technology for this purpose. REFERENCE:http://www. and. and (4) Explore subject matter in varied ways. unlike other countries of a comparable size.

the Internet and other computer-based multimedia will not have gone the way of the dodo as so many other educational technologies have done — wasted through unimaginative use and squandered through mismanagement. and. in the 1960s. It will examine the problems of maintaining the techniques and skills demanded by the educational media and the disappointments with which the history of educational technology is littered. Teaching the global village One of Canada’s first advantages in the modern age of information technology was its good fortune to have as favourite sons two of the most notable communications theorists of this century: Harold Innis and Marshall McLuhan.consider the ways Canada can work profitably with international partners to realize educational technology’s potential. From the 1920s to the 1950s. He suggested that the media would put an effective girdle around the globe. It is hopedthat by the time the chapter is read. transforming it into a “global village. Innis placed an interesting emphasis on the powers of transportation media to unite and transform culture (Innis 1950). 1964. In fact. inter alia.” and he identified the contribution of the media themselves to the messages they convey. McLuhan et al. fail as often as they succeed in delivering their intended messages. in stressing that the impact of a technology arises from the techniques associated with it. if misused. Innis had been even more specific on this question than McLuhan. Both of these influential Canadians made it self-evidently clear that media techniques would. the global importance of media in communications. Both thinkers drew attention to. . McLuhan led the world to think about the impact of the print and electronic media as no other contemporary thinker had done previously (McLuhan 1962. 1967).

the Internet began to assert itself as a new medium capable of carrying all the others. television and the Internet will doubtless merge into one. despite McLuhan’s prediction. the human voice. However. however. indeed. as any other son of a small-town Alberta community. It conveys sound. at that time. Thirty years later. Broadcast television. They may actually have been encouraged in this optimistic attitude by McLuhan’s prophesy of the global village. they have failed to take the teachings of McLuhan and Innis to heart. and the images of all other media. even if unproven. possibilities of each new medium. McLuhan pointed out. The Internet has taken over from television as the most powerful information technology. shade. One of McLuhan’s observations about television indirectly explains the Internet’s current potential. In the mid-1990s. McLuhan observed that television was. the global community soon discovered that the culture created by the broadcast media was as much one of warfare and pain as of enlightenment. this may be changing. no other medium could claim the same ability. blinkered as they tend to be by the exciting. it is the one who applies media in education. A new medium has emerged with such costeffectiveness and universality that it promises a greater level of international understanding than any previous medium. light. But in the 1990s. When McLuhan noted this. The debates about its appropriate use. is capable of carrying all types of aural and visual information. In the next 10 years. McLuhan surely must have realized that this village would not be all harmony and caring. colour. will . however. the one medium powerful enough to carry all the others. however. movement. the media have proven no more successful in creating a dominant educational perspective for the globe than they have been in creating any other form of universal enlightenment. television included.If there is one type of technologist who should be particularly aware of the possibility of messages being misunderstood. To the detriment of many educational technologists. and the hybrid will be a new supermedium for the next generation.

for use in educationaland social programs. Interest in every medium and pastime yet invented — snooker. north and south. in the educational corner of media communications. the “word” was carried by traveling actors and minstrels. .be the same as those that people have waged regarding the use of any communication medium for centuries. In the 1970s. cigarette-card collecting was held to be a similar danger to society. and the “Fogo Process” of Memorial University in Newfoundland (Gwyn 1972). Two of the most influential of these early programs were the “Challenge for Change” program. the “uses and gratifications” of media became a major criterion in the scholarly assessment of their social value (Blumler and Katz 1974). created by the National Film Board of Canada. Before that. Yet. the gratifications yielded by these media were unbeatable. The techniques they developed generated a new international awareness of the potential of media in community development. filling the minds of its male youth with no good thoughts for hours on end. evidence was amassed about the subtle impact of various media production techniques. pool. and now the Internet — has been regarded as a sign of a misspent youth at one time or another. Canada took an international lead in the design of effective techniques and processes for television’s use. To those who happily watched TV wrestling or sorted cigarette cards with their fathers on a weekend afternoon. a source of controversial material from its inception. no medium is better or worse than the content it conveys and the uses to which it is put. whose messages were considered every bit as pernicious as any TV program or pop song today. not merely at the broadcast level. Canadian film and video specialists took their cameras to record material in remote communities across the country. At the same time. video games. In the 1890s. Canada’s example in this respect has since been followed on every continent and has demonstrated that the techniques of the traveling player–educator are as effective in the late 20th century as they were in medieval days and as powerful when assisted by a video camera as when accompanied by a strummed lute. television. but also in the service of Canada’s many isolated communities. Before television was the printing press.

second largest in the world. Their own failure to create adequate resources to supply the medium with effective content. and it has demonstrated a distinctive theoretical and practical expertise in the use of every information technology yet devised. which is an understanding more commonly found in nations that cannot afford teaching tools as expensive as television or the computer but have become ingenious in using far simpler devices. a tendency that leads them to overlook the possible reasons for • • Their own failure to adopt the appropriate applications. teachers are apt to move on from one promising medium to the next. failed because they were either too expensive or too esoteric. Unfortunately.Numerous pioneering Canadian technologies have assisted in this process. The collective wisdom about the reasons for Canada’s adventurous spirit in the communications industry points to the following factors: • • • The nation’s vast political landmass. including some of the early pay-TV enterprises of the 1980s. on demand. In short. into homes and workplaces across the land. after their first failures to use it properly. or not esoteric enough. for example. Canada has had no shortage of innovative flair in the media and communications field and plenty of disappointments. The unusual range of the nation’s educational-media experience. In more affluent nations. In the 1980s and 1990s. has taught that effective education is as much a matter of communication process as of product. Other Canadian innovations. the Teledon and Alex systems both promised to bring useful audiovisual information. from urban to rural. The absolute need to surmount the communications and cultural problems that the vast landmass has created. and . each of these systems failed in the marketplace for want of adequate updated content. and The pioneering flair that brought many nations together as Canadians.

at a recent media conference (held. however. they may succeed. some Americans and Canadians decided that educational television is a medium manqué and that the tool of choice is now the Internet (World Bank 1996). They hope to emerge fromthis low point with new structures and priorities in place and new methods to attract a wider student revenue base. with a little extra effort. A computer with Internet software can be run from the cigarette-lighter socket of a jeep in the fields of Africa as easily as on the streets of New York (Baggaley 1997). This lament is heard increasingly as Canada’s educational institutions continue to suffer through their 1990s’ era of relative economic hardship. interactive access to information from anywhere in the world that has a supply of electricity.• Their own failure to account for the classroom processes needed to enable students to efficiently interpret this content. For example. On this basis. the “developed” and “developing” worlds are drawing nearer to one another with remarkable speed. The Internet as a supermedium The Internet is the first medium to allow unimpeded. and Canadian scholars who take sabbatical leave in parts of the developing world are shocked to find that the facilities there are often superior to those of their own universities back home. incidentally. can they have any greater hopes of harnessing the Internet? If they heed the lessons of their previous successes and failures. . It allows the world’s students and teachers to share information previously inaccessible to them. It can communicate by increasingly inexpensive satellite means from either of these locales to the other. The Internet can bring live music and comment from the radio stations of the world to one’s desktop. But if educators have failed to make efficient use of the rich television medium over the years. it can carry the images of television and can be carried on it. as even a cynic would have to admit that the Internet has some new advantages. on the Internet). and distance-education programs and institutions are developing around this concept on every continent.

If the only adequate medium for teaching a particular . not just the classroom handouts. however. almost in unison. The lack of shared institutional perspective among the university’s administration and faculty led to the abandonment of its distance-education plan. faculty members throughout the university recognized the importance of developing distance-education courses for delivery by television and the Internet. The pedagogical approaches of traditional institutions do not readily lend themselves to media delivery. To achieve this. For example. but also a text containing the spoken words and illustrations. A teacher who has been accustomed to entering a classroom and lecturing extempore can be shocked to find that delivery at a distance requires all course materials to be prepared in advance. The current demise of educational television as a popular institutional medium is largely due to the unforeseen complexity of its production process and the inordinate amounts of time and resources needed to produce an adequate supply of programing. one Canadian university recently stated that it needed to increase student numbers to augment revenues and fulfill its obligation to offer degree certifications to students in remote parts of the province. they still face the hurdle of generating a continuous supply of effective teaching materials. If the educational institutions succeed in creating a technological infrastructure for their course delivery.For this purpose. although it was identical to schemes bringing new revenues into universities and colleges across the continent. A need for university cuts. and the institutions themselves often lack a cohesive view of the steps they need to take in developing or converting their courses for this purpose. for each lecture. even the largest of universities do not possess the ability to implement an online strategy overnight. the benefits of online and distance-based course delivery and the Internet’s unique ability to carry it. led simultaneously to the closure or restructuring of programs throughout the university. Canadian educational institutions are extolling. The challenge of placing educational programs on the Internet will be no less taxing. including the one department with the human resources needed to create the required mass of distancebased course materials. However.

chat rooms and other electronic means — is a demanding proposition for professors . The vocal opposition that this prospect is likely to generate will be sufficient to sink many distance-education efforts. At present. picture. and copyright clearance needs to be secured for the use of every passage. the materials have to be kept up to date. In general. . whatever the merits of the opposing arguments. “is that teaching via the Internet — using e-mail. Ironically. However. teachers would no longer be necessary (Robertson 1998). that information technologies will make them redundant. or diagram created by other authors. teachers who have not experienced the logistic burden that educational automation involves are apt to voice the opposite fear. In addition. this is clearly no less time consuming and unrealistic via distance media than via conventional means. producing this can tax the time and patience of the greatest media enthusiast. For example. p.topic is television. Robertson stated that by 2000. “The problem. the addition of technological bases for teaching seems to have given rise to an assumption that teachers can now return to the timehonoured one-on-one model. and mentor networks and that without schools to staff. Even institutions with a specific distanceeducation mandate are feeling the pressures that online delivery creates. a 1998 survey at Florida Gulf Coast University revealed that a majority of faculty are distinctly opposed to its use in their teaching. and teachers may be unable to use many of their favourite slides and quotations when they move their materials online. the teacher may also be challenged to produce a fully featured videotape for every class. to the teachers of Florida State and elsewhere.” smart agents. Indeed.” the faculty members said. and even with the assistance of an expert institutional media service. students would be learning with the help of “virtual communities. . . F1). effective distance education involves far more work for the teachers than might be expected. copyright clearance of course materials for electronic delivery is by no means automatic (see the next section). because of the large majority of student–teacher contacts” (McKinnon 1998.

but as a forum for interactive communication. Managers on the road and in the air will videoconference with hundreds of staff members at their desks. as being too full of poor programing and advertising to be educationally respectable. as was an earlier conception of television. By 2000. but this move will be resisted as faculty members point out that other institutions’ materials are inappropriate for their students. however much its producers and presenters longed for it. interactive medium. a high-quality. the Internet may become a completely cost-effective. which will continue to develop extremely efficient training materials distributed via CDROM and other multimedia delivered on the Internet and the World Wide Web. It is in the commercial sector where the Internet’s most prized ability will be maximized: its ability to enable all sides of a communication link to interact. If the function of media is seen as being to generate communication processes. The main users of the Internet for information delivery will be the corporate sector. not as a means to produce old-style productions. for example. Internet technology will be capable of providing untold new advantages: transmitting. and if we are not careful. Last-ditch attempts will be made to share Internet programing among higher education institutions. The Internet. and teachers will begin to use educational technologies in a new way. Phone-in programs and talkshows were the best it could achieve by way of audience participation. will make each medium it carries fully interactive. thereby allowing them to combine personal and impersonal forms of distance-based teaching as appropriate. The 1990s’ conception of the Internet will be discarded. rather than products.It is to be hoped that moderation will prevail and that solid evaluation studies will lead to a sensible harnessing of the new media. capable of linking teachers and students as effectively . families and friends will unite around the world for fireside chats on each others’ television sets. At this point. The lack of effective interactivity was television’s major limitation. however. the wheel of invention will have come full circle. live audiovisual image of the teachers themselves. the new media will be used as unimaginatively as educational television was used in the 1970s.

