UMTS Air Interface

UMTS Air Interface

U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

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UMTS Air Interface

Contents and Session Aims
•Overview of the Air Interface •Logical, Transport and Physical Channels on the Air Interface •The Dedicated Channels

• This session aims to explain the
protocols and operation of the air interface
!

To give an overview of the UMTS specific operation of the air interface To look at the protocol structure To investigate the Frame and Timeslot structure of the major air interface channels

! !

U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

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UMTS Air Interface

Role of the Air Interface
• • • • •
To provide a number of bearer or physical channels to support data transfer over the radio path. To provide control channels to manage the cell To provide a number of traffic channels at an acceptable error performance and at various rates To provide signalling channels for call set up, etc. In providing all of this to also:
! ! ! !

Ensure an efficient use of the available spectrum Minimise interference to other cells and services Minimise the use of power, particularly from the mobile Provide synchronisation

U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

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84 Mcps 5 MHz 200 kHz 10 ms 15 None Variable (4-512) 8->384 kbps U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview 4 .UMTS Air Interface UMTS FDD Air Interface Overview Parameter Multiple Access Scheme Duplexing Method Chip Rate Carrier Spacing Carrier Spacing Raster Frame Length Slots per Frame Inter-cell Synchronisation Spreading factor User Data Rate Value Direct Sequence CDMA FDD 3.

UMTS Air Interface Multiple Access Scheme • • • UMTS FDD mode makes use of a CDMA style multiple access scheme In the case of UMTS this is commonly referred to as Wideband CDMA However there are elements of FDMA and TDMA in UMTS ! Common channels for paging and packet access share codes between UEs (TDMA) Multiple carriers are used per operator (FDMA) ! U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview 5 .

z H G 85 1. ! U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview 6 .98GHz The Downlink band is between 2. G 98 z H G 11 z H G 17 z H The Uplink and Downlink Channels are carried on separate carriers The Uplink band is between 1.11 and 2. 1. z H 2G z H G 95 1. G 92 z H 1.92 and 1.UMTS Air Interface Duplexing Method • UMTS FDD mode makes use of Frequency Division Duplexing ! 190MHz 2. z H 8G 1.17GHz The Uplink/Downlink Separation is 190MHz • In the case of UMTS in Europe: ! UMTS Uplink UMTS Downlink ! z H 2G 2. z H 1G 2. z H G 15 2. z H G 05 2. 2. z H 9G 1.

096Mcps. ! U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview 7 .84Mcps • This leads to a carrier bandwidth of approximately 5MHz • This chip rate was chosen because it: ! ! Could be generated simply from existing GSM clock rates Provided a similar bandwidth to cdma2000 to allow shared use of filters etc in UEs You may find some old texts and papers referring to this chip rate • Note: Initially UMTS was specified as having a chip rate of 4.UMTS Air Interface Chip Rate • The chiprate used in UMTS FDD mode is 3.

4MHz and 5. or to the operators discretion ! U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview 8 .6MHz This may be set within the license conditions.UMTS Air Interface Carrier Spacing and Carrier Spacing Raster 5MHz • The nominal carrier spacing for UMTS is 5Hz • This was chosen to comply with the American market. where spectrum has been awarded in 5MHz blocks • It is possible to move the centre frequency of the carrier on a 200kHz raster ! 200kHz We can have carrier spacings between 4.

UMTS Air Interface Adjacent Channel Interference • • • • Adjacent channel interference may have a significant impact on UMTS capacity Required attenuation (by standards) ! ! adjacent carrier 33dB 2nd adjacent carrier 43dB Since only have 2 or 3 carriers typically at least one adjacent carrier will be transmitted by a third party This can partially be negated by a flexible carrier spacing based upon a 200kHz raster U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview 9 .

UMTS Air Interface Adjacent Operator Interference Interference 50dB path loss Signal 150dB path loss Close Interferring Microcell Distant Serving Macrocell U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview 10 .

3MHz U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview 11 .3MHz 14.UMTS Air Interface UK Spectrum Allocations Example D E C A A A A C C B B B D D E E Hutchison One2One Vodafone Orange BT Cellnet 20MHz 0.8MHz 10MHz 10MHz 0.6MHz 10MHz 14.

