1

Topic II : z-Transform
◆ z-Transform
◆ Inverse z-Transform
◆ Properties of z-Transform
◆ Solving the Difference Equations
◆ Discrete Transfer Function
PME5268 DSP程式設計 II z II z--Transform Transform
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z-Transform
• z-Transform is the discrete-time counterpart of the Laplace transform
Basics
• If the system is described as a difference equation :
2y[k] + 3y[k-1] + y[k-2] = u[k] + u[k-1] - u[k-2] for k = 0, 1, 2
• The response of the system is excited by an input u[k] with initial
conditions specified.
• The difference equations are basically algebraic equations, their
solutions can be obtained by direct substitution.
• The solution is not in closed form and is difficult to develop general
properties of the system.
• A number of design techniques have been developed in the z-
Transform domain.
Response of Discrete-Time System
2
PME5268 DSP程式設計 II z II z--Transform Transform
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Considering a discrete-time signal x[n] = x[nT], where n is an
integer ranging from -∞ to + ∞,
if x[n]=0 for k < 0; a positive-time sequence
if x[n] = 0 for k > 0. a negative-time sequence
**We consider the positive-time sequences only.
Positive and Negative Sequence
Example
x[n] = { 1, 2, 5, 7, 0, 1}; or x[n] = (1/2)
n
u{n}
z-TransformPair
The z-transform is defined as
¯

· ÷
÷
= =
n
z n x n x Z z X ) ( )} ( { ) (
where z is a complex variable, called the z-transform variable.
z-Transform
PME5268 DSP程式設計 II z II z--Transform Transform
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¯

÷· =
÷
k
kT t kT x ) ( ) ( 
Consider an ideal sampled data x*(t)= , its Laplace
transform is
X*(s)=Z [x*(t)]=L[ ]
= L[δ(t-kT)]
=
Let s=ln z/T (or equivalently, z=e
ST
), the above equation reduces to the two-
sided transform
X(z) ≡
If x(kT)=0, k<0, then it reduces to a one-sided transform
X(z) ≡
¬
¯

÷· =
÷
k
kT t kT x ) ( ) ( 
¯

÷· = k
kT x ) (
kTs
k
e kT x
÷

÷· =
¯
) (
k
k
z kT x
÷

÷· =
¯
) (
k
k
z kT x
÷

=
¯
0
) (
z-Transform
3
PME5268 DSP程式設計 II z II z--Transform Transform
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Example 1: f(k) = b
k
, find F(z)
Obviously, the infinite series will converge when
1
1
0
0 0
1
1
) (
) ( )} ( { ) (
÷
÷
· +
=

=
÷

=
÷
÷
= =
= = =
¯
¯ ¯
bz
bz
z b z k f k f Z z F
k
k
k
k k
k
k
1
1
<
÷
bz
z b <
or
is called the Region of Convergence (ROC)
z-Transform
ROC (Grey area)
Unit circle
b 1
Z-plane
PME5268 DSP程式設計 II z II z--Transform Transform
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Region of Convergence: The existence of z-transform and Fourier Transform
Obviously, the infinite series will converge and then summable
0
[ ]
n
n
x n z for all z

÷
=
< ·
¯
(ROC)
z-Transform
a 1
Z-plane
Example 2: If x
1
[n]=a
n
u[n], 0 0 a and n < < · >
1 1 1
0
1
( ) { ( )}
1
n n
n
X z x n a z
az
·
÷
÷
=
= = =
÷
¯