such as the Internet. The international move to distance education However. just as they did previously in identifying techniques for the use of video and film in remote communities of Newfoundland. and the international benefits will be reciprocal. Otherwise. opportunities for international collaboration. Canada can play a major role in anticipating the pitfalls of media-based education and helping to optimize its international benefits. If the history of educational technology holds true. learn about the innovative educational applications of low-technology media developed by less affluent nations before acquiring the means for high-technology education. the Internet will be far from the supermedium it promises to be. In educational collaborations involving the Internet — which all nations are discovering more or less simultaneously — the gap between “developed” and “developing” will speedily close. and interested in. and the Canadian north. and they rate international development projects highly (fifth out of 18) among their priorities for international collaboration. Quebec’s Telé-Université and the Athabasca University of Alberta are small organizations by comparison with the “mega” distance-education universities of other countries (Daniel 1997). and they can also apply their . but they have been in operation for longer than most of their larger cousins and are no less adept at survival. Canada can help to make them work and. and the virtues of the Internet will be forgotten in the excitement of a new wave of information media.at a distance as in the classroom. Of particular value in this respect is the fact that Canada is home to world-leading institutions that have delivered their courses by communications technologies since the early 1970s. They can each give ample advice on how they designed and sustain their infrastructures for producing high-quality teaching materials. As other nations establish the technological infrastructures for development projects. Knight (1995) indicated that Canadian universities are increasingly aware of. Canadians can advise on the use of new media. in the process. the old mistakes will be repeated. Saskatchewan.

college.” This particular danger of technology-based education is well recognized by educators at distance-education institutions. many school systems have turned to Convergence to provide education virtualization. Microsoft services and enterprise storage are all primary skills that contribute to improving school . and university entities.JUSTIFY THE STATEMENT. Convergence’s core competencies of virtualization. Convergence technologies are meant to make our lives easier.ca/cp/ev-29568-201-1DO_TOPIC. enterprise storage and Microsoft based solutions for local. especially those with an open-learning mandate. While each school system is different. like the iPhone. like Google. county. educators and media commentators are questioning whether the convergence trend is healthy. and includes large nationally accredited universities. As enrollment increases. Convergence Technology Consulting has performed a number of virtualization. They are certainly having an impact on postsecondary education. nationally and at Dartmouth. It then takes a fanciful look at what might happen if we let convergence go too far. But at what cost? In an age where individual software and hardware have a myriad of functions in educational and daily life.idrc. The education IT consulting that Convergence has provided before has ranged from a single charter to entire county school systems. To this end. or are at least being stretched further than ever before.html 3) “CONVERGENCE OF TECHNOLOGY “ IS CONSIDERED AS THE MOST APPROPRIATE STRATEGY TO USE TECHNOLOGY IN EDUCATION”. Convergence refers both to the consolidation of information into a small number of sources. REFERENCE:http://www. budgets seem to be decreasing. This article considers first the impact of convergence on education.experience of bringing effective media education to remote and underprivileged communities as they show newer institutions how to avoid the cardinal sin of educational technology: its tendency to polarize society into “haves” and “have-nots. and the evolution of multi-functional hardware to handle this information.

global warming and species extinction." and the myriad challenges of a significant segment of global population without sufficient food. of education. whether they be a university or a multinational corporation. peoples. and education virtualization projects. Convergence in Research — the Golden Triangle Let me begin with research. increasingly are beginning to focus on the convergence of technologies. Convergence is occurring in education. or forest fires." as was the case throughout the Cold-War. Much thought of those involved in research occurs within the context called the Golden Triangle of research encompassing Information technology — Biotechnology — Nanotechnology. No longer are we contending. in all of its meanings. with a single. I would like to speak of convergence within the context of research. This said.network infrastructure. "terrorism. is global and multidisciplinary. of cultures. values. cultures. inform each other. Convergence is marking the global marketplace. education. for instance. governments. change each other. But this convergence has a broader reach than convergence of technologies. . for instance. and health care. I hope that my observations about convergence may find relevance with you as you lead a global business in a global marketplace in a global world.echnological institutions. Italy. convergence becomes a force that is beginning to affect and to undergird most of human endeavor. This new world. of course. and Switzerland). Convergence speaks to the way various elements play off of each other. we hardly need be reminded. both drives and derives from all of these trends. geographic "adversary. philosophies. power blackouts (Northeast USA. and ultimately form a synergy creating what is new. Our new "opponents" are what we might call "threats without borders" — SARS and AIDS. And convergence is occurring among peoples and among cultures. Tonight. Convergence. It is evolving new configurations and relationships between and among nations.

Take three events which have occurred within the last three months:

On November 12, IBM held an industry leadership forum in San Francisco where the focus was on "on-demand" computing, the ability to receive computing cycles, and their attendant capabilities, at the time and to the extent that they are needed. In September, Dr. Elias A. Zerhouni, Director of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), laid out a series of far-reaching initiatives known as the NIH Roadmap for Medical Research. It is intended to transform the nation's medical research capabilities and to speed the movement of research discoveries to improve health. And, on November 25, Congress sent to the President the 21st Century Nanotechnology Research and Development Act of 2003, establishing the National Nanotechnology Initiative and authorizing nearly $4 billion over the next four years for research and development in this evolving field.

And so, each of these events represents one leg of the three elements of the Golden Triangle of Research: Information technology — Biotechnology — Nanotechnology. Each of these three research "legs" represents a convergence, itself, of inter- and multi-disciplinary forces in and of themselves, creating new discoveries and often, new science. It is not likely that I need to define the three "legs" of the golden triangle of research for this audience, but as a scientist, I am aware that it is important that we start on common ground.

Information technology: Information Technology (IT) encompasses all technologies used to create, exchange, store, mine, analyze, and evaluate data in its multiple forms — including some not yet conceived of. It is the technology that is driving "the information revolution," and is the driving force in every industry today — transforming most, and enabling new areas of research.

Biotechnology: Aspects of biotechnology play a part in research endeavors from brewing beer to developing insectresistant crops to cloning. Using the basic components of life (such as a yeast cell or a length of DNA), biotechnology techniques can create new products and new manufacturing methods. Nanotechology: Nanotechnology is the science of manipulating and characterizing matter at the atomic and molecular levels. It is one of the most exciting scientific fronts today, and considered by many to be the next industrial revolution. It is an area of scientific discovery with the potential to enable a wealth of innovative technologies in medicine, information technologies, energy production, national defense and security, food, agriculture, aerospace, manufacturing, and sustainable environments.

Convergence-in-Information-Technology The concept of convergence, of course, has been used in recent times to characterize what is happening in information technology. Convergence, in this context, entails the merging of data, voice, and video infrastructure. This will allow for new functionality and new opportunities.

There continues to be an explosion of data. One estimate is that we have increased the total amount of world wide production of original information by 69 percent in just the last three years. This creates unique challenges in storage, in synthesis, in analysis, in mining and utility. There will be huge demand for distributed sensors in large systems, local control, and global monitoring. For example, there are many who believe that this year's Northeast Blackout could have been prevented with better distributed sensors, monitoring, and control systems. "On demand" computing is the trend towards "utility computing." Similar to an electrical appliance that receives electricity on demand when plugged into the grid, utility computing will allow computing cycles and information transfer when plugged into network.

Emerging from an undercurrent in the gaming industry will be a trend toward more and more systems and algorithms being massively parallel, allowing much cheaper components (e.g., gaming systems, simple processors, etc.) to be deployed in very large arrays. Smart networks — networks, themselves, will have much more intelligence than in previous generations and thus will enable grid computing (and on-demand computing). Certainly, distributed development and leveraging resources is a central theme — open source software whose underlying instruction set is open for public inspection and modification. Biometrics integrated bio/IT devices for convenience, IDs, etc. There are other examples which illustrate the ubiquitousness of IT. Technology alone is not enough.

At the IBM Leadership conference in San Francisco, GE CEO Jeffrey R. Immelt emphasized the need for improvements in both information AND process. (6 sigmabeyond) Research-Initiatives The promise of improved technologies and life-enhancing discoveries has prompted the federal government to invest in Golden Triangle research. In September, Dr. Elias A. Zerhouni, Director of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), laid out the NIH Roadmap for Medical Research. Dr. Zerhouni, who became NIH director in May of 2002, early on convened a series of meetings to identify both the major opportunities and the gaps facing 21st century biomedical research. It was an exercise in convergence since there were many areas that no single Institute at NIH could tackle alone. The resulting road map is a strategic approach to biomedical research that will have great impact on the health of all Americans. The roadmap features 28 initiatives under three main themes:

The need to understand complex biological systems;

The need for scientists to move beyond the confines of their own discipline and to explore new organizational models for team science; The need for the scientific community to recast, entirely, the system of clinical research to develop new partnerships among organized patient communities, community-based physicians and academic researchers.

Over the years, clinical research has become more difficult to conduct. However, the exciting basic science discoveries currently being made demand that clinical research continue and even expand, while at the same time improve efficiency and better inform basic science efforts. Biotechnology research enables, e.g. functional tissue engineering which studies the properties and functions of living tissue with the goal of creating replacement tissues and organs that augment or substitute for damaged tissue. Such replacements may include combinations of inert and biological/physiological materials. A longer term goal is to develop the ability to monitor bone, blood flow, cartilage, ligaments, and arteries and to give sufficient warning for preventative or regenerative medicine. Another biotechnology research area involves Integrative Systems Biology — a quantitative modeling of complex biosystems at the molecular, cellular, tissue, and systems scales. Mathematical formulations of molecular, genetic, and metabolic processes underlying cellular behavior link to new types of experimental methods and approaches. Other elements are Biocomputation and Bioinformatics and Biocatalysis and Metabolic Engineering The biotechnology industry has more than tripled in size since 1992, with revenues increasing from $8 billion in 1992 to $27.6 billion in 2001. The U.S. biotechnology industry currently employs 179,000 people — more than all the people employed by the toy and sporting goods industries. Biotechnology is one of the most research-intensive industries in the world. The U.S. biotechnology industry spent $15.6 billion on research and development in 2001.

