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INTRODUCTION : Bus-bars are current carrying conductors. They are designed to carry certain normal current continuously. In this note OBJECTIVE is (i) (ii) to design the bus-bars on the basis of treated normal current and permissible temperature-rise, to be able to check the suitability of a given bus-bar of the power panel.

BUS-BAR DESIGN : The bus-bars are designed to carry certain rated normal current continuously within the permissible rise in temperature. The value of cross-section so obtained is verified for temperature rise under short time short-circuit current. This figure is further used from the protection point of view while considering the relay setting. In fact, the relay should be set such that under fault condition no damage is caused to these bus-bars. Bus-bar conductors are separated on post insulators or strain insulators. These insulators experience electrodynamics forces depending upon the current being handled. these forces produce bending moments on the insulators. These bending moments, therefore, become the ruling factor to decide the spacing between insulators (span). The following factors are taken into consideration while designing a bus-bar :(i) (iii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) (viii) (ix) Bus-bar material, Cross-section of conductors, Temperature rise during continuous normal current, Temperature rise during short circuit current of 1 sec. of 3 sec. Design of insulator creepage distance and clearance, Distance between phase conductors, Force on insulators during peak short circuit current, Span of insulators support, and Enclosure design.

Copper and Aluminum are two preferred materials for electrical conductors. Considering certain advantages of lightness, cost, resistance to corrosion, temperature coefficient of resistance etc. Aluminum has got an edge cover copper. As such, most of the bus-bar conductors now-a-days are of Aluminum (E 91-EWP Class). Though a table has been prepared keeping certain parameter fixed (sec table-3) but to select the cross-section of the bus-bar we may first have to find out the derating factors. Derating factors depend on : (i) Allowable bar temperature over an ambient of 35 C, (ii) Enclosure of the bus-bar.

95 0. cms. By equating the heat produced and the heat stored it follows that for aluminium alloy busbar.276 SC T θ + 258 log10 F θ I + 258 . cms. and that on the basis of short circuit withstand capacity be A Sq. Obviously we are to select the cross-sectional area which is nearer to the greater of the two (i. the required current rating is obtained by dividing the normal current rating by the overall derating factor. 2.75 1. Suppose the cross-sectional area obtained on the basis of derating factor is a Sq. Suitability of this conductor depends upon the minimum size of the conductor required to withstand the short circuit current within permissible temperature rise for the given duration. A = 4. Now we are required to calculate the cross-sectional area of the conductor to withstand short circuit current for a given duration within permissible temperature rise.50 After calculating the overall derating factor.1 Temperature rise 1. Outdoors Indoors where the enclosure itself is in a well .75 0.85 0.90 0. Sharma (BSNL Electrical Zone Patna) 2 Derations for these two factors are obtained from the table 1 & 2 given below and multiplied to get the overall derating factors. Bar temperature rise 40 C over ambient of 35 C Bar temperature rise 30 C over ambient of 35 C TABLE-2 Enclosure (Cross sectional area of bus-bar)/ (Total cross sectional area of Enclosure) <1% <5% < 10 % <1% <5% < 10 % <1% <5% < 10 % Derating factor Rating factors 0.85 0.R.e.65 0. According to the requires current rating we note down the cross-section of the conductor. between a and A). Basic assumption made here is that the heat produced due to a through short circuit current raises the temperature of the conductor and none escapes by convection or radiation in the very short time of the fault.65 0.ventilated room Indoors where the enclosure itself is poorly ventilated ant the room temperature is high. and obtained on the basis of derating factor is a Sq. TABLE .88 0.60 0. 3. 2. 0. cms.