1
1 az
÷
< infinite series will converge if
ROC: a z <
Also for converged sequence
1 a <
i.e. ROC must contain unit circle for the
convergence or sequence.
4
PME5268 DSP程式設計 II z II z--Transform Transform
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(ROC)
z-Transform
b
1
Z-plane
Example 3 : If x
2
[n]=-b
n
u[-n-1], 0 0 b and n < < · >
1
2
1
1 1
0
( ) [ 1]
1 1
1 1
1 1
n n n n n n
n n n
n n
n
X z b u n z b z b z
b z
b z bz
· ÷ ·
÷ ÷ ÷
=÷· =÷· =
·
÷
÷ ÷
=
= ÷ ÷ ÷ = ÷ = ÷
= ÷ = ÷ =
÷ ÷
¯ ¯ ¯
¯
1
1 b z
÷
< infinite series will converge if
ROC: b z >
Also for converged sequence 1 b >
Still, ROC must contain unit circle for the
convergence or sequence.
This is a negative sequence, or a left-sided sequence
PME5268 DSP程式設計 II z II z--Transform Transform
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z-Transform
Example 4: If x
3
[n]=x
1
[n]+x
2
[n]=a
n
u[n]--b
n
u[-n-1]
, 0 0 0 a b and n < < · < < · >
3
0 1
( ) [ ] [ 1]
n n n n
n n
n n n n
n n
X z a u n z b n z
a z b z
· ·
÷ ÷
=÷· =÷·
· ·
÷ ÷
= =
= ÷ ÷ ÷
= ÷
¯ ¯
¯ ¯
ROC1: a z <
if ROC3 is null a b >
ROC2: b z >
ROC3=ROC1 ROC2 ·
ROC1:
b
a
Z-plane
a
if ROC3 exists
a b <
1 b <
And, if the sequence diverges!!
(ROC3)
5
PME5268 DSP程式設計 II z II z--Transform Transform
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It is noted that the z-transform deals with only the
events occurring at the sampling time-instance t=kT, but
ignores everything occurs within the time interval
kT<t<kT+T.
Let e
1
(t)≠e
2
(t)≠e
3
(t) for t≠kT, but e
1
(t)=e
2
(t)=e
3
(t)
for all t=kT, then it follows
Z[e
1
(t)] = Z[e
2
(t)] = Z[e
3
(t)]
An explicit example
z-Transform
PME5268 DSP程式設計 II z II z--Transform Transform
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) ( ) (
) ( ) (
)] ( ) ( [ ) ( ) (
2 1
0 0
2 1
0
2 1
0
z X z X
z kT x z kT x
z kT x kT x z kT x z X
k
k k
k
k
k k
k
 
 
 
+ =
+ =
+ = =
÷
· =
=
· =
=
÷
÷
· =
=

=
÷
¯ ¯
¯ ¯
Let x*(t)=αx
1
*(t)+βx
2
*(t), it follows from
Hence z-transform is a linear operator.
z-Transform
k
k
z kT x z X
÷

=
¯
=
0
1 1
) ( ) (
k
k
z kT x z X
÷

=
¯
=
0
2 2
) ( ) ( and
Then
6
PME5268 DSP程式設計 II z II z--Transform Transform
11
Region of Convergence (ROC)
Let z=a+jb = re
jw
¯

=
÷
=
=
0
) )( ( ) (
k
k j
e z
re k x z X
j


For any given sequence, the set of values of z for which the
z transform converges is called the region of convergence.
Implies that Fourier
Transform converges if
X(z) converges
¯

=
÷
0
) )( (
k
k
r k x
must be finite, provided that the
radius r is within the unit disk
z-Transform
PME5268 DSP程式設計 II z II z--Transform Transform
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z- Transform - pairs
7
PME5268 DSP程式設計 II z II z--Transform Transform 13
Example 5
) ( ) ( ) (
) ( )} ( {
0
aT k aT
k
k
k
akT at
ze F ze kT f
z kT f e t f e Z
÷ ÷ ÷
·
÷
·
=
÷ ÷
= =
=
¯
¯
Example 6
2 1
1
cos 2 1
sin
} {sin
÷ ÷
÷
+ ÷
=
z T z
T z
t Z



2 1
1
) ( cos ) ( 2 1
sin ) (
} sin {
÷ ÷
÷
÷
+ ÷
=
aT aT
aT
at
ze T ze
T ze
t e Z



Example 7
2 1
1
) 1 (
} {
÷
÷
÷
=
z
Tz
t Z
2 1
1
] ) ( 1 [
) (
} {
÷
÷
÷
÷
=
aT
aT
at
ze
ze T
te Z
z- Transform - pairs
PME5268 DSP程式設計 II z II z--Transform Transform
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Pole-location vs. Time response – Real roots
z-Transform
8
PME5268 DSP程式設計 II z II z--Transform Transform
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Pole-location vs. Time response (double roots)
z-Transform
PME5268 DSP程式設計 II z II z--Transform Transform
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Pole-location vs. Time response – complex pair
z-Transform
9
PME5268 DSP程式設計 II z II z--Transform Transform
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Inverse z-Transform
In the case that X(z) is a rational function, it can be evaluated by
the Cauchy’s residue theorem
¯