The 21st Century Nanotechnology Research and Development Act of 2003 was signed by President Bush on December 3. The act establishes a national nanotechnology initiative, and authorizes nearly $4 billion over the next four years for research and development. The act creates research centers, education and training efforts, research into the societal and ethical consequences of nanotechnology, and efforts to transfer technology into the marketplace. These roadmaps and research initiatives represent a convergence of forces at the governmental and research levels which reflects the convergence of disciplines inside, if you will, the individual research sectors of the golden triangle of research. Nanotechnology has the potential to create entirely new industries and radically to transform others, especially as the basis of competition. As such, it is one of the areas of innovation most worthy of investment. The National Science Foundation estimates that nanotechnology applications may be worth more than $1 trillion in the global economy in little more than a decade. New nanoscale applications are already in production including superior textiles, improved sunscreens, better dental bonding materials, high resolution printer inks, digital camera displays, and high capacity computer hard disks. And, by all accounts, this is just the ground floor. Nanotechnology heralds breakthroughs that will make steel stronger, and will carry microscopic devices through the human bloodstream to monitor disease and deliver exquisitely targeted treatments to specific organs or even specific cells. As these emerging scientific areas grow and expand, they increasingly overlap each other. As they do so, they begin to

Terahertz has a range of potential applications including medical imaging. This nondestructive method of inquiry and evaluation could help National Aeronautics and Space Administration officials examine the insulating foam that is applied to each shuttle's fuel tank prior to launch. including elements of a liberal arts education. and high throughput screening. genomics.inform each other. terahertz radiation already has been used to uncover small defects in a sample of Space Shuttle foam. This particular convergent enterprise leverages advances in molecular diagnostics and information technology Terahertz science and technology is another area of discovery at the cutting edge of convergence. with special emphasis on cultures and . Convergence-of-Education We need to educate our own citizens to work in a global environment. enzyme or antibody) with an electronic component to yield a measurable signal upon detection of hazardous bacteria or chemicals. proteomics. Using a technique pioneered by researchers at Rensselaer. To do so requires a rethinking and convergence of elements which define the educated individual. record. Terahertz is the frequency range which lies between microwave and infrared frequencies. forensic science. Biosensors fall into this category. Their function requires multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary approaches and the use of sophisticated computing tools. They have been touted as the cutting edge in medical diagnostics. yielding even greater discoveries. The field of pharmacogenomics is another example of exploration on multiple fronts converging in discovery. They are monitoring probes that include a biological component (a whole bacterium. and food safety. They can be created to detect. It would behoove us to educate our engineers and scientists more broadly. giving them a broader world view. and transmit information regarding a physiological change or the presence of various chemical or biological materials in an environment.

a national multiplication table. and values. and especially global leadership — involving team-based problemsolving and inter-and multi-disciplinarity. in many countries. among people of diverse languages and traditions.communication. and manufacture around the globe. assessment of market opportunities. who are educators. since this helps to foster their interest in ethics content and concepts. In order to have been successful. Interest in ethical issues is one of the "spillovers" of team-based problem solving and multidisciplinarity. in multiple time zones. Finally. as an educator and President of a research university. we must stir a component of ethics education. should enhance the practice of including students in undergraduate research. and education for execution. Science has always been global — imagine. negotiate. communicate. enabling them to think beyond our borders and beyond the borders of single problems. We need to educate our young people for leadership. ABET Engineering Criteria 2000 has built ethics into its engineering criteria for engineering education accreditation. I believe strongly that we must educate for entrepreneurship — educate for team-based market recognition. appreciation of differences and diversities. Into this mix. We. corporations have had to learn . if you will. utilization of vision. culture. Now it is the turn of business — corporations now conduct business. Convergence-of-Cultures This brings me to the last segment of the contemporary phenomenon of convergence — the convergence of cultures.

The number of engineering degrees more than doubled between 1974 and the mid-1980s. Degrees at the master's level in engineering have declined.8 percent is white and 76.635 baccalaureate degrees in engineering were awarded. The current SMET workforce.and to lead the way in multicultural communications and endeavors.6 percent. The degrees awarded in Computer Science and Engineering have steadily decreased from 1985 to 1995. And. the college-age population has declined by more than 21 percent (from 21. 81.3. Demographics In the last decade. In the 1990s the only fields in S&E showing an increase of graduates have been psychology and biological sciences. it increased to 19.0 million in 2000. but has since dropped 18. fields in which women are highly represented. well below the mid-80s high of more than 78. We can bring these lessons home — and we must — because the U. workforce is changing and many of the same factors which corporations have managed successfully overseas.S. they have been exceptionally successful.) Engineering enrollments are essentially flat. The minority population increased 35 percent overall. The increase in the biological sciences may . The number with S&E degrees reaching retirement age is likely to triple in the next decade. The current S&E workforce is aging.000).6 million in 1980 to 17. are now operative upon our own shores. In 2000. In 2001.4 percent is male. in part due to the decline in enrollment by foreign students. 63.4 million (1990 to 2000). Education In the last 20 years. the population in the US grew from 249 million to 81.

engineering. We need to experiment with a National Science and Mathematics Teacher Training program which would entail five-year contracts employing teachers for nine months in schools and three months in industry. A report from a subsidiary of the Council on Competitiveness — known as BEST. we must mine the talent from all groups — including the underrepresented majority comprising women and minorities. graduate degrees earned by foreign students had declined by 15 percent. There are added challenges in today's post-9/11 world as it is more difficult for foreign students to enter the US to study. many are choosing other nations schools for higher education. and many who might have stayed in this country are choosing to return home to increased job opportunities. The program would be enhanced with an advanced degree component to encourage teachers to become scholars in their disciplines. We need to attract a new generation of young people into the sciences and engineering — an underrepresented majority. As we do this.be related to the increase in women pursuing MDs. as our demographics change. mathematics. We need to build programs that foster mentoring and shepherd classes of talented students from middle school through high school and higher education — with special attention to the transitions where so many become derailed. In 1997. It has worked to identify BEST practices in nurturing women and minorities in science. or Building Engineering and Science Talent — has focused on this issue. At the doctoral level. Begin in middle school or earlier. and technology. foreign students earned 49 percent of the degrees in engineering and 36 percent in the natural sciences (2000). The report is slated to be released this winter and holds out the hope that we can learn and apply . their own countries are increasing their higher education offerings.

Perhaps convergence is a more ancient force — or impulse. Conclusion I would argue that the very convergence of the sciences and technologies is helping to drive the convergence of cultures. You basically have a global network of people from disparate cultures and very different perspectives . .what works. . or driver — than we now realize. Perhaps. . it is a fundamental [business] enabler because it is driven by having people come together from around the globe. Perhaps it is not. I made this point: "Think about how the whole open-source movement occurs. At the IBM Forum." I started out by commenting that convergence was a contemporary phenomenon. we are only now catching on to the power of convergence.

quality and access at multiple points in developing country education systems. The pressure to provide access and a quality education to learners partaking in 21st Century knowledge-based societies and economies is immense. these investments often go to waste. Our Strategy GeSCI has facilitated national multi-stakeholder consultative workshops in collaboration withMinistries of Higher Education and . By working with Ministries of Higher Education and Science and Technology to equip lecturers and instructors with the knowledge and skills they need to integrate ICT into their practice we know we are helping to address issues of relevance. However. Lecturers and instructors are pivotal agents in the drive to transform education systems.MESE-062 VOCATIONAL EDUCATION 1)CRITICALLY EXAMINE THE VARIOUS TECHNOLOGICAL SUPPORTS AVAILABLE FOR IMPARTING VOCATIONAL EDUCATION AND TRAINING(VET) THROUGH ICT Education for All and Knowledge Society agendas are challenging the institutional and human resource capacity of education systems around the world. Governments in developing countries have been responding to this pressure by investing in ICT for education. because lecturer and instructor capacity to effectively and appropriately use and integrate ICT is not addressed. Our Role We consider lecturers and instructors to be critical leverage points in the ICT in Education system. Ministries Higher Education and Science and Technoloy across Africa are now harnessing the power of ICT for Skills Development and Training to equip lecturers and instructors with the skills and knowledge to spur the development of an inclusive knowledge society.

and Ghana to determine ICT in Lecturer and Instructor competency needs. science. technology literacy (applying). Better skills and technology use can contribute to the efficiency and competitiveness of Ghanaian firms both in the formal and . Competency standards are critical to ensuring that lecturers and instructors are taught the same relevant material and that training programmes can be evaluated to determine their appropriateness and completeness. the Council for Technical Vocational Education and Training. has been spear heading the Ghana Skills and Technology Development Project (GSTDP) to support this government programme. including ICT. knowledge deepening (infusing) and knowledge creation (transforming) stages. and innovation for promoting economic growth and job creation. With support being provided by a number of development partners . ICT Lecturer and Instructor competencies were identified as a major challenge.Technical and Vocational Institutions in Kenya. technology. The expectation is that skills and technology development will support two different but related agendas: poverty reduction and competitiveness. The matrix. COTVET. We’ve been focusing on Standards and Competencies for Lecturers and Instructors with the help of the ICT TPD matrix. Policy makers have prioritised a cross-sectoral programme to harmonise and implement this agenda. To provide inputs and support to the Government. which was developed by GeSCI in 2009 is based on the UNESCO ICT Competency Standards and each framework in the matrix defines principles and models for ICT integration along a continuum of emerging (basic use). Ghana The Government of Ghana has placed within its national development agenda an emphasis on skills. Within this support a number of priority sectors have been chosen. GeSCI was appointed project coordinator by the World Bank for this project. Over the past year GeSCI has been expanding its partnership with the Ministry of Education to include support for Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET).

This programme includes. and strategic positioning of the skills provision. of the 500. and innovation (STI) policies and programmes and support improvements to technology development and diffusion at universities and public research institutes. The Ministry of Higher Education Science and Technology (MoHEST) and the Ministry of Youth Affairs and Sports (MoYAS) is implementing ICT in Technical Industrial Vocational Education and Training (TIVET) institutions with the aim of endowing youth with the skills necessary to achieve Kenya’s Vision 2030. In June the MoHEST and MoYAS in collaboration with GeSCI. a certification system based on competency-based training standards. among others. This component will strengthen governance and coordination of national science. thereby creating new job opportunities and reaching the poorest. The project consists of the following components: Component 1: Institutional Strengthening of Skills Development. technology.000 youth seeking employment annually. less than 25% are absorbed into the labour force. The objective of this component is to finance skills and technology development programmes in prioritised economic sectors through a demanddriven skills development fund (SDF) managed by COTVET. Component 2: Institutional Strengthening of Science and Technology Development. Kenya In Kenya. One of the factors cited as a contributor to unemployment is the lack of requisite ICT skills among graduating youth. Component 3: Financing of Skills and Technology Development through the Skills Development Fund. held a three day . Component 4: Project Management and M&EA project support unit (PSU) will be established within COTVET to support the implementation of the project.informal sectors. strong monitoring and evaluation (M&E) for skills development.

They also stressed that soft skills and communication skills. instigated by a complex set of reasons that included budgetary constraints and criticisms of the World Bank in the early 90’s on its direction and focus. Institutional Capacity: comprehensive statistical data on the needs and gaps of the institutions is not available. Participants continue to discuss the outcomes of the workshop on GeSCI’s 21st Century Learning Ning.workshop with the goal of identifying the lecturer/instructor ICT competencies for effective integration of ICT in education. teamwork. TIVET case studies from around the world and an institutional snapshot of ICT TIVET use in Kenya. decision making and problem based learning need to be sharpened in education institutions. Curriculum and Assessment: there is a need to synchronise the curriculum with industry requirements and with assessment criteria. The GeSCI ICT TPD Matrix was again used as thebasis for identifying and contextualising lecturer/ instructor ICT competencies. Presentations included a description of government plans to fund and equip Youth Polytechnics with ICT infrastructure. A panel discussion revealed that the private sector is keen to partner with the institutions and especially to reach out to rural schools to transfer industry knowledge. such as listening skills.. 2)DEFINE THE ROLE OF VOCATIONAL EDUCATION AND TRAINING IN NATIONAL GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT. that the quality of training was poor and that there was considerable mismatch between training and . A situation analysis carried out by GeSCI identfied the following gaps in the implementation of ICT in the education sector in Kenya: Quality and relevance of education: TIVET education and curriculum needs to be aligned with industry requirements. Technical and vocational education and training (TVET) is back on the development agenda of many African countries after years of benign neglect. Strategies for ICT integration need to be developed as these are currently not in place. The World Bank had argued at the time that the cost of technical and vocational education was too high compared with the returns to the economy.