7µs Tslot = 666.7µs = 2560 chips #0 #1 #2 #i Tf = 10ms = 38400 chips #14 U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview 12 . #0…#14 Slots are use for power control 38400 chips Tslot = 2560 chips = 666.UMTS Air Interface Radio Frame Structure • • • • • • Radio Frame Period = Tf = 10ms Frames are used for channel format control 15 slots.

UMTS Air Interface Superframe Structure • • 72 Radio Frames make a Superframe Superframe Period Tsf = 720ms Superframes are used for #0 #1 #2 #i Tsf = 720ms #71 U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview 13 .

UMTS Air Interface Inter Cell Synchronisation • • • • Cells in a UMTS network are not synchronised in time with each other. This removes the need for tight synchronisation between the base stations There is no need for GPS receivers at sites ! This makes implementation of picocells and their integration with the network more simple as satellite LoS is not required 3rd Party Transmission requirement are less stringent U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview 14 .

some of which we cannot foresee at the moment Rather than having a fixed bit rate and spreading factor.UMTS Air Interface Spreading Factor and User Data Rates • • • UMTS has been designed to provide flexibility to allow the user to use multiple services. each of the channels on the user interface has a range of bit rates that can be used This makes the channels more complicated than for GSM…but certainly more flexible U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview 15 .

UMTS Air Interface Air Interface Access Stratum L3 Radio Resource Control RRC Control Plane Signalling User Plane Information Radio Link Control RLC L2 Medium Access Control MAC Logical Channels Transport Channels L1 Physcial Layer Physical Channels U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview 16 .

UMTS Air Interface Radio Resource Control Layer • The RRC layer forms the lower part of the OSI layer 3 • It is responsible for: ! ! ! ! ! ! L3 Radio Resource Control RRC Control Plane Signalling User Plane Information Bearer Control Monitoring Power Control Measurement Reporting Paging Broadcast Control L1 Physical Layer Physical Channels Radio Link Control RLC L2 Medium Access Control MAC Logical Channels Transport Channels U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview 17 .

UMTS Air Interface Radio Resource Control Layer Functional Entities • • The RRC layer resides at the RNC serving a cell or UE The RRC Layer can be split into 3 functional entities ! Dedicated Control Functional Entity (DCFE) " One per UE in connection " All functions and signalling specific to a single UE ! Paging and Notification control Functional Entity (PNFE) " One per cell " Paging of idle mode UEs ! Broadcast Control Functional Entities (BCFE) " One per cell " Broadcasting of system information U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview 18 .

UMTS Air Interface Radio Link Control Layer • The RLC layer forms the upper part of the OSI layer 2 • It is responsible for: ! ! L3 Radio Resource Control RRC Control Plane Signalling User Plane Information Logical Link Control Acknowledged and unacknowledged data transfer Radio Link Control RLC L2 Medium Access Control MAC Logical Channels Transport Channels L1 Physical Layer Physical Channels U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview 19 .

UMTS Air Interface The Medium Access Control Layer • The MAC Layer forms the lower part of layer 2 • It is responsible for: ! ! ! ! L3 Radio Resource Control RRC Control Plane Signalling User Plane Information Random Access Physical Link Control Ciphering Multiplexing and Channel Mapping to the Physical Layer L1 L2 Medium Access Control MAC Transport Channels Physical Layer Physical Channels Radio Link Control RLC Logical Channels U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview 20 .

UMTS Air Interface • • • Medium Access Control Layer Functional Entities MAC-b ! Handles the broadcast channel (BCH) and is located in the Node-B in the UTRAN MAC-c/sh ! Handles the common and shared channels and is located in the RNC in the UTRAN MAC-d ! Handles the dedicated channels and is located in the RNC U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview 21 .

UMTS Air Interface The Physical Layer • The Physical Layer forms layer 1 of the OSI protocol stack • It is responsible for: ! L3 Radio Resource Control RRC Control Plane Signalling User Plane Information Carrying traffic and signalling across the air interface L2 Radio Link Control RLC Logical Channels Medium Access Control MAC Transport Channels L1 Physical Layer Physical Channels U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview 22 .

