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Energy engineering Hydroelectric power 1

Contents

1) Energy , Power and distinction between them

2) Forms of Energy

3) Types of Energy

4) Hydroelectric power

5) History of Hydroelectric power

6) How Hydroelectric power system work

7) Hydro power plant Assembly

8) Favorable features of Hydro power

9) Advantages and disadvantages of Hydro power

10) References

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Energy:
The basic definition of energy is
“Energy is defined as “the ability to do work.” Work and energy may seem like verymuch
the same thing. However, while they are similar, they’re not the same.Remember that work is a
force that is acting by or through a distance. Energy is simply the ability to do that work. Almost
everything we do is connected to a form of energy. The sun produces light and the energy to make
plants grow. Our bodies produce energy from food. Energy powers our vehicles, warms our
homes, plays our music, lights our cities, and powers machinery in factories and farms.”
Energy is always equivalent to the ability to exert pulls or pushes against the basic forces of nature, along a
path of a certain length.
We are greatly dependent upon energy. Allah gave us several forms of natural
energy to help us live productively on earth. He gave man the intelligence to learn
how to use different forms of energy in creative ways. During this unit we will
examine different energy types: Allah is the creator of the world and the producer of
all its whole being or substances, Everything that moves requires energy.
Power:
The general definition of power is
“The rate at which work is performed or energy is converted.”
As a simple example, if an elevated reservoir is used to drive a waterwheel, then replacing its drain valve
with another of larger diameter does not change the water's potential energy, but does increase the available
power because the larger valve allows higher flow, so the potential energy can be more quickly converted
into kinetic energy.
Distinction between power and energy:
Although in everyday usage the terms energy and power are essentially synonyms, scientists and engineers
distinguish between them. In its technical sense, power is not at all the same as energy, but is the rate at
which energy is converted (or, equivalently, at which work is performed). Thus ahydroelectric plant, by
allowing the water above the dam to pass through turbines, converts the water's potential energy into
kinetic energy and ultimately into electric energy, whereas the amount of electric energy that is generated
per unit of time is the electric power generated.

Forms of energy:
Energy has a number of different forms, all of which measure the ability of an object or system to
do work on another object or system.
In other words, there are different ways that an object or a system can possess energy.

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Potential energy
In physics, potential energy is the energy stored in a body or in a system due to its
position in a force field
Types of potential energy
1) Stored Mechanical energy
Objects have mechanical energy if they are in motion and/or if they are at some
position relative to a zero potential energy position (for example, a brick held at a vertical
position above the ground or zero height position).
2) Nuclear energy
Nuclear potential energy is the potential energy of the particles inside
an atomic nucleus. The nuclear particles are bound together by the strong nuclear force. Weak
nuclear forces provide the potential energy for certain kinds of radioactive decay, such as beta
decay.
3) Chemical energy
Chemical potential energy is a form of potential energy related to the
structural arrangement of atoms or molecules. This arrangement may be the result of chemical
bonds within a molecule or otherwise.
4) Gravitational potential energy
Gravitational energy is the potential energy associated with gravitational
force. If an object falls from one point to another point inside a gravitational field, the force of

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gravity will do positive work on the object, and the gravitational potential energy will
decrease by the same amount.
Types of kinetic energy
1) Electric energy
Energy made available by the flow of electric charge through a conductor;
"they built a car that runs on electricity"
2) Light energy
Fundamentally, light is energy itself, and it is a nature’s method of transferring
energy through space extremely quickly.
3) Heat energy
Heat energy is the form of energy which transfers among the particles due to
there kinetic energy .
Law of conservation of energy:
It is defined as
“Energy can neither be created nor be destroyed, but can be converted from one form to an other form”
This basic principle is used in hydroelectric power production.
Types of energy:
There are two main types of energy
1) Renewable energy 2) Non-Renewable energy
Renewable energy:
Renewable energy sources can be replenished. The five renewable sources used most often are:
1) Biomass
2) Hydropower
3) Geothermal
4) Wind
5) Solar

As shown in the fig , hydropower is the largest renewable energy source.

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Why Don’t We Use More Renewable Energy?