A skilled workforce is a basic requirement for driving the engine of . One of the most important features of TVET is its orientation towards the world of work and the emphasis of the curriculum on the acquisition of employable skills. Cameroon for example intends to develop vocational and professional training to facilitate integration into the labour market. Another important characteristic of TVET is that it can be delivered at different levels of sophistication. Simply put. Guinea. Senegal. a fresh awareness of the critical role that TVET can play in economic growth and national development has dawned among policy makers in many African countries and within the international donor community. TVET delivery systems are therefore well placed to train the skilled and entrepreneurial workforce that Africa needs to create wealth and emerge out of poverty.the needs of industry. and prepare them for gainful employment and sustainable livelihoods. Ghana links vocational education and training with education of the youth and the development of technical and entrepreneurial skills. Lesotho and Rwanda focus on linking TVET to businesses while Malawi emphasises the need to promote self-employment through skills development. not only to the needs of different types of industries. since the beginning of the new millennium. However. the delivery of vocational education and training was not cost-effective. but also to the different training needs of learners from different socio-economic and academic backgrounds. Uganda and Zambia. Cote d’Ivoire talks about strengthening vocational training. Ethiopia. In its poverty reduction strategy document. Sierra Leone. Other countries that have prioritised TVET initiatives in their national development policy documents include Chad. The increasing importance that African governments now attach to TVET is reflected in the various Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers that governments have developed in collaboration with The World Bank. This means that TVET can respond.

industrial and economic growth. In Ghana. non-formal or enterprise-based. traditional apprenticeship offers the largest opportunity for the acquisition of employable skills in the informal economy. The conceptual definition of TVET cuts across educational levels (post-primary. formal TVET programmes are schoolbased. It is therefore important to keep in mind the transversal and longitudinal nature of TVET as we attempt to highlight the importance of this type of education and training. In West Africa in particular. the informal sector accounts for more than 90 percent of all skills training in the country. In order to place the discussion in the right perspective. The term “TVET” as used in this paper follows the 1997 UNESCO International Standard Classification of Education definition. TVET systems in Africa differ from country to country and are delivered at different levels in different types of institutions. knowhow and understanding necessary for employment in a particular occupation. which is education and training to “acquire the practical skills. polytechnics. and TVET holds the key to building this type of technical and entrepreneurial workforce.” It is important to note that TVET is not only about knowing how to do things but also understanding why things are done in a particular way. we shall first examine the current training and socioeconomic environment within which TVET systems in Africa operate. and apprenticeship training centres. enterprises. and even tertiary) and sectors (formal or school-based. and informal or traditional apprenticeship). In some countries. trade or group of occupations or trades. training models follow those of the . secondary. In all of Sub-Saharan Africa. including technical and vocational schools (both public and private).

and entrepreneurship. students enter the vocational education track at the end of primary school. This is because employment-oriented training requires inputs in human (qualified instructors) and material resources that are not available or are too expensive to provide in all junior secondary schools in a country or even in a cluster of secondary schools. Vocationalisation of the junior secondary school curriculum should therefore be viewed with caution.colonial power. Computer literacy is relevant to all occupations while the teaching of basic agriculture and entrepreneurship is not capital-intensive or too costly. corresponding to 6 – 8 years of education as in countries like Burkina Faso and Kenya. . The sceptics argue that technical and vocational education for employment is unlikely to be effective when delivered concurrently with general education in junior secondary schools. However. The duration of school-based technical and vocational education is between three and six years. which corresponds to 9 – 12 years of what is called basic education in countries like Ghana. this approach has met with some scepticism. or at the end of lower or junior secondary school. In general however. so far as academic progression is concerned and fit for those pupils who are unable to continue to higher education. depending on the country and the model. and Swaziland in an attempt to expose young people to pre-employment skills have incorporated basic vocational skills into the lower or junior secondary school curriculum. general agriculture or farming. Senegal. Nigeria. Some countries like Ghana. the vocational education track has the unfortunate reputation of being a dead-end. Mali and Swaziland. The only cases in which vocationalisation may be helpful is probably in the use of computers. In many countries. A good basic education provides a solid foundation for a good technical and vocational education.

transport. oversight responsibility is shared in general between the ministries responsible for education or technical education and labour or employment. health.000 in Tanzania and 250. in agriculture.g. The socio-economic environment and the contextual framework in which TVET delivery systems currently operate on the continent may be described by the following groups of indicators: i) Weak national economies characterised by low job growth. On the other hand. Ghana and Kenya. Globally. African economies face the daunting task of finding productive employment for 7 to 10 million annual new job seekers into the labour market over the next few years. and a growing labour force:The per capita income of most Sub-Saharan African countries (outside South Africa) is less than US$400. etc. . In spite of the large variety of training programmes. from hairdressing to electronics and automobile repair. including Botswana.000 in Zimbabwe. it is estimated that about 500. the place of TVET in the overall school system in many countries is marginal both in terms of enrolments and number of institutions. high population growth.000 young people add to the labour force each year in Kenya. Although the economy in a few countries. the annual real growth rate in many countries is less than 2%.What type of governance structures do we have for managing TVET in Africa? In many countries. limiting the prospects for employment creation. is growing at a respectable rate of more than 5%. as many as 700. although some specialised vocational training programmes (e. This huge deficit in the employment statistics is not unrelated to the high population growth rate of African countries and the increasing number of school leavers arising out of national initiatives of the past decade or two to achieve universal primary education.) fall under the supervision of the sector ministries.

In many African countries. Average completion rates are 80 – 90% for primary school. unskilled and unemployed youth: Although some progress has been made. In Ghana. The vast majority of the workforce is in the services and agricultural sectors. non-wage employment sector. large numbers of graduates coming out of the formal school system are unemployed. with the notable exception of South Africa and Mauritius. And only 1 – 2% of the college age group actually enter the universities and other tertiary institutions. In Tanzania. 49.ii) Shrinking or stagnant wage especially in the industrial sector: employment opportunities Apart from Botswana. about 85% of the workforce is in the informal. is also low with only a few countries having a gross enrolment rate of over 50%. the industrial labour force is less than 10% in most African countries. where TVET is normally provided. and about 20% for senior secondary school.9% have had any vocational or technical training. the illiteracy rate in many countries is still high at over 50%. The average school completion rates in Africa are such that many young people drop out of the school system before they have acquired any practical skills and competences for the world of work. iii) Huge numbers of poorly educated. Of significance to TVET is the fact that enrolments at the secondary school level. 30 – 40% for lower or junior secondary school. for example. iv) Educated but unemployed college and university graduates: In almost all countries in Africa.1% of the total workforce is illiterate and only 3. although opportunities for skilled workers do exist in the economy. Ghana and South Africa. Ivory Coast. less than five percent of the labour force is educated above primary school level. This situation has brought into sharp focus the .

which is often the only means for the rural poor and the economically disadvantaged to learn a trade is marginalised. and the further education of TVET graduates. In the informal sector. Mauritius. and the absence of a common platform for developing coherent policies and joint initiatives. recognition of prior learning. Botswana. South Africa. vi) Low quality: . unregulated. with a multiplicity of testing and certification standards. unregulated and fragmented TVET delivery systems: Except for a few countries (notably. traditional apprenticeship. Critics argue that the lack of inputs from prospective employers into curriculum design and training delivery in universities and colleges is partly responsible for the mismatch. Such fragmented governance structures do not promote effective coordination. Tanzania. Malawi. TVET provision in Africa is spread over different ministries and organisations. Another reason that is often cited for the incidence of high unemployment among graduates is the absence of entrepreneurial training in the school curriculum.mismatch between training and labour market skill demands. costeffectiveness. The diverse TVET management structures and the sharing of supervisory responsibilities by various government bodies and ministries account for some of the inefficiencies in the system. including NGOs and church-based organisations. Zambia. This situation has implications for standardization of training. and articulation within the system. because of the absence of a framework for mutual recognition of qualifications. quality assurance. sharing of resources. and Namibia). v) Uncoordinated. like duplication and segmentation of training. and lacks government support and intervention.

Inadequate instructor training.In general. the impression is sometimes created by governments that the primary objective of the vocational education track is to keep dropouts and “lockouts” from the basic and secondary school system off the streets. and practice by learners. obsolete training equipment. gender and economic inequities: Although access and participation in TVET in Africa reflects the gender-biased division of labour (justifying therefore the current efforts of gender mainstreaming in vocational education and training). viii) Poor public perception: For many years. the good technical and vocational schools are located in the big towns and cities. vii) Geographical. we should not lose sight of the economic and geographical inequities. appropriate workshop equipment. thereby limiting access to rural folks. technical and vocational education in Africa has been considered as a career path for the less academically endowed. In many African countries. children of poor parents are unable to afford the fees charged by training institutions. and lack of instructional materials are some of the factors that combine to reduce the effectiveness of training in meeting the required knowledge and skills objectives. with undue emphasis on theory and certification rather than on skills acquisition and proficiency testing. rather than project this type of training as an effective strategy to train skilled . This perception has been fuelled by the low academic requirements for admission into TVET programmes and the limited prospects for further education and professional development. Invariably. Economic inequity is a greater barrier to participation in technical and vocational education than gender. the quality of training is low. Worse. adequate supply of training materials. High quality skills training requires qualified instructors.

Gabon spent as much as US$1. Training institutions also do not track the employment destination of their graduates. Unit costs are necessarily expected to be higher in TVET institutions . In other words. The figure is a respectable 10 percent for Mali and 12. TVET programmes are very often not designed to meet observed or projected labour market demands.820 per TVET student. x) Inadequate financing: Only a few governments in Africa are able to finance TVET at a level that can support quality training.5 percent of its education and training budget on TVET while Ghana spends only about 1 percent. This situation has resulted in many vocational school graduates not finding jobs or finding themselves in jobs for which they have had no previous training. without any critical attempt to match training to available jobs. valuable feedback from past trainees on the quality of the training they have received and the opportunity for their experience-based inputs to be factored into the review of curricula and training packages are lost. The term “lockouts” refers to students who are unable to move up the educational ladder. In 1992. Non-targeted skills development is one of the major weaknesses of the TVET system in many African countries. Ethiopia spends only about 0.7 percent for Gabon. the use of tracer studies to improve the market responsiveness of training programmes is currently absent in many countries. Consequently. It must be recognised that TVET is expensive on a per student basis.workers for the employment market. The emphasis appears to be on helping the unemployed to find jobs. ix) Weak monitoring and evaluation: Current training programmes in many countries are supplydriven. not because of poor grades but because of lack of places at the higher level.

55 percent in Senegal). and costly training materials that are “wasted” during practical lessons. although Kenya with its over 600 Youth Polytechnics is a notable exception. cookery. enrolling about 10. . Women constitute the majority of students in private institutions (76 percent in Ghana.than in primary and secondary schools because of smaller student-to-teacher ratios. NGO and church or faith-based institutions. non-government provision of TVET is on the increase both in terms of number of institutions and student numbers. The Catholic Church is the single largest private provider of TVET in Ghana. which include for-profit institutions and non-profit. This trend is linked to the fact that private providers train for the informal sector (which is an expanding job market all over Africa) while public institutions train mostly for the more or less stagnant industrial sector. School-based government training institutions are generally fewer in number than those in the private sector. xi) Public versus private provision of TVET: TVET in Africa is delivered by both government and private providers. expensive training equipment. Private providers also target “soft” business and service sector skills like secretarial practice. government TVET institutions include 23 technical institutes under the Ministry of Education with a total enrolment of about 19. There are an estimated 500 private establishments of diverse quality that enrol over 100.000 students in its 58 technical and vocational training institutions. In Ghana.000 students. On the other hand. the first choice of students is the public vocational schools because of the lower fees charged and the perception of better quality.000 students and 38 National Vocational Training Institutes run by the Ministry of Manpower Development and Employment. In almost all countries. and dressmaking that do not require huge capital outlays to deliver. 60 percent in Tanzania and Zimbabwe.

while Church-based institutions tend to be based in rural and economically disadvantaged locations. It is important to distinguish within the private providers. In Ghana.8 million adults and children in Sub-Saharan Africa became infected with HIV during 2000. NGO and for-profit providers take up 18 percent and 36 percent. while Church. In Zambia. In some francophone countries (Cote d’Ivoire and Mali). an estimated 3. and Church/NGO providers (at 31 percent) make up the bulk of the private sector institutions. State support for non-government providers vary from country to country. respectively. xii) Threat of HIV/AIDS: The impact of HIV/AIDS on the labour force in Africa (and hence its potential effect on vocational and technical training and skills development strategies) is considered alarming in a number of countries. public TVET provision is at 18 percent. public institutions account for only 8 percent of the total number of institutions. information is scarce on how African governments have factored the threat of HIV/AIDS into their TVET programmes. for-profit private providers are often concentrated in the urban centres. Yet the . while enterprise-based training (at 22 percent). for-profit institutions (at 35 percent).For obvious reasons. government support is currently limited to the payment of salaries of selected key management and teaching staff and small grants for administrative purposes. According to the United Nations AIDS Prevention Agency (UNAIDS). non-government providers receive much more substantial support. bringing the total living with HIV/AIDS to 25. However. In Tanzania. in-company or enterprise-based training that is often dedicated to the sharpening of specific skills of company employees or is designed to train potential employees to perform professional tasks related to the company’s activities.3 million.