=
÷
= =
0
) ( )} ( { ) (
k
n
z n x n x Z z X Let
í
÷
= dz z z X
j
n x
n 1
) (
2
1
) (

then
¯
= ) ( Re ) (
i
z s n x
Res(z
i
) is the residue of F(z)=X(z)z
(n-1)
at poles z
i
of X(z).
(A) Using Cauchy’s formula
See examples
PME5268 DSP程式設計 II z II z--Transform Transform
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*Cauchy’s Residual Formula
For details refer to the textbook and Engineering
Mathematics
If Z{e(k)}=E(z)
Then
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
÷
÷
÷
=
=
=
¯
¯
¯
í
=
÷
÷
÷
=
÷
÷
i z z
1 k m
i 1 m
1 m
i z z
1 k
i
i
i i
Γ
1 k
z roots multiple for E(z)z ) z (z
dz
d
1)! (m
1
z disticnt for )E(z)z z (z
E(z) of poles z where Residues(z
dz E(z)z
j 2
1
e(k)
i
i
;
;
: );
i
i

Inverse z-Transform
10
PME5268 DSP程式設計 II z II z--Transform Transform
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Example 8
2 1 ;
) 2 )( 1 ( 2 3
) (
2
and roots distinct
z z
z
z z
z
z E
÷ ÷
=
+ ÷
=
To find e(k) from E(z), from Cauchy’s formula
k
z
k
z
k
z
k
z
k
z
z
z
z
z
z
z z E z z z E z k e
2 1
1 2
) ( ) 2 ( ) ( ) 1 ( ) (
2
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
2 1
2 1
+ ÷ =
÷
+
÷
=
÷ + ÷ =
=
÷
=
÷
=
÷
=
÷
Inverse z-Transform
PME5268 DSP程式設計 II z II z--Transform Transform
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Inverse z-Transform
If
(1) For M<N
(B) Using Partial Fraction Method
Non-repeatable roots
) 1 ( ) 1 (
) 1 ( ) 1 (
) (
1 1
0 0
1 1
0 0
1
1 0
1
1 0
÷ ÷
÷ ÷
÷ ÷
÷ ÷
÷ ÷
÷ ÷
=
+ + +
+ + +
=
z d z d a
z c z c b
z a z a a
z b z b b
z X
N
M
N
N
M
M




1 1
2
2
1
1
1
1 1 1
) (
÷ ÷ ÷
÷
+ +
÷
+
÷
=
z d
A
z d
A
z d
A
z X
N
N

k
N
k
j j
k N
j i i i
i
z d
B
z d
B
z d
B
z d
A
z X
) 1 ( ) 1 ( 1 1
) (
1 2 1
2
1
1
, 1
1 ÷ ÷ ÷
÷
= =
÷
÷
+ +
÷
+
÷
+
÷
=
¯

k Repeatable roots
i
d z
i i
z X z d A
=
÷
÷ = ) ( ) 1 (
1
11
PME5268 DSP程式設計 II z II z--Transform Transform
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Inverse z-Transform
(2) For M≧N
¯ ¯ ¯
=
÷
÷
= =
÷
÷
=
÷
÷
+
÷
+ =
k
m
m
j
i
k N
j i i i
i
N M
q
q
q
z d
B
z d
A
z C z X
1
1
, 1
1
0
) 1 ( 1
) (
k Repeatable roots
N-k single roots
impulses
PME5268 DSP程式設計 II z II z--Transform Transform
22
Inverse z-Transform
Example 9: find the inverse z-transform of
3 2
2
10( 3 1)
( )
( 1)( 1)
z z z
E z
z z z
÷ + ÷
=
÷ ÷ +
3 2
2
10( 3 1)
( 1)( 1)
( )
z z z
z z z
E z
÷ + ÷
=
÷ ÷ +
/ 3 / 3
20 10 10
10
1
j j
z z z
z z e z e
  ÷
+ + +
÷ ÷ ÷
=
¯
¯
· +
=
· +
=
÷
÷
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
+ + =
÷
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
+ + + =
0
0
3 3
) ( )
3
cos( 20 ) ( 20 ) ( 10
) ( ] [ 10 ) ( 20 ) ( 10 ) (
k
k
k j k j
k t k k u k
k n e e kn u kn n e