UMTS Air Interface Protocol Termination in the Access Stratum RRC RRC RLC RLC MAC MAC Physical User Equipment Physical Node-B Radio Network Controller Note: Some Layer 2 functionality regarding the broadcast functionality resides in the Node-B U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview 23 .

UMTS Air Interface UMTS Channel Types and Functions • There are three types of channel across the air interface and access stratum that we are interested in: ! Logical Channels " Between the RLC and MAC layers ! Transport Channels " Between the MAC and Physical layers ! Physical Channels " Between Physical Layers at the Node-B and UE U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview 24 .

UMTS Air Interface Major Logical Channels in UMTS • Control Channels ! ! ! ! BCCH PCCH CCCH DCCH Broadcast Control Channel Paging Control Channel Common Control Channel Dedicated Control Channel • Traffic Channels ! ! DTCH CTCH Dedicated Traffic Channel Common Traffic Channel U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview 25 .

UMTS Air Interface Logical Control Channels • • • • The Broadcast Control Channel (BCCH) is a downlink channel for broadcasting system control information The Paging Control Channel (PCH) is a downlink channel that transfers paging information The Dedicated Control Channel (DCCH) is a point-to-point bidirectional channel transmitting control information between a specific UE and the UTRAN The Common Control Channel (CCCH) is a bi-directional channel transmitting control information between Ues and the UTRAN U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview 26 .

UMTS Air Interface Logical Traffic Channels • • The Dedicated Traffic Channel (DCH) is a point-to-point channel dedicated to a single UE for the transfer of user information The Common Traffic Channel (CTCH) is a point-to-point unidirectional channel for transfer of user information to a group of UEs U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview 27 .

UMTS Air Interface Major Transport Channels for UMTS • Common Control Channels ! ! ! ! ! BCH FACH PCH RACH CPCH Broadcast Channel Forward Access Channel Paging Channel Random Access Channel Common Packet Channel • Dedicated Channels ! ! DCH DSCH Dedicated Channel Downlink Shared Channel U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview 28 .

May also carry short user packets. The BCH is always transmitted over the entire cell with a low fixed bit rate. May also carry short user packets • The Common Packet Channel (CPCH) is a contention based uplink channel used for transmission of bursty data traffic.UMTS Air Interface Common Transport Channels • The Broadcast Channel (BCH) is a cell-wide channel that is used to broadcast system and cell-specific information. • The Paging Channel (PCH) is a cell-wide channel that is used to carry control information to a UE when the system does not know the location cell of the UE • The Forward Access Channel (FACH) is a downlink channel that is used to carry control information to a UE when the system knows the location cell of the UE. • The Random Access Channel (RACH) is an uplink control channel from the UE. U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview 29 .

U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview 30 .UMTS Air Interface Dedicated Transport Channels • • The Downlink Shared Channel (DSCH) is a downlink channel shared by several UEs carrying dedicated control or traffic data. The Dedicated Channel (DCH) is a channel dedicated to one UE used in uplink or downlink.

UMTS Air Interface Major Physical Channels for UMTS • Common Control Channels ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! P-CCPCH S-CCPCH P-SCH S-SCH CPICH AICH PICH PDSCH PRACH PCPCH AP-AICH CD/CA-ICH DPDCH DPCCH Primary Common Control Physical Channels (DL) Secondary Common Control Physical Channels (DL) Primary Synchronisation Channel (DL) Secondary Synchronisation Channel (DL) Common Pilot Channel (DL) Acquisition Indicator Channel (DL) Paging Indicator Channel (DL) Physical Downlink Shared Channel (DL) Physical Random Access Channel (UL) Physical Common Packet Channel (UL) Access Preamble Acquisition Indicator Channel (DL) Collision Detection/Channel Assignment Indicator Channel (DL) Dedicated Physical Data Channel (DL & UL) Dedicated Physical Control Channel (DL & UL) • Dedicated Channels ! ! U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview 31 .