The need to link training to employment (either self or paid employment) is at the base of all the best practices and strategies observed world-wide. either as a semi-autonomous body or as an agency within a designated government ministry. adaptability. including Botswana (Botswana Training Authority – BOTA). Some of these African and international best practices in TVET delivery can be adapted and adopted by others for rapid industrialisation. Mauritius (Industrial and Vocational Training Board – IVTB). flexibility. The current status of TVET in Africa is not all about weaknesses. as well as economic empowerment and social mobility of the individual. because of the inevitable use of sharp cutting tools and machines for training. The third objective. is to develop TVET as a vehicle for rapid industrialization. TVET systems in a growing number of countries are undergoing or have undergone promising reforms that are designed to build on the inherent strengths of the system and respond to the needs of industry and the challenges of the 21st century. in view of the rapid technological advances taking place in industry and the labour market in general. presents a constant danger for the spread of the disease and puts the trainees at risk. effective vocational and technical training begins with the formulation of a national policy and the establishment of a national implementation body. which is particularly important for African countries. Namibia (National Vocational Training . Invariably. Such agencies or National Vocational Training Authorities have been established in many countries.technical and vocational training environment. practical skills and attitudes for gainful employment in a particular trade or occupational area. and life-long learning have become the second major objective of vocational and technical training. In recent years. The primary objective of all technical and vocational education and training programmes is the acquisition of relevant knowledge.

Training Authorities. 70% of all school leavers. Training also includes the inculcation of shared cultural values and attitude development. The dual system of vocational training in Germany allows for learning to take place in a vocational school and in an enterprise concurrently. have the responsibility to develop national vocational qualification frameworks and proficiency levels as well as standards for validation of training. These are: enhancing the . Ghana has also recently passed an Act of Parliament that establishes a Council for Technical and Vocational Education and Training (COTVET) which will have overall responsibility for skills development in the country. aged between 15 and 19 years undergo training under the dual system. Vocational and Entrepreneurship Training Authority – TEVETA). five broad strategic objectives will have to be met. including NGOs and Church Based Organisations (CBOs) are represented on the Council. In general. however. a National Manpower Council ensures that training is relevant to the needs of the labour market. From outside Africa. Private training providers. if the industrial fabric in Africa is sufficiently developed and versatile to support the German dual system type of training. The dual system promotes the linkage of vocational training to the world of work. certification and accreditation of training institutions. It is doubtful. Tanzania (Vocational Education Training Authority – VETA). The Council is expected to establish an Apprenticeship Training Board to link non-formal and informal vocational training to the formal TVET sector. In Singapore. How then can technical and vocational training be promoted in Africa in order to achieve the strategic policy goal of stimulating industrial and economic growth? In my opinion. and Zambia (Technical Education. through their various specialised organs and occupational advisory committees. Approximately. two training models stand out for mention: the centralised Singaporean model and the dual system practiced in Germany.Board – NVTB).

Mauritius. Although the tax level is generally less than 2 percent of the enterprise payroll. Other requirements include relevant textbooks and training manuals and qualified instructors with experience in enterprises. since such categories of workers are also in high demand in the labour market. promoting flexibility of training and life-long learning. Traditional apprenticeship. is competency based. Training levies are in operation in several African countries. Mali. Competency Based Training (CBT) can also enhance quality. assuring relevance and employability of trainees. adequate supply of training materials. But they could be suitably motivated to offer part-time instruction in technical and vocational schools. Technical education is expensive and quality comes at a price. A competency is the aggregate of knowledge. and practice by the learners. particularly as practiced in West Africa. There is no substitute for adequate funding when it comes to delivering quality vocational education and training. Well-qualified instructors with industrybased experience are hard to come by.quality of training. Training levies are in effect taxes imposed on enterprises to support skills development. it is the ability to perform a prescribed professional task. South Africa. a training fund can be established to support TVET from payroll levies on employers. and Tanzania. improving coherence and management of training provision. and enhancing the status and attractiveness of TVET. the cooperation of employers is necessary for the successful implementation of such a scheme. i) Enhancing the quality of training Training for high-quality skills requires appropriate training equipment and tools. including Cote d’Ivoire. skills and attitudes. In this regard. The concept of competency-based training is not new to Africa. CBT is actually learning by doing and .

levels. rather than as measuring up to an ill-defined standard. qualifications and funding. A suitable qualifications framework and inspection system will provide the necessary quality assurance and control mechanism within such a diverse system. Vocational students should be encouraged to build a portfolio of projects undertaken or items produced during training as evidence of proficiency and proof of ability to perform prescribed professional tasks. skills recognition and institutional arrangements) are very costly in terms of training infrastructure and staff capacity. A decentralised and diverse TVET system that includes school-based training. Labour market information systems and tracer studies which track the destination of graduates in the job market can . since the development and implementation of competency-based qualifications (involving standards. and apprenticeship training (both non-formal and informal) requires a strong regulatory framework for overseeing training curricula. enterprisebased training. Employability presupposes the acquisition of employable skills that are related to the demands of the labour market. Quality should be seen as “fit for purpose”. ii) Assuring relevance and employability of trainees Assuring the employability of trainees begins with effective guidance and counselling of potential learners in the choice of training programmes in relation to their aptitude and academic background. rather than a wholesale training reform strategy. It is necessary to incorporate the principles and methodology of CBT into the formal technical and vocational education system. Quality that is fit for purpose is dynamic and improves as the purpose or the job to be done moves up to a higher plane. However.by coaching. piloting of the CBT approach in a few economic and employment growth areas is recommended. standards.

provide useful feedback for the revision of training programmes so as to enhance the employability of trainees. The South African National Qualifications Framework provides such a mechanism for awarding qualifications based on the achievement of specified learning outcomes prescribed by industry. Strengthening the management and coherence of training provision cannot be complete without a National Vocational Qualifications Framework (NVQF) that ensures the transfer of learning credits and mutual recognition of qualifications within the entire system. Depending on the country. diploma. and bachelors degree qualifications to masters degree (level 9) and doctorate degree . Tanzania is developing a 10-level national qualifications framework (NQF). The development of a qualifications framework is not an easy task. ranging from craftsman qualifications (level 1 – 3) through technician. this agency could be under the umbrella of the ministry of education and vocational training or stand on its own as an autonomous body. and development partners. iii) Improving coherence and management of training provision In order to ensure coherence and management of training provision. civil society. teachers. alumni associations. It involves the active involvement of industry practitioners. Some countries have a single qualifications framework that embraces both vocational and general education and extends beyond vocational qualifications. including government policy makers. employers. public and private training providers. As an example. it will be necessary to establish a national agency or body to coordinate and drive the entire TVET system. which promotes the culture of life-long learning. In either case. and policy makers. the coordinating agency should include representation from all relevant stakeholders. The framework allows for accumulation of credits and recognition of prior learning.

This is because the skills of the workforce can be continually upgraded through a life-long learning approach. For this to happen. The status of technical and vocational education can also be enhanced by upgrading polytechnics and polytechnic-type nonuniversity institutions to offer technical or “skills” degrees. Technical and vocational education should be seen as a valid passport to a good job and not as a second best choice or the only educational route for the academically less endowed. whether in the formal or non-formal system. v) Status and attractiveness of TVET Enhancing the status and attractiveness of TVET will involve changing perceptions and attitudes of the public about technical and vocational education. the use of role models in TVET and the involvement of successful entrepreneurs in motivation campaigns. The trend world-wide is to strengthen polytechnic institutions and their role in industrial and technological development. iv) Flexibility of training and life-long learning Life-long learning has a beneficial effect on the development of a high quality TVET system. however. especially in schools. will be necessary. An embarrassing shortage of role models is one of the banes of TVET.award at level 10. non-formal and informal. re-engineer their training programmes for greater relevance and higher . too early to evaluate the Tanzanian experience or recommend it to other countries. Life-long learning also involves the recognition of prior learning. This also means that learners who have had limited access to training in the past can have a second chance to build on their skills and competences. It is. A National Qualifications Framework can provide the needed flexibility and coherent framework for life-long learning within the entire TVET system through the creation of equivalent qualifications across all the sub-sectors of vocational and technical training: formal.

The Kenya Government has also decided to follow this positive trend of revitalizing polytechnic education and promoting skills training to the highest level possible. the acquisition of “industrial” skills is as important to Africa as the basic vocational and technical skills. the British Prime Minister once had this to say about globalisation: “You have no choice. this is inevitable. They are universal. and the migration of people. The process of globalisation is driven by the ease of information exchange.” Globalisation is characterised by the increasing integration of national economies around the world. In the advanced developing countries like Singapore and Malaysia. and services across national boundaries. goods. The challenge of globalisation for TVET in Africa is the tension it has created between developing skills for poverty eradication and skills for global economic competitiveness. For this reason. Tony Blair. Although the primary objective of technical and vocational training in Africa is to support economic growth and wealth creation for poverty alleviation through the acquisition of employable skills. a strategic approach to skills development on the continent cannot ignore the effects of globalisation. don’t respect tradition. and generally raise their status and attractiveness as higher institutions of choice for senior secondary school leavers. the forces of globalisation have not overlooked technical and vocational education and training. Korea and Singapore have been awarding “skills” degrees for many years now and Ghana has recently granted accreditation to two of its polytechnics to start offering degree programmes in a few technological areas. Japan. capital flows.quality. the . Like every aspect of human endeavour today. labour. These forces of change driving the future don’t stop at national boundaries. They wait for no one and no nation.

The sheer lack of skills of all sorts in Africa and the demands of poverty alleviation mean that African countries must pursue the development of skills at all levels of the spectrum (basic. ICT education therefore must form a strong component of all levels of skills training. secondary. At the same time. Modern society is characterised by the increasing application of information and communication technologies. and tertiary levels). FDI inflows. flexibility. globalisation can offer Africa opportunities for highlevel technical skills training through the process of technology transfer. Globalisation reinforces the imperatives of quality. These attributes constitute the education and training bench-marks for skilled human resource development in the knowledge-driven economies of today. can become important private sector training providers of high-level industrial skills within the TVET system of their host countries. and life-long learning. employees are regularly required to update and upgrade their knowledge and skills in order to remain abreast with the rapid technological advances in the workplace. technology-rich trans-national corporations.rise to economic prominence was supported by the development of high level technical skills. if suitably motivated. Interestingly. relevance. In the globalising labour market. the experience of these countries also shows that their industrial lift-off was preceded by high stocks of literacy and basic skills. However. with each country emphasizing the skill levels that correspond best to their current stage of economic development and the needs of the local labour market. technology-mediated learning. This is because a major dimension of globalisation is foreign direct investment (FDI) and the implantation of trans-national corporations in developing economies. the important requirement of building a society imbued with high stocks of basic numeracy and literacy skills cannot be ignored. accompanied by top-grade technical expertise and modern manufacturing machinery can trigger a . In effect.

a country can upgrade its industries and increase the skills stock of its technical workforce through FDI and the operations of technologically advanced multinational companies in the country. how competitive is the cost of a locally sewn dress against cheaper imported second-hand clothes? National policies should therefore take into account these and other globalisation-induced factors in designing TVET programmes and courses for industrialisation in an increasingly inter-connected world economy. Although the debate is still on as to whether globalisation helps or hurts. The activities of such companies may be directly or gently steered by government policy to include provision of high-level skills training and the establishment of collaborative practical research and innovative training programmes with the country’s higher education institutions.process of technology transfer. i) Linkage with other national policies and strategies . What are the key policy issues and strategies involved in the reengineering of an effective technical and vocational education system for industrialisation. skills accumulation and industrialisation in the receiving country. globalisation can also hurt the development of indigenous technology. there are five policy issues that cannot be ignored. economic growth and wealth creation? To my mind. What is the market for a locally produced wooden chair when the imported plastic version is cheaper? Again. However. particularly the universities and polytechnics. The downside effect of globalisation on technical and vocational education and training in Africa is the flooding of local markets with all manner of cheap goods and technology products from foreign countries.