 
 
Look up the table for the transform pairs
12
PME5268 DSP程式設計 II z II z--Transform Transform
23
Inverse z-Transform
Example
(C) Long Division Method
Then f[k]={-2, 3, 0, 0, 3, 3, 9, ….}
PME5268 DSP程式設計 II z II z--Transform Transform
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Properties of z-Transform
13
PME5268 DSP程式設計 II z II z--Transform Transform
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Properties of z-Transform
( ) [ ]
n
n
X z x n z
·
÷
=÷·
=
¯
1
( ) ( ) [ ]
[ ] { [ ]}
n
n
n n
n n
d
z X z z n x n z
dz
nx n z nx n z
·
÷ ÷
=÷·
· ·
÷ ÷
=÷· =÷·
÷ = ÷ ÷
= =
¯
¯ ¯
Example 10
1
( ) log(1 ); [ ] X z az find x n
÷
= +
2 1 1
1 1 1
( ) ( )
;
1 1 1 ( )
dX z az dX z az z
then z a
dz dz az az a z
÷ ÷ ÷
÷ ÷ ÷
÷
= ÷ = =
+ + ÷ ÷
1
1 1
[ ] {( ) [ 1]}
[ ] ( 1) [ 1] ( 1) [ 1]
n
n n
n n
thus nx n a a u n
a a
x n u n u n
n n
÷
÷ ÷
= ÷ ÷
= ÷ ÷ = ÷ ÷
PME5268 DSP程式設計 II z II z--Transform Transform
26
Properties of z-Transform
Example 11
[ ] [ ]; ( )
n
x n na u n find X z =
1
1
2 1
1 2 1 2
( ) 1
( ) { }
1
1
(1 ) (1 )
dX z d
X z z z
dz dz az
az az
z
az az
÷
÷ ÷
÷ ÷
= ÷ = ÷
÷
÷ ·
= ÷ ÷ =
÷ ÷
1
[ ] { [ ]} [ ]
n
x n n a u n nx n = =
1 1 1
1
[ ] [ ] ( )
1
n
x n a u n and X z
az
÷
= =
÷
1
1
( )
[ ], ( )
dX z
From nx n we have z X z
dz
÷ =
14
PME5268 DSP程式設計 II z II z--Transform Transform
27
Properties of z-Transform
PME5268 DSP程式設計 II z II z--Transform Transform
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Initial Value Theorem
From
If Z{f(k)}=F(z) and, exists, then
) ( lim ) 0 ( ) ( lim
0
k f f z F
k z ÷ · ÷
= =
... ) 2 ( ) 1 ( ) 0 ( ) ( ) (
2 1
0
+ + + = =
÷ ÷ ÷
·
=
¯
z f z f f z k f z F
k
k
Then
) ( lim ) 0 ( ) ( lim
0
k f f z F
k z ÷ · ÷
= =
) ( lim z F
z · ÷
Let F(z) be the z-transform of f(t) and a positive-time sequence f[k],
k = 0, 1, 2,..., and let F(z) be a proper rational function, then
Properties of z-Transform
15
PME5268 DSP程式設計 II z II z--Transform Transform
29
Final Value Theorem
From
) ( ) 1 ( lim ) ( lim
1
z F z k f
z k
÷ =
÷ · ÷
¯
¯
¯
÷
=
÷ ÷
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
=
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
=
=
÷ + + + = ÷
+ + + + =
1
0
1
2 1
1
2 1
0
) (
) 1 ( ... ) 1 ( ) 0 ( ) 1 (
) ( ... ) 2 ( ) 1 ( ) 0 ( ) (
n
k
k
n k
n
k
n k
n
k
z k f z
z k f z f z f z k f
z k f z f z f f z k f
) ( ] ) 1 ( ) ( [ lim
1 0
1
n f z k f z k f
k
n
k
k
n
k
z
= ÷ ÷
÷
=
÷
=
÷
¯ ¯
If Z{f(k)}=F(z) and, exists, then ) ( lim z F
z · ÷
Properties of z-Transform
Let F(z) be the z-transform of f(t) and a positive-time sequence f[k],
k = 0, 1, 2,..., and let F(z) be a proper rational function, then
PME5268 DSP程式設計 II z II z--Transform Transform
30
Example 12
) ( lim ] ) 1 ( ) ( [ lim lim
1 0
1
n f z k f z k f
n
k
n
k
k
n
k
z
n · ÷
÷
=
÷
=
÷
· ÷
= ÷ ÷
¯ ¯
) ( ) ( ] ) 1 ( ) ( [ lim
1
1 0
1
z F z z F z k f z k f
k
k
k
k
z
÷ ÷
·
=
÷
·
=
÷
÷ = ÷ ÷
¯ ¯
) ( ) 1 ( lim ) ( lim
1
z F z k f Then
z k
÷ =
÷ · ÷
Properties of z-Transform
16
PME5268 DSP程式設計 II z II z--Transform Transform
31
Solving Difference Equation
Solve for y(n)
PME5268 DSP程式設計 II z II z--Transform Transform
32
Discrete Transfer Function
*The Discrete Impulse Response of H(z)
H(z)
) ( ) ( * t t e  = u*(t)=h*(t)
E(z)
U(z)
Let e*(t)=d(t), and u*(t)=h*(t), then the z-transfer
function H(z) is defined by
H(z) = Z{h*(t)}
i.e. h*(t) is the sampled impulse response of the system,
¯
·
=
÷
=
0
) ( ) (
k
k
z kT h z H
¯
·
=
÷ = =
0
) ( ) ( ) ( * ) ( *
k
kT t kT h t u t h 
And H(z) is its z-transform
where
¯
·
=
÷ =
0
*
) ( ) ( ) (
k
kT t kT e t e 
17
PME5268 DSP程式設計 II z II z--Transform Transform
33
Discrete Transfer Function
U(z) =
k
i i k
i
z iT kT h iT e z U
÷
·
=
·
=
·
=
¯ ¯ ¯