UMTS Air Interface Common Physical Channels for UMTS • • • • • • The Primary-Common Control Physical Channels (P-CCPCH) is used to carry broadcast information across the cell The Secondary-Common Control Physical Channels (S-CCPCH) is used to carry paging and forward access information across the cell The Primary-Synchronisation Channel (P-SCH) is used during cell search to provide timing information The Secondary-Synchronisation Channel (S-SCH) is used during cell search to provide information about the primary scrambling codes in use in the cell The Common Pilot Channel (CPICH) is used to provide the phase reference for downlink channels The Acquisition Indicator Channel (AICH) is used to acknowledge random access requests U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview 32 .

UMTS Air Interface Common Physical Channels for UMTS • • • • • • The Paging Indicator Channel (PICH) is used to enable discontinuous reception of the SCPCCH The Physical Downlink Shared Channel (PDSCH) carries traffic to one or more users The Physical Random Access Channel (PRACH) is a contention based channel used for random access and to transmit small packets of information The Physical Common Packet Channel (PCPCH) is an extension to the RACH used to carry larger packets of information on the uplink The Access Preamble Acquisition Indicator Channel (AP-AICH) is used to indicate the reception of a preamble signature for Random Access The Collision Detection/Channel Assignment Indicator Channel (CD/CA-ICH) is used to indicate collisions and channel assignment for packet access U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview 33 .

UMTS Air Interface Dedicated Channels • • The Dedicated Physical Data Channel (DPDCH) is used to carry user information The Dedicated Physical Control Channel (DPCCH) is used to carry dedicated control information regarding its associated DCHs U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview 34 .

UMTS Air Interface Mapping of Logical Channels to Transport Channels Logical Channels BCCH PCCH DCCH CCCH CTCH DTCH BCH PCH CPCH RACH FACH DSCH DCH Transport Channels U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview 35 .

UMTS Air Interface Mapping of Transport Channels to Physical Channels Transport Channels RACH CPCH BCH PCH FACH DSCH DCH PICH AICH DPCCH DPDCH PDSCH S-CCPCH P-CCPCH PCPCH PRACH P-SCH S-SCH CPICH AP-AICH CD/CA-ICH Spreading/Modulation Physical Channels U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview 36 .

UMTS Air Interface UMTS Air Interface Physical Resource • Code Plane ! ! Separation within cell by channelisation codes Separation between cell by scrambling codes Multiple carriers available IQ multiplexing of channels on the UL Adaptive antennas Time multiplexing of channels on DL Packet Access • Frequency Plane ! • Phase Plane ! • Space Plane ! • Time Plane ! ! U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview 37 .

UMTS Air Interface Codes in UMTS • • We have already talked generically about codes in CDMA In UMTS there are a number of different types of codes: ! Synchronisation Codes " To enable an unsynchronised UE to synchronise and determine the scrambling code of the cell ! Channelisation Codes " To spread and channelise within a UE or cell ! Scrambling Codes " To separate the UEs and cells U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview 38 .

67µs There is 1 primary code and 64 secondary codes U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview 39 .UMTS Air Interface Synchronisation Codes • • • These are short duration Gold codes They have length 256 chips and duration 66.

04-133.512 chips long (1.34µs) dependant upon the channel and required bit rate of the service There are between 4 and 512 codes dependant on the length of the code OVSF codes are orthogonal U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview 40 .UMTS Air Interface Channelisation Codes • • • • These are short Orthogonal Variable Spreading Factor (OVSF) codes They are of length 4 .

-1.-1.1.4.-1) Cch.1) Cch.2 = (1.1 = (1.1.-1) Cch.2.1 = (1.4.4.1) Cch.UMTS Air Interface OVSF codes • Orthogonal Variable Spreading Factor Codes can be defined by a code tree: Cch.-1) Cch.2.-1.3 = (1.0 = (1.1.4.1.1.-1.1) SF = 1 SF = 2 SF = 4 • Where ! ! SF = Spreading Factor of code (maximum 512 for UMTS) k = code number = 0<=k<=SF-1 U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview 41 .0 =(1.0 = (1) Cch.

