Name:- Tuhin Dutta Stream:- ECE Roll: 1011

The pn junction in the avalanche breakdown condition exhibits negative resistance characteristics in the microwave frequency range. then current does not flow. However when the reverse voltage exceeds a certain value. . This breakdown is caused by avalanche multiplication of electrons and holes in the space charge region of the junction. Since the negative resistance is based upon avalanche multiplication and transit-time effect of carriers.Introduction     When the pn junction diode is reverse-biased. the junction breaks down and current flows with only slight increase of voltage. the device has been called the IMPATT (Impact Avalanche Transit-Time) Diode.

Read and involved an n+-p-i-p+ structure such as that shown in figure. at which avalanche multiplication occurs.Device Structure The original suggestion for a microwave device employing transit-time effect was made by W. The device consists essentially of two regions: 1) the n+p region. This device operates by injecting carriers into the drift region and is called an IMPATT diode. through which generated holes must drift in moving to p+ contact. T. and 2) the i (essentially intrinsic) region. .



Principle of operation K p+ n i Drift region n+ A Avalanche ~V(t) region I(t) |ND-NA| 1020 1016 1012 x ideal real x E .


E(t) Eb n(x.t) EAC(T/4) T=0 EAC(T/2)=0 IMPATT diode x V(t)=VDC+vAC(t) E(t)=EDC+ EAC(t) EDC≈Eb T=T/4 x EAC(3T/4) n(x.t) E(t) Eb E(t) Eb n(x.t) E(t) Eb n(x.t) T=T/2 x τ T=T/4 EAC(T)=0 T=3T/4 x .

V IMPATT I-V Characteristics vAC V T/2 T 3T/2 2T 5T/2 t DC 0 Qinj 0 I T/2 T 3T/2 2T 5T/2 iAC iAC~-vAC rAC<0 PAC=iACvAC/2<0 t Power is transferred to the field IDC t 0 T/2 T 3T/2 2T 5T/2 .

Small Signal model xA K p+ n W nn+ A I(t) rAC>0 ω< ωA rAC<0 ω> ωA rAC Avalanche Drift region xA region L  A 2vS I DC i / E Current in avalanche region is delayed by π/2 -inductance Resonance frequency  A  ( LAC A ) 1   CA=εsS/xA Typically f=vs/2W  2  i / E  vs I DC   A s   .

Some IMPATT Circuits .

The three basic types of Impatt diodes are:1. Double avalanche region (DAR) – The DAR diode has a p+nipn+ structure that consist of one drift zone sandwiched between two avalanche zones. one for electrons and other for holes on either side of the central avalanche zone. 2. Single drift region (SDR) . 3.Classification Device structure is based on the doping profile. Double drift region (DDR) – A DDR diode has a p+pnn+ structure that consist of two drift layers.The SDR diode consists of a single avalanche zone and a single drift zone with p+nn+ structure. The electrons and holes from the two junctions travel across the central i-region in opposite directions and deliver power. .

3. 2. Negative resistance parametric amplifier. Parametric up converter. .Applications  These diodes make excellent microwave generators for many applications like:1. Parametric down converter. Parametric amplifier. 4.

Summary • IMPATT stands for Impact Avalanche And Transit Time • Operates in reverse-breakdown (avalanche) region • Applied voltage causes momentary breakdown once per cycle • This starts a pulse of current moving through the device • Frequency depends on device thickness .

. and InP • Can be used up 400 GHz. IMPATTs have 10 dB higher AM noise than that of Gunn diodes • IMPATT diode is not suitable for use as a local oscillator in a receiver.• IMPact Ionization Transit Time • IMPATT devices can be used for oscillator and amplifier applications • They can be fabricated with Si. GaAs. • Noisy oscillator • In general.

Thank You… .

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