In the past, renewable energy has generally been more expensive to produce and use than fossil fuels.
Renewable resources are often located in remote areas, and it is expensive to build power lines to the cities
where the electricity they produce is needed. The use of renewable sources is also limited by the fact that
they are not always available — cloudy days reduce solar power; calm days reduce wind power; and
droughts reduce the water available for hydropower.
The production and use of renewable fuels has grown more quickly in recent years as a result of higher
prices for oil and natural gas, and a number of State and Federal Government incentives, including the
Energy Policy Acts of 2002 and 2005. The use of renewable fuels is expected to continue to grow over the
next 30 years, although we will still rely on non-renewable fuels to meet most of our energy needs.
Non-Renewable energy:
Energy sources are considered nonrenewable if they cannot be replenished (made again) in a short period
of time.There are 4 main sources of non-renewable energies , i.e.
1) Oil and Petroleum products
2) Natural gas
3) Coal
4) Uranium
Hydroelectric power:
This source is a type of renewable energy. Use of flowing water to create electricity is called hydroelectric
energy. The most common type of hydroelectric plant uses a dam on a river to store water in a reservoir.
Water released from the reservoir flows through a pipe and into a turbine, which spins to drive a generator,
producing electricity. Pumped storage plants use a two-reservoir system, pumping water from a river or a
reservoir to a higher reservoir when electricity prices are low during the night. When the value of electricity
on the grid is higher during the day, water is released from the upper reservoir, spinning the turbines to
produce electricity.

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How to install hydropower generator

History of Hydroelectric power:


Nearly 2000 years ago the Greeks used water wheels to grind wheat into flour
- In the 1700's, hydropower was broadly used for milling of lumber and grain and for pumping irrigation
water
- Appleton, Wisconsin became the first operational hydroelectric generating station in the United States, in
1882, producing 12.5 kilowatts (kW) of power
- The total electrical capacity generated was equivalent to 250 lights
- Within the next 20 years roughly 300 hydroelectric plants were operational around the world
- The invention of the hydraulic reaction turbine created the sudden expansion of hydropower
- 40% of the United States' electricity was provided by hydroelectric power in the early 1900's

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photo taken by Mr. Roy Schmidt; Minnesota Power, Hydropower Dam in Little Falls, MN

- The largest and last masonry dam built by the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation was the Roosevelt Dam in
Arizona between 1905-1911; its power output has increased from 4,500 kW to 36,000 kW
- In 1933, the Tennessee Valley Authority Act was enacted into law
- The Hoover Dam first generated power in 1937, producing 130,000 kW
- By the 1940's, hydroelectric power supplied roughly 75% of the electricity used in the western United
States and approximately one-third of the United States' total electric energy
- Still in use today, Niagra Falls was the first hydropower site developed for a vast quantity of electricity
- Nearly 10% of the United States' electricity came from hydroelectric power in 1997
- In the United States hydropower generates over 90,000 megawatts (mW); this could supply about 28.3
million customers (estimated population in 2001 was 284.4 million people) which is still less than 10% of
the populace.
Hydropower Generates Electricity

Hydropower is the renewable energy source that produces the most electricity in the United States. It
accounted for 7% of total U.S. electricity generation and 35% of generation from renewables in 2009.

Hydropower Relies on the Water Cycle


Understanding the water cycle is important to understanding hydropower. In the water cycle:
• Solar energy heats water on the surface, causing it to evaporate.
• This water vapor condenses into clouds and falls back onto the surface as precipitation (rain,
snow, etc.).
• The water flows through rivers back into the oceans, where it can evaporate and begin the cycle
over again.

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How hydroelectric power system work:


A dam is built to trap water, usually in a valley where there is an existing lake.
Water is allowed to flow through tunnels in the dam, to turn turbines and thus drive generators.
Notice that the dam is much thicker at the bottom than at the top, because the pressure of the water
increases with depth.
Hydro-electric power stations can produce a great deal of power very cheaply.
Gravitational potential energy is stored in the water above the dam.
Because of the great height of the water, it will arrive at the turbines at high pressure, which means that we
can extract a great deal of energy from it. The water then flows away downriver as normal.
In mountainous countries such as Switzerland and New Zealand, hydro-electric power provides more than
half of the country's energy needs.
An alternative is to build the station next to a fast-flowing river. However with this arrangement the flow of
the water cannot be controlled, and water cannot be stored for later use.
Generating hydroelectricity starts with the annual hydrologic, or water cycle, providing seasonal rain and
runoff from snowpack. The runoff from rain and snow collects in lakes, streams and rivers and flows to
dams downstream. The water funnels through a dam, into a powerhouse and turns a large wheel called a
turbine. The turbine turns a shaft that rotates a series of magnets past copper coils in a generator to create
electricity. The water then returns to the river. From the powerhouse, transmission lines carry electricity to
communities.
Hydropower Plant Assembly