÷ =
0 0 0
) ( ) ( ) (
¯ ¯
·
=
·
=
÷ + ÷

÷ =
0 0
1 1
) ( ) (
i k
k
z z iT kT h iT e
| |
) ( ) (
) ( ) (
0
1
0
) 1 (
z E z H
z iT e z iT kT h
i i k
k
=

÷ =
¯ ¯
·
=
÷
·
= ÷
÷ ÷
In general, the discrete convolution is quite difficult to be solved. Instead,
to solve u(kT) by numerical method is always adopted. Therefore, we need
to transform H(z) in a finite difference equation

the above equation reduces to the twosided transform X(z) ≡ k   x(kT ) z    k If x(kT)=0. 7.   its Laplace = = k  x(kT )     L[δt ] ( -kT)  kTs k  x(kT ) e Let s=ln z/T (or equivalently. then it reduces to a one-sided transform X(z) ≡ x(kT ) z k 0    k PME5268 DSP程式設計 II z-Transform z- 4 2 . if x[n]=0 for k < 0. where n is an integer ranging from -∞to + ∞ . 1}. a positive-time sequence if x[n] = 0 for k > 0. or x[n] = (1/2)n u{n} PME5268 DSP程式設計 II z-Transform z- 3 z-Transform Consider an ideal sampled data x*(t)= transform is x ( X*(s)=Z [x*(t)]=L[  (kT )t kT ) ] k    k  ( x(kT )t kT ). 0. 2. Example x[n] = { 1. called the z-transform variable. z=eST). 5.z-Transform Positive and Negative Sequence Considering a discrete-time signal x[n] = x[nT].  k<0. z-Transform Pair The z-transform is defined as n X ( z ) Z {x (n)}  (n) z  x     where z is a complex variable. a negative-time sequence **We consider the positive-time sequences only.