such as UNESCO. Determining the demand for . It is therefore important for national TVET policies to create room for possible dovetailing into existing regional and international education and training policy frameworks and protocols. and modern infrastructure development. it will be necessary for each country to define and specify clear articulation lines between TVET and other sectors of the national economy in order to effectively link its TVET policy to other national strategies and policies in the area of education and training at all levels. TVET must be relevant and demanddriven. no country is an island. ADEA. National TVET strategies should take into account the education and training protocols of regional groupings like ECOWAS. and COMESA (where they exist). iii) Linkage with the world of work Since the ultimate objective of TVET is employability and employment promotion.Since technical and vocational education constitutes only one item of many on a country’s development agenda. This means that national TVET strategies in Africa must give priority to training in areas such as agriculture. SADC. and socio-economic development. and ILO. adequate housing. ii) Linkage with regional and international policies In the inter-connected world of today. ICT. data is required on the actual employability of TVET graduates. and those of acknowledged international agencies involved in education and skills training. In order to do this. rather than supply-driven and a stand-alone activity. and national food security are basic requirements for industrialisation. a reliable energy and water supply system. employment. available job opportunities. it is necessary to link training to the needs of the labour market. An efficient transport and communication network. and the evolving skills demands on the labour front.

instructor formation. and guidance and counselling of students and trainees. tracer studies that track the employment destination of TVET graduates. Information so gathered and analysed would then serve as inputs for the development of new or revised courses and training programmes. iv) Instructor training and professionalisation of TVET staff The professional and pedagogical competence of the technical teacher is crucial to the successful implementation of any TVET strategy. The function of a labour market information system or labour market “observatory” is to collect. indicative labour market information can be gathered from trade and employer associations. houses. labour market related reports produced by economic think-tanks. NGOs. Technical teachers may be suitably motivated through equitable remuneration packages and incentive schemes that may include government subventions and loans to teacher associations and special credit facilities for the teachers to acquire cars. employment agencies.skills is best achieved through country-specific Labour Market Information Systems (LMIS) and other survey instruments. not only to train but also to retain technical teachers in the system. equipment and learning materials selection. and feedback from employers. Governments should therefore make conscious efforts. as well as lack of trained research staff with adequate technical expertise to run the system. Training institutions can also conduct local labour market surveys in and around their localities. process and make employment projections from information provided by employment ministries and agencies and from demographic surveys. however. In the short term. as well as large public and private sector employers. . etc. An effective LMIS will be difficult to establish and operate now in many African countries for the simple reason that there is a paucity of data and information from which labour market trends can be captured.

. quality assurance and accountability frameworks. TVET is much more expensive to deliver.The delivery of quality TVET is also closely linked to the building of strong management and leadership capacity to drive the entire system. including qualifications framework. and micro-financing schemes. Development Partners: The World Bank and the African Development Bank. There is need therefore to spread the funding net as wide as possible to include: • • • • • • National Governments: Governments should allocate a respectable percentage of their national budgets to the TVET sector Employers: Employers. TVET system managers. both public and private. multinational projects. can support countryspecific projects. in particular primary and secondary education. professionals and policy deciders will therefore also have to be trained and their skills upgraded to enable them confidently drive the system with its various implementation structures. accreditation standards. Trainees: Equitable cost-sharing mechanisms and fees paid by students and trainees should help offset their training costs Training Providers: Training providers and institutions can raise funds internally through the operations of their production and commercial units Community: Local communities can make cash and non-cash contributions in the form of land and through community fundraising activities. assessment guidelines. v) Funding and equipping TVET institutions On a per student basis and compared with other levels of education. for example. should contribute to a training levy based on a percentage of their enterprise payrolls.

Sixty years after independent India adopted the centrally planned model of economic develop-ment. the Indian economy which for the past decade has been averaging unprecedented annual GDP (gross domestic product) growth rates of 8-9 percent. and belated awareness in the boardrooms of Indian industry about the country’s accentuating shortage of skilled employees — has vaulted vocational and skills education to the top of the nation’s education agenda. the inevitable outcome of continuous neglect of vocational education and training. Confronted with the highest in-service employee training costs worldwide. intensifying shortage of skilled workers and rising wages which are jeopardising India Inc’s cost-competitiveness in world . A confluence of factors — stubborn persistence of youth unemployment fuelling the rising incidence of Naxalite atrocities in India’s most socio-economically backward states. is abysmally low. chambers of commerce and Indian academia about stimulating vocational education and training to infuse employment-oriented skill-sets into India’s gigantic 509 million strong labour force. Suddenly there is growing concern and a flurry of activity within the councils of government.REFERENCE:http://www. manufacturing and service industries.org/index.php? option=com_content&view=article&id=119:technical-andvocational-education-and-training-forindustrialization&catid=930:occasional-papers&Itemid=93 3)CRITICALLY EXAMINE THE INITIATIVES TAKEN BY GOVERNMENT AND INDUSTRY ASSOCIATION IN IMPLEMENTING VET THROUGH PRIVATE –PUBLIC PARTNERSHIP MODE IN INDIA FOR THEIR RELEVANCE AND EFFECTIVENESS. is experiencing the paradox of a massive — and growing — shortage of skilled and sufficiently trained personnel in agriculture. and the 100 million children and youth enroled in schools and colleges countrywide.arrforum. the productivity of Indian indus-try and the labour force in particular. Consequently despite hosting the world’s largest working age population and labour force.

Likewise in anticipation of rising demand for VET from industry and the public. Within the next few years these two ambitious alliances are expected to establish expansive networks of VET centres across the country. . revenue: Rs. Delhi. In the Union budget 2009-10 an additional outlay of Rs.495 crore has been made for the expansion of the country’s VET network.500 ITIs/ITCs are budgeted to be established by the end of the current Eleventh Plan period in 2012.507. estimated annual revenue: Rs. Almost simultaneously MEG has initiated a joint venture with the London-based City & Guilds which bills itself as the world’s largest VET provider offering 500 courses and programmes. ESL has tied up with the Pearson Group (the world’s largest producer of school textbooks and owner of the Financial Times and Penguin Books) to promote IndiaCan Education Pvt. Since then the Union budget has consistently made provision for VET through expan-sion and upgradation of the country’s 1. on August 15.markets.896 government-run Industrial Training Institutes (ITIs) and 3.218 private sector Industrial Training Centres (ITCs).000 skills development centres to be promoted in the PPP (public-private partnership) mode. several private education heavyweight companies such as the Delhi-based Educomp Solutions Ltd (ESL. prime minister Dr. Shortly thereafter in November. alarm bells have begun to ring in somnolent government offices and the councils of Indian industry.09 crore in fiscal 2008-09) and the Bangalore/Manipalbased Manipal Education Group (MEG. Ltd. Therefore three years ago in his Independence Day speech delivered from the ramparts of the Red Fort. in addition to 50. he set up a task force to draw up a timetable for establishing a nationwide VET infrastructure.814 crore) have diversified into VET in collabor-ation with two UK-based education conglomerates. An additional 1. offering high-quality vocational education to millions of Indian youth. Manmohan Singh announced a major national drive to disseminate and upgrade vocational education and training (VET) in India. 2006.

. Currently there are 41 million youth registered with the employment bureaus of the country’s 28 state government and seven Union territories. small and medium enterprises) and local chambers of commerce have been the driving force behind the establishment and multiplication of VET institutions in their countries. Khanna has been a voice in the wilderness.000 VET centres which train over 50 million farmers annually in agriculture. business. This has enabled China. and according to i Watch data another 260 million are either in disguised unemployment or under-employed. which has since emerged as the most prominent proponent of VET in India.000 members. and better agriculture practices. animal husbandry. “For instance. All over the developed world and in China as well. We need to immediately promote 250. against India’s blank score-card. Unfortunately.000 VET centres — one in every panchayat jurisdiction in rural India. The largest of India’s chambers of commerce — the Confe-deration of Indian Industry — has only 7. serving as bridges between government and academia. horticulture. floriculture. rural China boasts 350. And the Indian economy has paid a heavy price for neglecting vocational education and training. to better India’s foodgrains and agriculture production by a factor of three per hectare of area sown. an alumnus of IITKharagpur and former director of several blue-chip companies including Hoganas India Ltd and DeNora India Ltd who forsook a promising career in Indian industry to promote the i Watch Foundation in 1993.“Vocational education has been the blindspot of the Central and state governments as well as of Indian industry for the past six decades. and that too mostly from the organised sector of industry. farm equipment repair and maintenance. MSMEs (micro. representative organis-ations of industry.” says Krishan Khanna. However 94 percent of the country’s industrial labour force is employed in 100 million MSMEs represented by inactive local chambers of commerce which are ignorant about the vital importance of VET for their own prosperity and competivity in the emerging globalised marketplace. with less arable land than India.

The phenomenon of educated unemployed in a fast-track economy is peculiar to India. over 75 percent of engineering and 85 percent of arts. Moreover NSDC is in the process of establishing a pilot Sector Skills Council to draw up accreditation standards and curricula which will pave the way for promoting more such . In October last year.000 crore. NSDC will fund competent education entrepreneurs and NGOs to promote vocational education and training centres across India. and proposal submission templates. industry and voluntary civil society organisations to urgently agree to introduce VET options in school curriculums from class VIII onwards. Established with a corpus of Rs. by fostering private sector initiatives in skills development. it is within the realm of possibility to double it. guides and funding guidelines are already available on the NSDC website (www. “NSDC’s goal is to contribute significantly — at least 30 percent — to the overall skilling and upskilling target of 500 million citizens by the year 2022 set by prime minister Dr.1. Fortunately Khanna’s sustained advocacy of VET has finally struck a responsive chord within the Union government and India Inc. a first-of-its-type PPP (public private partnership) not-forprofit organisation to facilitate skills development education countrywide. Together they have begun to seriously plan to make good the neglect of the past 60 years and disseminate VET on a mass scale. the Indian economy is averaging 8-9 percent GDP growth annually. given education reform and universal VET. Neither is the education they are prescribed up-to-date.org). of which 51 percent is contributed by the private sector. “If despite this abysmal education system. nor are they taught marketable skills during their three-four years in college. We are in a hurry to activate NSDC and a study to identify skills gaps in 20 high-growth sectors has been completed. FICCI and Assocham promoted the National Skills Development Corporation (NSDC).” says Khanna who urges government. the Union government and several representative associations of industry including CII. Manmohan Singh. According to a 2005 NASSCOMMcKinsey World Institute study.nsdcindia. To this end the corporation has initiated a process to invite proposals. science and commerce graduates in India are unemployable.

V. infrastructure and domain knowledge in their areas of skills development to contribute to NSDC’s overall mandate. “In India very few young persons enter the world of work with any type of formal or informal vocational training.” says M. with its automotive components industry in particular having established a globally respected reputation. It is also significant that NSDC is being led by a chairman based in Chennai which has perhaps the best engineering colleges and VET institutes countrywide. Currently the VET system has the capacity to train only 3 million youth against industry’s requirement of 13 million annually. and a large number of captains of industry have agreed to share their expertise. is that the corporation is managed by India Inc rather than a Union government ministry.000 crore) who has been appointed the first chairman of NSDC. Therefore attainment of the target set by the prime minister of skilling 500 million youth by 2022 necessitates large-scale skills develop-ment initiatives for which government-industry collaboration is necessary. Moreover we have been . The novelty of nsdc which inspires hope that ambitious outlays and rhetoric will actually translate into privately promoted VET and skills development centres. Moreover it is a measure of the seriousness of intent of its promoters — the Union government and Indian industry — that it is being led by Subbiah who has a good track record of having steadily expanded and diversified the operations of the Murugappa Group (which includes EID Parry. Indeed the proportion of formally trained youth in our labour force is among the lowest in the world. with the country’s rolling VET bandwagon. India’s skills gap is huge and scalable business models are urgently required to bridge the gap.14. Refreshing as well is the deep involvement of the Delhi-based Confederation of Indian Industry (CII). Consequently CII has already taken the initiative to adopt 240 ITIs countrywide under the government’s public-private partnership progamme. the country’s largest and most active industry representative organisation. Subbiah. chairman of the Chennai-based Murugappa Group of companies (estimated annual revenue: Rs.councils in the future. Coromandel Fertiliser and Cholamandalam Finance) during the past two decades.