2.2.-1.1.1) Cch.1.4.1) Cch.-1) Cch.1.1.2 = (1.1) SF = 4 IN USE SF = 1 SF = 2 Cch.UMTS Air Interface Code Usage Efficiency • Any codes further down the trunk of a branch in use cannot be used • By filling up branches of the code tree before starting new branches a greater capacity can be achieved • Any codes further out from the branch in use cannot be reused • Multiple code trees can be used from a cell but at an increased level of interference between channels C ch.1) IN USE IN USE C ch.1) IN USE Cch.1.1) SF = 4 SF = 1 SF = 2 U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview 42 .-1) C ch.0 = (1) C ch.4.1 = (1.1 = (1.3 = (1.-1.-1) C ch.2.2 = (1.1) Cch.-1.4.1 = (1.1.-1.0 =(1.4.1.4.0 = (1) Cch.4.2.1) C ch.3 = (1.-1.4.0 = (1.1 = (1.-1.1.-1) C ch.-1.0 =(1.1.1.-1.0 = (1.4.

which are not orthogonal This reduces interference rejection U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview 43 .UMTS Air Interface Multiple Code Trees • • • • We can actually use multiple code trees if we run out of OVSF codes on the downlink This is achieved by introducing a second scrambling code However codes on the two code trees will only be separated by the scrambling codes.

777. duration 66.UMTS Air Interface Scrambling Codes • Downlink Scrambling codes are complex valued Gold codes ! They are a 38400 chip segment from a 218 chip code.67µs – There are again 16.216 codes… ! • Uplink Scrambling codes can be long or short codes " Short codes are complex valued S(2) codes and 256 chips long. duration 10ms (1 frame) – There are 16. duration 10ms (1 frame) There are 512 primary codes and 15 secondary codes associated with each primary code " Long codes are complex valued Gold codes and are a 38400 chip segment from a 225 chip code.216 codes U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview 44 .777.

7µs Timeslot # 0 Timeslot # 1 Timeslot # 2 U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview 45 .UMTS Air Interface The Primary Synchronisation Channel • • • • P-SCH The P-SCH transmits the Primary Synchronisation Code This is a 256 chip sequence and is the same in all cells in the network The channel is transmitted at the start of a timeslot. for the first 66.67µs 2560 chips 666.67µs There is only ever one P-SCH per cell P-SCH P-SCH P-SCH 256 chips 66.

at the same time as the P-SCH The SSC indicates which group of downlink scrambling codes is in use at the cell There is only ever one S-SCH per cell PSC PSC PSC P-SCH 256 chips 66.UMTS Air Interface The Secondary Synchronisation Channel • • • • • The S-SCH transmits the Secondary Synchronisation Code This is a 256 chip sequence and is one of 64 possible SSCs The channel is transmitted at the start of a timeslot. for the first 66.67µs S-SCH SSC SSC SSC 2560 chips 666.7µs Timeslot # 0 Timeslot # 1 Timeslot # 2 U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview 46 .67µs.

7µs Data (10 bits) Pilot (8 bits) SSC 2304 chips 600µs Data (10 bits) Pilot (8 bits) SSC Data (10 bits) Pilot (8 bits) 30 kbps.67µs S-SCH P-CCPCH SSC 2560 chips 666.UMTS Air Interface The Primary Common Control Physical Channel • • • • Primary CCPCH is transmitted continuously at constant power from each cell Uses one of the 512 Primary Scrambling Codes Channelisation code is same for all Primary CCPCHs There is only one P-CCPCH per cell PSC PSC PSC P-SCH 256 chips 66. SF=256 Timeslot # 0 Timeslot # 1 Timeslot # 2 U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview 47 .

Transport Format Combination Indicator.UMTS Air Interface The Secondary Common Control Physical Channel • • • • • • The cell communicates with UEs through the PCH and FACH ! These are carried on the Secondary-CCPCH The SF is variable.one may be used to carry the FACH and one to carry the PCH S-CCPCH TFCI (0 . 666. and frames may be offset in time by multiples of 256 chips ! E. SF=4-256 U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview 48 .7µs Pilot (0 . indicated on the P-CCPCH and is between 4 and 256 Fixed power ! This is why the channels are multiplexed to avoid simultaneous transmission TFCI.16 bits per slot) 30-1920 kbps.1272 bits per slot) 1 timeslot 2560 chips. is optional but must be supported by all UEs Similarly Pilot bits are optional There may be more than one S-CCPCH per cell.8 bits per slot) Data (10 . set in the BCH.g.