Force per metre length on bus-bars.) Duration of fault (Sec) Final conductor temperature after the fault (C) Initial conductor temperature before the fault (C) Short circuit current in kilo .55 ISC If L be the length of the bus-bars in metres and r be the phase to phase spacing (in metres) then total force F developed in Kgf is F = 2. .6 KV 13. .7 ISC √T Sq. and a desirable minimum should be 56 Kg/Sq. Ipeak = 2. F = 2. upto 6. mm. Typical properties for recommended material are Tensile strength 0. cm. cms. Brinell 200 minimum Rockwell B 93 minimum Also absolute minimum contact pressure should be taken as 28 Kg/Sq.Amp. the span of insulators then FX HXL = Sk (Factor of safety) Bolting and clamping should be done by proper grades of steel or of alumimium alloy. 52 Kg/Sq. Sk the cantilever strength insulator and L.04 I2peak x L/r X 10-5 Kgf. The above formula can further be simplified as follows :A = 13. mm. mm.04 X 10-5 I 2 (peak) r Let H be the height of insulator (in metre).88 ISC √T Sq. mm. mm. Sharma (BSNL Electrical Zone Patna) 3 Where. During short circuit the insulators supporting the bus-bars experience a bending force and unless these insulators have enough cantilever strength to withstand the dynamic force occurring during short circuits they will fail.2 % Proof stress (minimum) Hardness = = = 71 Kg/Sq. A T θF θI ISC = = = = = Cross-sectional area of conductor (Sq.R. Let ISC be the short circuit current in KA & Ipeak be the peak short circuit current in KA. for 11 KV The insulators are selected by considering mechanical bending load occurring at that instant of peak short circuit current.

They should be aluminized or electrogalvanised. The following sizes are recommended :Bolt size (mm) 9.34 14. 25. Sharma (BSNL Electrical Zone Patna) 4 The washers (Plain and spring) should also be used.58 Washer Dimension (mm) I.239 9.D.R./7 O.D.64 . Tickness 11.4 28.11 2.53 12.

at 305 mm (Kg.53 76.355 194.2 X 9.961 2.38 24.921 5.30 65. Xa.53 830 1180 101.90 25.74 1290.53 2750 76.38 64.28 19.53 1495 127.2 x 12.36 134.4 X 6.20 0.0 x 12.42 236.5 X 6.4 X 6.16 806.35 175.64 139.31 1452.228 2.18 32.51 195. in (KA) 8.35 355 520 670 810 960 Current Ratings Short circuit with stand capacity 2 Sec.72 34.35 38.50 967.6 X 9.00 98.6 X 6.6 x 12.35 129.0 X 6.88 32.73 82.21 32.35 1505 152.76 87.614 3.35 1780 50.43 20.R.48 144.c.87 41.23 483.18 77.53 1860 152.45 170.96 116./m) resist.24 29.7 2080 .14 186.25 1210.04 Weight of bus Typical Typical reactanc bar/length maximum d.93 155.7 1740 127.29 241.613 1.8 X 9.307 1.74 484.56 97.53 2120 203.59 16.33 61.32 1612.65 32.268 3.18 117. (in KA) 11.10 69.54 24.435 0.66 74.45 967.848 8.8 X 6.4 X 9.613 3.38 23.19 968.35 123 127. Sharma (BSNL Electrical Zone Patna) 5 TABLE-3 Size of AL Cross sectional area bus bar (mm x mm) in Sq.88 52.871 1.35 50.6 17.05 34.59 38.00 49.86 46.38 26.82 64.48 58.30 16.86 174.306 1.84 143.35 63.45 146.17 1 Sec.66 37.089 1.58 403.65 49.21 21.80 43.30 322. at 20 C spacing at 50 c/s Double bar 705 1020 1290 1510 1740 2140 2510 2860 1500 2050 2480 2930 3340 4150 2240 2720 3120 Tripple bar 970 1350 1705 2000 2310 2800 3240 3680 1970 2660 3150 3660 4080 4900 2830 3360 3900 101.35 76.32 69.08 49. mm Single bar 161.2 X 9.12 726.72 92.0 X 9.22 215.37 1936.7 1355 101.85 159.30 24.22 199.00 134.652 0.742 2.52 69.21 157.1 X 6.87 645.20 104.80 48.177 2.22 12.2 X 6.

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