e. PME5268 DSP程式設計 II z-Transform z- 6 3 . the infinite series will converge and then summable 0 Example 2: If x1[n]=anu[n].z-Transform Example 1: f(k) = bk . the infinite series will converge when 1 bz   1 or b z Z-plane is called the Region of Convergence (ROC) ROC (Grey area) b 1 Unit circle PME5268 DSP程式設計 II z-Transform z- 5 z-Transform Region of Convergence: The existence of z-transform and Fourier Transform x[n]z n 0    n   for all z Obviously. find F(z) k F ( z )  { f (k )}  f (k ) z   b k z  Z   k k 0 k 0       1  (bz  ) k   1 1  1 bz k 0 Obviously.  a  a n d n 0  1 X 1 ( z )  {x1 (n)}  a n z     n 1 az 1 n 0 infinite series will converge if ROC: Also 1 az   1 (ROC) Z-plane a z a 1 for converged sequence a 1 i. ROC must contain unit circle for the convergence or sequence.

z-Transform Example 3 : If x2[n]=-bnu[-n-1]. ROC must contain unit circle for the convergence or sequence. 0  a   0  b   a n d n 0 n X 3 ( z ) a n u[ n]z  bn [   z  n 1] n n    n    an z   b z n  n n n 0 n 1  ROC1: ROC1: a z ROC2: b z if a b ROC3=ROC1 ROC2 Z-plane (ROC3) a a b ROC3 is null ROC3 exists b 1 the sequence diverges!! II z-Transform z8 if a  b And. PME5268 DSP程式設計 II z-Transform z- 7 z-Transform Example 4: If x3[n]=x1[n]+x2[n]=anu[n]--bnu[-n-1] . or a left-sided sequence X 2 ( z )  b n u[   z   b n z   b  z n  n 1] n  n n n    n   n 1  1 1   b z n   1  n 1  1 z 1  b1 bz 1 n 0 infinite series will converge if ROC: Also 1 b z  1 b z Z-plane b 1 for converged sequence 1 (ROC) b Still. if PME5268 DSP程式設計 4 . 0  b   1  a n d n 0 This is a negative sequence.

then it follows Z[e1(t)] = Z[e2(t)] = Z[e3(t)] PME5268 DSP程式設計 II z-Transform z- 9 z-Transform Lt*t α1*t β2*(t). but ignores everything occurs within the time interval kT<t<kT+T.z-Transform It is noted that the z-transform deals with only the events occurring at the sampling time-instance t=kT. An explicit example Let e1(≠2(≠3( f tk. it follows from ex(= x (+ x ) ) k X 1 ( z )  1 (kT ) z  x k 0   and k X 2 ( z )  2 (kT ) z  x k 0   Then X ( z )  (kT ) z x k 0      k k  1 (kT )  x 2 (kT )]z  [ x  k 0     k k  x1 (kT ) z    2 (kT )z   x k 0 k 0  X 1 ( z)  X 2 ( z)   Hence z-transform is a linear operator. PME5268 DSP程式設計 II z-Transform z- 10 5 . u e t e t e t o ≠T bt1(t)=e2(t)=e3(t) ) ) )r for all t=kT.

z-Transform Region of Convergence (ROC) For any given sequence. the set of values of z for which the z transform converges is called the region of convergence.pairs PME5268 DSP程式設計 II z-Transform z- 12 6 . provided that the radius r is within the unit disk PME5268 DSP程式設計 II z-Transform z- 11 z.Transform . Let z=a+jb = rejw X ( z ) z  j  (k )(re ) x e k 0   j  k Implies that Fourier Transform converges if X(z) converges x(k )(r ) k 0    k must be finite.

pairs Example 5 at k Z {e  f (t )}  e  f (kT )z   akT k 0  k aT k aT  f (kT )( ze  )  F ( ze  )   Example 6 1 z  sin  T Z {sin }  t  1 1  z cos    2 T z 2 1 ( ze aT )  sin  T at Z {e  sin }  t aT  1 2 1  ( ze ) cos   ze aT )  2 T ( 1 Tz  Z {t}  (1   ) 2 z1 1 T ( ze aT )  at Z {te  }  1 [1  ze aT )  ]2 ( Example 7 PME5268 DSP程式設計 II z-Transform z- 13 z-Transform Pole-location vs.z.Transform . Time response – Real roots PME5268 DSP程式設計 II z-Transform z- 14 7 .