UMTS Air Interface The Physical Random Access Channel • The PRACH consists of two parts ! A preamble " To initiate access ! A message " Which can contain a request for a dedicated channel or a small packet of user data 2 frames = 20 ms PRACH 1 PRACH preamble = 4096 chips Message 1 PRACH slot = 2 normal timeslots U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview 49 .

UMTS Air Interface The PRACH Preamble • • • • • Selected from one of 16 preambles available on the cell The preamble is 1ms in length Power of transmitted preamble is based on an estimate of downlink loss from CPICH received signal strength It then randomly selects a slot from 15 over 2 Frames (slotted ALOHA) In no acknowledge then reselects signature and increases power by 1dB and tries again U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview 50 .

120 kbps. SF=32-256 Pilot (8 bits per slot) 1 timeslot 2560 chips.UMTS Air Interface The PRACH Message • The message is either 15 or 30 slots in length ! Determined by which slot the preamble was sent in • Power as successful preamble • Data and control are code multiplexed Data PRACH message Control Data (10 .80 bits per slot) 15 . 666.7µs TFCI (2 bits per slot) 15 kbps. SF=256 U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview 51 .

UMTS Air Interface AICH • The AICH indicates whether the PRACH preamble has been received • If the Node-B receives the preamble it mirrors the preamble signature back on the AICH 2 frames = 20 ms PRACH 1 PRACH preamble = 4096 chips AICH 1 PRACH preamble = 4096 chips Message 1 PRACH slot = 1.25ms U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview 52 .

UMTS Air Interface PCPCH • • • • • Similar to the the PRACH Additionally a collision detection preamble is sent The AI-ICH responds to the PCPCH access preamble The CD/CA-ICH responds to the collision detection preamble The message part has the same structure as an uplink DPCH Pj Pj P1 P0 Message Part 4096 chips 0 or 8 slots Access Preamble Collision Detection Preamble N*10 msec Control Part Data part U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview 53 .

UMTS Air Interface

PICH
• The PICH is the Paging Indication Channel, used to inform the UE that it
should listen to the PCH

• Fixed rate (SF=256) • N Paging Indicators {PI0, …, PIN-1} are transmitted in each PICH frame,
where N=18, 36, 72, or 144.

• These are mapped to 300 transmitted bits
288 bits for paging indication b0 b1 12 bits (undefined) b287 b288 b299

One radio frame (10 ms)

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UMTS Air Interface

Dedicated Physical Channel (DPCH)

Consists of two parts:
!

DPDCH (Dedicated Physical Data Channel)
" Carries the user data

!

DPCCH (Dedicated Physical Control Channel)
" Carries control information (pilot bits, power control and optional rate information)

It is different on uplink and downlink
!

Uplink
" Data and control code multiplexed to avoid DTX based EMC problems

!

Downlink
" Data and control time multiplexed DTX based EMC not a problem

UE

U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview

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UMTS Air Interface

DCH Control Fields

Pilot
!

A predetermined bit pattern utilised by the rake receiver to estimate channel conditions (5,6,7or 8 bits per slot) Also used for coherent demodulation of the remaining data on the DCH This is an optional field Used where different formats (multiplexing or spreading factor) are used on a frame by frame basis (0 or 2 bits per slot) 2 bits per slot indicating an increase or decrease power Used for diversity working (0,1,2 bits per slot)

!

TFCI - Transport Format Combination Indicator
! !

• •

TPC - Transmit Power Control
!

FBI - Feedback Indicator
!

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.7) T slot = 2560 chips. and an optional TFCI) • k = 0.7 • Bits per Slot.UMTS Air Interface • Downlink-Dedicated Physical Channel.1280 bits • Channel Bit Rate. is transmitted in time-multiplex with control information generated at Layer 1 (known pilot bits. Rb = 15*2k kbps ! DPDCH Data1 N data1 bits DPCCH TPC N TPC bits TFCI N TFCI bits k DPDCH Data2 N data2 bits bits (k=0 . SF = 256/2k ! SF = 512 . 10*2 Slot #0 Slot #1 Slot #i One radio frame. Ndata = 10*2k bits ! • Spreading Factor.. TPC commands. T f = 10 ms Slot #14 U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview 57 .1920kbps DPCCH Pilot N pilot bits Ndata = 10 .4 Rb = 15 ..Frame/Slot Structure The dedicated transport channel (DCH).