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Reservoir
The place where the water is stored and from where we take water for producing Hydroelectric power.
Usually Dams are used as reservoir.
Dams:
A dam is a barrier that impounds water or underground streams. Dams generally serve the primary purpose
of retaining water, while other structures such as floodgates or levees (also known as dikes) are used to
manage or prevent water flow into specific land regions. Hydropower and pumped-storage
hydroelectricity are often used in conjunction with dams to generate electricity. A dam can also be used to
collect water or for storage of water which can be evenly distributed between locations.

Penstock:

Penstocks for hydroelectric installations are normally equipped with a gate system and asurge tank. Flow is
regulated by turbine operation and is nil when turbines are not in service. Maintenance requirements may
include hot water wash, manual cleaning, antifoulingcoatings, and desiccation.

The term is also used in irrigation dams to refer to the channels leading to and from high-pressure sluice
gates.

Penstocks are also used in mine tailings dam construction, the penstock is usually situated fairly close to
the center of the tailings dam and built up using penstock rings, these penstock rings control the water level
letting the slimes settle out of the water, this water is then piped back under the tailings dam back to the
plant via a penstock pipeline.

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Turbine and Generator


Flowing water is directed on to the blades of a turbine runner, creating a force on the blades. Since the
runner is spinning, the force acts through a distance (force acting through a distance is the definition
of work). In this way, energy is transferred from the water flow to the turbine
Turbine blades are pushed by flowing water from the penstock, causing them to rotate.
1. Water flows through the dam and turns a large wheel called a turbine. The turbine turns a shaft which
rotates a series of magnets past copper coils and a generator to produce electricity. The process produces
clean renewable energy.
2. The Kaplan Head is the hydraulic associated with adjustable blades on the turbine. Adjustable blades
operate efficiently despite variations in water flow and energy demands.
3. The rotor is a series of magnets. It's the rotating portion of the generator where the magnetic field is
created.
4. The stator is the stationary part of the generator made of coils of copper wire. Electricity is produced as
the rotors spin past the stationary wiring.
5. The shaft connects the turbine to the rotor section of the generator. All three elements, the turbine, shaft,
and rotor turn at the same speed of 90 revolutions per minute.
6. The wicket gates are a series of 20 adjustable vanes, resembling vertical blinds. They control the volume
of water flowing through the turbine.
7. The 172 ton hydraulic turbine resembles a large water wheel. The turbine converts the energy of falling
water into mechanical energy to drive the generator.

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Transformer:
Transformer plays a very important role to transfer electric power from the generating station to the
consuming center. The generating site of Hydro power plants are situated very far away from the
consuming center, necessitating very long transmission systems for which much higher transmission
voltage are required to reduce the transmission cost as well as transmission loss.

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Transmission lines
Transmission lines are specialized cables and other media designed to carry alternating
current and electromagnetic waves of radio frequency, that is, currents with a frequency high enough that
its wave nature must be taken into account. Transmission lines are used for purposes such as
connecting radio transmitters and receivers with their antennas, distributing cable television signals, and
computer network connections.
They carry electricity to substations in our communities. The voltage is decreased and the power is
distributed to homes and businesses.

Water flow:
The same amount of water that entered through the penstock flows back to the river through the draft tube .

Favorable features of Hydro power :


Anywhere rain falls, there will be rivers. If a particular section of river has the right terrain to form a reservoir, it may
be suitable for dam construction. No fossil fuels are required to produce the electricity, and the earth's hydrologic cycle
naturally replenishes the "fuel" supply. Therefore no pollution is released into the atmosphere and no waste that
requires special containment is produced. Since "water is a naturally recurring domestic product and is not subject to

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the whims of foreign suppliers," there is no worry of unstable prices, transportation issues, production strikes, or other
national security issues.