” says B. With a large and growing number of private ICT (information communication techno-logy) companies such as Everonn Education. CII is wholly committed to the national skills development initiative which requires serious collaboration and convergence between all stakeholders in the national development effort. Delhi-based Navin Bhatia is the founder-chief executive of three pan-India VET companies — NIS Sparta (1993-2003). An alum of DMET. willing and equipped to enter the VET sector to train the country’s massive 509 million labour force and its 100 million school children. Santhanam. NIIT and Helix Technologies among others. VET is all set to take off in a big way within the moribund government dominated education sector. France (annual revenue: Euros 40 billion or Rs. Bhatia believes that if the Union government’s DGET (director general of education and training). An alumnus of IIT-Madras and IIM-Ahmedabad.000 crore).100 crore”. having already entered India’s vast and high-potential education space with innovative products and service delivery models. CII and Indian industry work assiduously . a subsidiary of St. indeed takeover. Deeply involved with CII’s national human resource and skills development initiatives. Thus far CII has assessed more than 75. Reliance Academy (200406) and Bharti Learning Systems Ltd which he describes as “amongst the 15 largest training companies worldwide with 600 full-time trainers and (annual) sales turnover exceeding Rs.proactive in the areas of assessing skilled youth from government ITIs under the modular employable skills (MES) programme and providing the institutes industry linkages. Santh-anam is also chairman of CII’s National Committee on Skills and Resources. has appeared on the education scene. Ghaziabad. the Chennaibased managing director of St. 256. With government in New Delhi shedding its ideological baggage and prejudices and inviting private sector involvement. Gobain Glass India. a new genre of edupreneurs ready. revenue stream solutions and admin and management advice. and currently engaged in building a sectoral skills council model for state governments. Gobain Group. of the national skills development mission. Mumbai and IMT. Educomp Solutions.000 skilled youth across the country under the MES programme.

000 VET students. According to Anjan Dutta. insurance. With the benefit of hindsight. the joint venture promoted in 2008. In the next decade India will write a new history by transforming into the skills development epicentre of the world. which provides “bridge education programmes linked to industry demand” of four weeks to six months duration in entrylevel spoken English.” he predicts. senior president of IndiaCan Education. it’s painfully clear that the failure of post-independence India’s education and central planners to include vocational and skills education into school and college curriculums was a grave error. “Within the next few years we intend to promote 500 centres with sophisticated equipment and shopfloor environments across the country with a targeted enrolment of 500.together.” says Dutta. The consequence of this act of omission is a severely handicapped population heavily dependent upon a largely untrained learning-by-doing labour force for simple tasks such as mending an electrical fuse. Ltd — a joint venture between India’s ICT-in-education heavyweight Educomp Solutions Ltd and the UK-based Pearson Group. but written backwards. India will host a population of 200 million university graduates and 500 million skilled professionals. banking etc to youth in the age group 18-26. it is possible to transform India into the world’s largest pool of trained and skilled labour by the year 2022. Arguing that post-independence India has adopted a “unique growth trajectory” in that it is the world’s only large economy which has transformed from an agricultural society into a services dominated economy leapfrogging the manufacturing phase. its 75th year of independence. Bhatia states that this makes “large scale skills development an imminent national imperative”. connecting a car battery . has already established 40 VET centres with an enrolment of over 4.000 students. one of the world’s largest school textbooks publishing majors which also owns the Financial Times and Penguin Books. retail. suggesting an eight-point plan to attain this desideratum. and will export 50-55 million skilled professionals to the rest of the world. In the year 2022. Another promising private sector initiative which has entered the VET sector is IndiaCan Education Pvt. “History is lived forward.

capital and native spirit of enterprise — 21st century India is among the world’s most laggard nations widely pitied for its illiteracy. they have failed to enthuse Indian industry. high child mortality. outdated curriculums and poor quality teachers. lowproductivity youth. short-term. . child malnutrition and labour. state electricity boards and civic government. labour.or changing a flat tyre. with most of their graduates wending their way into low-performance public sector enterprises and state government departments such as PWD. social inequality and pervasive corruption. Little wonder that despite being abundantly endowed with factors of production — land. The wider social outcome is an economy characterised by abysmally low farm. In this context it’s pertinent to note that VET is hardly a new idea. hands-on education and training programmes to the country’s millions of under-employed.700 currently. the first Industrial Training Institutes (ITIs) were promoted by state governments countrywide and their number has multiplied to 5. the annual rate of GDP growth has more than tripled. Yet given the pathetic record of the government-dominated education system to implement the simplest policies for the benefit of the nation’s children and youth. Way back in the 1950s. Yet encumbered with under-investment in infrastructure and equipment. Consequently for the first time in recent history the Indian economy has begun to experience shortages of skilled professionals and labour. there is considerable skepticism whether the sudden re-discovery of the value and importance of VET will translate into institutions delivering accessible. manufacturing and service sector productivity which has transformed post-independence India into a society of perennial shortages and high prices. However following the belated liberalisation of the Indian economy and loosening of the infamous licence-permit-quota regime — which sent-enced the population to the 3 percent per year “Hindu rate” of GDP growth for almost four decades — since the historic Union budget of July 1991. a pheno-menon which is sharply driving up wages and salaries and hurting India’s price competitiveness in the emerging global market.

But this time round the active involvement of private sector organisations such as CII and FICCI. But this money will be spent by the HRD. labour and 19 other ministries and there’s the omnipresent danger of outlays not being commensurate with outcomes. and the promotion of the National Skills Development Corporation with a corpus of Rs.” says Manish Sabharwal.000 schools affiliated with the Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) which is directly supervised by the ministry. which are working closely with the Central government and the PMO (prime minister’s office). India’s largest skilled personnel placement company. However in several states — notably Rajasthan. the Bangalore-based chief executive of TeamLease Services Pvt. According to Subhash Khuntia. “Although this time both government and industry are very serious about building a nationwide infrastructure as evidenced by the establishment of the Prime Minister’s Skills Council in 2008 with the six private sector industry representatives and the nodal ministries of HRD. and a member of the PM’s Skills Council. In the Eleventh Plan a generous outlay of Rs. Even within the Union HRD ministry in Delhi there is evidence of unprecedented seriousness of intent about infusing VET into school syllabuses and systems.28.000 crore has been made for VET. the options of vocational stream education as well as stand-alone vocational subjects which can be taken as electives at the higher secondary stage are already available to students of the country’s 12. it is important to bear in mind that vocational education and training institutes will need to be established with the support of state governments. Karnataka and Gujarat — Skills Missions have been established and I am optimistic that the new governmentindustry partnership for VET will move into execution. the governmentindustry VET initiative will take off and take wing. finance and labour as partners.000 crore to promote VET institutions in the PPP (public-private partnership) model. Ltd. joint secretary in the HRD ministry. “CBSE has introduced a new course on financial market management at the Plus Two level in collaboration with the .1. The challenge is to set up state level Skills Missions which will encourage the promotion of VET institutions in the PPP mode. has roused hope that even if belatedly.

php/pag e-article-choice-more-id-2115 . film making techniques. That’s the bigger challenge confronting teachers and academics engaged in the task of educating and preparing the world’s largest child population for the 21st century.National Stock Exchange. will bear fruit. Vocational skills training needs to be integrated into school and college curriculums. But this government-industry effort also needs to be supplemented by India’s educators’ community and academia.” says Khuntia. REFERENCE:http://www. and the national mindset which segregates academic education from hands-on skills requires a sea-change. design and innovation.educationworldonline.net/index. healthcare. The HRD ministry is in the process of revamping the vocational education scheme to make it more demanding and needs-based in strong collaboration with industry. Certainly the auguries are good that this time round the carefully crafted government-industry initiative to establish a national VET infrastructure which will provide upskilling opportunities to India’s huge 509 million low-productivity labour force. It proposes to introduce similar courses in hospitality management in collaboration with the National Council of Catering Manage-ment and also in fashion technology and garment manufacture.

preschool training and type of schooling). social-emotional adjustment) and demographic variables (such as. number of siblings.BEHAVIOURAL PROBLEMS IN RELATION TO ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF ADOLOSCENT STUDENTS ABSTRACT Academic performance has been considered as an interactive function of many psychosocial and demographic variables. stress. Basavanna's Self-Esteem Scale for self-esteem. However. self-esteem. The Hopkin's Symptom Checklist for stress. age of onset of disability. The sample consisted of 80 hearing-impaired class VIII and X students of both sexes aged 13 to 21 years of age. whereas the relationship was low positive in case of hearing-impaired students. and age were found to have significant correlation with academic performance of hearing-impaired students. The present study attempted to explore the nature and degree of relationship between academic performance and selected psychosocial (such as. many socio-demographic variables like number of siblings. A comparative group of 111 nonimpaired students was also included. Results showed that stress had a significant inverse correlation with academic performance of nonimpaired students. socioeconomic status. selfesteem did not relate significantly in either case. age. The differences were analysed in relation to the . Meadow/Kendall Socialemotional Scale for socialemotional adjustment and a personal proforma for demographic variables were administered. While social-emotional adjustment enhanced academic performance of both groups. parents' education and occupation. family income. mostly from the lower and middle socio-economic class.

educational system and the vital role played by the family. Their age ranged between 13-21 years and all the students were from low and middle socio-economic family background. social-emotional adjustment (2. However. as well as on adjustment (11. A number of researchers pointed out the facilitative role of higher socio-economic background on psychological well-being and academic achievement of children without impairement (6. This study examined the differences on selected psychosocial (stress. the relationships were not explored systematically among the hearing-impaired adolescents. adjustment. 7. 9. 8. cognitive functioning (13) and examination success (14) of hearing-impaired students. INTRODUCTION An extensive literature survey on hearing-impaired children showed that very few studies directly addressed the relationship between psychosocial factors and academic performance Many researchers working with deaf students reported positive correlation of academic performance with school adjustment and behavioural problems (1). However. were selected. 10). 12). social functioning and morale (5) of students having no impairments. self-esteem. the number of studies addressing the direct correlation between demographic variables and academic performance are scant in the case of hearingimpaired children.impairment specific academic problems.3% (n=73) of the hearing-impaired children were . Academic performance correlated positively with every kind of positive adaptation including health. METHOD Sample A total of 80 hearing-impaired and 111 non-impaired secondary school (class Ⅷ and Ⅹ) Indian adolescents from New Delhi. self-esteem and socialemotional adjustment) and demographic variables and their correlations with academic performance of the hearing-impaired and non-impaired adolescents. 91. and self-esteem (4). 3).

a 5-point response format. to decrease the gap in socio-economic status and facilities available in the schools. It consisted of 41 items and had a reliability of 0. The original true-false type of response pattern was changed to a three point rating scale. In New Delhi.09% (n=110) of the non-impaired students had parents with no handicap. It had a reliability of 0. It is a four point rating scale and a high score indicated high stress on this scale. there are only two schools (one residential-special school and one integrated school) providing education to hearingimpaired children till class Ⅹ. The Cronbach reliability of this scale was 0. anxiety (5 items). depression (7 items) and obsessive-compulsive thoughts (7 items) was used to measure stress.Kendall Social-Emotional Adjustment Scale (15).3% (n=5) had the onset between 2-5 years of age. so both were included.25% (n=77) of hearingimpaired students had parents with normal hearing. while the other one is partially aided school. 99. interpersonal sensitivity (3 items). Self-esteem: The modified version of Basavanna's Self-esteem Scale consisting of 28 items was used for studying self-esteem.3% (one) had mild impairment 96.74.89. Demographic Variables: A personal proforma was used to get information on background variables like age.5% (n=2) had acquired the impairment before the age of two and remaining 6. One government school for nonimpaired students was also included. 98.7% (n=79) were severely impaired while 1. Social-Emotional Adjustment: The teachers were asked to rate the students on Meadow. Variables and Tools Stress: Hopkin's Symptom Checklist consisting of 30 items on dimensions like somatisation (8 items). 2. parents' education . Children with additional impairments were not included. Similarly.96. One is a fully government aided school. on which a high score indicated low selfesteem.congenitally deaf.