UMTS Air Interface Downlink Spreading and Modulation 15*2K kbps cscramb DPDCH/DPCCH Serial Parallel cos(ωt) ω I Pulse Shaping cch Q Pulse Shaping sin(ωt) ω U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview 58 .

UMTS Air Interface Downlink Variable Rate (DTX based) 10 ms R = 60kbps Pilot+TPC+TFCI Data R = 0kbps R = 30kbps R = 60kbps Note: that this diagram does not reflect the true multiplexing on the downlink U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview 59 .

Rb = 15*2k kbps Ndata = 10 .. N Data N data bits data = 10*2 k bits (k=0 .UMTS Air Interface Used to carry the DCH transport channel.6 SF = 256 .960kbps DPDCH T slot = 2560 chips..640 bits ! ! ! • Uplink Dedicated Physical Data Channel.. Ndata = 10*2k bits • Channel Bit Rate. SF = 256/2k • k = 0. • Spreading Factor.Frame/Slot Structure Rb = 15 .6) Slot #0 Slot #1 Slot # i 1 radio frame: T f = 10 ms Slot #14 U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview 60 .4 • Bits per Slot.

DPCCH Pilot N pilot bits • Spreading Factor ! ! ! • Bits per slot = 10 TFCI N TFCI bits FBI N FBI bits TPC N TPC bits T slot = 2560 chips.Slot/Frame Structure • Used to carry control information generated at Layer 1.. 10 bits Slot #0 Slot #1 Slot # i 1 radio frame: T f = 10 ms Slot #14 U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview 61 . • Channel Bit Rate • The Layer 1 control information consists of: ! ! ! Rb = 15 kbps SF = 256 known pilot bits transmit power-control (TPC) commands feedback information (FBI) optional transport-format combination indicator (TFCI).UMTS Air Interface UL-DPCCH(3).

UMTS Air Interface Uplink Spreading and Modulation cDPDCH DPDCH I+jQ Imag Pulse Shaping cos(ωt) ω Real cscramb Pulse Shaping cDPCCH DPCCH sin(ωt) ω U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview 62 .

UMTS Air Interface Uplink Dedicated Channel Multiplexing • • • • • One DPCCH and up to 6 DPDCH are spread by real valued sequences DPCCH is spread by channelisation code cc DPDCH is spread by channelisation code cd. at least one of which has amplitude 1 Only one DPCCH allowed per link U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview 63 .n where 1<=n<=6 After channelisation real valued signals are weighted by βc and βd.

1 βd DPDCH1 cd.5 DPDCH5 βd βd Σ I Sdpch.2 βd S DPDCH2 cd.3 DPDCH3 cd.6 DPDCH6 cc DPCCH βc βd βd Σ Q j U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview 64 .UMTS Air Interface Uplink Dedicated Channel Multiplexing cd.4 DPDCH4 cd.n I+jQ cd.

UMTS Air Interface Uplink Variable Rate (VSF based) 10 ms R = 60kbps Pilot+TPC+TFCI+FBI R = 30kbps Data R = 0kbps R = 0kbps R = 30kbps U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview 65 .

Why does it need a pilot channel? ! ! ! Handover measurements and cell selection/reselection To aid channel estimation for dedicated channels To provide channel estimation reference for common channels U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview 66 .UMTS Air Interface Why does UMTS need the CPICH? • • UMTS already has the SCHs and pilot bits...

UMTS Air Interface A Multi-Rate Channelised Transmitter Power Control 60kbps Bit Stream x4 Pulse Shaping and Modulation c1 x2 s1 x1 30kbps Bit Stream c2 15kbps Bit Stream All the channels are spread to the same chip rate and then added together. Note: to achieve the same Eb/No we must modify the power per chip before combining the chip streams c3 U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview 67 .

UMTS Air Interface Questions • • • • Which other physical channels are similar to the AICH? What are the two parts of the PRACH channel? Which layers do the Transport channels connect? Where is the MAC layer terminated? U101 UMTS Network Systems Overview 68 .

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