Hydropower is very convenient because it can respond quickly to fluctuations in demand. A dam's
gates can be opened or closed on command, depending on daily use or gradual economic growth in the
community. The production of hydroelectricity is often slowed in the nighttime when people use less
energy. When a facility is functioning, no water is wasted or released in an altered state; it simply returns
unharmed to continue the hydrologic cycle. The reservoir of water resulting from dam construction, which
is essentially stored energy, can support fisheries and preserves, and provide various forms of water-based
recreation for locals and tourists. Land owned by the hydroelectric company is often open to the public for
hiking, hunting, and skiing. Therefore, "hydropower reservoirs contribute to local economies. A study of
one medium-sized hydropower project in Wisconsin showed that the recreational value to residents and
visitors exceeded $6.5 million annually." Not to mention the economic stimulation provided by
employment.
Hydroelectric power is also very efficient and inexpensive. "Modern hydro turbines can
convert as much as 90% of the available energy into electricity. The best fossil fuel plants are only about
50% efficient. In the US , hydropower is produced for an average of 0.7 cents per kilowatt-hour (kWh).
This is about one-third the cost of using fossil fuel or nuclear and one-sixth the cost of using natural gas,"
as long as the costs for removing the dam and the silt it traps are not included. Efficiency could be further
increased by refurbishing hydroelectric equipment. An improvement of only 1% would supply electricity to
an additional 300,000 households.
Hydropower has become "the leading source of renewable energy. It provides more than 97% of all
electricity generated by renewable sources worldwide. Other sources including solar, geothermal, wind,
and biomass account for less than 3% of renewable electricity production." In the US , 81% of the
electricity produced by renewable sources comes from hydropower. "Worldwide, about 20% of all
electricity is generated by hydropower." Some regions depend on it more than others. For example, 75% of
the electricity produced in New Zealand and over 99% of the electricity produced in Norway come from
hydropower.
The use of hydropower "prevents the burning of 22 billion gallons of oil or 120 million tons of coal
each year." In other words, "the carbon emissions avoided by the nation's hydroelectric industry are the
equivalent of an additional 67 million passenger cars on the road 50 percent more than there are currently."
The advantages of hydropower are therefore convincing, but there are some serious drawbacks that are
causing people to reconsider its overall benefit.
Since the most feasible sites for dams are in hilly or mountainous areas, the faults that often
created the topography pose a great danger to the dams and therefore the land below them for thousands of
years after they have become useless for generating power. In fact, dam failures do occur regularly due to
these terrain conditions, and the effects are devastating.

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When a new dam's reservoir floods the countryside, people who live in the area have to move
and relinquish their former lifestyles in order to make way for the project. This is very stressful and often
controversial, especially if a community has maintained a particular way of life on the same land for
generations. Such is the case in Chile, where the indigenous Pehuenche "are currently fighting construction
of the 570MW, US $500,000,000 Ralco Dam on the Biobo River Eight families continue to refuse to
negotiate land exchanges with Endesa [the utility company], and wish to remain on their lands." If the
project succeeds, a 13-square-mile reservoir would flood the land and force 600 people out of their homes,
400 of whom are Pehuenche "whose ancestral home is the upper Biobo." A total of five dams have been
planned, which "would force the relocation of 1,000 Pehuenches, 20% of the survivors of this ancient
culture."
The construction of a dam not only affects the people nearby, it can severely alter a river's natural
functions. According to American Rivers, a conservation organization, "by diverting water for power, dams
remove water needed for healthy in-stream ecosystems. Stretches below dams are often completely de-
watered." This may not seem like a significant problem until animal species are studied. Birds that have
migrated to a specific riparian environment for generations no longer have enough insects on which to prey
when the water level drops. If they have few migration alternatives, that could mean the endangerment of
species that once flourished. Fish species such as salmon "depend on steady flows to flush them down river
early in their life and guide them upstream years later to spawn. Stagnant reservoir pools disorient
migrating fish and significantly increase the duration of their migration." Native populations of fish may
decrease or disappear altogether due to temperature changes caused by dams. Slower water flow means
warmer temperatures, and bottom-release of cold water means cooler temperatures. Several of
hydropower's disadvantages focus on fish. It is easy to forget how important fish and other aquatic life are,
some of which reside at the bottom of the food chain.
The environmental changes caused by hydroelectric projects may be obvious to the local
biologist, but elude the average person. Most people will more readily notice a smoggy haze developing in
an area where a coal plant is operating than a smaller population of a particular bird species where a
hydropower facility functions. Such oversights lead people to believe that nothing is wrong.
Hydroelectric companies and organizations often emphasize their "clean" manufacture of
electricity and neglect to mention the long-term environmental hazards. "Dams hold back silt, debris, and
nutrients." Silt collects behind the dam on the river bottom, accumulating heavy metals and other
pollutants. Eventually this renders the dam inoperable, leaving the mess for future generations, who will
either have to remove the collected debris or live with a potentially catastrophic mudflow poised to
inundate the area below the dam.
There is also a debate between preserving rivers for their aesthetic value versus meeting the energy
needs of thousands of people. The latter has prevailed. Today "there are 600,000 river miles impounded
behind dams. In contrast, only 10,000 river miles (not even half of 1%) are permanently protected under the