Time response – complex pair PME5268 DSP程式設計 II z-Transform z- 16 8 .z-Transform Pole-location vs. Time response (double roots) PME5268 DSP程式設計 II z-Transform z- 15 z-Transform Pole-location vs.

where z i : poles of E(z)  i  (z  zi )E(z)zk 1 zzi . See examples PME5268 DSP程式設計 II z-Transform z- 17 Inverse z-Transform *C u h ’R s u l omu a cy ei aF r l s d a If Z{e(k)}=E(z) Then 1 e(k)   k dz E(z)z 1 2 Γ j  Residues(z i ). it can be evaluated by t C uh’r i ehoe h acy e d t r e s su e m x( n)  s ( z i ) Re Res(zi) is the residue of F(z)=X(z)z(n-1) at poles zi of X(z).Inverse z-Transform ( ) s g a cysomua A U i C uh ’fr l n Let then n X ( z ) Z {x(n)}  (n) z  x k 0   1 1 x (n)  ( z ) z n dz X 2 j In the case that X(z) is a rational function. for disticnt zi  i 1   1 dm  1 (z  i )m E(z)zk  z  i . for multiple roots zi z  z m  1 (m 1)! i   dz For details refer to the textbook and Engineering Mathematics PME5268 DSP程式設計 II z-Transform z- 18 9 .

Inverse z-Transform Example 8 z z E ( z)  2  .i j 1  i z 1 II z-Transform z20 N k PME5268 DSP程式設計 10 .r ) o acy om l s a 1 e( k )  z  ) E ( z ) z k  ( 1 1 z  ) E ( z ) z k  ( 2 z1  1 z2  2 z k  z 1 z 2  1 k  2 z1  1 z k  z 1 z 1 z2  2 PME5268 DSP程式設計 II z-Transform z- 19 Inverse z-Transform (B) Using Partial Fraction Method If X ( z )  M 1 b0  1 z    M z  b 1  b b (1  0 z  )  (1  M z  ) c 1 c  0 N a0  1 z    N z  a 1  a a 0 (1  0 z  )  (1  N z  ) d 1 d 1 (1) For M<N A1 A2 AN X ( z)       1  1 1 1z d 1 2z d 1 N z d 1 Ai  1  i z  ) X ( z ) ( d 1 k Repeatable roots z i d Non-repeatable roots X ( z)   Ai B1 B2 Bk       1  1  2 1 d 1 j z d (1  j z ) d (1  N z  ) k d 1 i . distinct roots 1 and 2 z  z  ( z  )( z  ) 3 2 1 2 T f d ()rmEz f m C uh’fr u oi e f n k o ( .

i j 1  i z 1 m 1 j N k impulses N-k single roots k Repeatable roots PME5268 DSP程式設計 II z-Transform z- 21 Inverse z-Transform Example 9: find the inverse z-transform of 10( z 3  2  z  z 3 1) E( z)  (z  z2   1)( z 1) 10( z 3  2  z  z 3 1) E( z )  (z  z2   1)( z 1) = 10 z  z e j/ 3 z ej/ 3 1 20 z 10 z 10 z      j k  k  j e( n)  10kn)  u ( kn)  [e 3  3 ] ( n  ) ( 20 10 e  k  k  0        10k )  u (k )  cos( k ) (t  ) 20 20  k  ( 3  k  0 Look up the table for the transform pairs PME5268 DSP程式設計 II z-Transform z- 22 11 .Inverse z-Transform (2) For M≧N X ( z )  q z    C q q 0 M N k Ai B  (1 d iz 1 ) m  1 d i .