Academic performance: Percentage of marks in the final examinations was taken as the indicator of students' academic performance. This was due to the difference between the two groups on preschool training. While the mean age of the hearing-impaired was 16. Data were analysed using statistics of t' test and correlation analyses. Questionnaires were administered to the nonimpaired in small groups. parents' education and occupation. and family income. which revealed that almost all hearing-impaired had attained preschool.5 years. severity of disability and parental disability status. family income. social-emotional adjustment.8 years in the case of the non-impaired adolescents. while the students in class Ⅹ appeared in the national common examination for class Ⅹ students. finger spelling and lip reading.Table 1 shows that significant difference was found between the hearing-impaired and nonimpaired adolescents on academic performance. The hearing-impaired students were found to be better in academics and social-emotional adjustment than the non-impaired adolescents. onset of disability. questionnaires were administered individually with the help of a teacher who had mild hearing-impairment and was strong in signing. age. The agreement between two judges was 95%. the analysis of significance of mean difference on these variables for both the groups were done to foster understanding of the variations in relationships. Procedure All the scales were translated into the local language by the back translation method. number of siblings.and occupation. RESULTS Before examining the correlation of academic performance with various psychosocial and demographic variables. it was 14. but . preschool training. Class Ⅷ students appeared in the class promotional examination conducted by the school authorities. In case of the hearing-impaired students.However. they were also found to be significantly older than the non-impaired group.

self-esteem.23 90. 01 .2 10.54 . 01 5.21 NonImpaired Mean SD 13. p<. p<.5. mother and father's occupation and family income. number of siblings and had parents without any impairment. Table 1: Means. ns 7. number of siblings and parents' impairment status.48 7.9 3.16 0.45 2. p<.24 54.3 10.18 2. had preschool experience. ns 7.15 3.However.0 .44.66 1. exhibited better adjustment and academic performance.6. p<. Both the groups also differed significantly on maximum demographic variables like mother and father's education. 01 1.11 0.maximum non-impaired did not have any formal preschool training.4 10. This indicated that the hearing-impaired were significantly older.3 1.65 .68 1.94. ns Variables t'values 11.51 2. suggesting that both groups were equally stressed.35.0 23.78 1.97.32 . of Siblings Mother's Education Father's Education 97.29 1.0. belonged to families with better socioeconomic condition and hence. had equal level of self-esteem (though the mean values on stress and self-esteem for the hearing-impaired students were slightly higher than the non-impaired group. 01 56. no significant difference was between the two groups on stress.44 4.59 4.58 1.27 22. SDs and t' values on different Psychosocial and Demographic variables and Academic Performance HearingImpaired Mean SD Stress Self-Esteem Social-Emotional Adjustment Age No.

However.74 1.01 15. p<. 01 7. while the number was few in the case of the non-impaired students. Hearing-impaired students older in age and with more siblings showed poor academic performance. p< .30 3. had a better academic performance.48 1.9 1.89 4.0. had significant positive correlation with academic performance of hearing-impaired students.Age of onset of disability and parental hearing status did not correlate significantly with academic performance of the hearing-impaired . Socio-economic variables like.55.Secondly.48 34.29 The result on correlations revealed (Table 2) that stress had significant inverse relationship with academic performance for the non-impaired group.44 1.56 4. but both had low positive association in the case of hearing-impaired students. severity of impairment.01 12.03 .99 3. ns 7. good social-emotional adjustment had significant facilitative effects on academic performance of hearing-impaired and non-impaired adolescents.87 .01 0. self-esteem did not correlate with academic performance of students in both the categories. parents' education and occupation.09 1. This suggested that higher stress significantly reduced performance of adolescents without any impairment but. p< . family's income and personal characteristics like.1 2.This indicated that hearing-impaired adolescents who belonged to families with better socioeconomic condition and those who were totally deaf.5.35.95 2.Mother's Occupation Father's Occupation Family Income Parents Impairment Academic Performance ns= non-significant 1.91 48.29 .59 .63 8.90 . p< . which was quite expected.8. Results also revealed that almost all demographic variables had significant association with academic performance of the hearing-impaired students. had low facilitative effects on academic performance of the hearing-impaired students.

06 -0.42.adolescents. p< . p<.23.43. p<. 05 0.43.45.05 0.07 0. p<. 01 0.16 0. of Siblings Mother's Education Father's Education Mother's Occupation Father's Occupation Family Income Parents Impairment Severity of Impairment Age of onset of Disability Academic Performance HI 0.13 0. Correlations between Academic Performance and different Psychosocial and Demographic variables Variables Stress Self-Esteem Social-Emotional Adjustment.05 -0.003 0. p<. p<.43. 01 0.36.01 -0.24. p<.10 0. However. Age No.32.24.23. 05 0.13 0. p<.19. p< . 05 0. 01 -0. 01 0.07 NI -0. p<. p< . 01 0. 01 -0.17 0. low positive correlation between these variables suggests low positive impact of congenital deafness and deaf parents on academic performance of these students. p<.09 --------- . Table 2.09 -0.13 0.

The demographic data revealed that all hearing impaired children included in the study had preschool training. as the early placement of these children in schools was expected to help them to improve their total communication pattern (i. which is substantiated by the finding of Henggeler. strong peer and studentteacher interactions. Such a finding could be due to many factors. Contrary to these and other studies which found no significant difference between hearingimpaired and their normal hearing counterparts on socialemotional adjustment (18. . these hearing-impaired adolescents were able to maintain good adjustment as well as academic performance. which could have affected teachers' rating of students' social-emotional adjustment. which helped them to achieve better psychosocial adjustment. 2.e. the present finding noted significantly better social-emotional adjustment in hearingimpaired students which thus lent support to the study by Jyothi and Reddy (20). the higher social-emotional adjustment of the hearing-impaired could be sample specific. the finding was encouraging in a sense. that despite the equal level of stress and self-esteem between the two groups.student interaction in particular. Whelan and Malon (23). Furth (22) contended that to a large extent. as the hearing impaired group were a more heterogeneous group with a wide range of hearing loss. 19). To some extent. schools guaranteed deaf language proficiency. and gesture) and teacher. 17). Firstly. finger spelling. However. sign language. Pre-schooling facilitated social interactions and socialemotional adjustment. and did not find socialemotional adjustment difficult when the child reached the adolescent stage.DISCUSSION A large body of research has shown that children with hearingimpairments are at risk of more social-emotional maladjustment than their hearing peers (9. Informal discussions with teachers revealed that the teachers had strong belief that these students and their parents were quite accustomed to the stressors associated with bringing up a hearing impaired child. Watson. the social-emotional adjustment of the hearing-impaired could be related to the quality and quantity of social interactions inside the school (21). 16.

Results on correlations revealed that the non-impaired students who were more stressed had low academic performance. and thereby affected performance adversely. 10) which suggested that a higher level of stress affected level of anxiety. could be attributed to the difference in the sample characteristics of these two studies. This was also corroborated by Srivastava and Naidu (31) reporting moderate stress to be facilitating and conducive of efficient functioning. The relationship was low positive in case of the hearing impaired students. problem-solving skills. as compared to the nonimpaired students.The hearing-impaired group perhaps got more help and support from the teachers. reporting better academic performance by the non-impaired students than the hearing-impaired students which however. and Belanger (32) also substantiated this present finding by reporting that educational outcomes were . 28. Help from the schools was also bolstered by the parents. The finding related to children without impairements could be sample specific related to an urban and changing milieu of a metro city like New Delhi. resulting in better academic performance. as they belonged to families with a better socio-economic condition. 30. An anticipated finding was that good social-emotional adjustment enhanced academic performance of all students. and consistent with many research findings (27. Rogers. which proposed that normal surroundings tend to compound the inferiority feelings in hearing-impaired persons which makes them try hard to develop and strengthen the compensatory mechanisms to achieve superiority (exhibited in better academic performance). which indicated that the existence of pressure resulted in improved scores for these students. the finding of Rogers. Similarly. This was in line with the drive theory of Spence and Spence (26).The finding of better academic performance of hearing impaired students could be interpreted by using the individualistic theory (24). Another possible explanation could be the variations in academic support given by the teachers before the examination. 29. The finding was in contrast to the finding of Loeb and Sarigiani (25).

and family income had significant positive correlation with . were more worried about their future but had lesser academic competence. But in the case of students at a lower educational level. which affected their academic performance adversely. money and emotional resources. this problem was not there. and hence performed poorly. apparently absorbing a great amount of family time. Significant positive correlation was found between severity of impairment and academic performance of hearing-impaired adolescents. The difference could be attributed to the difference in sample characteristics of age and different degrees of hearing loss.positively associated with general adjustment to disability in hearing-impaired adolescents. Among the hearing impaired students the older ones being in higher classes perhaps. indicating deaf students to be better performers than the partially hearing-impaired. to the hearingimpaired students during the final examination. like talk of a sign language teacher or interpreter. which become less if the number of offspring was more. The development of language competence in hearing-impaired children requires good parent-child interactions. reporting no relationship between degree of hearing loss and examination success. The lack of such interactions raises the risk for deaf children not to be able to reach their full potential (33). They realised their inability to meet other's expectations. parent's education. energy. As the hearing-impaired children mature and face increased linguistic and social demands. which was in contrast to the findings of Powers (14). as the school authorities conducted an internal evaluation. occupation. they require extra help from their family members. This could have presented a difficulty in comprehending the question-paper and created a wide communication gap between what was asked and what the students answered in the sheets. All socio-economic variables like. Another possible explanation is the possibility of some intervening variables. Another interesting finding in the case of hearing-impaired students was that those with more siblings had poor academic performance.

that showed the role of higher socio-economic background in their psychological wellbeing and academic performance. pre-school experience. insight and updated knowledge and could thus facilitate their academic performance in long run. etc. the father 's occupation played a crucial role in managing the family. As these students belonged to a lower socio-economic background. pre-schooling.For them early diagnosis and intervention. and interaction with the school authorities for monitoring their educational progress. Reducing the number of language based subjects and introducing subjects based more on activity and ability. and some important decision like. into the existing curriculum could help them not only in securing good marks but also in preparing them for the job world. Instead of a fixed curriculum and examination system. 35).academic performance of the hearing-impaired adolescents and was consistent with several studies (34. and . India measures should be taken to launch programmes for parents focusing on early identification. educational guidance at home. and the importance of small family. school placement. In case of students without imprements. only father's occupation had significant positive relation with academic performance. the provision of distance/ open examination system having more options in selecting subjects could be more beneficial for them to perform better at least at higher educational levels. in creating educational ambitions among their children and in driving them to achieve better in academics. CONCLUSION The implications of these findings for educational programmes and practices indicate that academic competence as well as performance could be protected till hearing impared students complete the first qualifying examination to enter into the job world. Further research is needed on hearing-impaired students from residential and integrated/ fully integrated/partially integrated settings undergoing different systems of examination. parentchild interaction. In developing countries like. depended more upon parents' awareness. preventive measures.

.including a control group with equal socio-economic status for better generalisability of the findings of the present study.