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National Wild and Scenic Rivers System." The only undammed river in the US that is longer than 600
miles is the Yellowstone .
Hydropower may be better on the environment than fossil-fuel sources, but its future is so
uncertain that we may need to focus on other alternatives. According to the National Hydropower
Association, "an increasing array of statutes, regulations, agency policies and court decisions have made
the hydroelectric licensing process costly, arbitrary and time-consuming. A typical hydropower project
takes 8 to 10 years to find its way through the licensing process. By comparison, a natural gas fired plant,
which emits significant carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) gases, can typically be sited and licensed in 18 months.
Given this uncertain climate, few investors are willing to risk their capital on new hydropower
development. Furthermore, some project owners and operators contemplate abandonment of their projects
rather than proceeding with relicensing."
Hydroelectric Energy Advantages
1. Once a dam is constructed, electricity can be produced at a constant rate.
2. If electricity is not needed, the sluice gates can be shut, stopping electricity generation. The water
can be saved for use another time when electricity demand is high.
3. Dams are designed to last many decades and so can contribute to the generation of electricity for
many years / decades.
4. The lake that forms behind the dam can be used for water sports and leisure / pleasure activities.
Often large dams become tourist attractions in their own right.
5. The lake's water can be used for irrigation purposes.
6. The build up of water in the lake means that energy can be stored until needed, when the water is
released to produce electricity.
7. When in use, electricity produced by dam systems do not produce green house gases. They do not
pollute the atmosphere.
Hydroelectric Disadvantages
1. Dams are extremely expensive to build and must be built to a very high standard.
2. The high cost of dam construction means that they must operate for many decades to become
profitable.
3. The flooding of large areas of land means that the natural environment is destroyed.
4. People living in villages and towns that are in the valley to be flooded, must move out. This means
that they lose their farms and businesses. In some countries, people are forcibly removed so that hydro-
power schemes can go ahead.
5. The building of large dams can cause serious geological damage. For example, the building of the
Hoover Dam in the USA triggered a number of earth quakes and has depressed the earth’s surface at its
location.
6. Although modern planning and design of dams is good, in the past old dams have been known to be
breached (the dam gives under the weight of water in the lake). This has led to deaths and flooding.

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7. Dams built blocking the progress of a river in one country usually means that the water supply from
the same river in the following country is out of their control. This can lead to serious problems
between neighbouring countries.
8. Building a large dam alters the natural water table level. For example, the building of the Aswan
Dam in Egypt has altered the level of the water table. This is slowly leading to damage of many of its
ancient monuments as salts and destructive minerals are deposited in the stone work from ‘rising
damp’ caused by the changing water table level.
Why Don’t We Use More Renewable Energy?
In the past, renewable energy has generally been more expensive to produce and use than fossil fuels.
Renewable resources are often located in remote areas, and it is expensive to build power lines to the cities
where the electricity they produce is needed. The use of renewable sources is also limited by the fact that
they are not always available — cloudy days reduce solar power; calm days reduce wind power; and
droughts reduce the water available for hydropower.
The production and use of renewable fuels has grown more quickly in recent years as a result of higher
prices for oil and natural gas, and a number of State and Federal Government incentives, including the
Energy Policy Acts of 2002 and 2005. The use of renewable fuels is expected to continue to grow over the
next 30 years, although we will still rely on non-renewable fuels to meet most of our energy needs.
Reality:
However, done correctly, it can be a sustainable and non-polluting source of energy that can help decrease
our dependence on fossil fuels and reduce the threat of global warming.

Referances:

1) http://en.wikipedia.org
2) http://www.scribd.com
3) http://www.webmutations.com
4) http://www.renewableenergyworld.com
5) http://www.alternative-energy-news.info
6) http://www1.eere.energy.gov
7) http://hydropowerstation.com
8) http://www.altenergy.org
9) http://www.technologystudent.com

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