.Inverse z-Transform (C) Long Division Method Example Then f[k]={-2300339….. } PME5268 DSP程式設計 II z-Transform z- 23 Properties of z-Transform PME5268 DSP程式設計 II z-Transform z- 24 12 ..... .

we have  z 1 X ( z ) dz X ( z )  z dX 1 ( z ) d 1  { z } dz dz 1   az 1 1   1 az 2 az    z   2 1 (1  ) az (1   )2 az 1 PME5268 DSP程式設計 II z-Transform z- 26 13 . find x[ n] 1 1 dX ( z )   az 2 dX ( z ) az  z  . then  z   a dz dz 1  az 1 1  az 1 1  ) z  ( a 1  1 thus nx[ n]  {( ) n  u[n  a a 1 1]} an an x[n]  ( n  u[n    n  u[n  1) 1 1] ( 1) 1 1] n n PME5268 DSP程式設計 II z-Transform z- 25 Properties of z-Transform Example 11 x[n] na n u[ n]. find X ( z ) x[n]  {a n u[ n]}  1[n] n nx 1 x1[ n]  n u[ n] and X 1 ( z )  a 1  az 1 dX ( z ) From nx1 [n].Properties of z-Transform n X ( z ) x[n] z  n     d n 1  z X ( z )  (  ) x[ n]z   z n dz n   n n nx[n] z  {nx[n]}z  n   n     az Example 10 X ( z ) log(1  ).

 k 0  lim F ( z ) f (0)  f (k ) lim z  k 0 PME5268 DSP程式設計 II z-Transform z- 28 14 . then k 0 lim F ( z ) f (0)  f (k ) lim z  From Then k 1 2 F ( z )  f (k )z  f (0) f (1) z  f (2) z   .. then If Z{f(k)}=F(z) and..Properties of z-Transform PME5268 DSP程式設計 II z-Transform z- 27 Properties of z-Transform Initial Value Theorem Let F(z) be the z-transform of f(t) and a positive-time sequence f[k]. 2. 1.. and let F(z) be a proper rational function. lim F ( z ) z  exists.. k = 0...

..... lim F ( z ) exists. 2.... 1 f (k )z k 1  k 1 2 f (0) z  f (1) z   f (k ) z  . 1 n 1 k z  f (k ) z  k 0 n 1 k lim [f (k )z   f (k )z  ] f (n)  1 k z 1 k  0 k 1 n n PME5268 DSP程式設計 II z-Transform z- 29 Properties of z-Transform k lim lim [f (k )z   f (k  )z  ]  f (n)  1 k lim n  z 1 k 0  z 1 k  0 k lim [f (k )z   f (k )z  ] F ( z )   F ( z ) z1  1 k k 1  k 1 n  n n Then lim f ( k )  ( z  ) F ( z ) lim 1 k  z 1 Example 12 PME5268 DSP程式設計 II z-Transform z- 30 15 . k = 0. then z  lim f (k )  ( z  ) F ( z ) lim 1 k  z 1 Let F(z) be the z-transform of f(t) and a positive-time sequence f[k]. and let F(z) be a proper rational function. 1. then From n f (k )z k 0 n  k 1 2 n f (0) f (1) z  f (2) z   f (k ) z  .Properties of z-Transform Final Value Theorem If Z{f(k)}=F(z) and.

then the z-transfer function H(z) is defined by H(z) = Z{h*(t)} i. h * (t )  * (t )  h(kT )t  ) u ( kT  k 0  And H(z) is its z-transform  k H ( z )  h(kT ) z   k 0  where e (t )  e(kT )t  ) ( kT  * k 0 PME5268 DSP程式設計 II z-Transform z- 32 16 .Solving Difference Equation Solve for y(n) PME5268 DSP程式設計 II z-Transform z- 31 Discrete Transfer Function *The Discrete Impulse Response of H(z) e * (t )  (t )  H(z) u*(t)=h*(t) U(z) E(z) Let e*(t)=d(t). h*(t) is the sampled impulse response of the system.e. and u*(t)=h*(t).

the discrete convolution is quite difficult to be solved. Therefore. Instead. we need to transform H(z) in a finite difference equation PME5268 DSP程式設計 II z-Transform z- 33 17 . to solve u(kT) by numerical method is always adopted.Discrete Transfer Function     U i ( z )   e(iT )h(kT  )  iT z k U(z) =   i 0 i  0 0 k        e(iT )h(kT  ) z   z   iT k 1 1  i  0 0 k     1 h( kT  ) z k )  e(iT ) z   iT ( 1  k  i 0 i 0  H ( z ) E ( z )    In general.